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Nutritional neuroscience

Marta K Zamroziewicz, Aron K Barbey
Nutritional cognitive neuroscience is an emerging interdisciplinary field of research that seeks to understand nutrition's impact on cognition and brain health across the life span. Research in this burgeoning field demonstrates that many aspects of nutrition-from entire diets to specific nutrients-affect brain structure and function, and therefore have profound implications for understanding the nature of healthy brain aging. The aim of this Focused Review is to examine recent advances in nutritional cognitive neuroscience, with an emphasis on methods that enable discovery of nutrient biomarkers that predict healthy brain aging...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Adrian Carter, Joshua Hendrikse, Natalia Lee, Murat Yücel, Antonio Verdejo-Garcia, Zane Andrews, Wayne Hall
There is a growing view that certain foods, particularly those high in refined sugars and fats, are addictive and that some forms of obesity can usefully be treated as a food addiction. This perspective is supported by a growing body of neuroscience research demonstrating that the chronic consumption of energy-dense foods causes changes in the brain's reward pathway that are central to the development and maintenance of drug addiction. Obese and overweight individuals also display patterns of eating behavior that resemble the ways in which addicted individuals consume drugs...
July 17, 2016: Annual Review of Nutrition
Fabien J Démares, Kendall L Crous, Christian W W Pirk, Susan W Nicolson, Hannelie Human
Over a decade, declines in honey bee colonies have raised worldwide concerns. Several potentially contributing factors have been investigated, e.g. parasites, diseases, and pesticides. Neonicotinoid pesticides have received much attention due to their intensive use in crop protection, and their adverse effects on many levels of honey bee physiology led the European Union to ban these compounds. Due to their neuronal target, a receptor expressed throughout the insect nervous system, studies have focused mainly on neuroscience and behaviour...
2016: PloS One
P J Lillford
The modern food chain depends on complex interactions between businesses from farming to retail. Until recently their success depended upon providing consumers with safe, convenient food which was pleasant to eat, at a reasonable value for money. This has required detailed research into how food structures deliver recognisable and preferred types of foods, from hard solids to thick liquids. Fortunately the consumer is able to detect and report sensations of texture and flavour which can be related to the composition, structure and breakdown of food in the mouth...
May 18, 2016: Food & Function
Eugeni Roura, Sietse-Jan Koopmans, Jean-Paul Lallès, Isabelle Le Huerou-Luron, Nadia de Jager, Teun Schuurman, David Val-Laillet
The present review examines the pig as a model for physiological studies in human subjects related to nutrient sensing, appetite regulation, gut barrier function, intestinal microbiota and nutritional neuroscience. The nutrient-sensing mechanisms regarding acids (sour), carbohydrates (sweet), glutamic acid (umami) and fatty acids are conserved between humans and pigs. In contrast, pigs show limited perception of high-intensity sweeteners and NaCl and sense a wider array of amino acids than humans. Differences on bitter taste may reflect the adaptation to ecosystems...
June 2016: Nutrition Research Reviews
Roy Moncayo, Karina Ortner
BACKGROUND: Since the 1960s hypothyroidism together with iodine deficiency have been considered to be a principal determinant of cognition development. Following iodine supplementation programs and improved treatment options for hypothyroidism this relation might not be valid in 2015. On the other hand neurosciences have added different inputs also related to cognition. SCOPE OF REVIEW: We will examine the characteristics of the original and current publications on thyroid function and cognition and also add some general determinants of intelligence and cognition...
June 2015: BBA Clinical
Charles-Henri Malbert
The pig, which shares several similarities with humans, is increasingly used for biomedical research, particularly in nutrition and neurosciences. Recent studies in minipigs have shown that a deleterious nutritional environment (e.g. a high-fat and high-sugar diet) induces obesity which, as in humans, is associated with increased adiposity, insulin resistance, modified eating behaviour, and altered gastric function and intestinal sensitivity. These changes are accompanied by differences in the activation matrices and metabolic activity of several brain areas...
December 2013: Bulletin de L'Académie Nationale de Médecine
Travis Nemkov, Angelo D'Alessandro, Kirk C Hansen
Amino acid analysis is a powerful bioanalytical technique for many biomedical research endeavors, including cancer, emergency medicine, nutrition and neuroscience research. In the present study, we present a 3 min analytical method for underivatized amino acid analysis that employs ultra high-performance liquid chromatography and high-resolution quadrupole orbitrap mass spectrometry. This method has demonstrated linearity (mM to nM range), reproducibility (intra-day <5 %, inter-day <20 %), sensitivity (low fmol) and selectivity...
November 2015: Amino Acids
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Gastrostomy feeding is commonly used to support patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis who develop severe dysphagia. Although recommended by both the American Academy of Neurology and the European Federation of Neurological Societies, currently little evidence indicates the optimum method and timing for gastrostomy insertion. We aimed to compare gastrostomy insertion approaches in terms of safety and clinical outcomes. METHODS: In this large, longitudinal, prospective cohort study (ProGas), we enrolled patients with a diagnosis of definite, probable, laboratory supported, or possible amyotrophic lateral sclerosis who had agreed with their treating clinicians to undergo gastrostomy at 24 motor neuron disease care centres or clinics in the UK...
July 2015: Lancet Neurology
Timothy R Sampson, Sarkis K Mazmanian
Animals share an intimate and life-long partnership with a myriad of resident microbial species, collectively referred to as the microbiota. Symbiotic microbes have been shown to regulate nutrition and metabolism and are critical for the development and function of the immune system. More recently, studies have suggested that gut bacteria can impact neurological outcomes--altering behavior and potentially affecting the onset and/or severity of nervous system disorders. In this review, we highlight emerging evidence that the microbiome extends its influence to the brain via various pathways connecting the gut to the central nervous system...
May 13, 2015: Cell Host & Microbe
(no author information available yet)
Debate RD, Kelley PG, Zwald M, Huberty J & Zhang Y (2009) Changes in psychosocial factors and physical activity frequency among third- to eighth-grade girls who participated in a developmentally focused youth sport program: A preliminary study. Journal of School Health 79(10): 474-484 Boyce JC, Mueller NB, Hogan-Watts M & Luke Douglas A (2009) Evaluating the strength of school tobacco policies: The development of a practical rating system. Journal of School Health 79(10): 495-504 Craine JL, Tanaka Teri A, Nishina A & Conger KJ (2009) Understanding adolescent delinquency: The role of older siblings' delinquency and popularity with peers...
December 2009: Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health
Jorge Landgrave-Gómez, Octavio Mercado-Gómez, Rosalinda Guevara-Guzmán
The role of epigenetic mechanisms in the function and homeostasis of the central nervous system (CNS) and its regulation in diseases is one of the most interesting processes of contemporary neuroscience. In the last decade, a growing body of literature suggests that long-term changes in gene transcription associated with CNS's regulation and neurological disorders are mediated via modulation of chromatin structure. "Epigenetics", introduced for the first time by Waddington in the early 1940s, has been traditionally referred to a variety of mechanisms that allow heritable changes in gene expression even in the absence of DNA mutation...
2015: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
C Justin Cook, Jason M Fletcher
A large economics literature has shown long term impacts of birth weight on adult outcomes, including IQ and earnings that are often robust to sibling or twin fixed effects. We examine potential mechanisms underlying these effects by incorporating findings from the genetics and neuroscience literatures. We use a sample of siblings combined with an "orchids and dandelions hypothesis", where the IQ of genetic dandelions is not affected by in utero nutrition variation but genetic orchids thrive under advantageous conditions and wilt in poor conditions...
May 2015: Journal of Health Economics
Ken Southward
The growing interest in oral/systemic links demand new paradigms to understand disease processes. New opportunities for dental research, particularly in the fields of neuroscience and endocrinology will emerge. The role of the hypothalamus portion of the brain cannot be underestimated. Under the influence of nutrition, it plays a significant role in the systemic model of dental caries. Currently, the traditional theory of dental caries considers only the oral environment and does not recognize any significant role for the brain...
March 2015: Medical Hypotheses
James O Hill, Kent Berridge, Nicole M Avena, Hisham Ziauddeen, Miguel Alonso-Alonso, David B Allison, Naiman A Khan, Michael Kelley
This article summarizes presentations from “Neurocognition: The Food–Brain Connection” symposium held at the ASN Scientific Sessions and Annual Meeting at Experimental Biology 2014 in San Diego, CA on 28 April 2014. Presenters reviewed research from several disciplines, including neurobiology, neuropsychology, cognitive neuroscience, and nutrition, concerning the role of the brain in food-intake regulation, reward, and addiction. A transdisciplinary approach was taken to evaluate the state of the science regarding addiction models, as well as research gaps and future research necessary to understand neurocircuitry and pathways involved in food-intake control and behavior in humans...
September 2014: Advances in Nutrition
M J Dauncey
Nutrition affects the brain throughout life, with profound implications for cognitive decline and dementia. These effects are mediated by changes in expression of multiple genes, and responses to nutrition are in turn affected by individual genetic variability. An important layer of regulation is provided by the epigenome: nutrition is one of the many epigenetic regulators that modify gene expression without changes in DNA sequence. Epigenetic mechanisms are central to brain development, structure and function, and include DNA methylation, histone modifications and non-protein-coding RNAs...
November 2014: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 7, 2014: Current Biology: CB
Erin Heitman, Donald K Ingram
Objectives The aim of this review was to provide an overview of studies conducted to determine the effects of chlorogenic acid (CGA) on cognition and neurological health. Methods A literature search was conducted using PubMed and various search terms including chlorogenic acid, CGA, CA, memory, neuroscience, cognition, nutrition, antioxidant, pharmacokinetics, neuroprotection, and neurodegeneration. Results Many studies have linked CGA consumption to a wide range of health benefits, including neuroprotection, cardioprotection, weight loss, chemopreventive properties, anti-inflammatory activity, decreased blood pressure, decreased diet-induced insulin resistance, decreased blood pressure, anxiolytic effects, and antihyperalgesic effects...
August 17, 2014: Nutritional Neuroscience
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