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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094329/fumarase-activity-an-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-biomarker-for-acute-kidney-injury
#1
Per Mose Nielsen, Abubakr Eldirdiri, Lotte Bonde Bertelsen, Hans Stødkilde Jørgensen, Jan Henrik Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Christoffer Laustsen
Renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) is a leading cause of acute kidney injury (AKI), and at present, there is a lack of reliable biomarkers that can diagnose AKI and measure early progression because the commonly used methods cannot evaluate single-kidney IRI. Hyperpolarized [1,4-(13)C2]fumarate conversion to [1,4-(13)C2]malate by fumarase has been proposed as a measure of necrosis in rat tumor models and in chemically induced AKI rats. Here we show that the degradation of cell membranes in connection with necrosis leads to elevated fumarase activity in plasma and urine and secondly that hyperpolarized [1,4-(13)C2]malate production 24 h after reperfusion correlates with renal necrosis in a 40-min unilateral ischemic rat model...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093933/acute-kidney-injury-in-idiopathic-nephrotic-syndrome-of-childhood-is-a-major-risk-factor-for-the-development-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#2
Afshan Yaseen, Vina Tresa, Ali Asghar Lanewala, Seema Hashmi, Irshad Ali, Sabeeta Khatri, Muhammed Mubarak
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important complication of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) and is associated with adverse outcomes, especially the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We aimed to determine the clinical profile of children with INS who developed AKI and its short-term outcome. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This prospective study was conducted from March 2014 to October 2015. A total of 119 children of INS (age: 2-18 years) fulfilling the pediatric RIFLE criteria for the diagnosis of AKI were enrolled and followed up for 3 months to determine the outcome...
November 2017: Renal Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090081/metabolic-reprogramming-and-tolerance-during-sepsis-induced-aki
#3
REVIEW
Hernando Gómez, John A Kellum, Claudio Ronco
The host defence against infection is an adaptive response in which several mechanisms are deployed to decrease the pathogen load, limit tissue injury and restore homeostasis. In the past few years new evidence has suggested that the ability of the immune system to limit the microbial burden - termed resistance - might not be the only defence mechanism. In fact, the capacity of the host to decrease its own susceptibility to inflammation- induced tissue damage - termed tolerance - might be as important as resistance in determining the outcome of the infection...
January 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077085/erythropoiesis-stimulating-agents-and-reno-protection-a-meta-analysis
#4
Steve Elliott, Dianne Tomita, Zoltan Endre
BACKGROUND: Erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) were proposed to enhance survival of renal tissues through direct effects via activation of EPO receptors on renal cells resulting in reduced cell apoptosis, or indirect effects via increased oxygen delivery due to increased numbers of Hb containing red blood cells. Thus through several mechanisms there may be benefit of ESA administration on kidney disease progression and kidney function in renal patients. However conflicting ESA reno-protection outcomes have been reported in both pre-clinical animal studies and human clinical trials...
January 11, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076311/biomarkers-of-acute-kidney-injury-the-pathway-from-discovery-to-clinical-adoption
#5
Kianoush Kashani, Wisit Cheungpasitporn, Claudio Ronco
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication of critical illnesses and has a significant impact on outcomes, including mortality and morbidities. Unfortunately, apart from prophylactic measures, no effective treatment for this syndrome is known. Therefore, early recognition of AKI not only can provide better opportunities for preventive interventions, but also opens many gates for research and development of effective therapeutic options. Over the last few years, several new AKI biomarkers have been discovered and validated to improve early detection, differential diagnosis, and differentiation of patients into risk groups for progressive renal failure, need for renal replacement therapy (RRT), or death...
January 11, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074790/incidence-and-progression-of-cardiac-surgery-associated-acute-kidney-injury-and-its-relationship-with-bypass-and-cross-clamp-time
#6
Habib Md Reazaul Karim, Mohd Yunus, Manuj Kumar Saikia, Jyoti Prasad Kalita, Mrinal Mandal
INTRODUCTION: Cardiac surgery-associated kidney injury (CSA-AKI) is common but relatively less is known about its progression. The present study is aimed at evaluating the incidence and course of CSA-AKI and its relationship with the different durations of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and cross clamp times. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Occurrences of CSA-AKI are evaluated as per the Akin Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria over the course of 5 postoperative day (POD) in 100 patients...
January 2017: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071653/prophylactic-orthosteric-inhibition-of-leukocyte-integrin-cd11b-cd18-prevents-long-term-fibrotic-kidney-failure-in-cynomolgus-monkeys
#7
Abbas Dehnadi, A Benedict Cosimi, Rex Neal Smith, Xiangen Li, José L Alonso, Terry K Means, M Amin Arnaout
Ischaemic acute kidney injury (AKI), an inflammatory disease process, often progresses to chronic kidney disease (CKD), with no available effective prophylaxis. This is in part due to lack of clinically relevant CKD models in non-human primates. Here we demonstrate that inhibition of the archetypal innate immune receptor CD11b/CD18 prevents progression of AKI to CKD in cynomolgus monkeys. Severe ischaemia-reperfusion injury of the right kidney, with subsequent periods of the left ureter ligation, causes irreversible right kidney failure 3, 6 or 9 months after AKI...
January 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060212/urinary-mitochondrial-dna-levels-identify-acute-kidney-injury-in-surgical-critical-illness-patients
#8
Qiongyuan Hu, Jianan Ren, Jie Wu, Guanwei Li, Xiuwen Wu, Song Liu, Gefei Wang, Guosheng Gu, Huajian Ren, Zhiwu Hong, Jieshou Li
BACKGROUND: Recent studies showed that mitochondrial injury and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage are associated with the initiation and progression of acute kidney injury (AKI). However, practical limitations of existing assays of mitochondrial function have limited our ability to study the link between mitochondrial dysfunction and renal injury. Therefore, we evaluated urinary mtDNA (UmtDNA) as a biomarker of AKI in critical illness patients. METHODS: DNA was isolated from urine samples in surgical intensive care unit (SICU) patients and quantified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
January 4, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058222/stabilization-of-estimated-glomerular-filtration-rate-in-kidney-transplantation-from-deceased-donors-with-acute-kidney-injuries
#9
Punlop Wiwattanathum, Atiporn Ingsathit, Surasak Kantachuvesiri, Nuttapon Arpornsujaritkun, Wiwat Tirapanich, Vasant Sumethkul
AIM: To evaluate and compare the outcomes of kidney transplant (KT) from deceased donors among standard criteria, acute kidney injury (AKI) and expanded criteria donors (ECDs). METHODS: This retrospective study included 111 deceased donor kidney transplant recipients (DDKT). Deceased donors were classified as standard criteria donor (SCD), AKI donor and ECD. AKI was diagnosed and classified based on change of serum Cr by acute kidney injury network (AKIN) criteria...
December 24, 2016: World Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052631/why-and-how-to-measure-renal-function-in-patients-with-liver-disease
#10
REVIEW
Salvatore Piano, Antonietta Romano, Marco Di Pascoli, Paolo Angeli
Patients with advanced liver disease frequently have impaired renal function. Both acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are quite common in patients with cirrhosis and both are associated with a worse prognosis in these patients. A careful assessment of renal function is highly important in these patients to help physicians determine their diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic management and to define transplantation strategies (liver transplantation alone vs simultaneous liver and kidney transplantation)...
January 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035621/implications-of-dynamic-changes-in-mir-192-expression-in-ischemic-acute-kidney-injury
#11
Lulu Zhang, Yuan Xu, Song Xue, Xudong Wang, Huili Dai, Jiaqi Qian, Zhaohui Ni, Yucheng Yan
PURPOSE: Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a major cause of acute kidney injury (AKI) with poor outcomes. While many important functions of microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified in various diseases, few studies reported miRNAs in acute kidney IRI, especially the dynamic changes in their expression and their implications during disease progression. METHODS: The expression of miR-192, a specific kidney-enriched miRNA, was assessed in both the plasma and kidney of IRI rats at different time points after kidney injury and compared to renal function and kidney histological changes...
December 29, 2016: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011352/clinical-characteristics-and-predictive-factors-for-mortality-in-coryneform-bacteria-bloodstream-infection-in-hematological-patients
#12
Shun-Ichi Kimura, Ayumi Gomyo, Jin Hayakawa, Yu Akahoshi, Naonori Harada, Tomotaka Ugai, Yusuke Komiya, Kazuaki Kameda, Hidenori Wada, Yuko Ishihara, Koji Kawamura, Kana Sakamoto, Miki Sato, Kiriko Terasako-Saito, Misato Kikuchi, Hideki Nakasone, Junya Kanda, Shinichi Kako, Aki Tanihara, Yoshinobu Kanda
BACKGROUND: We examined the clinical characteristics and predictive factors for mortality in coryneform bacteria bloodstream infection in hematological patients. METHODS: We searched for hematological patients who had positive blood cultures for coryneform bacteria at our center between April 2007 and January 2016. Patients with definite bloodstream infections were included. We started species identification in April 2014. RESULTS: Twenty of twenty-eight cases with a positive blood culture for coryneform bacteria were regarded as definite infections...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997816/recent-early-clinical-drug-development-for-acute-kidney-injury
#13
Kevin M Gallagher, Stephen O'neill, Ewen M Harrison, James A Ross, Stephen J Wigmore, Jeremy Hughes
Despite significant need and historical trials, there are no effective drugs in use for the prevention or treatment of acute kidney injury (AKI). There are several promising agents in early clinical development for AKI and two trials have recently been terminated. There are also exciting new findings in pre-clinical AKI research. There is a need to take stock of current progress in the field to guide future drug development for AKI. Areas covered: The main clinical trial registries, PubMed and pharmaceutical company website searches were used to extract the most recent clinical trials for sterile, transplant and sepsis-associated AKI...
December 27, 2016: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993157/early-phase-cumulative-hypotension-duration-and-severe-stage-progression-in-oliguric-acute-kidney-injury-with-and-without-sepsis-an-observational-study
#14
Junichi Izawa, Tetsuhisa Kitamura, Taku Iwami, Shigehiko Uchino, Masanori Takinami, John A Kellum, Takashi Kawamura
BACKGROUND: Managing blood pressure in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) could effectively prevent severe-stage progression. However, the effect of hypotension duration in the early phase of AKI remains poorly understood. This study investigated the association between early-phase cumulative duration of hypotension below threshold mean arterial pressure (MAP) and severe-stage progression of oliguric AKI in critically ill patients, and assessed the difference in association with presence of sepsis...
December 19, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987536/acute-kidney-injury-in-liver-cirrhosis-new-definition-and-application
#15
REVIEW
Florence Wong
The traditional diagnostic criteria of renal dysfunction in cirrhosis are a 50% increase in serum creatinine (SCr) with a final value above 1.5 mg/dL. This means that patients with milder degrees of renal dysfunction are not being diagnosed, and therefore not offered timely treatment. The International Ascites Club in 2015 adapted the term acute kidney injury (AKI) to represent acute renal dysfunction in cirrhosis, and defined it by an increase in SCr of 0.3 mg/dL (26.4 µmoL/L) in <48 hours, or a 50% increase in SCr from a baseline within ≤3 months...
December 2016: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974318/a-perspective-on-chronic-kidney-disease-progression
#16
Jianyong Zhong, HaiChun Yang, Agnes B Fogo
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) will progress to end stage without treatment, but the decline of renal function may not be linear. Compared to GFR and proteinuria, new surrogate markers, such as KIM-1, NGAL, apoA-IV, and soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR), may allow potential intervention and treatment in the earlier stages of CKD, which could be useful for clinical trials. New omic-based technologies reveal potential new genomic and epigenomic mechanisms which appear different from those causing the initial disease...
December 14, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959449/mir-204-regulates-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-by-targeting-sp1-in-the-tubular-epithelial-cells-after-acute-kidney-injury-induced-by-ischemia-reperfusion
#17
Shun-Jie Chen, Ping Wu, Li-Jing Sun, Bo Zhou, Wei Niu, Shuang Liu, Fu-Jun Lin, Geng-Ru Jiang
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a disease where kidney function is lost almost instantaneously; it can develop very rapidly over few hours to maximum of few days. Despite the advent of technology, the clinical management against this disease is very poor, and most of the time it is life-threatening. AKI has been actively regulated by extracellular matrix proteins (ECM), however, its underlying mechanism of regulation during AKI progression is very poorly understood. In this study, we explored the integrated network of mRNA and microRNAs (miRNAs) that maintains the progression of ECM after induction of AKI by lethal ischemia...
February 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936153/impact-of-transient-and-persistent-acute-kidney-injury-on-chronic-kidney-disease-progression-and-mortality-after-gastric-surgery-for-gastric-cancer
#18
Chang Seong Kim, Eun Hui Bae, Seong Kwon Ma, Sun-Seog Kweon, Soo Wan Kim
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common after gastric surgery for gastric cancer and associated with adverse outcomes. However, the impact of transient or persistent AKI on clinical outcomes after gastric surgery for gastric cancer has not been described. We performed a retrospective study of 4,886 patients with normal renal function who underwent partial or total gastrectomy for gastric cancer between June 2002 and December 2012. AKI patients were classified as transient and persistent AKI based on the return of serum creatinine to the level indicating no AKI within 7 days...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920338/the-plethora-gene-regulatory-network-guides-growth-and-cell-differentiation-in-arabidopsis-roots
#19
Luca Santuari, Gabino Sanchez-Perez, Marijn Luijten, Bas Rutjens, Inez Terpstra, Lidija Berke, Maartje Gorte, Kalika Prasad, Dongping Bao, Johanna L P M Timmermans-Hereijgers, Kenichiro Maeo, Kenzo Nakamura, Akie Shimotohno, Ales Pencik, Ondřej Novák, Karin Ljung, Sebastiaan van Heesch, Ewart de Bruijn, Edwin Cuppen, Viola Willemsen, Ari Pekka Mähönen, Wolfgang Lukowitz, Berend Snel, Dick de Ridder, Ben Scheres, Renze Heidstra
Organ formation in animals and plants relies on precise control of cell state transitions to turn stem cell daughters into fully differentiated cells. In plants, cells cannot rearrange due to shared cell walls. Thus, differentiation progression and the accompanying cell expansion must be tightly coordinated across tissues. PLETHORA (PLT) transcription factor gradients are unique in their ability to guide the progression of cell differentiation at different positions in the growing Arabidopsis root, which contrasts with well-described transcription factor gradients in animals specifying distinct cell fates within an essentially static context...
December 5, 2016: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915351/the-role-of-nephrologist-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#20
Zoltán H Endre
Participation by nephrologists is needed in most intensive care units, even when such units are 'closed'. This participation should assist with diagnosis and management of intrinsic and complex renal diseases such as vasculitis, complex metabolic and electrolyte disorders including hyponatremia, and acute kidney injury (AKI) with and without underlying chronic kidney disease (CKD). Early nephrologist involvement will also facilitate transition to continuing care and follow-up after an episode of AKI, but may also assist in avoiding dialysis where treatment is futile...
December 3, 2016: Blood Purification
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