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End-tidal carbon dioxide

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409398/middle-cerebral-artery-blood-flow-velocity-during-a-4%C3%A2-km-cycling-time-trial
#1
Ben Rattray, Brittany A Smale, Joseph M Northey, Disa J Smee, Nathan G Versey
PURPOSE: This study sought to describe middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (MCAv) during a 4 km cycling time trial, and relate it to different pacing strategies adopted by participants. METHODS: After familiarisation and a standardised exercise protocol, 15 male trained cyclists rode a 4 km time trial on a cycling ergometer. MCAv was assessed via transcranial Doppler ultrasound in the right hemisphere at resting baseline, and throughout the time trial. Mean arterial pressure, end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PetCO2) and heart rate were assessed alongside MCAv...
April 13, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407251/investigating-hyperventilation-syndrome-in-patients-suffering-from-empty-nose-syndrome
#2
David Mangin, Emilie Bequignon, Francoise Zerah-Lancner, Daniel Isabey, Bruno Louis, Serge Adnot, Jean-François Papon, André Coste, Laurent Boyer, Marie Devars du Mayne
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Patients with empty nose syndrome (ENS) following turbinate surgery often complain about breathing difficulties. We set out to determine if dyspnea in patients with ENS was associated with hyperventilation syndrome (HVS). We hypothesized that lower airway symptoms in ENS could be explained by HVS. STUDY DESIGN: Observational prospective study. METHODS: All consecutive patients referred to our center for ENS over 1 year were invited to participate...
April 13, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405036/rapidity-and-efficacy-of-ultrasonographic-sliding-lung-sign-and-auscultation-in-confirming-endotracheal-intubation-in-overweight-and-obese-patients
#3
Sunil Rajan, Jayasankar Surendran, Jerry Paul, Lakshmi Kumar
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Obese individuals are predisposed to difficult airway and intubation. They usually yield confusing or misleading auscultatory findings. We aimed to assess the rapidity and efficacy of ultrasonographic (USG) sliding lung sign for confirming endotracheal intubation in normal as well as overweight and obese surgical patients. METHODS: This prospective, observational study was performed in forty surgical patients. Twenty patients with body mass index (BMI) <25 were recruited to Group A, whereas twenty patients with BMI ≥25 constituted Group B...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403594/the-effect-of-surgical-technique-on-hemodynamics-arterial-oxygenation-and-pulmonary-mechanics-in-radical-prostatectomy-operations
#4
Yucel Yuce, Kutlu Hakan Erkal, Cemal Goktas, Bilal Eryildirim, Kemal Sarica
OBJECTIVE: The effects of surgical technique on respiratory mechanics, arterial oxygenation and hemodynamics in radical prostatectomy operation were investigated. METHODS: The study was planned on ASA II-III, 40-65 years old, fourty patients scheduled for radical prostatectomy under general anesthesia. They were divided into two groups: perineal and suprapubic (Group P, n = 20; Group S, n = 20). Heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2), partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (PEtCO2), Peak inspiratory pressure (PIP), plato pressure (Pplato), partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO2), partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood (PaCO2) values were evaluated at 10 minutes after induction...
March 31, 2017: Archivio Italiano di Urologia, Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403407/apnoeic-oxygenation-in-adults-under-general-anaesthesia-using-transnasal-humidified-rapid-insufflation-ventilatory-exchange-thrive-a-physiological-study
#5
I-M Gustafsson, Å Lodenius, J Tunelli, J Ullman, M Jonsson Fagerlund
Background.: Apnoeic oxygenation during anaesthesia has traditionally been limited by the rapid increase in carbon dioxide and subsequent decrease in pH. Using a Transnasal Humidified Rapid-Insufflation Ventilatory Exchange (THRIVE) technique a slower increase in carbon dioxide than earlier studies was seen. Notably, apnoeic oxygenation using THRIVE has not been systematically evaluated with arterial blood gases or in patients undergoing laryngeal surgery. The primary aim of this study was to characterize changes in arterial P O 2 , P CO 2 and pH during apnoeic oxygenation using THRIVE under general anaesthesia...
April 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394460/suspected-air-embolism-through-the-thoracic-ventral-internal-vertebral-venous-plexus-during-hemilaminectomy-in-dogs
#6
V Mortera-Balsa, H van Oostrom, C Yeamans, R Gutierrez-Quintana, J Penderis, N Granger
Venous air embolism entering via the ventral internal vertebral venous plexus was suspected during thoracic spinal surgery in two dogs. In both cases, air was seen bubbling from a pool of blood on the floor of the vertebral canal accompanied by sudden cardiopulmonary disturbances: low end-tidal carbon dioxide pressure, tachycardia and reduction in oxygen in the blood. One dog became dyspnoeic and one died.
April 10, 2017: Journal of Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389602/shear-mediated-dilation-of-the-internal-carotid-artery-occurs-independent-of-hypercapnia
#7
Ryan L Hoiland, Kurt Jason Smith, Howard H Carter, Nia C S Lewis, Michael M Tymko, Kevin W Wildfong, Anthony R Bain, Daniel J Green, Philip N Ainslie
Evidence for shear stress as a regulator of carotid artery dilation in response to increased arterial carbon dioxide was recently demonstrated in humans during sustained elevations in CO2 (hypercapnia); however, the relative contributions of CO2 and shear stress to this response remains unclear. We examined the hypothesis that, following a 30-second transient increase in arterial CO2 tension and consequent increase in internal carotid artery shear stress, internal carotid artery diameter would increase, indicating shear-mediated dilation, in the absence of concurrent hypercapnia...
April 7, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389601/anterior-cerebral-blood-velocity-and-end-tidal-co2-responses-to-exercise-differ-in-children-and-adults
#8
Lindsay A Ellis, Philip N Ainslie, Victoria A Armstrong, Laura Emily Morris, Ryan Gerard Simair, Nathan R Sletten, Christine M Tallon, Ali Mary McManus
Little is known about the response of the cerebrovasculature to acute exercise in children and how these responses might differ with adults. Therefore, we compared changes in middle cerebral artery blood velocity (MCAVmean), partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (PETCO2), blood pressure and ventilation (VE) in response to incremental exercise between children and adults. Thirteen children [aged 9±1 (SD) y] and 13 sex-matched adults [aged 25±4 y] completed a maximal exercise test during which MCAVmean, PETCO2 and VE were measured continuously...
April 7, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384963/effect-of-pneumoperitoneum-and-lateral-position-on-oropharyngeal-seal-pressures-of-proseal-lma-in-laparoscopic-urological-procedures
#9
Preeti Rustagi, Geeta A Patkar, Anil Kumar Ourasang, Bharati A Tendolkar
INTRODUCTION: A sustained and effective oropharyngeal sealing with supraglottic airway is required to maintain the ventilation during laparoscopic surgery. Previous studies have observed the Oropharyngeal Seal Pressure (OSP) for Proseal Laryngeal Mask Airway (PLMA) after pneumoperitoneum in supine and trendelenburg position, where PLMA was found to be an effective airway device. This study was conducted with ProSeal LMA, for laparoscopic Urologic procedures done in lateral position. AIM: To measure OSP in supine and lateral position and to observe the effect of pneumoperitoneum in lateral position on OSP...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379019/-irregular-breathing-during-the-cardiopulmonary-exercise-test-from-mildly-irregular-breathing-pattern-to-periodic-breathing-of-oscillatory-ventilation-type
#10
František Várnay, Leona Mífková, Pavel Homolka, Petr Dobšák
The fluctuating course of tidal volume (VT), breathing frequency (DF) and minute ventilation (VE) during the cardio-pulmonary exercise test using a ramp incremental protocol occurs not only in patients, but relatively frequently also in healthy individuals. It can account for a number of irregularities in the course of the curves VO2, VCO2 and in particular of those of ventilatory equivalents for O2 and CO2 (EQO2, EQCO2) as well as curves of partial pressure of end-tidal oxygen and partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (PETO2, PETCO2), which are also used, inter alia, to establish ventilatory thresholds...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371672/determinants-of-pulmonary-dead-space-in-ventilated-newborn-infants
#11
Theodore Dassios, Ourania Kaltsogianni, Anne Greenough
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary dead space (VD) is an index of ventilation inhomogeneity and one of the determinants of the magnitude of tidal volume to maintain optimal blood gases. AIMS: To identify the determinants of VD in ventilated newborns and to investigate differences in VD between prematurely born and term infants and those prematurely born infants who did or did not develop bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). METHODS: Sixty-one mechanically ventilated infants (15 term, 46 preterm) were studied at a median age of 8 (IQR 2-31) days; 32 of the preterm infants developed BPD...
March 31, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368939/application-of-the-novel-ventilation-mode-flow-controlled-expiration-flex-a-crossover-proof-of-principle-study-in-lung-healthy-patients
#12
Steffen Wirth, Sebastian Springer, Johannes Spaeth, Silke Borgmann, Ulrich Goebel, Stefan Schumann
BACKGROUND: Traditionally, mechanical ventilation is achieved via active lung inflation during inspiration and passive lung emptying during expiration. By contrast, the novel FLEX (FLow-controlled EXpiration) ventilator mode actively decreases the rate of lung emptying. We investigated whether FLEX can be used during intraoperative mechanical ventilation of lung-healthy patients. METHODS: In 30 adult patients scheduled for neurosurgical procedures, we studied respiratory system mechanics, regional ventilation, oxygenation, and hemodynamics during ventilation with and without FLEX at positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 5 and 7 cm H2O...
March 31, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368918/evaluating-the-effectiveness-of-end-tidal-carbon-dioxide-monitoring-during-burn-wound-care-in-the-nonintubated-patient-population
#13
Samantha Weimer, Justin Burleson, Mary Mancuso, Cameron Bell, Mary Beth Flynn Makic
Daily burn wound care for nonintubated patients involves administration of intravenous analgesic and sedation agents. Vital signs and oxygen saturation monitoring alone can result in late signs of oversedation and ineffective breathing. End-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCo2) monitoring provides immediate feedback of effective breathing during procedural sedation. The purpose of this study was to describe the nurse's sedation and analgesic therapy management of nonintubated patients during burn wound care when EtCo2 was used...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367294/decrease-in-spectral-entropy-by-low-tidal-volume-ventilation-associated-severe-hypercapnia-a-case-report
#14
Junggun Ann, Sung Mee Jung, Sang-Jin Park
Severe hypercapnia can be predicted by a decrease in cerebral electrical activity. The authors describe a sudden decrease in spectral entropy due to severe hypercapnia-induced respiratory acidosis in a patient with chronic pulmonary obstructive disease during lung resection. After two and a half hours of low tidal volume ventilation in the lateral position, the state entropy suddenly dropped from 45 to 7, without any changes in the effect-site concentration of propofol, end-tidal carbon dioxide (CO2) tension, oxygen saturation, or arterial pressure...
April 2017: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365218/modelling-of-subarachnoid-space-width-changes-in-apnoea-resulting-as-a-function-of-blood-flow-parameters
#15
Renata Kalicka, Kamila Mazur, Jacek Wolf, Andrzej F Frydrychowski, Krzysztof Narkiewicz, Pawel J Winklewski
During apnoea, the pial artery is subjected to two opposite physiological processes: vasoconstriction due to elevated blood pressure and vasorelaxation driven by rising pH in the brain parenchyma. We hypothesized that the pial artery response to apnoea may vary, depending on which process dominate. Apnoea experiments were performed in a group of 19 healthy, non-smoking volunteers (9 men and 10 women). The following parameters were obtained for further analysis: blood pressure, the cardiac (from 0.5 to 5.0Hz) and slow (<0...
March 29, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363076/continuous-intravenous-infusion-anesthesia-with-medetomidine-ketamine-and-midazolam-after-induction-with-a-combination-of-etorphine-medetomidine-and-midazolam-or-with-medetomidine-ketamine-and-butorphanol-in-impala-aepyceros-melampus
#16
Christina A Gerlach, Maya S Kummrow, Leith C Meyer, Gareth E Zeiler, George F Stegmann, Roxanne K Buck, Geoffrey T Fosgate, Sabine B Kästner
In order to develop a long-term anesthesia for flighty antelope species in field situations, two different protocols for induction and maintenance with an intravenous infusion were evaluated in wild-caught impala ( Aepyceros melampus ). Ten adult female impala were induced with two induction protocols: one consisted of 0.2 mg/kg medetomidine, 4 mg/kg ketamine, and 0.15 mg/kg butorphanol (MKB) and one consisted of 0.375 mg/kg etorphine, 0.2 mg/kg medetomidine, and 0.2 mg/kg midazolam (EMM). In both treatments, anesthesia was maintained with a continuous intravenous infusion (CII) at an initial dose rate of 1...
March 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363062/intramuscular-epinephrine-results-in-reduced-anesthetic-recovery-time-in-american-alligators-alligator-mississippiensis-undergoing-isoflurane-anesthesia
#17
Bonnie J Gatson, Alexandra Goe, Tiffany D Granone, James F X Wellehan
Inhalants are commonly used to anesthetize reptiles, but volatile anesthetics have been associated with prolonged recovery times. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of intramuscular (IM) epinephrine on anesthetic recovery times following isoflurane anesthesia in a population of subadult American alligators ( Alligator mississippiensis ). In this prospective randomized crossover study, five clinically healthy alligators were anesthetized for 90 min with the use of isoflurane. Alligators were randomly assigned into one of two treatment groups: Group E received IM epinephrine (0...
March 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358178/time-to-intubation-in-obese-patients-a-randomized-study-comparing-direct-laryngoscopy-and-videolaryngoscopy-in-experienced-anaesthetists
#18
Fredrik Ander, Anders Magnuson, Lars Berggren, Rebecca Ahlstrand, Alex de Leon
BACKGROUND: Airway management may be difficult in obese patients. Moreover, during prolonged intubation, oxygen desaturation develops rapidly. Videolaryngoscopy improves the view of the larynx, and the Storz® C-MACTM has been shown to be superior to other videolaryngoscopes in terms of intubation time in obese patients. However, no effort has been made to compare the Storz® C-MACTM with direct laryngoscopy. The aim of the study was to evaluate if the use of Storz® C-MACTM may reduce intubation time when compared to direct laryngoscopy (classic Macintosh® blade)...
March 28, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351846/postural-heart-rate-changes-in-young-patients-with-vasovagal-syncope
#19
Marvin S Medow, Sana Merchant, Melissa Suggs, Courtney Terilli, Breige O'Donnell-Smith, Julian M Stewart
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Recurrent postural vasovagal syncope (VVS) is caused by transient cerebral hypoperfusion from episodic hypotension and bradycardia; diagnosis is made by medical history. VVS contrasts with postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS), defined by chronic daily symptoms of orthostatic intolerance with excessive upright tachycardia without hypotension. POTS has recently been conflated with VVS when excessive tachycardia is succeeded by hypotension during tilt testing. We hypothesize that excessive tachycardia preceding hypotension and bradycardia is part of the vasovagal response during tilt testing of patients with VVS...
March 28, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345964/end-tidal-carbon-dioxide-as-a-prognostic-feature-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#20
Caitlin E Welch, Evan L Brittain, Alexander L Newman, Ivan M Robbins, Meredith E Pugh, John H Newman, Anna R Hemnes
RATIONALE: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized in part by increased dead space ventilation, which can be estimated noninvasively at the bedside by measurement of end-tidal CO2 (ETCO2). OBJECTIVES: Prior work has demonstrated that ETCO2 is lower in PAH than control patients, but whether ETCO2 has prognostic value is unknown. We hypothesized that lower measurements of ETCO2 in patients with PAH correlate with worse long-term outcomes. METHODS: Patients with PAH seen in our referral clinic were prospectively recruited for ETCO2 measurement between September 2009 and February 2010...
March 27, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
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