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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444886/detection-of-mycobacterium-avium-subsp-paratuberculosis-in-non-human-primates
#1
Kim Fechner, Kerstin Mätz-Rensing, Karen Lampe, Franz-Josef Kaup, Claus-Peter Czerny, Jenny Schäfer
BACKGROUND: Due to a sporadic occurrence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in non-human primates (NHP), the susceptibility of different NHP to MAP should be investigated. METHODS: Fecal and tissue samples (ileum, ileocecal lymph node, bone marrow) of 20 animals (seven species) were analyzed by IS900-based PCRs and sequenced. Samples of MAP PCR positive NHP were further cultivated. RESULTS: MAP DNA was detectable in two animals; the ileum of a cottontop tamarin and the bone marrow of a common marmoset...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Medical Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443219/estimating-tuberculin-skin-test-reactions-among-children-and-teenagers-who-received-the-bacillus-calmette-guerin-vaccination-at-birth-a-meta-analysis
#2
Mohammad Sadegh Rezai, Siavosh Abedi, Mahdi Afshari, Mahmood Moosazadeh
OBJECTIVES: Tuberculin skin reaction size is one indicator of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine efficacy and a way to diagnose latent infection. Several primary studies have examined this issue. Combining the results of these studies using a meta-analysis will provide reliable evidence regarding this indicator for policymakers. This study aimed to estimate the total frequency of different tuberculin skin test reactions among Iranian children and teenagers who received the BCG vaccination at birth...
February 2017: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442616/correction-for-de-groote-et-al-highly-multiplexed-proteomic-analysis-of-quantiferon-supernatants-to-identify-biomarkers-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection
#3
Mary Ann De Groote, Michael Higgins, Thomas Hraha, Kirsten Wall, Michael L Wilson, David G Sterling, Nebojsa Janjic, Randall Reves, Urs A Ochsner, Robert Belknap
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442117/tuberculosis-toxoplasmosis-co-infection-in-egyptian-patients-a-reciprocal-impact
#4
Mervat Mashaly, Nairmen Nabih, Iman M Fawzy, Abeer A El Henawy
OBJECTIVE: To assess the concurrent toxoplasmosis infection in Egyptian TB patients and the impact of each infection on the other in terms of increased severity of TB or reactivation of latent Toxoplasma infection. METHODS: Three hundred suspected pulmonary TB cases were initially screened for TB using direct Ziehl Neelsen staining and Lowenstein Jensen culture of their sputa. Rifampicin resistance was detected by Xpert MTB/RIF assay. Control group of 30 age and sex-matched healthy individuals negative for TB was included for comparison...
March 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438994/latently-and-uninfected-healthcare-workers-exposed-to-tb-make-protective-antibodies-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#5
Hao Li, Xing-Xing Wang, Bin Wang, Lei Fu, Guan Liu, Yu Lu, Min Cao, Hairong Huang, Babak Javid
The role of Igs in natural protection against infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of TB, is controversial. Although passive immunization with mAbs generated against mycobacterial antigens has shown protective efficacy in murine models of infection, studies in B cell-depleted animals only showed modest phenotypes. We do not know if humans make protective antibody responses. Here, we investigated whether healthcare workers in a Beijing TB hospital-who, although exposed to suprainfectious doses of pathogenic Mtb, remain healthy-make antibody responses that are effective in protecting against infection by Mtb...
April 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438462/comparison-of-interferon-%C3%AE-release-assays-quantiferon-tb-git-and-t-spot-tb-in-renal-transplantation
#6
Satoru Ishikawa, Hidetoshi Igari, Naotake Akutsu, Mizue Tsuyuzaki, Hiromichi Aoyama, Masayuki Hasegawa, Kazunori Otsuki, Michihiro Maruyama, Kenichi Saigo, Kiminori Suzuki, Fumio Yamagishi
Renal transplant recipients are at increased risk of reactivating latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and progressing to active tuberculosis (TB). This study was conducted in National hospital for tuberculosis and renal transplantation (RT) in Japan. The purpose is to compare two interferon-γ release assays (IGRAs), QuantiFERON(®)-TB Gold in Tube (QFT) and T-SPOT(®).TB (TSPOT), in patients after renal transplantation for detecting latent TB infection (LTBI). Total 92 renal transplant recipients (median age 46 years, range 17-75) were prospectively enrolled, and QFT and TSPOT were concurrently examined...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435012/il-10-down-regulates-the-expression-of-survival-associated-gene-hspx-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-murine-macrophage
#7
Babban Jee, Pawan Sharma, Kiran Katoch, Beenu Joshi, Sudhir Kumar Awasthi
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) adopts a special survival strategy to overcome the killing mechanism(s) of host immune system. Amongst the many known factors, small heat shock protein 16.3 (sHSP16.3) of MTB encoded by gene hspX has been reported to be critical for the survival of MTB. In the present study, the effect of recombinant murine interferon-gamma (rmIFN-γ) and recombinant murine interleukin-10 (rmIL-10) on the expression of gene hspX of MTB in murine macrophage RAW264.7 has been investigated. By real-time RT-PCR, it was observed that three increasing concentrations (5, 25 and 50ng/ml) of rmIFN-γ significantly up-regulated the expression of hspX whereas similar concentrations of rmIL-10 (5, 25 and 50ng/ml) significantly down-regulated the hspX expression...
April 20, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431845/infection-prevention-and-control-and-the-refugee-population-experiences-from-the-university-of-louisville-global-health-center
#8
Ruth M Carrico, Linda Goss, Timothy L Wiemken, Rahel S Bosson, Paula Peyrani, William A Mattingly, Allison Pauly, Rebecca A Ford, Stanley Kotey, Julio A Ramirez
BACKGROUND: During 2016, approximately 140,000 individuals entered the United States as part of the federal government refugee resettlement program and established themselves in communities in virtually every state. No national database regarding refugee health currently exists; therefore, little is known about existing infectious diseases, conditions, and cultural practices that impact successful acculturation. The objective of this report is to identify what is currently known about refugees and circumstances important to infection prevention and control with respect to their roles as new community members, employees, and consumers of health care...
April 18, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430824/suppressors-of-cytokine-signaling-in-tuberculosis
#9
Shih-Wei Lee, Chi-Wei Liu, Jia-Ying Hu, Li-Mei Chiang, Chih-Pin Chuu, Lawrence Shih-Hsin Wu, Yung-Hsi Kao
Tuberculosis (TB), a global disease mainly infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, remains leading public health problem worldwide. Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCSs) play important roles in the protection against microbial infection. However, the relationship between members of the SOCS family and tuberculosis infection remains unclear. Using peripheral blood mononuclear cells, we investigated the mRNA expression profiles of SOCS subfamilies among active TB, latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), and healthy individuals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429162/involvement-of-methylated-hbha-expressed-from-mycobacterium-smegmatis-in-an-ifn-%C3%AE-release-assay-to-aid-discrimination-between-latent-infection-and-active-tuberculosis-in-bcg-vaccinated-populations
#10
H-L Wen, C-L Li, G Li, Y-H Lu, H-C Li, T Li, H-M Zhao, K Wu, D B Lowrie, J-X Lv, S-H Lu, X-Y Fan
IFN-γ release assays (IGRAs) based on region of difference 1 (RD1) antigens have improved diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) infection. However, IGRAs with these antigens cannot discriminate between active tuberculosis (ATB) and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). M. tb heparin-binding-hemagglutinin (HBHA) induces relatively high IFN-γ responses in LTBI individuals and low responses in ATB patients, but purification of the native methylated HBHA from cultures of M. tb for immunological tests is complex and time-consuming...
April 20, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428627/glucocorticoids-suppress-antimicrobial-autophagy-and-nitric-oxide-production-and-facilitate-mycobacterial-survival-in-macrophages
#11
Jinli Wang, Ruining Wang, Hui Wang, Xiaofan Yang, Jiahui Yang, Wenjing Xiong, Qian Wen, Li Ma
Chronic administration of glucocorticoids has been shown to render individuals highly susceptible to mycobacterial infection and lead to reactivation of latent bacilli. However, the effect of glucocorticoids on innate anti-mycobacterial defense, especially in macrophages remains largely unknown. Here, we found that glucocorticoids inhibited the innate immune response, antimicrobial nitric oxide production and autophagy in mycobacteria-challenged macrophages. Meanwhile, maturation and acidification of mycobacterial phagosomes were attenuated in RAW264...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424703/immune-responses-to-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-vaccination-why-do-they-fail-to-protect-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#12
REVIEW
Juan I Moliva, Joanne Turner, Jordi B Torrelles
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), is the current leading cause of death due to a single infectious organism. Although curable, the broad emergence of multi-, extensive-, extreme-, and total-drug resistant strains of M.tb has hindered eradication efforts of this pathogen. Furthermore, computational models predict a quarter of the world's population is infected with M.tb in a latent state, effectively serving as the largest reservoir for any human pathogen with the ability to cause significant morbidity and mortality...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414762/transcriptional-networks-are-associated-with-resistance-to-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#13
Chetan Seshadri, Nafiseh Sedaghat, Monica Campo, Glenna Peterson, Richard D Wells, Gregory S Olson, David R Sherman, Catherine M Stein, Harriet Mayanja-Kizza, Ali Shojaie, W Henry Boom, Thomas R Hawn
RATIONALE: Understanding mechanisms of resistance to M. tuberculosis (M.tb) infection in humans could identify novel therapeutic strategies as it has for other infectious diseases, such as HIV. OBJECTIVES: To compare the early transcriptional response of M.tb-infected monocytes between Ugandan household contacts of tuberculosis patients who demonstrate clinical resistance to M.tb infection (cases) and matched controls with latent tuberculosis infection. METHODS: Cases (n = 10) and controls (n = 18) were selected from a long-term household contact study in which cases did not convert their tuberculin skin test (TST) or develop tuberculosis over two years of follow up...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410979/post-migration-follow-up-of-migrants-identified-to-be-at-increased-risk-of-developing-tuberculosis-at-pre-migration-screening-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
Isaac H Y Chan, Nishta Kaushik, Claudia C Dobler
BACKGROUND: Post-migration follow-up of migrants considered at increased risk of developing tuberculosis based on pre-migration screening abnormalities (high-risk migrants) is implemented in several low-incidence countries. We aimed to determine the rate of tuberculosis in this population to inform cross-border tuberculosis control policies. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE and Embase (since inception to Jan 12, 2017) for studies evaluating post-migration follow-up of high-risk migrants...
April 11, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409555/treatment-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection
#15
REVIEW
Connie A Haley
There are approximately 56 million people who harbor Mycobacterium tuberculosis that may progress to active tuberculosis (TB) at some point in their lives. Modeling studies suggest that if only 8% of these individuals with latent TB infection (LTBI) were treated annually, overall global incidence would be 14-fold lower by 2050 compared to incidence in 2013, even in the absence of additional TB control measures. This highlights the importance of identifying and treating latently infected individuals, and that this intervention must be scaled up to achieve the goals of the Global End TB Strategy...
April 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406884/use-of-video-directly-observed-therapy-for-treatment-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-johnson-county-kansas-2015
#16
Elizabeth Lawlor Holzschuh, Stacie Province, Krystle Johnson, Caitlin Walls, Cathy Shemwell, Gary Martin, Amy Showalter, Jennifer Dunlay, Andrew Conyers, Phil Griffin, Nancy Tausz
Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is spread from person to person through the air. TB can be spread in congregate settings, such as school environments, to varying degrees, based on factors including duration of contact and air ventilation (1); therefore, evaluating potential contacts and exposures can be challenging. In February 2015, a student at a Kansas high school received a diagnosis of active pulmonary TB disease. Screening of 385 (91%) school contacts, four (100%) household contacts, and 19 (90%) social contacts resulted in the identification of 50 persons with latent TB infection...
April 14, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404472/the-prevalence-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-in-rural-jiangsu-china
#17
Y Liu, S Huang, H Jiang, J Xiong, Y Wang, M Ou, J Cai, C Yang, Z Wang, S Ge, N Xia
OBJECTIVES: Diagnosis and interventional treatment of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI) are important components in tuberculosis control. But systematic studies regarding the epidemic of LTBI are still rare in China. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors associated with LTBI based on the results of a domestic TB-specific gamma interferon (IFN-γ) release assay (TB-IGRA) in rural Jiangsu, China. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of subjects registered in eight villages in Jiangsu, China...
February 4, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403762/treatment-of-latent-tuberculosis-infections-in-the-darwin-region
#18
Rowena Boyd, Vanessa Johnston, Belinda Farmer, Vicki L Krause
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 17, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403282/tuberculosis-among-prison-staff-in-rio-grande-do-sul
#19
Caroline Busatto, Luciana de Souza Nunes, Andréia Rosane de Moura Valim, Mariana Soares Valença, Suzane Frantz Krug, Daniela Becker, Manuela Filter Allgayer, Lia Gonçalves Possuelo
OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the risk of infection and illness caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis among health care and security staff in prisons in two regions of Rio Grande do Sul (RS). METHOD: cross-sectional study involving prison staff. An interview and sputum smear microscopy and culture were performed. Latent infection was evaluated according to the result of the tuberculin test (TT), self-referred. RESULTS: among staff who had a TT, 10 (83...
April 2017: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403225/association-of-vitamin-d-deficiency-season-of-the-year-and-latent-tuberculosis-infection-among-household-contacts
#20
María Elvira Balcells, Patricia García, Camila Tiznado, Luis Villarroel, Natalia Scioscia, Camila Carvajal, Francesca Zegna-Ratá, Mariluz Hernández, Paulina Meza, Luis F González, Carlos Peña, Rodrigo Naves
OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D (VD) enhances the immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vitro, and VD deficiency has been described in patients with active tuberculosis (TB). However, the role of hypovitaminosis D in the pathogenesis of early TB infection acquisition is unclear. We aimed to evaluate the association of VD deficiency, season of the year, and latent TB infection in household contacts (HHC), given that this is a potentially modifiable condition often related to nutritional deficiencies and lack of sun exposure...
2017: PloS One
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