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latent tuberculosis infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934228/knowledge-about-tuberculosis-transmission-and-prevention-and-perceptions-of-health-service-utilization-among-index-cases-and-contacts-in-brazil-understanding-losses-in-the-latent-tuberculosis-cascade-of-care
#1
Flavia Matos Salame, Márcia Danielle Ferreira, Marcia Teresa Belo, Eleny Guimarães Teixeira, Marcelo Cordeiro-Santos, Ricardo Arraes Ximenes, Maria de Fátima Militão de Albuquerque, Philip C Hill, Dick Menzies, Anete Trajman
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis contacts are candidates for active and latent tuberculosis infection screening and eventual treatment. However, many losses occur in the different steps of the contacts' cascade of care. Reasons for this are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To describe the different steps where losses in the contact cascade occur and to explore knowledge and attitudes regarding tuberculosis transmission/prevention and perceptions about tuberculosis services in order to understand the reasons for losses from the tuberculosis service users' perspective...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933243/drug-targets-in-dormant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-can-the-conquest-against-tuberculosis-become-a-reality
#2
Vivek Kumar Gupta, M Madhan Kumar, Dharmendra Singh, Deepa Bisht, Shweta Sharma
Targeting M. tuberculosis (Mtb) in latent form of infection is a major obstacle and big challenge in tuberculosis (TB) eradication by current chemotherapy. A better understanding of the physiology of Mtb and of the metabolic state of the bacillus during the dormancy, is a primary need in finding drug targets against non replicating persistent (NRP) form of the Mtb. Identification of potential drug targets against dormant state of Mtb is critically important to achieve the goal of complete eradication for shortening of anti-TB therapy...
September 21, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931830/circulating-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-dosr-latency-antigen-specific-polyfunctional-regulatory-il10-th17-cd4-t-cells-differentiate-latent-from-active-tuberculosis
#3
Srabanti Rakshit, Vasista Adiga, Soumya Nayak, Pravat Nalini Sahoo, Prabhat Kumar Sharma, Krista E van Meijgaarden, Anto Jesuraj Uk J, Chirag Dhar, George D Souza, Greg Finak, Stephen C De Rosa, Tom H M Ottenhoff, Annapurna Vyakarnam
The functional heterogeneity of T cell responses to diverse antigens expressed at different stages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, in particular early secreted versus dormancy related latency antigens expressed later, that distinguish subjects with latent (LTBI), pulmonary (PTB) or extrapulmonary (EPTB) tuberculosis remains unclear. Here we show blood central memory CD4 T-cell responses specific to Mtb dormancy related (DosR) latency, but not classical immunodominant secretory antigens, to clearly differentiate LTBI from EPTB and PTB...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930979/analysis-of-18fdg-pet-ct-imaging-as-a-tool-for-studying-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-and-treatment-in-non-human-primates
#4
Alexander G White, Pauline Maiello, M Teresa Coleman, Jaime A Tomko, L James Frye, Charles A Scanga, Philana Ling Lin, JoAnne L Flynn
Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains the number one infectious agent in the world today. With the emergence of antibiotic resistant strains, new clinically relevant methods are needed that evaluate the disease process and screen for potential antibiotic and vaccine treatments. Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT) has been established as a valuable tool for studying a number of afflictions such as cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and inflammation/infection. Outlined here are a number of strategies that have been employed to evaluate PET/CT images in cynomolgus macaques that are infected intrabronchially with low doses of M...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928738/age-stratified-t-cell-responses-in-children-infected-with-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#5
Alexandra Dreesman, Véronique Corbière, Violette Dirix, Kaat Smits, Sara Debulpaep, Iris De Schutter, Myriam Libin, Mahavir Singh, Anne Malfroot, Camille Locht, Françoise Mascart
Tuberculosis (TB) in young children differs from adult TB in that the risk of rapid progression to active TB (aTB) is higher in children than in adults. The reasons for this increased risk are not fully understood. Early differentiation remains difficult between children at risk to develop aTB from those who will remain healthy and develop a latent TB infection (LTBI). Biomarkers to differentiate aTB from LTBI in children, especially in very young children, are urgently needed. To identify M. tuberculosis-specific functional T cell subsets related to clinical manifestations in children, we enrolled 87 children exposed to M...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924112/isoniazid-induced-pure-red-cell-aplasia-in-a-patient-with-sarcoidosis-a-patient-summary-and-review-of-the-literature
#6
Yasuyuki Saito, Yuri Sawada, Yasuhiko Koga, Noriaki Sunaga, Yusuke Tsukagoshi, Yoshimasa Hachisu, Takashi Osaki, Reiko Sakurai, Kyoichi Kaira, Akihiro Ono, Ken Sato, Hiromi Koiso, Tetsunari Oyama, Takeshi Hisada, Masanobu Yamada
A 41-year-old woman treated with isoniazid (INH) for latent tuberculosis infection and an oral corticosteroid for sarcoidosis developed severe anemia two months after initiating INH. A bone marrow examination showed erythroblastopenia, and a diagnosis of INH-induced pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) was made. Her reticulocyte count and hemoglobin levels improved two weeks after discontinuation of INH. A literature review of INH-induced PRCA shows that it occurs very rarely in the context of autoimmune disorders...
September 15, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919150/in-vitro-anti-tuberculosis-activity-of-azole-drugs-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-clinical-isolates
#7
Belén R Imperiale, Ángel A Cataldi, Nora S Morcillo
BACKGROUND: Latent tuberculosis has been associated with the persistence of dormant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the organism of infected individuals, who are reservoirs of the bacilli and the source for spreading the disease in the community. New active anti-TB drugs exerting their metabolic action at different stages and on latent/dormant bacilli are urgently required to avoid endogenous reactivations and to be part of treatments of multi- and extensively-drug resistant tuberculosis (M/XDR-TB)...
September 14, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918407/burden-of-non-adherence-to-latent-tuberculosis-infection-drug-therapy-and-the-potential-cost-effectiveness-of-adherence-interventions-in-canada-a-simulation-study
#8
Anik R Patel, Jonathon R Campbell, Mohsen Sadatsafavi, Fawziah Marra, James C Johnston, Kirsten Smillie, Richard T Lester
OBJECTIVE: Pharmaceutical treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) reduces the risk of progression to active tuberculosis (TB); however, poor adherence tempers the protective effect. We aimed to estimate the health burden of non-adherence, the maximum allowable cost of hypothetical new adherence interventions to be cost-effective and the potential value of existing adherence interventions for patients with low-risk LTBI in Canada. DESIGN: A microsimulation model of LTBI progression over 25 years...
September 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911979/opening-pandora-s-box-mechanisms-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-resuscitation
#9
REVIEW
Ashley V Veatch, Deepak Kaushal
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) characteristically causes an asymptomatic infection. While this latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is not contagious, reactivation to active tuberculosis disease (TB) causes the patient to become infectious. A vaccine has existed for TB for a century, while drug treatments have been available for over 70 years; despite this, TB remains a major global health crisis. Understanding the factors which allow the bacillus to control responses to host stress and mechanisms leading to latency are critical for persistence...
September 11, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910369/heightened-circulating-levels-of-antimicrobial-peptides-in-tuberculosis-diabetes-co-morbidity-and-reversal-upon-treatment
#10
Nathella Pavan Kumar, Kadar Moideen, Vijay Viswanathan, Shanmugam Sivakumar, Pradeep A Menon, Hardy Kornfeld, Subash Babu
BACKGROUND: The association of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with tuberculosis-diabetes comorbidity (PTB-DM) is not well understood. METHODS: To study the association of AMPs with PTB-DM, we examined the systemic levels of cathelicidin (LL37), human beta defensin- 2 (HBD2), human neutrophil peptides 1-3, (HNP1-3) and granulysin in individuals with either PTB-DM, PTB, latent TB (LTB) or no TB infection (NTB). RESULTS: Circulating levels of cathelicidin and HBD2 were significantly higher and granulysin levels were significantly lower in PTB-DM compared to PTB, LTB or NTB, while the levels of HNP1-3 were significantly higher in PTB-DM compared to LTB or NTB individuals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892445/applying-the-15-public-health-emergency-preparedness-capabilities-to-support-large-scale-tuberculosis-investigations-in-complex-congregate-settings
#11
Alison Jaffe Levy, Katelynne Gardner Toren, Carina Elsenboss, Masahiro Narita
Public Health-Seattle and King County, a metropolitan health department in western Washington, experiences rates of tuberculosis (TB) that are 1.6 times higher than are state and national averages. The department's TB Control Program uses public health emergency management tools and capabilities sustained with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention grant funding to manage large-scale complex case investigations. We have described 3 contact investigations in large congregate settings that the TB Control Program conducted in 2015 and 2016...
September 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886099/serial-quantiferon-tb-gold-testing-in-patients-with-psoriasis-treated-with-ustekinumab
#12
Chuan-Yu Hsiao, Hsien-Yi Chiu, Ting-Shun Wang, Tsen-Fang Tsai
BACKGROUND: There is increasing concern about the risk of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) reactivation during the use of biologics for psoriasis. Although ustekinumab had been documented with low risk of tuberculosis, the long-term follow-up of LTBI as determined by QuantiFERON-TB Gold (QFT-G) testing in patients treated with ustekinumab is limited. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to use serial QFT-G testing as a screening method for detecting LTBI in patients with psoriasis from an intermediate tuberculosis burden country...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885972/use-of-rifapentine-and-isoniazid-directly-observed-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-in-a-military-clinic
#13
Janelle Jinbo, Michael Lustik, Gordon F West, Megan Kloetzel
BACKGROUND: There are 8.6 million cases of active tuberculosis (TB) worldwide, and an estimated one-third of the world population has latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). In the United States, up to 80% of active cases may be caused by untreated reactivated latent infection. A case of TB can spread rapidly impacting the readiness of a unit. To prevent the development of TB, it is critical that active duty service members with LTBI complete treatment. The use of isoniazid (INH) and rifapentine (RPT) as a directly observed therapy (DOT) treatment option was recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in late 2011...
September 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881482/altered-expression-of-antigen-specific-memory-and-regulatory-t-cell-subsets-differentiate-latent-and-active-tuberculosis
#14
Balaji Pathakumari, Santhi Devasundaram, Alamelu Raja
Though one-third of the world population is infected with M. tuberculosis, only 5-10% of the infected individuals will develop active TB disease and rest will remain infected with no symptoms known as latent TB infection (LTBI). Identifying biomarkers that differentiate latent and active TB disease enables effective TB control, since early detection, treatment of active TB and preventive treatment of LTBI individuals are crucial steps involved in TB control. Here, we have evaluated the frequency of antigen specific memory and regulatory T cells (Tregs) in 15 healthy household contacts (HHC) and 15 pulmonary TB patients (PTB) to identify biomarkers for differential diagnosis of LTBI and active TB...
September 7, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879439/mannose-binding-lectin-mbl-deficiency-and-tuberculosis-infection-in-patients-with-ankylosing-spondylitis
#15
Renato Nisihara, Thelma Skare, Vinícius Maestri, Juliana S Alegretti, Ana Paula B Campos, Iara Messias-Reason
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients may have higher prevalence of mannose-binding lectin (MBL) deficiency than normal individuals. MBL deficiency may influence susceptibility to infections. The aim of the study was to verify if MBL deficiency in patients with AS predisposes to infections. We studied 60 patients with AS diagnosed according to the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) criteria. These patients had their MBL serum levels determinated. Twenty-five individuals were identified as MBL deficient (serum values 100 ng/mL)...
September 6, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877156/performance-of-the-quantiferon-tb-gold-assay-among-hiv-infected-children-with-active-tuberculosis-in-france
#16
Myriam Hormi, Valérie Guérin-El Khourouj, Virginie Pommelet, Mohamed Jeljeli, Béatrice Pédron, Jean-Sébastien Diana, Albert Faye, Ghislaine Sterkers
BACKGROUND: Data regarding the use of QuantiFERON to assist the diagnosis of active tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-infected children is limited, especially in countries with low incidence of TB/HIV co-infection. METHODS: QuantiFERON results were analyzed in 63 HIV-infected children who presented to our hospital in Paris, France. Seventeen HIV-uninfected children with active TB (4 culture-confirmed) were included for comparison. RESULTS: The 63 HIV-infected children (median age: 11 years) had 113 QuantiFERON tests...
September 5, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875155/risk-of-tuberculosis-infection-and-disease-for-health-care-workers-an-updated-meta-analysis
#17
Lydia Uden, Ella Barber, Nathan Ford, Graham S Cooke
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major challenge to global health. Healthcare workers (HCWs) appear to be at increased risk of TB compared with the general population, despite efforts to scale up infection control and reduce nosocomial TB transmission. This review aims to provide an updated estimate of the occupational risk of latent TB infection (LTBI) and active TB among HCWs compared with the general population. METHODS: A systematic review was performed to identify studies published over the last 10 years reporting TB prevalence or incidence among HCWs and a control group...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868144/inhibition-of-il-17a-by-secukinumab-shows-no-evidence-of-increased-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infections
#18
Michael Kammüller, Tsen-Fang Tsai, Christopher Em Griffiths, Nidhi Kapoor, Pappachan E Kolattukudy, Dominique Brees, Salah-Dine Chibout, Jorge Safi, Todd Fox
Secukinumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody that selectively neutralizes interleukin-17A (IL-17A), has been shown to have significant efficacy in the treatment of moderate to severe psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. Blocking critical mediators of immunity may carry a risk of increased opportunistic infections. Here we present clinical and in vitro findings examining the effect of secukinumab on Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. We re-assessed the effect of secukinumab on the incidence of acute tuberculosis (TB) and reactivation of latent TB infection (LTBI) in pooled safety data from five randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 clinical trials in subjects with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis...
August 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856068/sero-diagnosis-of-active-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-disease-among-hiv-co-infected-persons-using-thymidylate-kinase-based-antigen-and-antibody-capture-enzyme-immuno-assays
#19
Misaki Wayengera, Ivan Mwebaza, Johnson Welishe, Cynthia Nakimuli, David P Kateete, Eddie Wampande, Samuel Kirimunda, Lois Bayigga, Carol Musubika, Peace Babirye, Benon Asiimwe, Moses L Joloba
BACKGROUND: Clinical and laboratory diagnosis of Active Tuberculosis (ATB) and latent Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) infections (LTBI) among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) presents formidable challenges. In the past, WHO issued an advisory against the use of existing TB sero-diagnostics. Emerging evidence, however, points to a precision of TB sero-diagnostics based on secretory rather than structural M. tuberculosis antigens. We hypothesized that secretory levels of M...
June 2017: Mycobacterial Diseases: Tuberculosis & Leprosy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840843/interferon-gamma-release-assay-in-response-to-pe35-ppe68-proteins-a-promising-diagnostic-method-for-diagnosis-of-latent-tuberculosis
#20
Shima Mahmoudi, Babak Pourakbari, Setareh Mamishi
Tuberculosis control relies on the identification and preventive treatment of people who are latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). PE/PPE proteins have been reported to elicit CD4 and/or CD8 responses either in the form of whole recombinant proteins or as individual peptides. Very few of the PE and PPE proteins have been previously tested for responses in patients with TB and healthy donors. This is the first study to evaluate the Interferon Gamma Release Assay (IGRA) after stimulation with PE35 and PPE68...
March 1, 2017: European Cytokine Network
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