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latent tuberculosis infection

Noemia Teixeira de Siqueira-Filha, Maria de Fatima Militao de Albuquerque, Laura Cunha Rodrigues, Rosa Legood, Andreia Costa Santos
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to measure the costs of people living with HIV (PLHIV) as well as active tuberculosis (TB/HIV), latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI/HIV) or without TB (HIV/AIDS). METHODS: We analysed the costs through the entire pathway of care during the prediagnosis and treatment periods from the Brazilian public health system perspective. We applied a combination of bottom-up and top-down approaches to capture and estimate direct medical and non-medical costs...
March 15, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Infections
Marco Pio La Manna, Valentina Orlando, Paolo Li Donni, Guido Sireci, Paola Di Carlo, Antonio Cascio, Francesco Dieli, Nadia Caccamo
We used the Luminex Bead Array Multiplex Immunoassay to measure cytokines, chemokines and growth factors responses to the same antigens used for RD1-based Interferon γ Release Assay (IGRA) test. Seventy-nine individuals, 27 active TB, 32 latent infection subsets, 20 individuals derivative purified protein (PPD) negative (subjects that do not have any indurative cutaneous reaction after 72 hrs of intradermal injection of PPD) and with other pulmonary disease were retrospectively studied. Forty-eight analytes were evaluated by Luminex Assay in plasma obtained from whole blood stimulated cells...
2018: PloS One
Wendy E Whatney, Neel R Gandhi, Cecilia S Lindestam Arlehamn, Azhar Nizam, Hao Wu, Melanie J Quezada, Angela Campbell, Salim Allana, Mbuyi Madeleine Kabongo, Jeremiah Khayumbi, Benson Muchiri, Joshua Ongalo, Joan Tonui, Loren E Sasser, Tawania J Fergus, Gregory Sadat Ouma, Samuel Gurrion Ouma, Allison A Beck, Mark J Mulligan, Alawode Oladele, Deepak Kaushal, Kevin P Cain, Lance Waller, Henry M Blumberg, John D Altman, Joel D Ernst, Jyothi Rengarajan, Cheryl L Day
Antigen-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells are important components of the immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis , yet little information is currently known regarding how the breadth, specificity, phenotype, and function of M. tuberculosis -specific T cells correlate with M. tuberculosis infection outcome in humans. To facilitate evaluation of human M. tuberculosis -specific T cell responses targeting multiple different Ags, we sought to develop a high throughput and reproducible T cell response spectrum assay requiring low blood sample volumes...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
N T de Siqueira Filha, M de Fatima Pessoa Militao de Albuquerque, R Legood, L Rodrigues, A C Santos
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the direct and indirect costs of tuberculosis (TB) (active and latent TB [LTB]) and HIV co-infection from the patient perspective. STUDY DESIGN: Costing study conducted alongside a pragmatic clinical trial. METHODS: The study was conducted in Brazil in a referral service for HIV/AIDS. We applied a standardised questionnaire to collect data about out-of-pocket expenses and indirect cost...
March 10, 2018: Public Health
Ann Jagger, Silke Reiter-Karam, Yohhei Hamada, Haileyesus Getahun
Objective: To review policies on management of latent tuberculosis infection in countries with low and high burdens of tuberculosis. Methods: We divided countries reporting data to the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Tuberculosis Programme into low and high tuberculosis burden, based on WHO criteria. We identified national policy documents on management of latent tuberculosis through online searches, government websites, WHO country offices and personal communication with programme managers...
March 1, 2018: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
Yu Wang, Miao-Miao Zhang, Wei-Wei Huang, Shou-Quan Wu, Ming-Gui Wang, Xiao-Yan Tang, Andrew J Sandford, Jian-Qing He
Background: The toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-mediated immune response is critical for host defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis . There is evidence that TLR10, a TLR2 signaling modulator, may be involved in progression of tuberculosis (TB). Methods: Using a self-validating case-control design, we tested for an association between seven TLR10 polymorphisms and susceptibility to TB in three independent series with two distinct populations. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes were determined by the SNPscanTM method...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Toshihiko Komai, Shuji Sumitomo, Shuzo Teruya, Keishi Fujio
A 76-year-old man complicated with end-stage renal disease had latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), and isoniazid (INH) 300 mg daily was started to prevent reactivation of LTBI before using biologic agents for rheumatoid arthritis. On the 8th day after administration of INH, he presented with a fever, petechiae, and myalgia. Serological studies revealed elevated myogenic enzymes and creatinine level. Based on the exclusion of other etiologies, rapid improvement with cessation of INH, and the recurrence of the fever and myalgia with re-administration of a reduced dose of INH, we diagnosed him with INH-induced rhabdomyolysis...
March 9, 2018: Internal Medicine
Leonardo Silva de Araujo, Nidai de Bárbara Moreira da Silva, Janaina Aparecida Medeiros Leung, Fernanda Carvalho Queiroz Mello, Maria Helena Féres Saad
Despite the reported high heterogeneity of the human immune response to tuberculosis (TB), new studies may contribute to the understanding of Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunopathogenesis. To investigate the patterns of humoral response during latent (LTBI) and active TB, we evaluated specific IgG subclasses' response, by ELISA, to a set of mycobacterial antigens (Rv2029c, Rv2031c, Rv2034, Rv2628, Rv3353c ESAT6:CFP10, and the new chimeric PstS1(285-374) :CFP10) in plasma samples from exposed uninfected controls (ExC, n = 24), LTBI (n = 61), and TB (n = 15) donors...
January 2018: Tuberculosis
E D Pieterman, F G Liqui Lung, A Verbon, H I Bax, C W Ang, J Berkhout, G Blaauw, A Brandenburg, N D van Burgel, A Claessen, K van Dijk, M Heron, M Hooghiemstra, R Leussenkamp-Hummelink, E van Lochem, I H M van Loo, B Mulder, A Ott, O Pontesilli, A Reuwer, P Rombouts, V Saegeman, M Scholing, S Vainio, J E M de Steenwinkel
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this verification study was to compare the QuantiFERON® -TB Gold Plus (QFT-Plus) to the QuantiFERON® -TB Gold In Tube (QFT-GIT). The new QFT-Plus test contains an extra antigen tube which, according to the manufacturer additionally elicits a CD8+ T-cell response above the CD4+ T-cell response. We assessed the value of this tube in detecting recent latent tuberculosis infections. METHODS: Between May 2015 and December 2016, 1031 subjects underwent QFT-Plus and QFT-GIT test...
January 2018: Tuberculosis
Ilana C van Rensburg, Andre G Loxton
Regulatory B cells (Bregs) have been shown to be present during several disease states. The phenotype of the cells is not completely defined and the function of these cells differ between disease. The presence of FASL expressing (killer) B cells during latent and successfully treated TB disease have been shown but whether these cells are similar to regulatory B cells remain unclear. We assessed the receptor expression of FASL/IL5 (killer B cells), CD24/CD38 (regulatory B cells) on whole peripheral blood of participants with untreated active TB and healthy controls...
January 2018: Tuberculosis
Mathieu Garand, Martin Goodier, Olumuyiwa Owolabi, Simon Donkor, Beate Kampmann, Jayne S Sutherland
Tuberculosis (TB) is still a global health concern, especially in resource-poor countries such as The Gambia. Defining protective immunity to TB is challenging: its pathogenesis is complex and involves several cellular components of the immune system. Recent works in vaccine development suggest important roles of the innate immunity in natural protection to TB, including natural killer (NK) cells. NK cells mediate cellular cytotoxicity and cytokine signaling in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). NK cells can display specific memory-type markers to previous antigen exposure; thus, bridging innate and adaptive immunity...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Shahrad Hakimian, Yevgeniy Popov, Abbas H Rupawala, Karen Salomon-Escoto, Steven Hatch, Randall Pellish
Background: Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) is a key cytokine in both the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the host defense against tuberculosis (TB). Consequently, anti-TNFα medications result in an increased risk of latent TB infection (LTBI) reactivation. Here, we sought to evaluate the factors affecting the results of QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) assay as a screening tool for LTBI. Methods: We conducted an observational, retrospective study in patients with IBD and RA who underwent LTBI screening using QFT-GIT at UMass Memorial Medical Center between 2008 and 2016 prior to initiation of anti-TNF medications...
2018: Biologics: Targets & Therapy
Anna Starshinova, Viacheslav Zhuravlev, Irina Dovgaluk, Alexandr Panteleev, Vera Manina, Ulia Zinchenko, Evgenia Istomina, Maria Pavlova, Piotr Yablonskiy
Background: The WHO strategy for eradication of tuberculosis (TB) by 2035 (The End TB Strategy) is aimed at an early and precise diagnosis and subsequent effective treatment of TB patients. Currently, there is no gold standard for the diagnosis of latent TB infection. This study evaluated the diagnostic capabilities of a new intradermal test using recombinant TB allergen (Diaskintest) compared with tuberculin skin test (TST) and commercial TB interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs). Methods: A post-hoc data analysis that involved examining 860 HIV-negative, bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-vaccinated persons aged 1-65 years who visited the TB health-care institutions of Saint Petersburg to rule out or confirm an active TB was conducted from 2011 to 2016...
January 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
J Mullins, M N Lobato, K Bemis, L Sosa
SETTING: In the United States, tuberculosis (TB) control is increasingly focusing on the identification of persons with latent tuberculous infection (LTBI). OBJECTIVE: To characterize the local epidemiology of LTBI in Connecticut, USA. METHODS: We used spatial analyses 1) to identify census tract-level clusters of reported LTBI and TB disease in Connecticut, 2) to compare persons and populations in clusters with those not in clusters, and 3) to compare persons with LTBI to those with TB disease...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
S Swindells, M Siccardi, S E Barrett, D B Olsen, J A Grobler, A T Podany, E Nuermberger, P Kim, C E Barry, A Owen, D Hazuda, C Flexner
Long-acting/extended-release drug formulations have proved very successful in diverse areas of medicine, including contraception, psychiatry and, most recently, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. Though challenging, application of this technology to anti-tuberculosis treatment could have substantial impact. The duration of treatment required for all forms of tuberculosis (TB) put existing regimens at risk of failure because of early discontinuations and treatment loss to follow-up. Long-acting injections, for example, administered every month, could improve patient adherence and treatment outcomes...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Karoline van de Loo, Stefan Balzer, Colin R MacKenzie, Thomas M Boemers, Monika Ortmann, Jörg Schaper, Arndt Borkhardt, Hans-Jürgen Laws, Michaela Kuhlen
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) disease is a generally well-known problem among immunocompromised adults and children. In pediatric oncology, only few cases of M. tuberculosis disease are reported so far. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of concomitant lymphnode tuberculosis in a 4-year-old German boy with relapsed ganglioneuroblastoma. 18 months after the initial diagnosis, relapse with new paravertebral lesions and new lesions in the left lower lobe of the lung and in the perihilar lymphnodes suspicious of metastases of the ganglioneuroblastoma were detected...
March 5, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Jung Seop Eom, Insu Kim, Won-Young Kim, Eun-Jung Jo, Jeongha Mok, Mi-Hyun Kim, Kwangha Lee, Ki Uk Kim, Hye-Kyung Park, Min Ki Lee
The high background rates of positive results on the tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) sometimes confuse the investigation of tuberculosis (TB) contact in TB-prevalent countries, particularly in elderly contacts. The aim was to investigate the predictive value of TST and IGRA for diagnosing latent TB infection (LTBI) in elderly household contacts in South Korea.In this retrospective study, TST and IGRA results of household contacts of suspected pulmonary TB patients were reviewed according to the index patient's final diagnosis (TB group: culture-confirmed pulmonary TB, non-TB group: pulmonary disease other than TB)...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
I Carvalho, D Goletti, S Manga, D R Silva, D Manissero, G Migliori
Tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. The aim of this review is to describe the management of the child with TB and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). To develop this article, a working group reviewed relevant epidemiological and other scientific studies and established practices in conducting LBTI and TB in children. The article describes how to manage the child with LTBI, considering transmission and infectiousness of tuberculosis, contact screening and prioritization of contacts and recommendations on treatment of children with LTBI and how to manage the child with TB considering the susceptibility of children to developing tuberculosis, epidemiology and classification of tuberculosis in children, diagnosis and treatment...
March 1, 2018: Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia
Herlianna Naning, Haider Abdulrazzaq Abed Al-Darraji, Scott Alex Mcdonald, Noor Azina Ismail, Adeeba Kamarulzaman
The aim of this study was to simulate the effects of tuberculosis (TB) treatment strategies interventions in an overcrowded and poorly ventilated prison with both high (5 months) and low (3 years) turnover of inmates against improved environmental conditions. We used a deterministic transmission model to simulate the effects of treatment of latent TB infection and active TB, or the combination of both treatment strategies. Without any intervention, the TB prevalence is estimated to increase to 8.8% for a prison with low turnover of inmates but modestly stabilize at 5...
February 1, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
Yanyan Liu, Okechukwu C Ndumnego, Tingting Chen, Ryung S Kim, Elizabeth R Jenny-Avital, Thumbi Ndung'u, Douglas Wilson, Jacqueline M Achkar
Sputum smear-negative HIV-associated active tuberculosis (TB) is challenging to diagnose. CD14 is a pattern recognition receptor that is known to mediate monocyte activation. Prior studies have shown increased levels of soluble CD14 (sCD14) as a potential biomarker for TB, but little is known about its value in detecting smear-negative HIV-associated TB. We optimized a sandwich ELISA for the detection of sCD14, and tested sera from 56 smear-negative South African (39 culture-positive and 17 culture-negative) HIV-infected pulmonary TB patients and 24 South African and 43 US (21 positive and 22 negative for tuberculin skin test, respectively) HIV-infected controls...
February 27, 2018: Pathogens
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