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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933064/systemic-expression-of-notch-ligand-delta-like-4-during-mycobacterial-infection-alters-the-t-cell-immune-response
#1
Matthew A Schaller, Ronald M Allen, Soichiro Kimura, Cheryl L Day, Steven L Kunkel
The Notch ligand delta-like 4 (DLL4) is known to fine-tune the CD4(+) T cell cytokine response. DLL4 is expressed on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in a MyD88-dependent manner. We found that DLL4 expression was upregulated on bone marrow progenitor cells and APCs in mice infected with BCG Mycobacterium. Transfer of DLL4(+) progenitor cells from infected hosts resulted in an increase DLL4(+) myeloid cells in the spleen, indicating that expression of the dll4 gene is propagated throughout hematopoiesis...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932390/official-american-thoracic-society-infectious-diseases-society-of-america-centers-for-disease-control-and-prevention-clinical-practice-guidelines-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-in-adults-and-children
#2
David M Lewinsohn, Michael K Leonard, Philip A LoBue, David L Cohn, Charles L Daley, Ed Desmond, Joseph Keane, Deborah A Lewinsohn, Ann M Loeffler, Gerald H Mazurek, Richard J O'Brien, Madhukar Pai, Luca Richeldi, Max Salfinger, Thomas M Shinnick, Timothy R Sterling, David M Warshauer, Gail L Woods
BACKGROUND: Individuals infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) may develop symptoms and signs of disease (tuberculosis disease) or may have no clinical evidence of disease (latent tuberculosis infection [LTBI]). Tuberculosis disease is a leading cause of infectious disease morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet many questions related to its diagnosis remain. METHODS: A task force supported by the American Thoracic Society, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Infectious Diseases Society of America searched, selected, and synthesized relevant evidence...
December 8, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931338/health-care-provider-perspectives-on-tuberculosis-care-for-foreign-born-populations-in-new-york-city
#3
J R Zelnick, M R O'Donnell, S D Ahuja, A Chua, J Sullivan Meissner
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) in foreign-born patients is a key determinant of TB epidemiology in low-burden settings. In New York City (NYC), foreign-born TB populations are heterogeneous and face diverse challenges in accessing care. OBJECTIVE: To characterize barriers and facilitators to health care services and identify potential mechanisms to improve TB care for foreign-born patients in NYC. DESIGN: Semi-structured interviews with health care providers identified through the NYC TB registry and snowball sampling...
December 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931330/policies-and-practices-on-the-programmatic-management-of-latent-tuberculous-infection-global-survey
#4
Y Hamada, A Sidibe, A Matteelli, A Dadu, M A Aziz, M Del Granado, N Nishikiori, K Floyd, H Getahun
SETTING: Global survey among low tuberculosis (TB) burden countries, which are primary target countries for the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines on the programmatic management of latent tuberculous infection (LTBI). OBJECTIVE: To perform a baseline assessment of policies and practices for the programmatic management of LTBI. DESIGN: Online and paper-based pre-tested questionnaire filled out by national TB programme managers or their equivalents from 108 countries...
December 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931329/detection-and-treatment-of-persons-with-latent-tuberculosis-infection-first-eliminate-the-policy-to-practice-gap
#5
Kenneth G Castro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931054/-tb-screening-of-pregnant-women-in-accordance-with-the-german-protection-against-infection-act
#6
(no author information available yet)
Pregnant women should be tested with immune tests for tuberculosis when they undergo TB screening according to the German Infectious Diseases Protection Act. Interferon Gamma Release Assays (IGRAs) should be the priority tests used for pregnant refugees and asylum seekers, especially when migrating from high incidence countries (> 20 cases/100.000 population according to the ECDC) or when they fled from crisis regions; positive tuberculin skin tests should be veryfied with IGRA. Once immunological tests are suggesting a latent tuberculosis infection it should be considered that pregnant women have an increased risk of developing active tuberculosis with potential health threats for the unborn child...
December 2016: Pneumologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928093/imported-disease-screening-prior-to-chemotherapy-and-bone-marrow-transplantation-for-oncohematological-malignancies
#7
Adrián Sánchez-Montalvá, Fernando Salvador, Isabel Ruiz-Camps, Pere Barba, David Valcárcel, Elena Sulleiro, Enrique Sanz-García, Israel Molina
Reactivation of latent imported infections has been periodically reported in migrant patients undergoing immunosuppression. We performed a prospective study at Vall d'Hebron University Hospital (Barcelona, Spain). Migrant patients over 16 years with the diagnosis of any oncohematologic disease were included. Patients were tested for soil-transmitted helminths, hepatitis virus, and human immunodeficiency virus, Treponema pallidum, human T-cell lymphotropic virus, latent tuberculosis infection, Toxoplasma spp...
December 7, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927706/cerebral-tuberculomas-in-a-patient-with-hairy-cell-leukaemia-treated-with-cladribine
#8
Samuel Barbosa Fonseca, Júlio Rodrigues de Oliveira, Cristina Gonçalves, Virgínia Lopes
A 67-year-old man was treated with cladribine for hairy cell leukaemia. A few weeks later, he presented with persistent headaches, intermittent hypoesthesia of the right upper limb and language impairment. Brain CT scan showed 3 contrast-enhancing lesions. MRI revealed infracentimetric nodular lesions with restricted diffusion. One of the lesions was surgically removed and tested positive for acid-fast bacilli. Moreover, Mycobacterium tuberculosis was confirmed by PCR. Antituberculous drugs were prescribed for 12 months, with complete resolution of neurological deficits...
December 7, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924822/il-21-dependent-expansion-of-memory-like-nk-cells-enhances-protective-immune-responses-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#9
S Venkatasubramanian, S Cheekatla, P Paidipally, D Tripathi, E Welch, A R Tvinnereim, R Nurieva, R Vankayalapati
Natural killer (NK) cells are traditionally considered as innate cells, but recent studies suggest that NK cells can distinguish antigens, and that memory NK cells expand and protect against viral pathogens. Limited information is available about the mechanisms involved in memory-like NK cell expansion, and their role in bacterial infections and vaccine-induced protective immune responses. In the current study, using a mouse model of tuberculosis (TB) infection, we found that interferon-gamma producing CD3-NKp46+CD27+KLRG1+ memory-like NK cells develop during Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination, expand, and provide protection against challenge with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M...
December 7, 2016: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921633/healthcare-resources-are-inadequate-to-address-the-burden-of-illness-among-hiv-infected-male-prisoners-in-malaysia
#10
Joseph Bick, Gabriel Culbert, Haider A Al-Darraji, Clayton Koh, Veena Pillai, Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Frederick Altice
Purpose Criminalization of drug use in Malaysia has concentrated people who inject drugs (PWID) and people living with HIV into prisons where health services are minimal and HIV-related mortality is high. Few studies have comprehensively assessed the complex health needs of this population. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach From October 2012 through March 2013, 221 sequentially selected HIV-infected male prisoners underwent a comprehensive health assessment that included a structured history, physical examination, and clinically indicated diagnostic studies...
December 19, 2016: International Journal of Prisoner Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914741/maternal-bcg-scar-is-associated-with-increased-infant-proinflammatory-immune-responses
#11
Patrice Akusa Mawa, Emily L Webb, Abdelali Filali-Mouhim, Gyaviira Nkurunungi, Rafick-Pierre Sekaly, Swaib Abubaker Lule, Sarah Prentice, Stephen Nash, Hazel M Dockrell, Alison M Elliott, Stephen Cose
INTRODUCTION: Prenatal exposures such as infections and immunisation may influence infant responses. We had an opportunity to undertake an analysis of innate responses in infants within the context of a study investigating the effects of maternal mycobacterial exposures and infection on BCG vaccine-induced responses in Ugandan infants. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Maternal and cord blood samples from 29 mother-infant pairs were stimulated with innate stimuli for 24h and cytokines and chemokines in supernatants were measured using the Luminex® assay...
November 30, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914088/murine-mycobacterium-marinum-infection-as-a-model-for-tuberculosis
#12
Julia Lienard, Fredric Carlsson
Mycobacteria are a major human health problem globally. Regarding tuberculosis the situation is worsened by the poor efficacy of current vaccine regimens and by emergence of drug-resistant strains (Manjelievskaia J et al, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 110: 110, 2016; Pereira et al., Lancet Infect Dis 12:300-306, 2012; http://www.who.int/tb/publications/global_report/en/) undermining both disease-prevention and available treatments. Thus, increased basic understanding of mycobacterial-and particularly Mycobacterium tuberculosis-virulence strategies and pathogenesis is of great importance...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904647/prevalence-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-in-healthcare-workers-at-a-hospital-in-naples-italy-a-low-incidence-country
#13
Monica Lamberti, Mariarosaria Muoio, Antonio Arnese, Sharon Borrelli, Teresa Di Lorenzo, Elpidio Maria Garzillo, Giuseppe Signoriello, Stefania De Pascalis, Nicola Coppola, Albert Nienhaus
BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at higher risk than the general population of contracting tuberculosis (TB). Moreover, although subjects with latent TB infection (LTBI) are asymptomatic and are not infectious, they may eventually develop active disease. Thus, a fundamental tool of TB control programs for HCWs is the screening and treatment of LTBI. METHODS: From January 2014 to January 2015, hospital personnel at Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria, Naples, Italy, were screened for TB...
2016: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892960/new-genome-wide-algorithm-identifies-novel-in-vivo-expressed-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-antigens-inducing-human-t-cell-responses-with-classical-and-unconventional-cytokine-profiles
#14
Mariateresa Coppola, Krista E van Meijgaarden, Kees L M C Franken, Susanna Commandeur, Gregory Dolganov, Igor Kramnik, Gary K Schoolnik, Inaki Comas, Ole Lund, Corine Prins, Susan J F van den Eeden, Gro E Korsvold, Fredrik Oftung, Annemieke Geluk, Tom H M Ottenhoff
New strategies are needed to develop better tools to control TB, including identification of novel antigens for vaccination. Such Mtb antigens must be expressed during Mtb infection in the major target organ, the lung, and must be capable of eliciting human immune responses. Using genome-wide transcriptomics of Mtb infected lungs we developed data sets and methods to identify IVE-TB (in-vivo expressed Mtb) antigens expressed in the lung. Quantitative expression analysis of 2,068 Mtb genes from the predicted first operons identified the most upregulated IVE-TB genes during in-vivo pulmonary infection...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888179/predicting-tuberculosis-risk-in-the-foreign-born-population-of-british-columbia-canada-study-protocol-for-a-retrospective-population-based-cohort-study
#15
Lisa A Ronald, Jonathon R Campbell, Robert F Balshaw, David Z Roth, Kamila Romanowski, Fawziah Marra, Victoria J Cook, James C Johnston
INTRODUCTION: Improved understanding of risk factors for developing active tuberculosis (TB) will better inform decisions about diagnostic testing and treatment for latent TB infection (LTBI) in migrant populations in low-incidence regions. We aim to examine TB risk factors among the foreign-born population in British Columbia (BC), Canada, and to create and validate a clinically relevant multivariate risk score to predict active TB. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This retrospective population-based cohort study will include all foreign-born individuals who acquired permanent resident status in Canada between 1 January 1985 and 31 December 2013 and acquired healthcare coverage in BC at any point during this period...
November 25, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879136/optimal-control-of-a-tuberculosis-model-with-state-and-control-delays
#16
Cristiana J Silva, Helmut Maurer, Delfim F M Torres
We introduce delays in a tuberculosis (TB) model, representing the time delay on the diagnosis and commencement of treatment of individuals with active TB infection. The stability of the disease free and endemic equilibriums is investigated for any time delay. Corresponding optimal control problems, with time delays in both state and control variables, are formulated and studied. Although it is well-known that there is a delay between two to eight weeks between TB infection and reaction of body's immune system to tuberculin, delays for the active infected to be detected and treated, and delays on the treatment of persistent latent individuals due to clinical and patient reasons, which clearly justifies the introduction of time delays on state and control measures, our work seems to be the first to consider such time-delays for TB and apply time-delay optimal control to carry out the optimality analysis...
February 1, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879067/ustekinumab-in-the-treatment-of-palmoplantar-pustular-psoriasis-a-case-series-of-nine-patients
#17
Valeska Buder, Katharina Herberger, Arnd Jacobi, Matthias Augustin, Marc Alexander Radtke
BACKGROUND: Palmoplantar pustular psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that is associated with considerable impairment in quality of life and resilience. Given the lack of approved pharmacological agents for this indication and the frequently recalcitrant disease course, therapeutic options are limited. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Following unsatisfactory therapeutic attempts with other treatment modalities, nine patients (six women; three men) were treated with ustekinumab (45 mg in individuals < 100 kg body weight, 90 mg in individuals > 100 kg) at weeks 0, 4, 12, and 24...
November 2016: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, Journal of the German Society of Dermatology: JDDG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879023/potential-effect-of-ezetimibe-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-in-type-ii-diabetes
#18
I-Fang Tsai, Chiu-Ping Kuo, Andrew B Lin, Ming-Nan Chien, Hsin-Tsung Ho, Tsai-Yin Wei, Chien-Liang Wu, Yen-Ta Lu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Tuberculosis (TB) risk might be increased in patients with diabetes by factors other than hyperglycaemia, such as dyslipidaemia. Host lipids are essential energy sources used by mycobacteria to persist in a latent TB state. A potential therapy targeting cholesterol catabolism of mycobacteria has been proposed, but the potential of cholesterol-lowering drugs as anti-TB therapy is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of ezetimibe, a 2-azetidinone cholesterol absorption inhibitor, on intracellular mycobacteria survival and dormancy...
November 23, 2016: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872018/preventive-therapy-for-latent-tuberculosis-infection-the-promise-and-the-challenges
#19
REVIEW
G J Fox, C C Dobler, B J Marais, J T Denholm
Around one third of the world's population may harbour latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), an asymptomatic immunological state that confers a heightened risk of subsequently developing tuberculosis (TB). Effectively treating LTBI will be essential if the End TB Strategy is to be realized. This review evaluates the evidence in relation to the effectiveness of preventive antibiotic therapy to treat LTBI due to both drug-susceptible and drug-resistant bacteria. Current national and international preventive therapy guidelines are summarized, as well as ongoing randomized trials evaluating regimens to prevent drug-resistant TB...
November 18, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871809/biomarkers-for-discrimination-between-latent-tuberculosis-infection-and-active-tuberculosis-disease
#20
Eun-Jeong Won, Jung-Ho Choi, Young-Nan Cho, Hye-Mi Jin, Hae Jin Kee, Yong-Wook Park, Yong-Soo Kwon, Seung-Jung Kee
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether combinations of multiplex cytokine responses could differentiate Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection states. METHODS: Mtb-specific antigen-induced and unstimulated cytokines were measured by Luminex assay in supernatants of QuantiFERON(®) Gold In-Tube assay (QFT) in 48 active pulmonary TB patients (TB), 15 latent TB infection subjects (LTBI), and 13 healthy controls (HCs). RESULTS: Among the 29 cytokines, eight Mtb antigen-specific biomarkers (GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-1RA, IL-2, IL-3, IL-13, IP-10, and MIP-1β) in the Mtb-infected group were significantly different from those of the HCs...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Infection
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