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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118422/river-bed-armouring-as-a-granular-segregation-phenomenon
#1
Behrooz Ferdowsi, Carlos P Ortiz, Morgane Houssais, Douglas J Jerolmack
River bed-load transport is a kind of dense granular flow, and such flows are known to segregate grains. While gravel-river beds typically have an "armoured" layer of coarse grains on the surface, which acts to protect finer particles underneath from erosion, the contribution of granular physics to river-bed armouring has not yet been investigated. Here we examine these connections in a laboratory river with bimodal sediment size, by tracking the motion of particles from the surface to deep inside the bed, and find that armour develops by two distinct mechanisms...
November 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116057/numerical-assessment-of-low-frequency-dosimetry-from-sampled-magnetic-fields
#2
Fabio Freschi, Luca Giaccone, Vincenzo Cirimele, Aldo Canova
Low-frequency dosimetry is commonly assessed by evaluating the electric field in the human body using the scalar potential finite dif- ference method. This method is effective only when the sources of the magnetic field are completely known and the magnetic vector po- tential can be analytically computed. The aim of the paper is to present a rigorous method to characterize the source term when only the magnetic flux density is available at discrete points, e.g. in case of field measurements. The method is based on the solution of the discrete magnetic curl equation...
November 8, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103599/three-dimensional-discrete-element-method-for-the-prediction-of-protoplasmic-seepage-through-membrane-in-a-biological-cell
#3
Kelvin K L Wong
This paper presents a three-dimensional and compressible biological cell model based on discrete element method using multiple interacting agent that represent cellular structures within a simulated environment. The cytoplasm and nucleoplasm fluid behavior in the cell is time dependent. When taking this approach, it is important to calibrate protoplasmic flow behaviors through simulation techniques such as compressing the cell and examining the agents representing the cell cytoplasm seeping between the ones representing the confining cell membrane...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101897/estimation-of-in-vivo-mechanical-properties-of-the-aortic-wall-a-multi-resolution-direct-search-approach
#4
Minliang Liu, Liang Liang, Wei Sun
The patient-specific biomechanical analysis of the aorta requires in vivo mechanical properties of individual patients. Existing approaches for estimating in vivo material properties often demand high computational cost and mesh correspondence of the aortic wall between different cardiac phases. In this paper, we propose a novel multi-resolution direct search (MRDS) approach for estimation of the nonlinear, anisotropic constitutive parameters of the aortic wall. Based on the finite element (FE) updating scheme, the MRDS approach consists of the following three steps: (1) representing constitutive parameters with multiple resolutions using principal component analysis (PCA), (2) building links between the discretized PCA spaces at different resolutions, and (3) searching the PCA spaces in a 'coarse to fine' fashion following the links...
October 20, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095910/preliminary-research-on-flow-rate-and-free-surface-of-the-accelerator-driven-subcritical-system-gravity-driven-dense-granular-flow-target
#5
Xiaodong Li, Jiangfeng Wan, Sheng Zhang, Ping Lin, Yanshi Zhang, Guanghui Yang, Mengke Wang, Wenshan Duan, Jian'an Sun, Lei Yang
A spallation target is one of the three core parts of the accelerator driven subcritical system (ADS), which has already been investigated for decades. Recently, a gravity-driven Dense Granular-flow Target (DGT) is proposed, which consists of a cylindrical hopper and an internal coaxial cylindrical beam pipe. The research on the flow rate and free surface are important for the design of the target whether in Heavy Liquid Metal (HLM) targets or the DGT. In this paper, the relations of flow rate and the geometry of the DGT are investigated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092583/a-parametric-model-order-reduction-technique-for-poroelastic-finite-element-models
#6
Ettore Lappano, Markus Polanz, Wim Desmet, Domenico Mundo
This research presents a parametric model order reduction approach for vibro-acoustic problems in the frequency domain of systems containing poroelastic materials (PEM). The method is applied to the Finite Element (FE) discretization of the weak u-p integral formulation based on the Biot-Allard theory and makes use of reduced basis (RB) methods typically employed for parametric problems. The parametric reduction is obtained rewriting the Biot-Allard FE equations for poroelastic materials using an affine representation of the frequency (therefore allowing for RB methods) and projecting the frequency-dependent PEM system on a global reduced order basis generated with the proper orthogonal decomposition instead of standard modal approaches...
October 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090708/staggered-trap-arrays-for-robust-microfluidic-sample-digitization
#7
A J Sposito, D L DeVoe
A sample digitization method that exploits the controlled pinning of fluid at geometric discontinuities within an array of staggered microfluidic traps is presented. The staggered trap design enables reliable sample filling within high aspect ratio microwells, even when employing substrate materials such as thermoplastics that are not gas permeable. A simple geometric model is developed to predict the impact of device geometry on sample filling and discretization, and validated experimentally using fabricated cyclic olefin polymer devices...
November 1, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081541/a-continuum-mechanics-based-musculo-mechanical-model-for-esophageal-transport
#8
Wenjun Kou, Boyce E Griffith, John E Pandolfino, Peter J Kahrilas, Neelesh A Patankar
In this work, we extend our previous esophageal transport model using an immersed boundary (IB) method with discrete fiber-based structural model, to one using a continuum mechanics-based model that is approximated based on finite elements (IB-FE). To deal with the leakage of flow when the Lagrangian mesh becomes coarser than the fluid mesh, we employ adaptive interaction quadrature points to deal with Lagrangian-Eulerian interaction equations based on a previous work (Griffith and Luo [1]). In particular, we introduce a new anisotropic adaptive interaction quadrature rule...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Computational Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080053/probabilistic-sensitivity-analysis-on-markov-models-with-uncertain-transition-probabilities-an-application-in-evaluating-treatment-decisions-for-type-2-diabetes
#9
Yuanhui Zhang, Haipeng Wu, Brian T Denton, James R Wilson, Jennifer M Lobo
Markov models are commonly used for decision-making studies in many application domains; however, there are no widely adopted methods for performing sensitivity analysis on such models with uncertain transition probability matrices (TPMs). This article describes two simulation-based approaches for conducting probabilistic sensitivity analysis on a given discrete-time, finite-horizon, finite-state Markov model using TPMs that are sampled over a specified uncertainty set according to a relevant probability distribution...
October 27, 2017: Health Care Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068580/orthodontic-intrusion-of-periodontally-compromised-maxillary-incisors-3-dimensional-finite-element-method-analysis
#10
Liwia E Minch, Michał Sarul, Rafał Nowak, Beata Kawala, Joanna Antoszewska-Smith
BACKGROUND: Loading of the compromised periodontium with orthodontic forces produces different results than those achieved in patients with healthy periodontal support. Determining the force value at a level preventing further deterioration of the patient's periodontal status, thus delivering the most precisely individualized "dose" of loading, seems to be crucial for the successful intrusion of teeth with reduced periodontal support. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to determine the range of force values efficiently intruding maxillary incisors without further compromising the initially-impaired periodontal status...
August 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064370/stability-analysis-of-a-deterministic-dose-calculation-for-mri-guided-radiotherapy
#11
Oleksandr Zelyak, B Gino Fallone, Joel St Aubin
Modern effort in radiotherapy to address the challenges of tumor localization and motion has led to the development of MRI guided radiotherapy technologies. Accurate dose calculations must properly account for the effects of the MRI magnetic fields. Previous work has investigated the accuracy of a deterministic linear Boltzmann transport equation (LBTE) solver that includes magnetic field, but not the stability of the iterative solution method. In this work, we perform a stability analysis of this deterministic algorithm including an investigation of the convergence rate dependencies on the magnetic field, material density, energy, and anisotropy expansion...
October 24, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057948/main-factor-causing-faster-is-slower-phenomenon-during-evacuation-rodent-experiment-and-simulation
#12
Hyejin Oh, Junyoung Park
Understanding crowd flow at bottlenecks is important for preventing accidents in emergencies. In this research, a crowd evacuation passing through a narrow exit connected with guide-walls is analysed using the discrete element method based on physical and psychological modelling in parallel with empirical rodent research. Results of rodent experiment and simulation demonstrate the faster-is-slower (FIS) effect, which is a well-known phenomenon in pedestrian dynamics. As the angle of the guide-walls increases, agents rapidly evacuate the room even though they have low velocity...
October 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041366/spectral-element-boundary-integral-method-with-periodic-layered-medium-dyadic-green-s-function-for-multiscale-nano-optical-scattering-analysis
#13
Jun Niu, Yi Ren, Qing Huo Liu
In this work, we propose a numerical solver combining the spectral element - boundary integral (SEBI) method with the periodic layered medium dyadic Green's function. The periodic layered medium dyadic Green's function is formulated under matrix representation. The surface integral equations (SIEs) are then implemented as the radiation boundary condition to truncate the top and bottom computation domain. After describing the interior computation domain with the vector wave equations, and treating the lateral boundaries with Bloch periodic boundary conditions, the whole computation domains are discretized with mixed-order Gauss- Lobatto-Legendre basis functions in the SEBI method...
October 2, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041185/measurement-based-meshing-basis-selection-and-prior-assignment-in-chemical-species-tomography
#14
Samuel J Grauer, Paul J Hadwin, Timothy A Sipkens, Kyle J Daun
Gas distributions imaged by chemical species tomography (CST) vary in quality due to the discretization scheme, arrangement of optical paths, errors in the measurement model, and prior information included in reconstruction. There is currently no mathematically-rigorous framework for comparing the finite bases available to discretize a CST domain. Following from the Bayesian formulation of tomographic inversion, we show that Bayesian model selection can identify the mesh density, mode of interpolation, and prior information best-suited to reconstruct a set of measurement data...
October 16, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036152/single-freeform-surface-design-for-prescribed-input-wavefront-and-target-irradiance
#15
Christoph Bösel, Herbert Gross
In beam shaping applications, the minimization of the number of necessary optical elements for the beam shaping process can benefit the compactness of the optical system and reduce its cost. The single freeform surface design for input wavefronts, which are neither planar nor spherical, is therefore of interest. In this work, the design of single freeform surfaces for a given zero-étendue source and complex target irradiances is investigated. Hence, not only collimated input beams or point sources are assumed...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028193/landmark-based-shape-encoding-and-sparse-dictionary-learning-in-the-continuous-domain
#16
Daniel Schmitter, Michael Unser
We provide a generic framework to learn shape dictionaries of landmark-based curves that are defined in the continuous domain. We first present an unbiased alignment method that involves the construction of a mean shape as well as training sets whose elements are subspaces that contain all affine transformations of the training samples. The alignment relies on orthogonal projection operators that have a closed form. We then present algorithms to learn shape dictionaries according to the structure of the data that needs to be encoded: a) projectionbased functional principal-component analysis for homogeneous data and b) continuous-domain sparse shape encoding to learn dictionaries that contain imbalanced data, outliers, or different types of shape structures...
October 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025896/high-throughput-single-molecule-telomere-characterization
#17
Jennifer McCaffrey, Eleanor Young, Katy Lassahn, Justin Sibert, Steven Pastor, Harold Riethman, Ming Xiao
We have developed a novel method that enables global subtelomere and haplotype-resolved analysis of telomere lengths at the single-molecule level. An in vitro CRISPR/Cas9 RNA-directed nickase system directs the specific labeling of human (TTAGGG)n DNA tracts in genomes that have also been barcoded using a separate nickase enzyme that recognizes a 7-bp motif genome-wide. High-throughput imaging and analysis of large DNA single molecules from genomes labeled in this fashion using a nanochannel array system permits mapping through subtelomere repeat element (SRE) regions to unique chromosomal DNA while simultaneously measuring the (TTAGGG)n tract length at the end of each large telomere-terminal DNA segment...
November 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990623/friction-controls-even-submerged-granular-flows
#18
Juha Koivisto, Marko Korhonen, Mikko Alava, Carlos P Ortiz, Douglas J Durian, Antti Puisto
We investigate the coupling between the interstitial medium and granular particles by studying the hopper flow of dry and submerged systems experimentally and numerically. In accordance with earlier studies, we find that the dry hopper empties at a constant rate. However, in the submerged system we observe the surging of the flow rate. We model both systems using the discrete element method, which we couple with computational fluid dynamics in the case of a submerged hopper. We are able to match the simulations and the experiments with good accuracy by fitting the particle-particle contact friction for each system separately...
October 25, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986933/liquid-tissue-surrogates-for-x-ray-and-ct-phantom-studies
#19
Paul F FitzGerald, Robert E Colborn, Peter M Edic, Jack W Lambert, Peter J Bonitatibus, Benjamin M Yeh
PURPOSE: To develop a simple method for producing liquid-tissue-surrogate (LTS) materials that accurately represent human soft tissues in terms of density and X-ray attenuation coefficient. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We evaluated hypothetical mixtures of water, glycerol, butanol, methanol, sodium chloride, and potassium nitrate; these mixtures were intended to emulate human adipose, blood, brain, kidney, liver, muscle, pancreas, and skin. We compared the hypothetical densities, effective atomic numbers (Zeff ), and calculated discrete-energy CT attenuation (Hounsfield Units (HU)) of the proposed materials with those of human tissue elemental composition as specified in International Commission on Radiation Units (ICRU) Report 46...
October 7, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972568/cfd-modeling-of-chamber-filling-in-a-micro-biosensor-for-protein-detection
#20
Meiirbek Islamov, Marzhan Sypabekova, Damira Kanayeva, Luis Rojas-Solórzano
Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the main causes of human death around the globe. The mortality rate for patients infected with active TB goes beyond 50% when not diagnosed. Rapid and accurate diagnostics coupled with further prompt treatment of the disease is the cornerstone for controlling TB outbreaks. To reduce this burden, the existing gap between detection and treatment must be addressed, and dedicated diagnostic tools such as biosensors should be developed. A biosensor is a sensing micro-device that consists of a biological sensing element and a transducer part to produce signals in proportion to quantitative information about the binding event...
October 3, 2017: Biosensors
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