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Ana Mladenovič, Sandra Hamler, Nina Zupančič
The environmental acceptability of geotechnical composites made of treated municipal sewage sludge (SwS) and paper ash (PA) after two different curing periods has been investigated. The mineral composition of such composites, including their content of major oxides, is mainly influenced by the PA. The content of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in the initial materials and in the composites varies considerably. In the SwS the Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni and Zn contents are above the legally permitted limits. The PTE content of PA are lower, but still somewhat above the permitted values for Ba and Cu...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Alireza Mohammadinia, Arul Arulrajah, Suksun Horpibulsuk, Avirut Chinkulkijniwat
Fly Ash (FA), an abundant by-product with no carbon footprint, is a potential stabilizer for enhancing the physical and geotechnical properties of pavement aggregates. In this research, FA was used in different ratios to stabilize crushed brick (CB) and reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) for pavement base/subbase applications. The FA stabilization of CB and RAP was targeted to improve the strength and durability of these recycled materials for pavement base/subbase applications. The Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) and resilient modulus (MR) development of the stabilized CB and RAP aggregates was studied under room temperature and at an elevated temperatures of 40°C, and results compared with unbound CB and RAP...
September 18, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Shi-Jin Feng, Ke-Wei Gao, Yi-Xin Chen, Yao Li, L M Zhang, H X Chen
Landfills have been widely constructed all around the world in order to properly dispose municipal solid waste (MSW). Understanding geotechnical properties of MSW is essential for the design and operation of landfills. A comprehensive investigation of geotechnical properties of MSW at the largest landfill in China was conducted, including waste composition, unit weight, void ratio, water content, hydraulic conductivity, and shear behavior. A large-scale rigid-wall permeameter and a direct-shear apparatus were adopted to test the hydraulic conductivity and shear behavior of the MSW, respectively...
September 19, 2016: Waste Management
Jaesung Park, Younghwan Son, Sookack Noh, Taeho Bong
We assessed the suitability of soil dredged from reservoirs as embankment material and investigated its physical and geochemical properties and strength parameters, as well as its environmental stability. The dredged soil samples were taken from the Ansung, Jechon, and Mulwang Reservoirs in Korea. To evaluate their environmental stability and geochemical properties, we examined their levels of heavy metal contamination, pH, and electrical conductivity. We also conducted X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction analyses...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Cheng Li, Rafig Azzam, Tomás M Fernández-Steeger
The fast development of wireless sensor networks and MEMS make it possible to set up today real-time wireless geotechnical monitoring. To handle interferences and noises from the output data, Kalman filter can be selected as a method to achieve a more realistic estimate of the observations. In this paper, a one-day wireless measurement using accelerometers and inclinometers was deployed on top of a tunnel section under construction in order to monitor ground subsidence. The normal vectors of the sensors were firstly obtained with the help of rotation matrices, and then be projected to the plane of longitudinal section, by which the dip angles over time would be obtained via a trigonometric function...
2016: Sensors
Min Yang, Kan Liu
Peat is a kind of special material rich in organic matter. Because of the high content of organic matter, it shows different deformation behaviors from conventional geotechnical materials. Peat grain has a non-negligible compressibility due to the presence of organic matter. Biogas can generate from peat and can be trapped in form of gas bubbles. Considering the natural properties of peat, a special three-phase composition of peat is described which indicates the existence of organic matter and gas bubbles in peat...
2016: SpringerPlus
Igor Petrovic
The most viable option for biostabilisation of old sanitary landfills, filled with raw municipal solid waste, is the so-called bioreactor landfill. Even today, bioreactor landfills are viable options in many economically developing countries. However, in order to reduce the biodegradable component of landfilled waste, mechanical and biological treatment has become a widely accepted waste treatment technology, especially in more prosperous countries. Given that mechanical and biological treatment alters the geotechnical properties of raw waste material, the design of sanitary landfills which accepts mechanically and biologically treated waste, should be carried out with a distinct set of geotechnical parameters...
September 2016: Waste Management & Research
O Adamidis, G S P Madabhushi
Loosely packed sand that is saturated with water can liquefy during an earthquake, potentially causing significant damage. Once the shaking is over, the excess pore water pressures that developed during the earthquake gradually dissipate, while the surface of the soil settles, in a process called post-liquefaction reconsolidation. When examining reconsolidation, the soil is typically divided in liquefied and solidified parts, which are modelled separately. The aim of this paper is to show that this fragmentation is not necessary...
February 2016: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
José Manuel Andújar Márquez, Miguel Ángel Martínez Bohórquez, Sergio Gómez Melgar
This paper presents a methodology and instrumentation system for the indirect measurement of the thermal diffusivity of a soil at a given depth from measuring its temperature at that depth. The development has been carried out considering its application to the design and sizing of very low enthalpy geothermal energy (VLEGE) systems, but it can has many other applications, for example in construction, agriculture or biology. The methodology is simple and inexpensive because it can take advantage of the prescriptive geotechnical drilling prior to the construction of a house or building, to take at the same time temperature measurements that will allow get the actual temperature and ground thermal diffusivity to the depth of interest...
2016: Sensors
Claudia Vitone, Antonio Federico, Alexander M Puzrin, Michael Ploetze, Elettra Carrassi, Francesco Todaro
This paper reports the results of the first geomechanical laboratory experiments carried out on the polluted submarine clayey sediments of the Mar Piccolo in Taranto (South of Italy). The study had to face with extreme difficulties for the very soft consistency of the sediments and the contaminants. The mineralogy, composition and physical properties of the sediments were analysed, along with their compression and shearing behaviour. The investigation involved sediments up to about 20 m below the seafloor, along three vertical profiles in the most polluted area of the Mar Piccolo, facing the Italian Navy Arsenal...
July 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Flávio Dias, Marco Lima, Jorge Sanjurjo-Sánchez, Carlos Alves
Geological characteristics can have impacts on societal development by, e.g., geotechnical issues and radiological hazard levels. Due to urban sprawl, there is an increasing need for detailed geological assessment. In this work are analysed data from portable handheld gamma-ray spectra (K, eU and eTh) obtained in granitic and Silurian metaclastic outcrops as well as in an profile, roughly N-S, on soil covered terrains transecting a mapped contact between these rock types (the profile's northern extremity is at locations mapped as granite)...
April 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Daniel Hogg, Simon Kingham, Thomas M Wilson, Michael Ardagh
In this longitudinal study, we compare the effects of different types of relocation and level of affectedness on the incidence and relapse of mood and anxiety symptom treatments identified by publicly funded care or treatment one year before and one and two years after the '2011 Christchurch earthquake' in New Zealand. Based on a subset of Christchurch residents from differently affected areas of the city identified by area-wide geotechnical land assessments (no to severe land damage) 'stayers', 'within-city movers', 'out-of-city movers' and 'returners' were identified to assess the interaction effect of different levels of affectedness and relocation on the incidence and relapse of mood and anxiety symptom treatments over time...
March 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Jinxing Lai, Junling Qiu, Zhihua Feng, Jianxun Chen, Haobo Fan
In the past few decades, as a new tool for analysis of the tough geotechnical problems, artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been successfully applied to address a number of engineering problems, including deformation due to tunnelling in various types of rock mass. Unlike the classical regression methods in which a certain form for the approximation function must be presumed, ANNs do not require the complex constitutive models. Additionally, it is traced that the ANN prediction system is one of the most effective ways to predict the rock mass deformation...
2016: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
Rafaela Cardoso, Rui Vasco Silva, Jorge de Brito, Ravindra Dhir
The use of recycled aggregates (RA) in construction constitutes a significant step towards a more sustainable society and also creates a new market opportunity to be exploited. In recent years, several case-studies have emerged in which RA were used in Geotechnical applications, such as filling materials and in unbound pavement layers. This paper presents a review of the most important physical properties of different types of RA and their comparison with natural aggregates (NA), and how these properties affect their hydraulic and mechanical behaviour when compacted...
March 2016: Waste Management
Stephen Agyeman, Samuel I K Ampadu
Mine rock waste, which is the rock material removed in order to access and mine ore, is free from gold processing chemical contaminants but presents a significant environmental challenge owing to the large volumes involved. One way of mitigating the environmental and safety challenges posed by the large volume of mine rock waste stockpiled in mining communities is to find uses of this material as a substitute for rock aggregates in construction. This article reports on a study conducted to evaluate the engineering properties of such a mine deposit to determine its suitability for use as road pavement material...
February 2016: Waste Management & Research
Mengmeng Li, Qing-Long Fu, Qiuzhuo Zhang, Varenyam Achal, Satoru Kawasaki
Bio-grout, a new ground improvement method, has been recently developed to improve the mechanical properties, decrease the permeability of porous materials, reinforce or repair cementitious materials and modify the properties of soil or sand. Bio-grout production depends on microbially induced calcite precipitation (MICP), which is driven mainly by an enzyme, urease. However, urease-based MICP process produces excessive ammonia, in addition to secondary pollution generated by urea that is used as substrate in it...
2015: Scientific Reports
Rubén López-Vizcaíno, Vicente Navarro, Juan Alonso, Ángel Yustres, Pablo Cañizares, Manuel A Rodrigo, Cristina Sáez
Electrokinetic processes provide the basis of a range of very interesting techniques for the remediation of polluted soils. These techniques consist of the application of a current field in the soil that develops different transport mechanisms capable of mobilizing several types of pollutants. However, the use of these techniques could generate nondesirable effects related to the geomechanical behavior of the soil, reducing the effectiveness of the processes. In the case of the remediation of polluted soils with plasticity index higher than 35, an excessive shrinkage can be observed in remediation test...
2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Xun-Wen Chen, James Tsz-Fung Wong, Charles Wang-Wai Ng, Ming-Hung Wong
Due to the increasing concerns on global warming, scarce land for agriculture, and contamination impacts on human health, biochar application is being considered as one of the possible measures for carbon sequestration, promoting higher crop yield and contamination remediation. Significant amount of researches focusing on these three aspects have been conducted during recent years. Biochar as a soil amendment is effective in promoting plant performance and sustainability, by enhancing nutrient bioavailability, contaminants immobilization, and microbial activities...
April 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yong Li, Hanpeng Wang, Weishen Zhu, Shucai Li, Jian Liu
Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors are comprehensively recognized as a structural stability monitoring device for all kinds of geo-materials by either embedding into or bonding onto the structural entities. The physical model in geotechnical engineering, which could accurately simulate the construction processes and the effects on the stability of underground caverns on the basis of satisfying the similarity principles, is an actual physical entity. Using a physical model test of underground caverns in Shuangjiangkou Hydropower Station, FBG sensors were used to determine how to model the small displacements of some key monitoring points in the large-scale physical model during excavation...
2015: Sensors
Kaoshan Dai, Xiaofeng Li, Chuan Lu, Qingyu You, Zhenhua Huang, H Felix Wu
The passive surface wave survey is a practical, non-invasive seismic exploration method that has increasingly been used in geotechnical engineering. However, in situ deployment of traditional wired geophones is labor intensive for a dense sensor array. Alternatively, stand-alone seismometers can be used, but they are bulky, heavy, and expensive because they are usually designed for long-term monitoring. To better facilitate field applications of the passive surface wave survey, a low-cost energy-efficient geophone system was developed in this study...
2015: Sensors
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