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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792891/pcl-eug-scaffolds-with-tunable-stiffness-can-regulate-macrophage-secretion-behavior
#1
REVIEW
Y Z B Xue, Yiming Niu, B Tang, C M Wang
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent joint disorder worldwide. Recent studies suggested that macrophages play an important role in the progression of OA. However, the detailed pathology related to macrophages is still ambiguous, especially those related to mechanotransduction. In this study, PCL/EUG composite scaffolds were first fabricated by electrospinning. The stiffness of as-fabricated scaffolds was controlled by adjusting the PCL-versus-EUG ratio. The mechanical properties, structural characterics and chemical composition of the scaffolds were investigated using various materials characterization techniques...
May 21, 2018: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792446/an-expanded-theory-of-alzheimer-s-caregiving
#2
Samantha F Lang, Blaine J Fowers
The ancient and cross-culturally prevalent pattern of caregiving suggests that long-term caregiving is species characteristic for humans. If so, then an evolutionary account of the adaptation(s) that underwrite this caregiving is necessary, particularly for the one-sided and long-term nature of Alzheimer's caregiving. Four standard evolutionary explanations are evaluated: kin selection theory, the grandmother hypothesis, direct reciprocity, and indirect reciprocity. Each is found inadequate to explain caregiving because of the lack of reproductive benefits...
May 24, 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792440/looking-at-the-eyes-interferes-with-facial-emotion-recognition-in-alexithymia
#3
Esther Fujiwara
Alexithymia refers to difficulties in identifying, differentiating, and describing feelings. This personality trait is highly prevalent in many psychiatric conditions and may drive associated social-emotional problems, including the ability to decode emotions in faces. This study probed alexithymic problems with identifying clear and ambiguous blends of emotions in faces and their underlying visual attention patterns. Using the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20, students with high alexithymia (HA, n = 73) or low alexithymia (LA, n = 76) were enrolled in this study...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792028/in-situ-structural-elucidation-and-selective-pb2-ion-recognition-of-polydopamine-film-formed-by-controlled-electrochemical-oxidation-of-dopamine
#4
K S Shalini Devi, Sharu Jacob, Annamalai Senthil Kumar
Owing to the versatility and biocompatibility, a self-polymerized DA (in presence of air at pH 8.5 tris buffer solution) as a polydopamine (pDA) film has been used for a variety of applications. Indeed, instability under electrified condition (serious surface-fouling) and structural ambiguity of the pDA have been found to be unresolved problems. Previously, pDA films (has hygroscopic and insoluble property) prepared by various controlled chemical oxidation methods have been examined for the structural analysis using ex-situ solid-state NMR and Mass Spectroscopic techniques...
May 24, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791724/resolving-ambiguities-in-sudep-classification
#5
Orrin Devinsky, Elizabeth Bundock, Dale Hesdorffer, Elizabeth Donner, Brian Moseley, Esma Cihan, Fizza Hussain, Daniel Friedman
OBJECTIVE: To examine the consistency of applying the Nashef et al (2012) criteria to classify sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). METHODS: We reviewed cases from the North American SUDEP Registry (n = 250) and Medical Examiner Offices (n = 1301: 698 Maryland, 457 New York City, 146 San Diego). Two epileptologists with expertise in SUDEP and epilepsy-related mortality independently reviewed medical records, scene investigation, autopsy, and toxicology and assigned a SUDEP class...
May 23, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791234/searching-for-the-great-oxidation-event-in-north-america-a-reappraisal-of-the-huronian-supergroup-by-sims-sulfur-four-isotope-analysis
#6
Huan Cui, Kouki Kitajima, Michael J Spicuzza, John H Fournelle, Akizumi Ishida, Philip E Brown, John W Valley
Sedimentological observations from the Paleoproterozoic Huronian Supergroup are suggested to mark the rise in atmospheric oxygen at that time, which is commonly known as the Great Oxidation Event (GOE) and typically coupled with a transition from mass-independent fractionation (MIF) to mass-dependent fractionation (MDF) of sulfur isotopes. An early in situ study of S three-isotopes across the Huronian Supergroup by Papineau et al. ( 2007 ) identified a weak MIF-MDF transition. However, the interpretation and stratigraphic placement of this transition is ambiguous...
May 2018: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790906/bcseq-an-r-package-for-fast-sequence-mapping-in-high-throughput-shrna-and-crispr-screens
#7
Jiaxing Lin, Jeremy Gresham, Tongrong Wang, So Young Kim, James Alvarez, Jeffrey S Damrauer, Scott Floyd, Joshua Granek, Andrew Allen, Cliburn Chan, Jichun Xie, Kouros Owzar
Summary: CRISPR-Cas9 and shRNA high-throughput sequencing screens have abundant applications for basic and translational research. Methods and tools for the analysis of these screens must properly account for sequencing error, resolve ambiguous mappings among similar sequences in the barcode library in a statistically principled manner, and be computationally efficient. Herein we present bcSeq, an open source R package that implements a fast and parallelized algorithm for mapping high-throughput sequencing reads to a barcode library while tolerating sequencing error...
May 22, 2018: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790902/combining-probabilistic-alignments-with-read-pair-information-improves-accuracy-of-split-alignments
#8
Anish M S Shrestha, Naruki Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi Asai
Motivation: Split-alignments provide base-pair-resolution evidence of genomic rearrangements. In practice, they are found by first computing high-scoring local alignments, parts of which are then combined into a split-alignment. This approach is challenging when aligning a short read to a large and repetitive reference, as it tends to produce many spurious local alignments leading to ambiguities in identifying the correct split-alignment. This problem is further exacerbated by the fact that rearrangements tend to occur in repeat-rich regions...
May 18, 2018: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790416/interpretation-bias-and-social-anxiety-does-interpretation-bias-mediate-the-relationship-between-trait-social-anxiety-and-state-anxiety-responses
#9
Junwen Chen, Kirby Milne, Janet Dayman, Eva Kemps
Two studies aimed to examine whether high socially anxious individuals are more likely to negatively interpret ambiguous social scenarios and facial expressions compared to low socially anxious individuals. We also examined whether interpretation bias serves as a mediator of the relationship between trait social anxiety and state anxiety responses, in particular current state anxiety, bodily sensations, and perceived probability and cost of negative evaluation pertaining to a speech task. Study 1 used ambiguous social scenarios and Study 2 used ambiguous facial expressions as stimuli to objectively assess interpretation bias...
May 23, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789451/zebrafish-models-of-rare-hereditary-pediatric-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Máté Varga, Dorottya Ralbovszki, Eszter Balogh, Renáta Hamar, Magdolna Keszthelyi, Kálmán Tory
Recent advances in sequencing technologies have made it significantly easier to find the genetic roots of rare hereditary pediatric diseases. These novel methods are not panaceas, however, and they often give ambiguous results, highlighting multiple possible causative mutations in affected patients. Furthermore, even when the mapping results are unambiguous, the affected gene might be of unknown function. In these cases, understanding how a particular genotype can result in a phenotype also needs carefully designed experimental work...
May 22, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788423/variability-in-adolescent-portal-privacy-features-how-the-unique-privacy-needs-of-the-adolescent-patient-create-a-complex-decision-making-process
#11
Marianne Sharko, Lauren Wilcox, Matthew K Hong, Jessica S Ancker
Objective: Medical privacy policies, which are clear-cut for adults and young children, become ambiguous during adolescence. Yet medical organizations must establish unambiguous rules about patient and parental access to electronic patient portals. We conducted a national interview study to characterize the diversity in adolescent portal policies across a range of institutions and determine the factors influencing decisions about these policies. Methods: Within a sampling framework that ensured diversity of geography and medical organization type, we used purposive and snowball sampling to identify key informants...
May 17, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787766/structure-and-functional-characterization-of-human-histidine-triad-nucleotide-binding-protein-1-mutations-associated-with-inherited-axonal-neuropathy-with-neuromyotonia
#12
Rachit M Shah, Kimberly M Maize, Harrison T West, Alexander M Strom, Barry C Finzel, Carston R Wagner
Inherited peripheral neuropathies are a group of neurodegenerative disorders that clinically affect 1 in 2500 individuals. Recently, genetic mutations in Human Histidine Nucleotide Binding Protein 1 (hHint1) have been strongly and most frequently associated with patients suffering from axonal neuropathy with neuromyotonia. However, the correlation between the impact of these mutations on the hHint1 structure, enzymatic activity and in vivo function has remained ambiguous. Here, we provide detailed biochemical characterization of a set of these hHint1 mutations...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787636/an-objective-alternative-to-iupac-s-approach-to-assign-oxidation-states
#13
Verònica Postils, Carlos Delgado-Alonso, Josep M Luis, Pedro Salvador
The IUPAC has recently clarified the term Oxidation State (OS), and provided algorithms for its determination based on the ionic approximation (IA) of the bonds supported by atomic electronegativities (EN). Unfortunately, there are a number of exceptions and ambiguities in IUPAC's algorithms when it comes to practical applications. Our comprehensive study reveals the critical role of the chemical environment on establishing the OS, which cannot always be properly predicted using fix atomic EN values. By identifying what we define here as subsystems of enhanced stability within the molecular system, OS can be safely assigned in many cases without invoking exceptions...
May 22, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787633/mass-spectrometry-imaging-with-isomeric-resolution-enabled-by-ozone-induced-dissociation
#14
Martin R L Paine, Berwyck L J Poad, Gert B Eijkel, David L Marshall, Stephen J Blanksby, Ron M A Heeren, Shane R Ellis
Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) enables the spatial distributions of molecules possessing different mass-to-charge ratios to be mapped within complex environments revealing regional changes at the molecular level. Even at high mass resolving power however, these images often reflect the summed distribution of multiple isomeric molecules, each potentially possessing a unique distribution coinciding with distinct biological function(s) and metabolic origin. Here, this chemical ambiguity is addressed through an innovative combination of ozone-induced dissociation reactions with MSI, enabling the differential imaging of isomeric lipid molecules directly from biological tissues...
May 22, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787036/reflections-of-a-black-african-insider-researcher
#15
Isaac Tuffour
BACKGROUND: There is a growing body of literature providing reflective accounts and critical examination of the challenges faced by insider researchers. However, there is little research about the specific challenges that black African insider nurse researchers face. AIM: To reflect on the complexities black African insider nurse researchers face in the context of research sites, participants and the interpretation of data. DISCUSSION: Insider researchers are susceptible to various entanglements and dilemmas...
May 22, 2018: Nurse Researcher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786587/legal-protection-of-public-health-through-control-over-genetically-modified-food
#16
Nataliya Gutorova, Olena Batyhina, Maryna Trotska
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Science is constantly being developed which leads to both positive and negative changes in public health and the environment. One of the results of scientific progress is introduction of food based on genetically modified organisms whose effects on human health, to date, remain scantily studied and are ambiguous. The aim: to determine how human health can be influenced by food production based on genetically modified organisms. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: international acts, data of international organizations and conclusions of scientists have been examined and used in the study...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784229/burnout-evaluation-and-potential-predictors-in-a-greek-cohort-of-mental-health-nurses
#17
Adamos-Konstantinos Konstantinou, Konstantinos Bonotis, Maria Sokratous, Vasileios Siokas, Efthimios Dardiotis
BACKGROUND: Job burnout is one of the most serious occupational health hazards, especially, among mental health nurses. It has been attributed among others to staff shortages, health service changes, poor morale and insufficient employee participation in decision-making. AIM: The aim of this study was to measure burnout among mental health nurses, investigate relations between burnout and organizational factors and examine potential predictors of nurses' burnout...
June 2018: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783919/aging-and-the-visual-perception-of-motion-direction-solving-the-aperture-problem
#18
Lindsey M Shain, J Farley Norman
An experiment required younger and older adults to estimate coherent visual motion direction from multiple motion signals, where each motion signal was locally ambiguous with respect to the true direction of pattern motion. Thus, accurate performance required the successful integration of motion signals across space (i.e., accurate performance required solution of the aperture problem) . The observers viewed arrays of either 64 or 9 moving line segments; because these lines moved behind apertures, their individual local motions were ambiguous with respect to direction (i...
January 1, 2018: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783869/is-hinduism-ambivalent-about-suicide
#19
Lakshmi Vijayakumar, Sujit John
BACKGROUND: Hinduism is one of the oldest religions in the world and has over 1.1 billion adherents comprising about 16% of the global population living mainly in India and Nepal. The stand of Hinduism on suicide has been ambiguous through the ages, on one hand, condemning general suicides, while condoning religious suicides on the other. This ambiguity is reflected in contemporary India and among the Indian diaspora. AIMS: To examine the stand of Hinduism as a religion in the context of suicide...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783837/light-absorption-enhancement-of-black-carbon-aerosol-constrained-by-particle-morphology
#20
Yu Wu, Tianhai Cheng, Dantong Liu, James Allan, Lijuan Zheng, Hao Chen
The radiative forcing of black carbon aerosol (BC) is one of the largest sources of uncertainty in climate change assessments. Contrasting results of BC absorption enhancement (Eabs) after aging are estimated by field measurements and modeling studies, causing ambiguous parameterizations of BC solar absorption in climate models. Here we quantify Eabs using a theoretical model parameterized by the complex particle morphology of BC in different aging scales. We show that Eabs continuously increases with aging and stabilizes with a maximum of ~3...
May 22, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
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