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Tobias M R Houlton, Caroline Wilkinson
Shrunken heads are a mummification phenomenon unique to South America. Ceremonial tsantsa are ritually reduced heads from enemy victims of the Shuar, Achuar, Awajún (Aguaruna), Wampís (Huambisa), and Candoshi-Shapra cultures. Commercial shrunken heads are comparatively modern and fraudulently produced for the curio-market, often using stolen bodies from hospital mortuaries and graves. To achieve shrinkage and desiccation, heads undergo skinning, simmering (in water) and drying. Considering the intensive treatments applied, this research aims to identify how the facial structure can alter and impact identification using post-mortem depiction...
March 6, 2018: Forensic Science International
Robert W Kentridge
When visual information about an object's distance is obscured, but its retinal size visible, the object's physical size is ambiguous to vision; however, additional proprioceptive distance information permits physical size to be estimated when grasping the object, but perceptual size estimates remain inaccurate, adding to that evidence for distinct visual pathways for perception and action.
March 19, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Filippo Savazzi, Francesca Risplendi, Giuseppe Mallia, Nicholas M Harrison, Giancarlo Cicero
Graphene oxide (GO) is a versatile 2D material, whose properties can be tuned by changing the type and concentration of oxygen containing functional groups attached to its surface. However, a detailed knowledge of the dependence of the chemo/physical features of this material on its chemical composition is largely unknown. In this paper, we combine classical molecular dynamics and density functional theory simulations to predict the structural and electronic properties of GO at low degree of oxidation and suggest a revision of the Lerf-Klinowski model...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Kah Kheng Goh, Chun-Hsin Chen, Mong-Liang Lu
OBJECTIVE: Weight gain is one of the most challenging issues in patients with schizophrenia treated with antipsychotics. Several meta-analyses have been conducted to review the efficacy of topiramate in reducing weight, however, several issues regarding the methodology had arisen of which make the results remain ambiguous. METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials about the use of topiramate in patients with schizophrenia for weight reduction...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
Robert Roehle, Viktoria Wieske, Georg M Schuetz, Pascal Gueret, Daniele Andreini, Willem Bob Meijboom, Gianluca Pontone, Mario Garcia, Hatem Alkadhi, Lily Honoris, Jörg Hausleiter, Nuno Bettencourt, Elke Zimmermann, Sebastian Leschka, Bernhard Gerber, Carlos Rochitte, U Joseph Schoepf, Abbas Arjmand Shabestari, Bjarne Nørgaard, Akira Sato, Juhani Knuuti, Matthijs F L Meijs, Harald Brodoefel, Shona M M Jenkins, Kristian Altern Øvrehus, Axel Cosmus Pyndt Diederichsen, Ashraf Hamdan, Bjørn Arild Halvorsen, Vladimir Mendoza Rodriguez, Yung Liang Wan, Johannes Rixe, Mehraj Sheikh, Christoph Langer, Said Ghostine, Eugenio Martuscelli, Hiroyuki Niinuma, Arthur Scholte, Konstantin Nikolaou, Geir Ulimoen, Zhaoqi Zhang, Hans Mickley, Koen Nieman, Philipp Kaufmann, Ronny Ralf Büchel, Bernhard Herzog, Melvin Clouse, David A Halon, Jonathan Leipsic, David Bush, Reda Jakamy, Kai Sun, Lin Yang, Thorsten Johnson, Jean-Pierre Laissy, Roy Marcus, Simone Muraglia, Jean-Claude Tardif, Benjamin Chow, Narinder Paul, David Maintz, John Hoe, Albert de Roos, Robert Haase, Michael Laule, Peter Schlattmann, Marc Dewey
OBJECTIVES: To analyse the implementation, applicability and accuracy of the pretest probability calculation provided by NICE clinical guideline 95 for decision making about imaging in patients with chest pain of recent onset. METHODS: The definitions for pretest probability calculation in the original Duke clinical score and the NICE guideline were compared. We also calculated the agreement and disagreement in pretest probability and the resulting imaging and management groups based on individual patient data from the Collaborative Meta-Analysis of Cardiac CT (CoMe-CCT)...
March 19, 2018: European Radiology
Huixia Zhou, Bibing Dai, Sonja Rossi, Juan Li
Background: Depressed populations demonstrate a greater tendency to have negative interpretations on ambiguous situations. Cognitive theories concerning depression proposed that such a negative bias plays an important role in developing and maintaining depression. There is now fairly consistent evidence arising from different stimuli and assessment methods that depression is featured by such a bias. The current study aimed to explore the neural signatures associated with the interpretation bias in the elderly with depressive symptoms confronted with different facial expressions using event-related brain potentials (ERPs)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Anne E Mattingly, Abigail A Weaver, Aleksandar Dimkovikj, Joshua D Shrout
The degree to which surface motile bacteria explore their surroundings is influenced by aspects of their local environment. Accordingly, regulation of surface motility is controlled by numerous chemical, physical, and biological stimuli. Discernment of such regulation due to these multiple cues is a formidable challenge. Additionally inherent ambiguity and variability from the assays used to assess surface motility can be an obstacle to clear delineation of regulated surface motility behavior. Numerous studies have reported single environmental determinants of microbial motility and lifestyle behavior but the translation of these data to understand surface motility and bacterial colonization of human host or environmental surfaces is unclear...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Huei-Mien Ke, Dang Liu, Yoshitoshi Ogura, Tetsuya Hayashi, Henryk Urbanczyk, Isheng J Tsai
The mechanism of bacterial speciation remains a topic of tremendous interest. To understand the ecological and evolutionary mechanisms of speciation in Vibrio bacteria, we analyzed the genomic dissimilarities between three closely related species in the so-called Harveyi clade of the genus Vibrio : V. campbellii , V. jasicida and V. hyugaensis The analysis focused on strains isolated from diverse geographic locations, over a long period of time. Results of phylogenetic analyses and calculations of average nucleotide identities (ANI) supported classification of V...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Valérie Zimmerlé, Emeline Laurent, Valérie Tauveron, Annabel Maruani, Emmanuelle Le Bidre, Mahtab Samimi, Laurent Machet
INTRODUCTION: Cutaneous cancers are very common, easily visible on skin. The general practitioner (GP) is in the front line to manage the lesions. He has to recognize malignancy and refer most often to the specialist for excision, or consider that the lesion is benign and in ambiguous cases, offer clinical monitoring. The current low medical density in the Centre Val de Loire area makes access to general practitioners (GP) and dermatologists harder. The aim of this study was to evaluate GPs' everyday practice in cutaneous cancers screening in general, and particularly in melanoma screening, in a rural region of France...
March 16, 2018: La Presse Médicale
Samuel Edelbring, Madeleine Abrandt Dahlgren, Desiree Wiegleb Edström
BACKGROUND: Interprofessional learning activities are included in many curricula but are difficult to assess. For languages that are not widely spoken such as Swedish, few validated questionnaires exist that relate to interprofessional outcomes. Therefore, the aim was to examine two such questionnaires in relation to interprofessional competence domains. METHODS: Psychometric characteristics, such as homogeneity of items and internal consistency, were assessed for the Swedish versions of the Jefferson Scale of Attitudes Towards Physician-Nurse Collaboration (JSAPNC) and the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS)...
March 20, 2018: BMC Medical Education
Kari Gaalswyk, Mir Ishruna Muniyat, Justin L MacCallum
Biomolecular structure determination has long relied on heuristics based on physical insight; however, recent efforts to model conformational ensembles and to make sense of sparse, ambiguous, and noisy data have revealed the value of detailed, quantitative physical models in structure determination. We review these two key challenges, describe different approaches to physical modeling in structure determination, and illustrate several successes and emerging technologies enabled by physical modeling.
March 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
Edip Ünal, Ruken Yıldırım, Funda Feryal Taş, Vasfiye Demir, Hüseyin Onay, Yusuf Kenan Haspolat
BACKGROUND: Aromatase deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder with an unknown incidence. Aromatase converts androgens into estrogen in the gonadal and extra-gonadal tissues. Aromatase deficiency causes ambiguous genitalia in the female fetus and maternal virilization (hirsutism, acne, cliteromegaly, deep voice) during the pregnancy due to increased concentration of androgens. METHODS AND RESULTS: The-nineteen-month-old girl was assessed due to ambiguous genitalia There were findings of maternal virilization during pregnancy...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
Abi McNiven
The popular characterisation of acne as a mundane and insignificant feature of adolescence sits at odds with academic studies showing the detrimental impacts of the condition on people of various ages. Drawing from in-depth qualitative interviews with 13- to 25-year olds living in England, this article will consider some of the tensions between two messages about acne through the ambiguities in young people's narratives. Consistent with existing literature on skin conditions and visual differences more broadly, participants in the study recounted ways in which acne negatively shaped their lives socially and emotionally...
March 1, 2018: Health (London)
Cameron Laue, Marcus Griffey, Ping-I Lin, Kirk Wallace, Menno van der Schoot, Paul Horn, Ernest Pedapati, Drew Barzman
Social information processing theory hypothesizes that aggressive children pay more attention to cues of hostility and threat in others' behavior, consequently leading to over-interpretation of others' behavior as hostile. While there is abundant evidence of aggressive children demonstrating hostile attribution biases, less well documented is whether such biases stem from over-attendance and hypersensitivity to hostile cues in social situations. Over-attendance to hostile cues would be typified by deviations at any stage of the multi-stage process of social information processing models...
March 19, 2018: Psychiatric Quarterly
Yun-Kyeong Cho, Chang-Wook Nam
Multi-vessel coronary artery disease (MVD) frequently features ambiguous or intermediate lesions that may be both serial and complex, suggesting that multiple regions require revascularization. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is associated with various challenges such as appropriate identification of lesions that should be treated, the choice of an optimum revascularization method, and limitations of long-term outcomes. Optimal patient selection and careful targeting of lesions are key when planning treatment...
March 21, 2018: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
Katharina Förster, Silke Jörgens, Tracy M Air, Christian Bürger, Verena Enneking, Ronny Redlich, Dario Zaremba, Dominik Grotegerd, Katharina Dohm, Susanne Meinert, Elisabeth J Leehr, Joscha Böhnlein, Jonathan Repple, Nils Opel, Erhan Kavakbasi, Volker Arolt, Pienie Zwitserlood, Udo Dannlowski, Bernhard T Baune
To understand how cognitive dysfunction contributes to social cognitive deficits in depression, we investigated the relationship between executive function and social cognitive performance in adolescents and young adults during current and remitted depression, compared to healthy controls. Social cognition and executive function were measured in 179 students (61 healthy controls and 118 patients with depression; Mage = 20.60 years; SDage = 3.82 years). Hierarchical regression models were employed within each group (healthy controls, remitted depression, current depression) to examine the nature of associations between cognitive measures...
February 22, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Michael Freund, Nazbanou Nozari
Recent work using the Picture Word Interference (PWI) paradigm has revealed that language production, similar to non-verbal tasks, shows a robust Congruency Sequence Effect (CSE), defined as a decreased congruency effect following incongruent trials. Although CSE is considered an index of adaptive control, its mechanism is debated. In two experiments, we tested the predictions of a learning model of adaptive control in production, using a task-switching paradigm fully balanced to evaluate CSE on a PWI trial as a function of the congruency of a 2-back PWI trial (within-task CSE), as well as a 1-back trial belonging to a different task (cross-task CSE)...
March 15, 2018: Cognition
Anders Lillevik Thorsen, Pernille Hagland, Joaquim Radua, David Mataix-Cols, Gerd Kvale, Bjarne Hansen, Odile A van den Heuvel
BACKGROUND: Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) experience aversive emotions in response to obsessions, motivating avoidance and compulsive behaviors. However, there is considerable ambiguity regarding the brain circuitry involved in emotional processing in OCD, especially whether activation is altered in the amygdala. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature review and performed a meta-analysis-seed-based d mapping-of 25 whole-brain neuroimaging studies (including 571 patients and 564 healthy control subjects) using functional magnetic resonance imaging or positron emission tomography, comparing brain activation of patients with OCD and healthy control subjects during presentation of emotionally valenced versus neutral stimuli...
February 3, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
L Tomova, M Heinrichs, C Lamm
Distinguishing self- from other-related representations plays an important role in social interactions. The neuropeptide oxytocin has been shown to modulate social behavior as well as underlying social cognitions and emotions. However, how exactly oxytocin modulates representations of self and other is still unclear. The present study therefore aimed to assess effects of oxytocin on self-other distinction on two different processing levels (i.e., lower-level imitation-inhibition and higher-level perspective taking) in a male sample (n = 56) by performing a double-blind, placebo-controlled oxytocin administration study...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Andre Pittig, Michael Treanor, Richard T LeBeau, Michelle G Craske
Anxiety disorders are the most common mental disorders, and are often chronic and disabling. Although exposure-based treatments are effective, a substantial number of individuals fail to fully remit or experience a return of symptoms after treatment. Understanding the critical processes underlying the development and treatment of anxiety disorders will help identify individuals at risk and optimize treatments. Aversive associative learning offers explanatory pathways through which fear and anxiety emerge, spread, persist, and resurge...
March 14, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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