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Uterine contraction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822852/prostaglandin-d2-is-the-major-cyclooxygenase-1-derived-product-in-prepartum-mouse-uteri-where-it-mediates-an-enhanced-in-vitro-myometrial-contraction
#1
Bin Liu, Jingli Yang, Wenhong Luo, Yingzhan Zhang, Jiarong Li, Hui Li, Lelin Chen, Yingbi Zhou
This study aimed to determine whether prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) is a major uterine cyclooxygenase (COX) product and if so, we wanted to examine the underlying mechanism, its relation to COX-1-mediated metabolism, and how it influences the in vitro myometrial contraction during the late stage of pregnancy. The production of PGD2 or responses evoked by the prostanoid were determined in uteri isolated from prepartum and/or non-pregnant C57Bl/6 wild-type (WT) or COX-1(-/-) mice. Results showed that PGD2, which was not detected in non-pregnant counterparts, appears as the major prostanoid in prepartum (<24h prior to parturition) mouse uteri...
August 16, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820400/alteration-in-expressions-of-rhoa-and-rho-kinases-during-pregnancy-in-rats-their-roles-in-uterine-contractions-and-onset-of-labour
#2
D Domokos, E Ducza, G Falkay, R Gaspar
Activation of RhoA and Rho-associated kinases (ROCKs) is known to play a pivotal role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction via phosphorylation of myosin-light chain and myosin phosphatase. There are few data on the RhoA and ROCKs expression levels in rat uteri. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the mRNA and protein concentration of RhoA and ROCKs in rat uterus during pregnancy, during parturition and post-partum using real time PCR and Western blot analysis. The other purpose was to evaluate the effects of the ROCK (Y-27632, fasudil and RKI 1441) and RhoA inhibitors (simvastatin) on uterine contractility in isolated organ bath experiments...
June 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815848/inflammation-and-fertility-in-the-mare
#3
REVIEW
M Christoffersen, Mht Troedsson
A transient uterine inflammation post-breeding is a normal physiological reaction in the mare, and it is believed that the inflammatory response is necessary to eliminate bacteria and excess spermatozoa introduced into the uterine lumen. A tight balance between multiple pro- and anti-inflammatory factors is required for resolving the breeding-induced inflammation within 24-36 hr in the reproductively healthy mare, whereas a subpopulation of mares is susceptible to development of a persistent infection that can interfere with fertility...
August 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805600/the-effect-of-oxytocin-and-kisspeptin-10-in-ovary-and-uterus-of-ischemia-reperfusion-injured-rats
#4
M Aslan, G Erkanli Senturk, H Akkaya, S Sahin, B Yılmaz
OBJECTIVE: Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injuries result in damage to endothelial and parenchymal cells. Oxytocin (OXY) stimulates uterine contraction during parturition and myoepithelial cells during suckling. OXY has been used as a protective antioxidant. Kisspeptin plays a key role in the central control of reproductive functions and onset of puberty. Recent studies show that these reproductive hormones have protective potential as antioxidant. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential protective effects of Kisspeptin and OXY as antioxidants on I/R injured ovary and uterus of female rats...
August 2017: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783687/group-b-streptococcus-circumvents-neutrophils-and-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-during-amniotic-cavity-invasion-and-preterm-labor
#5
Erica Boldenow, Claire Gendrin, Lisa Ngo, Craig Bierle, Jay Vornhagen, Michelle Coleman, Sean Merillat, Blair Armistead, Christopher Whidbey, Varchita Alishetti, Veronica Santana-Ufret, Jason Ogle, Michael Gough, Sengkeo Srinouanprachanh, James W MacDonald, Theo K Bammler, Aasthaa Bansal, H Denny Liggitt, Lakshmi Rajagopal, Kristina M Adams Waldorf
Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Although microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC) is associated with most early preterm births, the temporal events that occur during MIAC and preterm labor are not known. Group B streptococci (GBS) are β-hemolytic, Gram-positive bacteria, which commonly colonize the vagina but have been recovered from the amniotic fluid in preterm birth cases. To understand temporal events that occur during MIAC, we used a chronically catheterized nonhuman primate model that closely emulates human pregnancy...
October 14, 2016: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758531/early-versus-delayed-amniotomy-during-labor-induction-with-oxytocin-in-women-with-bishop-s-score-of-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-6-a-randomized-trial
#6
Anju Bala, Rashmi Bagga, Jasvinder Kalra, Sourabh Dutta
OBJECTIVE: To study effect of "early amniotomy" {initiating induction of labor (IOL) with amniotomy followed by oxytocin} versus "late amniotomy" (initiating IOL with oxytocin followed by amniotomy 4-8 hours later) in induced labor. METHODS AND MATERIALS: 150 women with Bishop's score of ≥ 6 undergoing IOL were randomized into "early amniotomy" and "delayed amniotomy". RESULTS: Early amniotomy resulted in a reduced induction-delivery interval (IDI) (7...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754971/in-vivo-raman-spectral-analysis-of-impaired-cervical-remodeling-in-a-mouse-model-of-delayed-parturition
#7
Christine M O'Brien, Jennifer L Herington, Naoko Brown, Isaac J Pence, Bibhash C Paria, James C Slaughter, Jeff Reese, Anita Mahadevan-Jansen
Monitoring cervical structure and composition during pregnancy has high potential for prediction of preterm birth (PTB), a problem affecting 15 million newborns annually. We use in vivo Raman spectroscopy, a label-free, light-based method that provides a molecular fingerprint to non-invasively investigate normal and impaired cervical remodeling. Prostaglandins stimulate uterine contractions and are clinically used for cervical ripening during pregnancy. Deletion of cyclooxygenase-1 (Cox-1), an enzyme involved in production of these prostaglandins, results in delayed parturition in mice...
July 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750937/castor-oil-for-induction-of-labor-in-post-date-pregnancies-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Ronit Gilad, Hagit Hochner, Bella Savitsky, Shay Porat, Drorith Hochner-Celnikier
BACKGROUND: Castor oil is a substance used for labor induction in an inpatient setting. However, its efficacy as an agent for the induction of labor, for post-date pregnancies in an outpatient setup is unknown. OBJECTIVE: Efficacy of castor oil as an agent for the induction of labor, for post-date pregnancies in outpatient settings. METHODS: Eighty-one women with a low-risk post-date singleton pregnancy with a Bishop score≤7, without effective uterine contractions were randomized to the intervention, 60ml of castor oil, or the control, 60ml of sun-flower oil...
July 24, 2017: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737244/hypoxia-animal-experiments-and-clinical-implications
#9
Yasuyuki Kawagoe, Hiroshi Sameshima
The developing fetus has some unique physiological properties that differ from properties in extra-uterine life. The fetus exists in a hypoxemic condition as a result of the presence of the placenta, which serves as a limiting interface between maternal and fetal circulation. In addition, the fetus is prone to be exposed to uterine contractions, which place it under a further hypoxic burden. Thus, the fetal response to hypoxic insults is important. There has been marked progression in the understanding of fetal physiology since the introduction of the 'chronic preparation model'...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736964/exceptionalism-is-not-exceptional-in-relation-to-sexual-and-reproduction-mechanisms-contrasts-of-human-and-animal-sexuality
#10
REVIEW
Roy J Levin
Speculation that the release of oxytocin by orgasm in the human female during coitus facilitates fertility by enhancing uterine sperm transport has been criticised as having no unequivocal empirical human evidence. However, a counter claim that this supports human 'exceptionalism' as some form of uterine sperm transport occurs in other species. This is a misconception as it ignores that human uterine peristalsis, powered by contractions of the smooth muscle of the archimyometrium, facilitates sperm transport even without any systemic oxytocin involvement...
July 24, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733534/low-dose-of-dexmedetomidine-as-an-adjuvant-to-bupivacaine-in-cesarean-surgery-provides-better-intraoperative-somato-visceral-sensory-block-characteristcs-and-postoperative-analgesia
#11
Yong-Hong Bi, Xiao-Guang Cui, Rui-Qin Zhang, Chun-Yu Song, Yan-Zhuo Zhang
OBJECT: In this study, we aimed to investigate the beneficial effects of dexmedetomidine on somato-visceral sensory block characteristcs, postoperative analgesia and stress response of intrathecal bupivacaine administration in women undergoing cesarean section, and to find out which dose is better. METHODS: Sixty parturients with the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I or II were anesthetized with intrathecal bupivacaine(10mg) alone or in combination with dexmedetomidine (3 μg and 5 μg) to undergo cesarean section...
June 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733110/a-role-of-alpha-tocopherol-and-phylloquinone-in-the-modulation-of-uterine-contractility-and-reproductive-function-in-mouse-models
#12
Enitome E Bafor, Victory O Ebidame, Uloma B Elvis-Offiah, Osemelomen Omoruyi, Gerald I Eze, Osamwonyi Igbinuwen, Kadiri P Braimoh
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Alpha-tocopherol has been implicated in reproduction processes, and deficiency of phylloquinone has been associated with serious complications in pregnancy. This study was therefore aimed at investigating the effects of phylloquinone and alpha-tocopherol on uterine contractility and female reproductive function using mouse models. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Both in vivo and ex vivo animal models were employed and designed to assess changes on uterine contractility and reproductive functions in the non-pregnant uterus...
May 30, 2017: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727889/clinical-assessment-of-uterine-contractions
#13
REVIEW
Wayne R Cohen
The assessment of uterine contractions is important in clinical decision-making, but the precise role for appraising contractions remains controversial. Four clinical approaches to assessing contractions are available: manual palpation; intrauterine pressure determination; external tocodynamometry; and electrohysterography. Palpation is inexpensive and harmless but requires the constant bedside presence of a trained observer. Intrauterine pressure measurement is considered the most sensitive and specific technique, and has become the standard by which other methods are judged; however, its quantitative measurements are not always precise or reproducible...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711635/a-new-pupillary-measure-to-assess-pain-a-prospective-study
#14
David J Charier, Daniel Zantour, Vincent Pichot, Florian Chouchou, Jean-Claude M Barthelemy, Frederic Roche, Serge B Molliex
Pupillary diameter (PD) varies under the influence of both the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems, increasing proportionally to pain intensity. Such variations however should not be confused with pupillary fluctuations, which refer to the fast and permanent PD fluctuations induced by the ongoing interplay between the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems, which we propose to measure using the Variation Coefficient of Pupillary Diameter (VCPD). This study aimed first at correlating both PD, PD increase during a contraction, and VCPD, with pain as rated with the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) during obstetrical labor, and then at comparing such correlations with one another...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710882/mid-trimester-preterm-premature-rupture-of-membranes-pprom-etiology-diagnosis-classification-international-recommendations-of-treatment-options-and-outcome
#15
REVIEW
Michael Tchirikov, Natalia Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, James Maher, Jörg Buchmann, Yuri Naberezhnev, Andreas S Winarno, Gregor Seliger
Mid-trimester preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM), defined as rupture of fetal membranes prior to 28 weeks of gestation, complicates approximately 0.4%-0.7% of all pregnancies. This condition is associated with a very high neonatal mortality rate as well as an increased risk of long- and short-term severe neonatal morbidity. The causes of the mid-trimester PPROM are multifactorial. Altered membrane morphology including marked swelling and disruption of the collagen network which is seen with PPROM can be triggered by bacterial products or/and pro-inflammatory cytokines...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706457/relaxant-and-anti-inflammatory-effect-of-two-thalidomide-analogs-as-pde-4-inhibitors-in-pregnant-rat-uterus
#16
Víctor Manuel Muñoz-Pérez, Eduardo Fernández-Martínez, Héctor Ponce-Monter, Mario I Ortiz
The aim of this study was to evaluate the relaxant and anti-inflammatory effects of two thalidomide analogs as phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE-4) inhibitors in pregnant rat uterus. Uteri from Wistar female rats were isolated at 19 day of pregnancy. Uterine samples were used in functional studies to evaluate the inhibitory effects of the thalidomide analogs, methyl 3-(4-nitrophthalimido)-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-propanoate (4NO2PDPMe) and methyl 3-(4-aminophthalimido)-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-propanoate (4APDPMe), on prostaglandin-F2α (PGF2α)-induced phasic, K(+)-induced tonic, and Ca(2+)-induced contractions...
July 2017: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697105/transient-fetal-tachycardia-after-intravenous-diphenhydramine-administration
#17
Alice Abernathy, Laura Alsina, Jessica Greer, Robert Egerman
BACKGROUND: Fetal tachycardia is attributable to a variety of etiologies, including an untreated maternal medical condition or an indicator of potential fetal compromise. Maternal medication administration may also affect the fetal heart rate. CASE: A 28-year-old nulliparous patient at 41 weeks of gestation was treated for pruritus with intravenous diphenhydramine after epidural administration of fentanyl. Within 14 minutes, the fetal heart rate increased from a baseline of 155 beats per minute (bpm) to more than 200 bpm while maintaining moderate variability...
August 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679021/population-pharmacokinetic-analysis-of-vaginally-and-intravenously-administered-oxytocin-in-postmenopausal-women
#18
Elisabet I Nielsen, Shahla H Al-Saqi, Aino F Jonasson, Kerstin Uvnäs-Moberg
Oxytocin is a neuropeptide hormone used clinically for more than 50 years due to its ability to induce uterine contractions and milk ejection. Vagitocin is a vaginal oxytocin gel developed as a potential treatment of vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women. The aim of this study was to characterize the oxytocin pharmacokinetics following vaginal and intravenous administration in postmenopausal women. Data from 33 participants enrolled in 2 clinical studies were used in the analysis, with a total of 651 observed oxytocin plasma concentrations, of which 78 were baseline observations, 178 observations following intravenous administration (10 IU), and 395 observations following vaginal administration (100 or 400 IU)...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660431/the-identification-and-tracking-of-uterine-contractions-using-template-based-cross-correlation
#19
Sarah C McDonald, Graham Brooker, Hala Phipps, Jon Hyett
The purpose of this paper is to outline a novel method of using template based cross-correlation to identify and track uterine contractions during labour. A purpose built six-channel Electromyography (EMG) device was used to collect data from consenting women during labour and birth. A range of templates were constructed for the purpose of identifying and tracking uterine activity when cross-correlated with the EMG signal. Peak finding techniques were applied on the cross-correlated result to simplify and automate the identification and tracking of contractions...
June 28, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651899/the-cytotrophoblastic-shell-and-complications-of-pregnancy
#20
Graham J Burton, Eric Jauniaux
Many complications of pregnancy have their pathophysiological roots in the early stages of placentation. Impaired trophoblast invasion and deficient remodelling of the maternal spiral arteries are a common feature. While malperfusion of the placenta may underpin cases of fetal growth restriction and early-onset pre-eclampsia, the mechanistic links to spontaneous miscarriage, pre-term labour and premature rupture of the membranes are less obvious. Here, we speculate that formation of a well-developed cytotrophoblastic shell at the maternal-fetal interface is crucial for pregnancy success...
June 13, 2017: Placenta
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