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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843741/trace-elements-in-native-and-improved-paddy-rice-from-different-climatic-regions-of-sri-lanka-implications-for-public-health
#1
Saranga Diyabalanage, Thamara Navarathna, Hemalika T K Abeysundara, Sanath Rajapakse, Rohana Chandrajith
BACKGROUND: Samples of 226 new improved and 21 indigenous rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties were collected from the rice fields in three climatic zones of Sri Lanka and concentrations of 18 trace elements (Li, B, Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Mo, Cd, Ba, Pb and Bi) were measured giving particular emphasis on Se, Cd and As using ICP-MS. The two way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) method was employed to identify the differences in composition among rice from different climatic zones...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813825/optimization-of-enzyme-assisted-improvement-of-polyphenols-and-free-radical-scavenging-activity-in-red-rice-bran-a-statistical-and-neural-network-based-approach
#2
Ashish A Prabhu, A Jayadeep
The current study is focused on optimizing the parameters involved in enzymatic processing of red rice bran for maximizing total polyphenol (TP) and free radical scavenging activity (FRSA). The sequential optimization strategies using central composite design (CCD) and artificial neural network (ANN) modeling linked with Genetic algorithm (GA) was carried out to study the effect of incubation time (60-90 min), xylanase concentration (5-10 mg/g), cellulase concentration (5-10 mg/g) on the response i.e., total polyphenol and FRSA...
November 4, 2016: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649148/molecular-and-biochemical-analysis-of-two-rice-flavonoid-3-hydroxylase-to-evaluate-their-roles-in-flavonoid-biosynthesis-in-rice-grain
#3
Sangkyu Park, Min Ji Choi, Jong Yeol Lee, Jae Kwang Kim, Sun-Hwa Ha, Sun-Hyung Lim
Anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins, the major flavonoids in black and red rice grains, respectively, are mainly derived from 3',4'-dihydroxylated leucocyanidin. 3'-Hydroxylation of flavonoids in rice is catalyzed by flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H: EC 1.14.13.21). We isolated cDNA clones of the two rice F3'H genes (CYP75B3 and CYP75B4) from Korean varieties of white, black, and red rice. Sequence analysis revealed allelic variants of each gene containing one or two amino acid substitutions. Heterologous expression in yeast demonstrated that CYP75B3 preferred kaempferol to other substrates, and had a low preference for dihydrokaempferol...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27540314/experimental-treatment-of-antipsychotic-induced-movement-disorders
#4
REVIEW
Erum Shireen
Antipsychotic drugs are extensively prescribed for the treatment of schizophrenia and other related psychiatric disorders. These drugs produced their action by blocking dopamine (DA) receptors, and these receptors are widely present throughout the brain. Therefore, extended antipsychotic use also leads to severe extrapyramidal side effects. The short-term effects include parkinsonism and the later appearing tardive dyskinesia. Currently available treatments for these disorders are mostly symptomatic and insufficient, and are often linked with a number of detrimental side effects...
2016: Journal of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27507477/effect-of-parboiling-on-phytochemical-content-antioxidant-activity-and-physicochemical-properties-of-germinated-red-rice
#5
Zhanqiang Hu, Xiaozhi Tang, Junfei Liu, Zhiwei Zhu, Yafang Shao
In order to improve functional properties and palatability of germinated red rice, this study investigated differences in phytochemicals and physicochemical properties of germinated red rice at 2, 5, 10, 15min of parboiling. Total free phenolic content and antioxidant activity of germinated red rice parboiled for 5 and 15min was higher than that of germinated red rice. Free p-coumaric acid increased from 0.20 to 0.67mg/100g with parboiling time increasing from 5 to 15min. Bound vanillic (0.17-0.27mg/100g) and p-coumaric acid (6...
January 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27347917/a-metagenomic-advance-for-the-cloning-and-characterization-of-a-cellulase-from-red-rice-crop-residues
#6
Carlos Meneses, Bruna Silva, Betsy Medeiros, Rodrigo Serrato, David Johnston-Monje
Many naturally-occurring cellulolytic microorganisms are not readily cultivable, demanding a culture-independent approach in order to study their cellulolytic genes. Metagenomics involves the isolation of DNA from environmental sources and can be used to identify enzymes with biotechnological potential from uncultured microbes. In this study, a gene encoding an endoglucanase was cloned from red rice crop residues using a metagenomic strategy. The amino acid identity between this gene and its closest published counterparts is lower than 70%...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27285791/antidiabetic-potential-of-purple-and-red-rice-oryza-sativa-l-bran-extracts
#7
Stephen M Boue, Kim W Daigle, Ming-Hsuan Chen, Heping Cao, Mark L Heiman
Pigmented rice contains anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins that are concentrated in the bran layer. In this study, we determined the phenolic, flavonoid, anthocyanin, and proanthocyanidin content of five rice bran (1 brown, 2 red, and 2 purple) extracts. Each bran extract was evaluated for inhibitory effects on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity, two key glucosidases required for starch digestion in humans. All purple and red bran extracts inhibited α-glucosidase activity, however only the red rice bran extracts inhibited α-amylase activity...
July 6, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27283641/determination-of-contents-and-antioxidant-activity-of-free-and-bound-phenolics-compounds-and-in-vitro-digestibility-of-commercial-black-and-red-rice-oryza-sativa-l-varieties
#8
Daniela Sumczynski, Eva Kotásková, Helena Družbíková, Jiří Mlček
Black and red rices (Oryza sativa L.) were analysed for total flavonoids and phenolics and the HPLC profile including both free and bound phenolic fractions. Moreover, antioxidant activity and in vitro digestibility was determined. Content of flavonoids and polyphenols as well as antioxidant activity was higher in free phenolic fractions. Bound flavonoids in black rices were not significant contributors to antioxidant activity. The main free phenolics in black rices were ferulic, protocatechuic and trans-p-coumaric acids, while the major free phenolics in red rices were catechin, protocatechuic and caffeic acids...
November 15, 2016: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27247720/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-proanthocyanidin-rich-red-rice-extract-via-suppression-of-mapk-ap-1-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathways-in-raw-264-7-macrophages
#9
Pornngarm Limtrakul, Supachai Yodkeeree, Pornsiri Pitchakarn, Wanisa Punfa
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Several pharmacological properties of red rice extract have been reported including anti-oxidant, anti-tumor, and reduced cancer cell invasion. This study was conducted to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of red rice extract on the production of inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced Raw 264.7 macrophages. MATERIALS/METHODS: Pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 were determined by ELISA and cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression was evaluated using western blot analysis...
June 2016: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27213446/evaluating-crossbred-red-rice-variants-for-postprandial-glucometabolic-responses-a-comparison-with-commercial-varieties
#10
Chee-Hee Se, Khun-Aik Chuah, Ankitta Mishra, Ratnam Wickneswari, Tilakavati Karupaiah
Consumption of white rice predisposes some Asian populations to increased risk of type 2 diabetes. We compared the postprandial glucometabolic responses to three newly-developed crossbred red rice variants (UKMRC9, UKMRC10, UKMRC11) against three selected commercial rice types (Thai red, Basmati white, Jasmine white) using 50-g carbohydrate equivalents provided to 12 normoglycaemic adults in a crossover design. Venous blood was drawn fasted and postprandially for three hours. Glycaemic (GI) and insulin (II) indices, incremental areas-under-the-curves for glucose and insulin (IAUCins), indices of insulin sensitivity and secretion, lactate and peptide hormones (motilin, neuropeptide-Y, orexin-A) were analyzed...
2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27162381/changes-in-physical-cooking-textural-properties-and-crystallinity-upon-iron-fortification-of-red-rice-jyothi
#11
Shruti Pandey, Asha Mr, Jayadep A
The present study is an investigation, into one of the varieties of paddy (Jyothi) its fortification with sodium iron EDTA salt, its physical properties, cooking characteristics, color, texture and characterization studies. Fortification was done at two concentrations 1.88 g/kg (T1 corresponding Iron content 0.25 g/Kg) and 3.39 g/kg (T2 corresponding Iron content 0.45 g/Kg). It was found that the iron content increased 2.5 folds after fortification, as compared to control sample. The results revealed that, there was significant difference between the physical properties of rice in the control, fortified brown and milled rice...
February 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27132831/the-revisited-levels-of-free-and-bound-phenolics-in-rice-effects-of-the-extraction-procedure
#12
Gabriela Hörnke Alves, Cristiano Dietrich Ferreira, Patrícia Gomes Vivian, Jander Luis Fernandes Monks, Moacir Cardoso Elias, Nathan Levien Vanier, Maurício de Oliveira
The effects of the type of solvolytic solution and number of extraction steps on the recovery of free phenolics, anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins from different rice samples were evaluated. Moreover, bound phenolic acids were determined as a function of enzymatic and/or alkaline hydrolysis treatment of the rice residue obtained after the extraction of free phenolics. The Acetone/Water (70:30 v/v) was the most effective solvolytic solution for extracting free phenolics from pigmented rice, as well as anthocyanins from black and wild rice, and proanthocyanidins from red rice...
October 1, 2016: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26775995/a-study-on-the-color-deepening-in-red-rice-during-storage
#13
Sakina Hayashi, Emiko Yanase
To elucidate the mechanism of the color deepening phenomenon involving aged red rice samples, the time-dependent changes in the color and chemical composition of four different samples (freshly harvested, as well as those stored for 1, 2, and 5 years) were studied. A detailed study of the color change was carried out by obtaining the reflectance spectra of the samples. To investigate the underlying chemical changes, each sample was extracted with an appropriate solvent and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, Folin-Ciocalteu assay, phloroglucinolysis, and mass spectrometry...
May 15, 2016: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26664894/role-of-nutraceuticals-in-hypolipidemic-therapy
#14
REVIEW
Carlo M Barbagallo, Angelo Baldassare Cefalù, Davide Noto, Maurizio R Averna
Nutraceuticals are food components or active ingredients present in foods and used in therapy. This article analyzes the characteristics of the molecules with a lipid-lowering effect. The different nutraceuticals may have different mechanisms of action: inhibition of cholesterol synthesis primarily through action on the enzyme HMG-CoA reductase (policosanol, polyphenols, garlic and, above all, red yeast rice), increase in LDL receptor activity (berberine), reduction of intestinal cholesterol absorption (garlic, plant sterols, probiotics), and also the ability to interfere with bile metabolism (probiotics, guggul)...
2015: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26617016/genotypic-variation-in-phenolic-acids-vitamin-e-and-fatty-acids-in-whole-grain-rice
#15
Lilei Yu, Guanglei Li, Mei Li, Feifei Xu, Trust Beta, Jinsong Bao
The genetic diversity of phenolic content (PC), individual phenolic acids, vitamin E isomers (VE) and fatty acids (FA) in the whole grain rice were investigated. The most abundant phenolic acid was ferulic acid ranging from 155.6 to 271.1 μg/g and comprising approximately 40-57% of total phenolic acid (TPA). The predominant tocopherols (T) and tocotrienols (T3) were α-T (6.43-12.67 μg/g) and γ-T3 (12.88-32.75 μg/g). The unsaturated fractions of FAs accounted for 74-81% of the total FAs in rice. Most of the phytochemicals among phenolics and VEs showed significant differences between white and red rice, with red rice demonstrating significantly higher levels...
April 15, 2016: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26471610/determination-of-dpph-free-radical-scavenging-activity-application-of-artificial-neural-networks
#16
Khalid Hamid Musa, Aminah Abdullah, Ahmed Al-Haiqi
A new computational approach for the determination of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity (DPPH-RSA) in food is reported, based on the concept of machine learning. Trolox standard was mix with DPPH at different concentrations to produce different colors from purple to yellow. Artificial neural network (ANN) was trained on a typical set of images of the DPPH radical reacting with different levels of Trolox. This allowed the neural network to classify future images of any sample into the correct class of RSA level...
March 1, 2016: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26449771/thai-red-rice-extract-provides-liver-protection-in-paracetamol-treated-mice-by-restoring-the-glutathione-system
#17
Wiladda Sinthorn, Waranya Chatuphonprasert, Malyn Chulasiri, Kanokwan Jarukamjorn
CONTEXT: The incidence of drug-induced liver disease associated with oxidant-antioxidant imbalance is increasing. Colored rice can potentially improve these hepatic disorders through antioxidative and glutathione-restoring effects. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to determine the in vitro antioxidant properties of extracts from red (Hom-Dang and Hom-Kularb-Dang) and black (Hom-Dum-Sukhothai and Kum-Doi-Saket) Thai rice cultivars [Oryza sativa L. (Poaceae)] and to examine the in vivo hepatoprotective potential of Hom-Dang extract in paracetamol-treated mice...
2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26352188/the-glycemic-potential-of-white-and-red-rice-affected-by-oil-type-and-time-of-addition
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Bhupinder Kaur, Viren Ranawana, Ai-Ling Teh, C Jeya K Henry
UNLABELLED: Limited research exists on how different oil types and time of addition affect starch digestibility of rice. This study aimed to assess the starch digestibility of white and red rice prepared with 2 oil types: vegetable oil (unsaturated fat) and ghee (clarified butter, saturated fat) added at 3 different time points during the cooking process ("before": frying raw rice in oil before boiling, "during": adding oil during boiling, and "after": stir-frying cooked rice in oil)...
October 2015: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26258708/polishing-and-parboiling-effect-on-the-nutritional-and-technological-properties-of-pigmented-rice
#19
Flávia Fernandes Paiva, Nathan Levien Vanier, Jose De J Berrios, Vânia Zanella Pinto, Delilah Wood, Tina Williams, James Pan, Moacir Cardoso Elias
This study aims to evaluate the effects of polishing and parboiling on proximate composition, structure, phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, cooking time and hardness of IAC-600 black rice cultivar and MPB-10 red rice lineage. Proximate analysis and light micrographs revealed higher migration of red rice proteins than black rice proteins to the endosperm as a result of parboiling. Parboiling reduced the ash content of red rice while no difference was determined in black rice. Gelatinized starch granules from both genotypes showed similar appearance...
January 15, 2016: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26125614/high-throughput-determination-of-citrinin-in-rice-by-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-and-fluorescence-detection-uhplc-fl
#20
José F Huertas-Pérez, Natalia Arroyo-Manzanares, Ana M García-Campaña, Laura Gámiz-Gracia
A rapid, simple and effective method for the determination of citrinin in rice by UHPLC coupled to fluorescence detection has been developed and validated. Extraction of citrinin from rice samples was achieved by applying a QuEChERS-based extraction/partitioning process with water and acetonitrile, without the need of further extract clean-up. The method was fully validated for white rice, and its applicability in other rice matrices, such as brown and red rice, was confirmed by recovery experiments. Under optimum conditions, recoveries ranged from 72...
2015: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
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