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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048465/%C3%AE-app-processing-drives-gradual-tau-pathology-in-an-age-dependent-amyloid-rat-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Mickael Audrain, Benoit Souchet, Sandro Alves, Romain Fol, Arthur Viode, Alexis Haddjeri, Satoru Tada, Nicola S Orefice, Charlène Joséphine, Alexis-Pierre Bemelmans, Thierry Delzescaux, Nicole Déglon, Philippe Hantraye, Yvette Akwa, François Becher, Jean-Marie Billard, Brigitte Potier, Patrick Dutar, Nathalie Cartier, Jérôme Braudeau
The treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains challenging and requires a better in depth understanding of AD progression. Particularly, the link between amyloid protein precursor (APP) processing and Tau pathology development remains poorly understood. Growing evidences suggest that APP processing and amyloid-β (Aβ) release are upstream of Tau pathology but the lack of animal models mimicking the slow progression of human AD raised questions around this mechanism. Here, we described that an AD-like βAPP processing in adults wild-type rats, yielding to human APP, βCTF and Aβ levels similar to those observed in AD patients, is sufficient to trigger gradual Tauopathy...
October 18, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030568/cognitive-appraisal-of-environmental-stimuli-induces-emotion-like-states-in-fish
#2
M Cerqueira, S Millot, M F Castanheira, A S Félix, T Silva, G A Oliveira, C C Oliveira, C I M Martins, R F Oliveira
The occurrence of emotions in non-human animals has been the focus of debate over the years. Recently, an interest in expanding this debate to non-tetrapod vertebrates and to invertebrates has emerged. Within vertebrates, the study of emotion in teleosts is particularly interesting since they represent a divergent evolutionary radiation from that of tetrapods, and thus they provide an insight into the evolution of the biological mechanisms of emotion. We report that Sea Bream exposed to stimuli that vary according to valence (positive, negative) and salience (predictable, unpredictable) exhibit different behavioural, physiological and neuromolecular states...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022518/research-on-a-drug-centred-approach-to-psychiatric-drug-treatment-assessing-the-impact-of-mental-and-behavioural-alterations-produced-by-psychiatric-drugs
#3
J Moncrieff
AIMS: This article explores an alternative understanding of how psychiatric drugs work that is referred to as the drug-centred model of drug action. Unlike the current disease-centred model, which suggests that psychiatric drugs work by correcting an underlying brain abnormality, the drug-centred model emphasises how psychiatric drugs affect mental states and behaviour by modifying normal brain processes. The alterations produced may impact on the emotional and behavioural problems that constitute the symptoms of mental disorders...
October 12, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021894/occupational-stress-and-the-importance-of-self-care-and-resilience-focus-on-veterinary-nursing
#4
REVIEW
Ciaran Lloyd, Deirdre P Campion
BACKGROUND: Burnout and compassion fatigue are frequently mentioned in relation to veterinary work. Veterinary nursing is a caring profession and those who seek a career within this field do so because of a natural empathetic desire to care for animals. However it is the individuals who are the most caring and empathetic towards others that will be most at risk of experiencing occupational stress when they are confronted with psychologically demanding workplace roles and working environments...
2017: Irish Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993835/delta-opioid-receptors-and-modulation-of-mood-and-emotion
#5
Isaac J Dripps, Emily M Jutkiewicz
Depression is a pervasive and debilitating mental disorder that is inadequately treated by current pharmacotherapies in a majority of patients. Although opioids have long been known to regulate mood states, the use of opioids to treat depression is rarely discussed. This chapter explores the preclinical and clinical evidence supporting the antidepressant-like effects of opioid ligands, and in particular, delta opioid receptor (DOR) agonists. DOR agonists have been shown to produce antidepressant-like effects in a number of animal models...
October 10, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989266/measuring-anxiety-in-children-the-importance-of-separate-mother-and-father-reports
#6
Mélou Jansen, Denise H M Bodden, Peter Muris, Marleen van Doorn, Isabela Granic
BACKGROUND: Previous research suggests that it is important to use parental reports when assessing children's anxiety, but it remains unclear to what extent there are differences between mothers' and fathers' scores and whether these potential differences have any repercussions for the psychometric properties of the scale being used. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to investigate parental differences on the Parent version of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-Revised (SCARED-RP), a rating scale for measuring child anxiety symptoms...
2017: Child & Youth Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981910/explicit-and-implicit-emotion-regulation-a-multi-level-framework
#7
Laura Martin Braunstein, James J Gross, Kevin N Ochsner
The ability to adaptively regulate emotion is essential for mental and physical well-being. How should we organize the myriad ways people attempt to regulate their emotions? We explore the utility of a framework that distinguishes among four fundamental classes of emotion regulation strategies. The framework describes each strategy class in terms their behavioral characteristics, underlying psychological processes, and supporting neural systems. A key feature of this multi-level framework is its conceptualization of the psychological processes in terms of two orthogonal dimensions that describe (1) the nature of the emotion regulation goal (ranging from to implicit to explicit) and (2) the nature of the emotion change process (ranging from more automatic to more controlled)...
September 15, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978414/acute-and-chronic-pain-processing-in-the-thalamocortical-system-of-humans-and-animal-models
#8
Alexander Groh, Patrik Krieger, Rebecca Audrey Mease, Luke Henderson
The transmission of noxious stimuli from peripheral receptors to the cortex involves multiple central ascending pathways. While projections to areas in the brainstem and diencephalon are likely involved in mediating the immediate behavioral responses to pain, the assessment of the sensory and emotional/motivational components of pain are likely processed in parallel ascending pathways that relay in the thalamus on their way to the cerebral cortex. In this review we discuss experimental animal and human findings that support the view that a lateral thalamocortical pathway is involved in coding the sensory discriminative aspects of pain, while a medial thalamocortical pathway codes the emotional qualities of pain...
October 1, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977761/understanding-and-managing-sleep-disruption-in-children-with-fasd
#9
Ana Hanlon-Dearman, Maida Lynn Chen, Heather Carmichael Olson
Accumulating evidence has revealed high rates of sleep disruption among children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). Multiple animal and clinical studies have found a clear association between sleep problems and prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), and recent research is beginning to characterize the types and extent of sleep disruption in FASD. Nevertheless, sleep disruption in children with FASD often goes unrecognized or is treated without referring to an evidence base. Children's disrupted sleep interferes with parental sleep and increases caregiver burden, which is of particular importance for families raising children with FASD, a group with very high levels of caregiving stress...
October 4, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938425/linking-stress-and-infertility-a-novel-role-for-ghrelin
#10
Luba Sominsky, Deborah M Hodgson, Eileen A McLaughlin, Roger Smith, Hannah M Wall, Sarah J Spencer
Infertility affects a remarkable one in four couples in developing countries. Psychological stress is a ubiquitous facet of life, and although stress affects us all at some point, prolonged or unmanageable stress may become harmful for some individuals, negatively impacting on their health, including fertility. For instance, women who struggle to conceive are twice as likely to suffer from emotional distress than fertile women. Assisted reproductive technology treatments place an additional physical, emotional, and financial burden of stress, particularly on women, who are often exposed to invasive techniques associated with treatment...
October 1, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913920/dramatic-pretend-play-games-uniquely-improve-emotional-control-in-young-children
#11
Thalia R Goldstein, Matthew D Lerner
Pretense is a naturally occurring, apparently universal activity for typically developing children. Yet its function and effects remain unclear. One theorized possibility is that pretense activities, such as dramatic pretend play games, are a possible causal path to improve children's emotional development. Social and emotional skills, particularly emotional control, are critically important for social development, as well as academic performance and later life success. However, the study of such approaches has been criticized for potential bias and lack of rigor, precluding the ability to make strong causal claims...
September 15, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912619/what-moral-character-is-and-is-not
#12
Marie I George
Louise Mitchell discusses character in "Integrity and virtue: The forming of good character" (The Linacre Quarterly 82, no. 2: 149-169). I argue that she is mistaken in identifying character as a potency and that it is rather the sum of one's moral habits and dispositions. I establish this by showing that if one correctly applies the division Aristotle presents in the text that Mitchell relies on, it follows that character belongs in the category of habit. I further support this conclusion by considering how people commonly speak of moral character...
August 2017: Linacre Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833254/temporal-dissociation-of-salience-and-prediction-error-responses-to-appetitive-and-aversive-taste
#13
E J Hird, W El-Deredy, A Jones, D Talmi
The feedback-related negativity (FRN), a frontocentral ERP occurring 200-350 ms after emotionally valued outcomes, has been posited as the neural correlate of reward prediction error, a key component of associative learning. Recent evidence challenged this interpretation and has led to the suggestion that this ERP expresses salience instead. Here, we distinguish between utility prediction error and salience by delivering or withholding hedonistically matched appetitive and aversive tastes, and measure ERPs to cues signaling each taste...
August 18, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832723/is-forced-swimming-immobility-a-good-endpoint-for-modeling-negative-symptoms-of-schizophrenia-study-of-sub-anesthetic-ketamine-repeated-administration-effects
#14
Gilda Neves, Milene Borsoi, Camila B Antonio, Mariana A Pranke, Andresa H Betti, Stela M K Rates
Immobility time in the forced swimming has been described as analogous to emotional blunting or apathy and has been used for characterizing schizophrenia animal models. Several clinical studies support the use of NMDA receptor antagonists to model schizophrenia in rodents. Some works describe the effects of ketamine on immobility behavior but there is variability in the experimental design used leading to controversial results. In this study, we evaluated the effects of repeated administration of ketamine sub-anesthetic doses in forced swimming, locomotion in response to novelty and novel object recognition, aiming a broader evaluation of the usefulness of this experimental approach for modeling schizophrenia in mice...
July 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832663/effects-of-the-hippocampus-on-the-motor-expression-of-augmented-breaths
#15
Itopa E Ajayi, Paul C Mills
Augmented breaths, also known as sighs, constitute the normal repertoire of breathing in freely behaving humans and animals. The breaths are believed to be generated by neurones in the preBötzinger complex but under modulatory influence from higher brain centres, particularly in the limbic system due to the strong correlations between the expression of emotional behaviours such as anxiety and the occurrence of augmented breaths. The current study examines the role of the hippocampus in the motor expression of augmented breaths, and also examines the characteristics of eupneic breaths surrounding a sigh before and after stimulating the hippocampus in urethane anaesthetised Sprague-Dawley rats...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813318/gender-and-ptsd-different-pathways-to-a-similar-phenotype
#16
REVIEW
Suzanne L Pineles, Kimberly A Arditte Hall, Ann M Rasmusson
Whereas research supports the existence of a single posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) phenotype across women and men, there may be important gender differences in the pathophysiology of, or mechanisms underlying, the disorder. This paper reviews recent literature on gender differences in emotional, cognitive, and neurobiological factors, and their relations with PTSD and relevant comorbidities. Key findings and limitations from both human and animal studies are discussed. Overall, more work is needed that utilizes objective measures in addition to self-report...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758537/human-perception-of-animacy-in-light-of-the-uncanny-valley-phenomenon
#17
Shensheng Wang, Philippe Rochat
The uncanny valley hypothesis by Japanese roboticist Masahiro Mori posits a nonlinear relation between human replicas' human likeness and the emotional responses they elicit. In three studies, we corroborated the uncanny valley hypothesis, using the uncanny phenomenon as a vehicle to shed a new light on human animacy perception. In Study 1, 62 participants rated emotional responses and human likeness of 89 artificial and human faces. In Study 2, another 62 participants conducted a visual looming task with the same 89 faces allowing for the measurement of perceived threat...
January 1, 2017: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705730/emotions-as-discrete-patterns-of-systemic-activity
#18
REVIEW
Lauri Nummenmaa, Heini Saarimäki
Emotions organize human and animal behaviour by automatically adjusting their actions at multiple physiological and behavioural scales. Recently, pattern recognition techniques have emerged as an important tool for quantifying the neural, physiological, and phenomenological organization of emotions in humans. Here we review recent advances in our understanding of the human emotion system from the viewpoint of pattern recognition studies, focussing on neuroimaging experiments. These studies suggest, in general, clear and consistent categorical structure of emotions across multiple levels of analysis spanning expressive behaviour, subjective experiences, physiological activity, and neural activation patterns...
July 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705471/risk-assessment-and-serotonin-animal-models-and-human-psychopathologies
#19
REVIEW
D Caroline Blanchard, Ksenia Meyza
Risk assessment (RA) is an evolved, generally adaptive, mechanism comprising focused attention and appraisal of potential threat stimuli and situations. Initially characterized in animal models, it provides a number of behavioral and functional parallels to patterns of rumination, gaze biases, and other forms of affective cognition that appear to be disregulated in depression and anxiety. Serotonergic mechanisms are involved in these mood disorders, and an emerging body of evidence suggests that they may modulate the affective cognitive changes common to such psychopathologies...
July 10, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704274/maternal-separation-induces-long-term-effects-on-monoamines-and-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-levels-on-the-frontal-cortex-amygdala-and-hippocampus-differential-effects-after-a-stress-challenge
#20
Soledad Récamier-Carballo, Erika Estrada-Camarena, Carolina López-Rubalcava
The maternal separation (MS) paradigm is a well-known animal model that resembles the stress of early adverse life experiences and produces structural and functional abnormalities when animals are adults. The present study analyzed the effect of MS, in adult mice, on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), serotonin (5-HT), and dopamine (DA) levels, and the turnover rate in the hippocampus, frontal cortex, and amygdala, and brain regions that are associated with emotion. Also, the effects of MS in depression-like responses in adult mice were studied...
July 12, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
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