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Emotional support animal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705730/emotions-as-discrete-patterns-of-systemic-activity
#1
REVIEW
Lauri Nummenmaa, Heini Saarimäki
Emotions organize human and animal behaviour by automatically adjusting their actions at multiple physiological and behavioural scales. Recently, pattern recognition techniques have emerged as an important tool for quantifying the neural, physiological, and phenomenological organization of emotions in humans. Here we review recent advances in our understanding of the human emotion system from the viewpoint of pattern recognition studies, focussing on neuroimaging experiments. These studies suggest, in general, clear and consistent categorical structure of emotions across multiple levels of analysis spanning expressive behaviour, subjective experiences, physiological activity, and neural activation patterns...
July 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705471/risk-assessment-and-serotonin-animal-models-and-human-psychopathologies
#2
REVIEW
D Caroline Blanchard, Ksenia Meyza
Risk assessment (RA) is an evolved, generally adaptive, mechanism comprising focused attention and appraisal of potential threat stimuli and situations. Initially characterized in animal models, it provides a number of behavioral and functional parallels to patterns of rumination, gaze biases, and other forms of affective cognition that appear to be disregulated in depression and anxiety. Serotonergic mechanisms are involved in these mood disorders, and an emerging body of evidence suggests that they may modulate the affective cognitive changes common to such psychopathologies...
July 10, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704274/maternal-separation-induces-long-term-effects-on-monoamines-and-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-levels-on-the-frontal-cortex-amygdala-and-hippocampus-differential-effects-after-a-stress-challenge
#3
Soledad Récamier-Carballo, Erika Estrada-Camarena, Carolina López-Rubalcava
The maternal separation (MS) paradigm is a well-known animal model that resembles the stress of early adverse life experiences and produces structural and functional abnormalities when animals are adults. The present study analyzed the effect of MS, in adult mice, on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), serotonin (5-HT), and dopamine (DA) levels, and the turnover rate in the hippocampus, frontal cortex, and amygdala, and brain regions that are associated with emotion. Also, the effects of MS in depression-like responses in adult mice were studied...
July 12, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620314/orexin-system-the-key-for-a-healthy-life
#4
REVIEW
Sergio Chieffi, Marco Carotenuto, Vincenzo Monda, Anna Valenzano, Ines Villano, Francesco Precenzano, Domenico Tafuri, Monica Salerno, Nicola Filippi, Francesco Nuccio, Maria Ruberto, Vincenzo De Luca, Luigi Cipolloni, Giuseppe Cibelli, Maria P Mollica, Diego Iacono, Ersilia Nigro, Marcellino Monda, Giovanni Messina, Antonietta Messina
The orexin-A/hypocretin-1 and orexin-B/hypocretin-2 are neuropeptides synthesized by a cluster of neurons in the lateral hypothalamus and perifornical area. Orexin neurons receive a variety of signals related to environmental, physiological and emotional stimuli, and project broadly to the entire CNS. Orexin neurons are "multi-tasking" neurons regulating a set of vital body functions, including sleep/wake states, feeding behavior, energy homeostasis, reward systems, cognition and mood. Furthermore, a dysfunction of orexinergic system may underlie different pathological conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617350/public-perceptions-of-service-dogs-emotional-support-dogs-and-therapy-dogs
#5
Regina Schoenfeld-Tacher, Peter Hellyer, Louana Cheung, Lori Kogan
As service dogs, emotional support dogs, and therapy dogs have become more prevalent in the USA, so too has the controversy surrounding their legitimacy. Yet, there is a lack of objective data regarding the public's understanding of the role played by each of these types of animals, as well as their perceptions regarding the legitimacy of their integration. An anonymous, online survey was distributed to examine the perceptions of US adults who do not own any type of assistance animal. A total of 505 individuals responded to the online survey, yielding 284 usable responses...
June 15, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599192/psychophysiological-and-self-reported-reactivity-associated-with-social-anxiety-and-public-speaking-fear-symptoms-effects-of-fear-versus-distress
#6
Georgia Panayiotou, Maria Karekla, Dora Georgiou, Elena Constantinou, Michaela Paraskeva-Siamata
This study examines psychophysiological and subjective reactivity to anxiety-provoking situations in relation to social anxiety and public speaking fear. We hypothesized that social anxiety symptoms would be associated with similar reactivity across types of imaginary anxiety scenes and not specifically to social anxiety-related scenes. This would be attributed to co-existing depression symptoms. Public speaking fear was expected to be associated with more circumscribed reactivity to survival-threat scenes, due to its association with fearfulness...
June 1, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590057/behavioral-abnormalities-in-the-fmr1-ko2-mouse-model-of-fragile-x-syndrome-the-relevance-of-early-life-phases
#7
Julie Gaudissard, Melanie Ginger, Marika Premoli, Maurizio Memo, Andreas Frick, Susanna Pietropaolo
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a developmental disorder caused by a mutation in the X-linked FMR1 gene, coding for the FMRP protein which is largely involved in synaptic function. FXS patients present several behavioral abnormalities, including hyperactivity, anxiety, sensory hyper-responsiveness, and cognitive deficits. Autistic symptoms, e.g., altered social interaction and communication, are also often observed: FXS is indeed the most common monogenic cause of autism. Mouse models of FXS are therefore of great interest for research on both FXS and autistic pathologies...
June 7, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584731/experience-based-human-perception-of-facial-expressions-in-barbary-macaques-macaca-sylvanus
#8
Laëtitia Maréchal, Xandria Levy, Kerstin Meints, Bonaventura Majolo
BACKGROUND: Facial expressions convey key cues of human emotions, and may also be important for interspecies interactions. The universality hypothesis suggests that six basic emotions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise) should be expressed by similar facial expressions in close phylogenetic species such as humans and nonhuman primates. However, some facial expressions have been shown to differ in meaning between humans and nonhuman primates like macaques. This ambiguity in signalling emotion can lead to an increased risk of aggression and injuries for both humans and animals...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571490/laboratory-animal-science-course-in-switzerland-participants-points-of-view-and-implications-for-organizers
#9
Fabienne Crettaz von Roten
Switzerland has implemented a mandatory training in laboratory animal science since 1999; however a comprehensive assessment of its effects has never been undertaken so far. The results from the analysis of participants in the Swiss Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Associations (FELASA) Category B compulsory courses in laboratory animal science run in 2010, 2012, 2014 and 2016 showed that the participants fully appreciated all elements of the course. The use of live animals during the course was supported and explained by six arguments characterized with cognitive, emotional and forward-looking factors...
January 1, 2017: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530342/-behavioral-physiological-and-morphological-characteristics-associated-with-post-traumatic-response-to-continuous-exposure-versus-alternate-exposure-in-an-animal-model-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#10
Ishay Ostfeld, Zeev Kaplan, Hagit Cohen
AIMS: The aim of this study was to approximate these conditions in an animal model of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). More specifically, the neurobiological basis of these conditions, focusing on stress-related behavioral changes, HPA-axis and morphological were evaluated. The intention was to employ this well-validated, reproducible and reliable model for PTSD, to elicit data which will provide some guidance in the planning of a prospective study involving military personal. BACKGROUND: Combat personnel are exposed to significant stress and hardship, both physical and emotional, during their service and especially during active combat...
December 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511980/reward-loss-and-the-basolateral-amygdala-a-function-in-reward-comparisons
#11
Katsuyoshi Kawasaki, Iván Annicchiarico, Amanda C Glueck, Ignacio Morón, Mauricio R Papini
The neural circuitry underlying behavior in reward loss situations is poorly understood. We considered two such situations: reward devaluation (from large to small rewards) and reward omission (from large rewards to no rewards). There is evidence that the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) plays a role in the negative emotion accompanying reward loss. However, little is known about the function of the basolateral nucleus (BLA) in reward loss. Two hypotheses of BLA function in reward loss, negative emotion and reward comparisons, were tested in an experiment involving pretraining excitotoxic BLA lesions followed by training in four tasks: consummatory successive negative contrast (cSNC), autoshaping (AS) acquisition and extinction, anticipatory negative contrast (ANC), and open field testing (OF)...
May 13, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510066/the-delta-opioid-receptor-in-pain-control
#12
Khaled Abdallah, Louis Gendron
Nowadays, the delta opioid receptor (DOPr) represents a promising target for the treatment of chronic pain and emotional disorders. Despite the fact that they produce limited antinociceptive effects in healthy animals and in most acute pain models, DOPr agonists have shown efficacy in various chronic pain models. In this chapter, we review the progresses that have been made over the last decades in understanding the role played by DOPr in the control of pain. More specifically, the distribution of DOPr within the central nervous system and along pain pathways is presented...
May 17, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508125/judgement-bias-in-pigs-is-independent-of-performance-in-a-spatial-holeboard-task-and-conditional-discrimination-learning
#13
Sanne Roelofs, Eimear Murphy, Haifang Ni, Elise Gieling, Rebecca E Nordquist, F Josef van der Staay
Biases in judgement of ambiguous stimuli, as measured in a judgement bias task, have been proposed as a measure of the valence of affective states in animals. We recently suggested a list of criteria for behavioural tests of emotion, one of them stating that responses on the task used to assess emotionality should not be confounded by, among others, differences in learning capacity, i.e. must not simply reflect the cognitive capacity of an animal. We performed three independent studies in which pigs acquired a spatial holeboard task, a free choice maze which simultaneously assesses working memory and reference memory...
July 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441333/how-are-service-dogs-for-adults-with-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-integrated-with-rehabilitation-in-denmark-a-case-study
#14
Chalotte Glintborg, Tia G B Hansen
A severe mental illness like Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is known to have psychosocial consequences that can lead to a decreased quality of life. Research in Animal-Assisted Therapy (AAT) has revealed that the presence of a dog can have a positive effect on health, e.g., increase quality of life and lessen depression and anxiety. However, canine companionship is not a catch-all solution. Previous research has revealed methodological limitations that prohibit any clear conclusions, as well as a sparsity of critical reflection in anecdotal reports and case studies, which means that more research is needed to contextualize the findings...
April 25, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434586/the-periaqueductal-gray-and-primal-emotional-processing-critical-to-influence-complex-defensive-responses-fear-learning-and-reward-seeking
#15
REVIEW
Simone C Motta, Antônio P Carobrez, Newton S Canteras
The periaqueductal gray (PAG) has been commonly recognized as a downstream site in neural networks for the expression of a variety of behaviors and is thought to provide stereotyped responses. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that the PAG may exert more complex modulation of a number of behavioral responses and work as a unique hub supplying primal emotional tone to influence prosencephalic sites mediating complex aversive and appetitive responses. Of particular relevance, we review how the PAG is involved in influencing complex forms of defensive responses, such as circa-strike and risk assessment responses in animals...
May 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431971/influence-of-stress-associated-with-chronic-alcohol-exposure-on-drinking
#16
REVIEW
Howard C Becker
Stress is commonly regarded as an important trigger for relapse and a significant factor that promotes increased motivation to drink in some individuals. However, the relationship between stress and alcohol is complex, likely changing in form during the transition from early moderated alcohol use to more heavy uncontrolled alcohol intake. A growing body of evidence indicates that prolonged excessive alcohol consumption serves as a potent stressor, producing persistent dysregulation of brain reward and stress systems beyond normal homeostatic limits...
August 1, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379303/restoring-neuronal-progranulin-reverses-deficits-in-a-mouse-model-of-frontotemporal-dementia
#17
Andrew E Arrant, Anthony J Filiano, Daniel E Unger, Allen H Young, Erik D Roberson
Loss-of-function mutations in progranulin (GRN), a secreted glycoprotein expressed by neurons and microglia, are a common autosomal dominant cause of frontotemporal dementia, a neurodegenerative disease commonly characterized by disrupted social and emotional behaviour. GRN mutations are thought to cause frontotemporal dementia through progranulin haploinsufficiency, therefore, boosting progranulin expression from the intact allele is a rational treatment strategy. However, this approach has not been tested in an animal model of frontotemporal dementia and it is unclear if boosting progranulin could correct pre-existing deficits...
March 29, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342763/serotonin-and-neuroplasticity-links-between-molecular-functional-and-structural-pathophysiology-in-depression
#18
REVIEW
Christoph Kraus, Eero Castrén, Siegfried Kasper, Rupert Lanzenberger
Serotonin modulates neuroplasticity, especially during early life, and dysfunctions in both systems likewise contribute to pathophysiology of depression. Recent findings demonstrate that serotonin reuptake inhibitors trigger reactivation of juvenile-like neuroplasticity. How these findings translate to clinical antidepressant treatment in major depressive disorder remains unclear. With this review, we link preclinical with clinical work on serotonin and neuroplasticity to bring two pathophysiologic models in clinical depression closer together...
June 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286285/minocycline-reduces-mechanical-allodynia-and-depressive-like-behaviour-in-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-in-the-rat
#19
Diana Amorim, Sónia Puga, Rui Bragança, António Braga, Antti Pertovaara, Armando Almeida, Filipa Pinto-Ribeiro
A common and devastating complication of diabetes mellitus is painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) that can be accompanied by emotional disorders such as depression. A few studies have suggested that minocycline that inhibits microglia may attenuate pain hypersensitivity in PDN. Moreover, a recent study reported that minocycline has an acute antidepressive-like effect in diabetic animals. Here we studied whether (i) prolonged minocycline treatment suppresses pain behaviour in PDN, (ii) the minocycline effect varies with submodality of pain, and (iii) the suppression of pain behaviour by prolonged minocycline treatment is associated with antidepressive-like effect...
June 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283563/a-rapid-subcortical-amygdala-route-for-faces-irrespective-of-spatial-frequency-and-emotion
#20
Jessica McFadyen, Martial Mermillod, Jason B Mattingley, Veronika Halász, Marta I Garrido
There is significant controversy over the existence and function of a direct subcortical visual pathway to the amygdala. It is thought that this pathway rapidly transmits low spatial frequency information to the amygdala independently of the cortex and yet the directionality of this function has never been determined. We used magnetoencephalography to measure neural activity while human participants discriminated the gender of neutral and fearful faces filtered for low or high spatial frequencies. We applied dynamic causal modelling to demonstrate that the most likely underlying neural network consisted of a pulvinar-amygdala connection that was uninfluenced by spatial frequency or emotion, and a cortical-amygdala connection that conveyed high spatial frequencies...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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