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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427182/neural-mechanisms-underlying-subsequent-memory-for-personal-beliefs-an-fmri-study
#1
Erik A Wing, Vijeth Iyengar, Thomas M Hess, Kevin S LaBar, Scott A Huettel, Roberto Cabeza
Many fMRI studies have examined the neural mechanisms supporting emotional memory for stimuli that generate emotion rather automatically (e.g., a picture of a dangerous animal or of appetizing food). However, far fewer studies have examined how memory is influenced by emotion related to social and political issues (e.g., a proposal for large changes in taxation policy), which clearly vary across individuals. In order to investigate the neural substrates of affective and mnemonic processes associated with personal opinions, we employed an fMRI task wherein participants rated the intensity of agreement/disagreement to sociopolitical belief statements paired with neural face pictures...
February 9, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407522/ngf-dependent-neurons-and-neurobiology-of-emotions-and-feelings-lessons-from-congenital-insensitivity-to-pain-with-anhidrosis
#2
REVIEW
Yasuhiro Indo
NGF is a well-studied neurotrophic factor, and TrkA is a receptor tyrosine kinase for NGF. The NGF-TrkA system supports the survival and maintenance of NGF-dependent neurons during development. Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder due to loss-of-function mutations in the NTRK1 gene encoding TrkA. Individuals with CIPA lack NGF-dependent neurons, including NGF-dependent primary afferents and sympathetic postganglionic neurons, in otherwise intact systems...
February 1, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404928/evaluation-of-quality-of-life-physical-and-mental-aspects-in-longevous-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#3
Adriana Martini, Adriano Ammirati, Carlos Garcia, Carolina Andrade, Odete Portela, Maysa S Cendoroglo, Ricardo Sesso
PURPOSE: The diagnosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in elderly individuals has been increasing. The objective of this study was to evaluate physical, mental and social aspects in longevous elderly patients with CKD. METHODS: Eighty patients with CKD (stage 4 and 5, not on dialysis) and 60 longevous elderly (≥ 80 years) paired by gender and age living in the community were evaluated. Physical, cognitive, social and quality of life aspects were analyzed according to the following scales: Charlson comorbidity index, Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36-Item (SF-36), Medical Outcomes Study, Boston Naming Test, verbal fluency test (animal naming), sit-to-stand test, gait speed, and the Mini-Mental state examination...
February 5, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402247/the-power-of-support-from-companion-animals-for-people-living-with-mental-health-problems-a-systematic-review-and-narrative-synthesis-of-the-evidence
#4
Helen Louise Brooks, Kelly Rushton, Karina Lovell, Penny Bee, Lauren Walker, Laura Grant, Anne Rogers
BACKGROUND: There is increasing recognition of the therapeutic function pets can play in relation to mental health. However, there has been no systematic review of the evidence related to the comprehensive role of companion animals and how pets might contribute to the work associated with managing a long-term mental health condition. The aim of this study was to explore the extent, nature and quality of the evidence implicating the role and utility of pet ownership for people living with a mental health condition...
February 5, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389736/psychological-stress-and-mitochondria-a-systematic-review
#5
Martin Picard, Bruce S McEwen
OBJECTIVE: Mitochondria are multifunctional life-sustaining organelles that represent a potential intersection point between psychosocial experiences and biological stress responses. This article provides a systematic review of the effects of psychological stress on mitochondrial structure and function. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature investigating the effects of psychological stress on mitochondrial function was conducted. The review focused on experimentally controlled studies allowing us to draw causal inference about the effect of induced psychological stress on mitochondria...
February 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352034/translational-new-approaches-for-investigating-mood-disorders-in-rodents-and-what-they-may-reveal-about-the-underlying-neurobiology-of-major-depressive-disorder
#6
REVIEW
Emma S J Robinson
Mood disorders represent one of society's most costly and challenging health burdens. The drug treatments used today were initially discovered serendipitously in the 1950s. Animal models were then developed based on the ability of these drugs to alter specific behaviours. These models have played a major role in the development of the second generation of antidepressants. However, their use has been heavily criticized, particularly in relation to whether they recapitulate similar underlying biology to the psychiatric disorder they are proposed to represent...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318625/consensus-document-on-dog-and-cat-allergy
#7
REVIEW
Ignacio Davila, Javier Domínguez-Ortega, Ana Mª Navarro Pulido, Alicia Alonso, Dario Antolin-Amerigo, Eloina González-Mancebo, Cristina Martin Garcia, Beatriz Nuñez-Acevedo, Nieves Prior, Marta Reche, Ana Rosado, Javier Ruiz-Hornillos, María Cesárea Sánchez, Miguel Torrecillas
The prevalence of sensitisation to dogs and cats varies by country, exposure time and predisposition to atopy. It is estimated that, 26% of European adults coming to the clinic for suspected allergy to inhalant allergens are sensitised to cats and 27% to dogs. This document is intended to be a useful tool for clinicians involved in the management of people with dog or cat allergy. It was prepared from a consensus process based on the RAND/UCLA method. Following a literature review, it proposes various recommendations concerning the diagnosis and treatment of these patients, grounded in evidence and clinical experience...
January 10, 2018: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318377/the-number-of-neurons-in-specific-amygdala-regions-is-associated-with-boldness-in-mink-a-study-in-animal-personality
#8
Ann-Sophie Wiese, Esther Kjær Needham, Christina Lehmkuhl Noer, Thorsten Johannes Skovbjerg Balsby, Torben Dabelsteen, Bente Pakkenberg
Conspecifics vary consistently in their behavioural responses towards environment stimuli such as exposure to novel objects; ethologists often refer to this variability as animal personality. The neurological mechanisms underlying animal personality traits remain largely unknown, but linking the individual variation in emotional expression to brain structural and neurochemical factors is attracting renewed interest. While considerable research has focused on hormonal and neurotransmitter effects on behavioural responses, less is known about how individual variation in the number of specific neuron populations contributes to individual variation in behaviour...
January 9, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289675/dissociation-of-immediate-and-delayed-effects-of-emotional-arousal-on-episodic-memory
#9
Dirk Schümann, Janine Bayer, Deborah Talmi, Tobias Sommer
Emotionally arousing events are usually better remembered than neutral ones. This phenomenon is in humans mostly studied by presenting mixed lists of neutral and emotional items. An emotional enhancement of memory is observed in these studies often already immediately after encoding and increases with longer delays and consolidation. A large body of animal research showed that the more efficient consolidation of emotionally arousing events is based on an activation of the central noradrenergic system and the amygdala (Modulation Hypothesis; Roozendaal & McGaugh, 2011)...
December 28, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250610/increased-neuronal-dna-rna-oxidation-in-the-frontal-cortex-of-mice-subjected-to-unpredictable-chronic-mild-stress
#10
Alfred M Maluach, Keith A Misquitta, Thomas D Prevot, Corey Fee, Etienne Sibille, Mounira Banasr, Ana C Andreazza
Background: Chronic stress is implicated in the development of various psychiatric illnesses including major depressive disorder. Previous reports suggest that patients with major depressive disorder have increased levels of oxidative stress, including higher levels of DNA/RNA oxidation found in postmortem studies, especially within brain regions responsible for the cognitive and emotional processes disrupted in the disorder. Here, we aimed to investigate whether unpredictable chronic mild stress in mice induces neuronal DNA/RNA oxidation in the prelimbic, infralimbic, and cingulate cortices of the frontal cortex and the basolateral amygdala and to explore potential associations with depressive-like behaviors...
January 2017: Chronic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234817/neural-plasticity-and-its-initiating-conditions-in-tinnitus
#11
REVIEW
L E Roberts
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Deafferentation caused by cochlear pathology (which can be hidden from the audiogram) activates forms of neural plasticity in auditory pathways, generating tinnitus and its associated conditions including hyperacusis. This article discusses tinnitus mechanisms and suggests how these mechanisms may relate to those involved in normal auditory information processing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Research findings from animal models of tinnitus and from electromagnetic imaging of tinnitus patients are reviewed which pertain to the role of deafferentation and neural plasticity in tinnitus and hyperacusis...
December 12, 2017: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221475/a-critical-realist-evaluation-of-a-music-therapy-intervention-in-palliative-care
#12
Sam Porter, Tracey McConnell, Mike Clarke, Jenny Kirkwood, Naomi Hughes, Lisa Graham-Wisener, Joan Regan, Miriam McKeown, Kerry McGrillen, Joanne Reid
BACKGROUND: Music therapy is increasingly used as an adjunct therapy to support symptom management in palliative care. However, studies to date have paid little attention to the processes that lead to changes in patient outcomes. To fill this gap, we examined the processes and experiences involved in the introduction of music therapy as an adjunct complementary therapy to palliative care in a hospice setting in the United Kingdom (UK). METHODS: Using a realistic evaluation approach, we conducted a qualitative study using a variety of approaches...
December 8, 2017: BMC Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165801/sex-and-rank-affect-how-infant-rhesus-macaques-look-at-faces
#13
Annika Paukner, Emily M Slonecker, Ashley M Murphy, Lauren J Wooddell, Amanda M Dettmer
We investigated how differences in infant sex and mothers' dominance status affect infant rhesus macaques' (Macaca mulatta) interest in visually exploring emotional facial expressions. Thirty-eight infants were presented with animated avatars of macaque facial expressions during the first month of life. Sons of high-ranking mothers looked more at faces, especially the eye region, than sons of low-ranking mothers, but no difference in looking duration was found for daughters. Males looked significantly more at eyes than females, but this effect was reversed in infants who were reared without mothers in a primate nursery facility...
November 22, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157077/how-does-early-maternal-separation-and-chronic-stress-in-adult-rats-affect-the-immunoreactivity-of-serotonergic-neurons-within-the-dorsal-raphe-nucleus
#14
Antonella Pollano, Verónica Trujillo, Marta M Suárez
Vulnerability to emotional disorders like depression derives from interactions between early and late environments, including stressful conditions. The serotonin (5HT) system is strongly affected by stress and chronic unpredictable stress can alter the 5HT system. We evaluated the distribution of active serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) through immunohistochemistry in maternally separated and chronically stressed rats treated with an antidepressant, tianeptine, whose mechanism of action is still under review...
November 20, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152674/progress-and-promise-for-the-mdma-drug-development-program
#15
REVIEW
Allison A Feduccia, Julie Holland, Michael C Mithoefer
Pharmacotherapy is often used to target symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but does not provide definitive treatment, and side effects of daily medication are often problematic. Trauma-focused psychotherapies are more likely than drug treatment to achieve PTSD remission, but have high dropout rates and ineffective for a large percentage of patients. Therefore, research into drugs that might increase the effectiveness of psychotherapy is a logical avenue of investigation. The most promising drug studied as a catalyst to psychotherapy for PTSD thus far is 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), commonly known as the recreational drug "Ecstasy...
November 20, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130063/stress-self-regulation-and-context-evidence-from-the-health-and-retirement-survey
#16
Briana Mezuk, Scott Ratliff, Jeannie B Concha, Cleopatra M Abdou, Jane Rafferty, Hedwig Lee, James S Jackson
Health-related behaviors, such as smoking, alcohol use, exercise, and diet, are major determinants of physical health and health disparities. However, a growing body of experimental research in humans and animals also suggests these behaviors can impact the ways our bodies respond to stress, such that they modulate (that is, serve as a means to self-regulate or cope with) the deleterious impact of stressful experiences on mental health. A handful of epidemiologic studies have investigated the intersection between stress and health behaviors on health disparities (both mental and physical), with mixed results...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125086/effects-of-management-practices-on-the-welfare-of-dairy-donkeys-and-risk-factors-associated-with-signs-of-hoof-neglect
#17
Francesca Dai, Giulia Segati, Marta Brscic, Matteo Chincarini, Emanuela Dalla Costa, Lorenzo Ferrari, Faith Burden, Andrew Judge, Michela Minero
This Research Paper aimed to investigate donkey welfare in dairy husbandry systems and to identify the potential factors affecting it at animal level. In 2015, twelve dairy donkey farms (19-170 donkeys per farm, mean = 55 ± 48), distributed throughout Italy, were visited. On each farm, the Animal Welfare Indicators (AWIN) welfare assessment protocol for donkeys was used by two trained assessors to evaluate the welfare of animals for a total of 257 donkeys assessed. The protocol includes animal-based indicators that were entered in a digitalised system...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091943/sound-iconicity-of-abstract-concepts-place-of-articulation-is-implicitly-associated-with-abstract-concepts-of-size-and-social-dominance
#18
Jan Auracher
The concept of sound iconicity implies that phonemes are intrinsically associated with non-acoustic phenomena, such as emotional expression, object size or shape, or other perceptual features. In this respect, sound iconicity is related to other forms of cross-modal associations in which stimuli from different sensory modalities are associated with each other due to the implicitly perceived correspondence of their primal features. One prominent example is the association between vowels, categorized according to their place of articulation, and size, with back vowels being associated with bigness and front vowels with smallness...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076272/human-milk-cortisol-concentration-predicts-experimentally-induced-infant-fear-reactivity-moderation-by-infant-sex
#19
Saara Nolvi, Henna-Maria Uusitupa, David J Bridgett, Henri Pesonen, Anna-Katariina Aatsinki, Eeva-Leena Kataja, Riikka Korja, Hasse Karlsson, Linnea Karlsson
Little consideration has been given to the possibility of human infant development being shaped via lactocrine programming, and by breast milk cortisol levels specifically. Despite animal models indicating that glucocorticoid (GC) exposure via lactation might modify brain development and behavior, only one study has reported that milk cortisol levels were positively associated with infant negative affectivity, especially fearfulness and sadness-early emerging risk factors for internalizing difficulties such as anxiety...
October 27, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070548/excess-iron-considerations-related-to-development-and-early-growth
#20
REVIEW
Marianne Wessling-Resnick
What effects might arise from early life exposures to high iron? This review considers the specific effects of high iron on the brain, stem cells, and the process of erythropoiesis and identifies gaps in our knowledge of what molecular damage may be incurred by oxidative stress that is imparted by high iron status in early life. Specific areas to enhance research on this topic include the following: longitudinal behavioral studies of children to test associations between iron exposures and mood, emotion, cognition, and memory; animal studies to determine epigenetic changes that reprogram brain development and metabolic changes in early life that could be followed through the life course; and the establishment of human epigenetic markers of iron exposures and oxidative stress that could be monitored for early origins of adult chronic diseases...
December 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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