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Emotional support animal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615903/adenosine-a-2a-receptor-blockade-modulates-glucocorticoid-induced-morphological-alterations-in-axons-but-not-in-dendrites-of-hippocampal-neurons
#1
Helena Pinheiro, Rita Gaspar, Filipa I Baptista, Carlos A Fontes-Ribeiro, António F Ambrósio, Catarina A Gomes
The exposure to supra-physiological levels of glucocorticoids in prenatal life can lead to a long-term impact in brain cytoarchitecture, increasing the susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders. Dexamethasone, an exogenous glucocorticoid widely used in pregnant women in risk of preterm delivery, is associated with higher rates of neuropsychiatric conditions throughout life of the descendants. In animal models, prenatal dexamethasone exposure leads to anxious-like behavior and increased susceptibility to depressive-like behavior in adulthood, concomitant with alterations in neuronal morphology in brain regions implicated in the control of emotions and mood...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606185/developing-a-neurobehavioral-animal-model-of-poverty-drawing-cross-species-connections-between-environments-of-scarcity-adversity-parenting-quality-and-infant-outcome
#2
Rosemarie E Perry, Eric D Finegood, Stephen H Braren, Meriah L Dejoseph, David F Putrino, Donald A Wilson, Regina M Sullivan, C Cybele Raver, Clancy Blair
Children reared in impoverished environments are at risk for enduring psychological and physical health problems. Mechanisms by which poverty affects development, however, remain unclear. To explore one potential mechanism of poverty's impact on social-emotional and cognitive development, an experimental examination of a rodent model of scarcity-adversity was conducted and compared to results from a longitudinal study of human infants and families followed from birth (N = 1,292) who faced high levels of poverty-related scarcity-adversity...
April 2, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578034/the-reduction-in-glutamate-release-is-predictive-of-cognitive-and-emotional-alterations-that-are-corrected-by-the-positive-modulator-of-ampa-receptors-s-47445-in-perinatal-stressed-rats
#3
S Morley-Fletcher, A R Zuena, J Mairesse, E Gatta, G Van Camp, H Bouwalerh, B Riozzi, G Battaglia, A Pittaluga, G Olivero, E Mocaer, S Bretin, F Nicoletti, S Maccari
S 47445 is a positive modulator of glutamate AMPA-type receptors, possessing neurotrophic and enhancing synaptic plasticity effects as well as pro-cognitive and anti-stress properties. Here, the drug was assessed in the perinatal stress (PRS) rat model, known to have a high predictive validity with monoaminergic antidepressants. The effects of a chronic treatment (i.p.) with S 47445 were investigated on risk-taking, motivational and cognitive behavior. S 47445 (1 and 10 mg/kg) increased the exploration of the elevated-plus maze and light/dark box as well as the time spent grooming in the splash test, and improved social memory in PRS rats...
March 23, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535625/treating-cocaine-addiction-obesity-and-emotional-disorders-by-viral-gene-transfer-of-butyrylcholinesterase
#4
REVIEW
Stephen Brimijoin, Yang Gao, Liyi Geng, Vicky P Chen
Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), a plasma enzyme that hydrolyses the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine relatively well, with far lower efficiency than acetylcholinesterase (AChE) but with the capability to degrade a broad range of bioactive esters. AChE is universally understood as essential to cholinergic neurotransmission, voluntary muscle performance, and cognition, among other roles, and its catalytic impact is essential for life. A total absence of BChE activity, whether by enzyme inhibition or simple lack of enzyme protein is not only compatible with life, but does not lead to obvious physiologic disturbance...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525297/hysteria-in-ancient-civilisations-a-neurological-review-possible-significance-for-the-modern-disorder
#5
REVIEW
Edward H Reynolds
The word hysteria originated in the Corpus Hippocraticum (c420 BCE) as a natural explanation for a variety of diseases in women linked in the Greco-Roman mind to an animate or inanimate womb, but which in the last five centuries has evolved to describe an elusive disorder of brain ± mind in men and women, currently referred to by neurologists as "functional neurological disorder". The Babylonians, Assyrians and Egyptians had no knowledge of brain or psychological function. Babylonian and Assyrian descriptions of disease and behaviour include only rare examples suggestive of modern hysteria...
February 17, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521800/comfort-at-the-crossroads-service-therapy-and-emotional-support-animals-in-the-icu-and-at-the-end-of-life
#6
Niels Martin, Jose L Pascual, Dennis Crowe, Christine Toevs, Maurizio F Cereda, Mark Mikkelsen, Lewis J Kaplan
The US has witnessed a vast increase in animals in therapeutic roles. These roles include Service as defined by the American Disabilities Act (ADA) as well as other animal types that are not covered under the ADA provisions. Such animal roles are designated as Therapy animals and Emotional Support animals (ESA). Understanding the legal and regulatory requirements that govern how each animal type accesses healthcare facilities is essential in planning for their presence. Since only Service animals are required to be given access to facilities, individual institutions must plan for how to accommodate their presence throughout different phases of care...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471511/sexual-dimorphism-in-the-behavioral-responses-and-the-immunoendocrine-status-in-d-galactose-induced-aging
#7
Raquel Baeta-Corral, Rafael Castro-Fuentes, Lydia Giménez-Llort
For almost twenty years, chronic systemic D-galactose, a monosaccharide abundantly present in milk products, fruits and vegetables, has been used as a tool to achieve models of accelerated aging. Its neurotoxicity, induced by abnormal accumulation of ROS and AGEs, has been widely reported. However, behavioral outcomes are still controversial and little is known about sex-dependent vulnerability. We performed a comprehensive behavioral and multi-functional screening of the chronic effects of low (50 mg/kg) and high (100 mg/kg) doses of D-galactose in 6-month-old male and female gold-standard C57BL/6 mice...
February 19, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463643/hyperactivity-of-anterior-cingulate-cortex-areas-24a-24b-drives-chronic-pain-induced-anxiodepressive-like-consequences
#8
Jim Sellmeijer, Victor Mathis, Sylvain Hugel, Xu-Hui Li, Qian Song, Qi-Yu Chen, Florent Barthas, Pierre-Eric Lutz, Meltem Karatas, Andreas Luthi, Pierre Veinante, Ad Aertsen, Michel Barrot, Min Zhuo, Ipek Yalcin
Pain associates both sensory and emotional aversive components, and often leads to anxiety and depression when it becomes chronic. Here, we characterized, in a mouse model, the long-term development of these sensory and aversive components as well as anxiodepressive-like consequences of neuropathic pain and determined their electrophysiological impact on the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, cortical areas 24a/24b). We show that these symptoms of neuropathic pain evolve and recover in different time courses following nerve injury in male mice...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427182/neural-mechanisms-underlying-subsequent-memory-for-personal-beliefs-an-fmri-study
#9
Erik A Wing, Vijeth Iyengar, Thomas M Hess, Kevin S LaBar, Scott A Huettel, Roberto Cabeza
Many fMRI studies have examined the neural mechanisms supporting emotional memory for stimuli that generate emotion rather automatically (e.g., a picture of a dangerous animal or of appetizing food). However, far fewer studies have examined how memory is influenced by emotion related to social and political issues (e.g., a proposal for large changes in taxation policy), which clearly vary across individuals. In order to investigate the neural substrates of affective and mnemonic processes associated with personal opinions, we employed an fMRI task wherein participants rated the intensity of agreement/disagreement to sociopolitical belief statements paired with neural face pictures...
February 9, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407522/ngf-dependent-neurons-and-neurobiology-of-emotions-and-feelings-lessons-from-congenital-insensitivity-to-pain-with-anhidrosis
#10
REVIEW
Yasuhiro Indo
NGF is a well-studied neurotrophic factor, and TrkA is a receptor tyrosine kinase for NGF. The NGF-TrkA system supports the survival and maintenance of NGF-dependent neurons during development. Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder due to loss-of-function mutations in the NTRK1 gene encoding TrkA. Individuals with CIPA lack NGF-dependent neurons, including NGF-dependent primary afferents and sympathetic postganglionic neurons, in otherwise intact systems...
February 1, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404928/evaluation-of-quality-of-life-physical-and-mental-aspects-in-longevous-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#11
Adriana Martini, Adriano Ammirati, Carlos Garcia, Carolina Andrade, Odete Portela, Maysa S Cendoroglo, Ricardo Sesso
PURPOSE: The diagnosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in elderly individuals has been increasing. The objective of this study was to evaluate physical, mental and social aspects in longevous elderly patients with CKD. METHODS: Eighty patients with CKD (stage 4 and 5, not on dialysis) and 60 longevous elderly (≥ 80 years) paired by gender and age living in the community were evaluated. Physical, cognitive, social and quality of life aspects were analyzed according to the following scales: Charlson comorbidity index, Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36-Item (SF-36), Medical Outcomes Study, Boston Naming Test, verbal fluency test (animal naming), sit-to-stand test, gait speed, and the Mini-Mental state examination...
February 5, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402247/the-power-of-support-from-companion-animals-for-people-living-with-mental-health-problems-a-systematic-review-and-narrative-synthesis-of-the-evidence
#12
Helen Louise Brooks, Kelly Rushton, Karina Lovell, Penny Bee, Lauren Walker, Laura Grant, Anne Rogers
BACKGROUND: There is increasing recognition of the therapeutic function pets can play in relation to mental health. However, there has been no systematic review of the evidence related to the comprehensive role of companion animals and how pets might contribute to the work associated with managing a long-term mental health condition. The aim of this study was to explore the extent, nature and quality of the evidence implicating the role and utility of pet ownership for people living with a mental health condition...
February 5, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389736/psychological-stress-and-mitochondria-a-systematic-review
#13
Martin Picard, Bruce S McEwen
OBJECTIVE: Mitochondria are multifunctional life-sustaining organelles that represent a potential intersection point between psychosocial experiences and biological stress responses. This article provides a systematic review of the effects of psychological stress on mitochondrial structure and function. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature investigating the effects of psychological stress on mitochondrial function was conducted. The review focused on experimentally controlled studies allowing us to draw causal inference about the effect of induced psychological stress on mitochondria...
February 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352034/translational-new-approaches-for-investigating-mood-disorders-in-rodents-and-what-they-may-reveal-about-the-underlying-neurobiology-of-major-depressive-disorder
#14
REVIEW
Emma S J Robinson
Mood disorders represent one of society's most costly and challenging health burdens. The drug treatments used today were initially discovered serendipitously in the 1950s. Animal models were then developed based on the ability of these drugs to alter specific behaviours. These models have played a major role in the development of the second generation of antidepressants. However, their use has been heavily criticized, particularly in relation to whether they recapitulate similar underlying biology to the psychiatric disorder they are proposed to represent...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318625/consensus-document-on-dog-and-cat-allergy
#15
REVIEW
I Dávila, J Domínguez-Ortega, A Navarro-Pulido, A Alonso, D Antolín-Amerigo, E González-Mancebo, C Martín-García, B Núñez-Acevedo, N Prior, M Reche, A Rosado, J Ruiz-Hornillos, M C Sánchez, M Torrecillas
The prevalence of sensitization to dogs and cats varies by country, exposure time and predisposition to atopy. It is estimated that 26% of European adults coming to the clinic for suspected allergy to inhalant allergens are sensitized to cats and 27% to dogs. This document is intended to be a useful tool for clinicians involved in the management of people with dog or cat allergy. It was prepared from a consensus process based on the RAND/UCLA method. Following a literature review, it proposes various recommendations concerning the diagnosis and treatment of these patients, grounded in evidence and clinical experience...
January 10, 2018: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318377/the-number-of-neurons-in-specific-amygdala-regions-is-associated-with-boldness-in-mink-a-study-in-animal-personality
#16
Ann-Sophie Wiese, Esther Kjær Needham, Christina Lehmkuhl Noer, Thorsten Johannes Skovbjerg Balsby, Torben Dabelsteen, Bente Pakkenberg
Conspecifics vary consistently in their behavioural responses towards environment stimuli such as exposure to novel objects; ethologists often refer to this variability as animal personality. The neurological mechanisms underlying animal personality traits remain largely unknown, but linking the individual variation in emotional expression to brain structural and neurochemical factors is attracting renewed interest. While considerable research has focused on hormonal and neurotransmitter effects on behavioural responses, less is known about how individual variation in the number of specific neuron populations contributes to individual variation in behaviour...
May 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289675/dissociation-of-immediate-and-delayed-effects-of-emotional-arousal-on-episodic-memory
#17
Dirk Schümann, Janine Bayer, Deborah Talmi, Tobias Sommer
Emotionally arousing events are usually better remembered than neutral ones. This phenomenon is in humans mostly studied by presenting mixed lists of neutral and emotional items. An emotional enhancement of memory is observed in these studies often already immediately after encoding and increases with longer delays and consolidation. A large body of animal research showed that the more efficient consolidation of emotionally arousing events is based on an activation of the central noradrenergic system and the amygdala (Modulation Hypothesis; Roozendaal & McGaugh, 2011)...
February 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250610/increased-neuronal-dna-rna-oxidation-in-the-frontal-cortex-of-mice-subjected-to-unpredictable-chronic-mild-stress
#18
Alfred M Maluach, Keith A Misquitta, Thomas D Prevot, Corey Fee, Etienne Sibille, Mounira Banasr, Ana C Andreazza
Background: Chronic stress is implicated in the development of various psychiatric illnesses including major depressive disorder. Previous reports suggest that patients with major depressive disorder have increased levels of oxidative stress, including higher levels of DNA/RNA oxidation found in postmortem studies, especially within brain regions responsible for the cognitive and emotional processes disrupted in the disorder. Here, we aimed to investigate whether unpredictable chronic mild stress in mice induces neuronal DNA/RNA oxidation in the prelimbic, infralimbic, and cingulate cortices of the frontal cortex and the basolateral amygdala and to explore potential associations with depressive-like behaviors...
January 2017: Chronic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234817/neural-plasticity-and-its-initiating-conditions-in-tinnitus
#19
REVIEW
L E Roberts
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Deafferentation caused by cochlear pathology (which can be hidden from the audiogram) activates forms of neural plasticity in auditory pathways, generating tinnitus and its associated conditions including hyperacusis. This article discusses tinnitus mechanisms and suggests how these mechanisms may relate to those involved in normal auditory information processing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Research findings from animal models of tinnitus and from electromagnetic imaging of tinnitus patients are reviewed which pertain to the role of deafferentation and neural plasticity in tinnitus and hyperacusis...
March 2018: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221475/a-critical-realist-evaluation-of-a-music-therapy-intervention-in-palliative-care
#20
Sam Porter, Tracey McConnell, Mike Clarke, Jenny Kirkwood, Naomi Hughes, Lisa Graham-Wisener, Joan Regan, Miriam McKeown, Kerry McGrillen, Joanne Reid
BACKGROUND: Music therapy is increasingly used as an adjunct therapy to support symptom management in palliative care. However, studies to date have paid little attention to the processes that lead to changes in patient outcomes. To fill this gap, we examined the processes and experiences involved in the introduction of music therapy as an adjunct complementary therapy to palliative care in a hospice setting in the United Kingdom (UK). METHODS: Using a realistic evaluation approach, we conducted a qualitative study using a variety of approaches...
December 8, 2017: BMC Palliative Care
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