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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234817/neural-plasticity-and-its-initiating-conditions-in-tinnitus
#1
REVIEW
L E Roberts
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Deafferentation caused by cochlear pathology (which can be hidden from the audiogram) activates forms of neural plasticity in auditory pathways, generating tinnitus and its associated conditions including hyperacusis. This article discusses tinnitus mechanisms and suggests how these mechanisms may relate to those involved in normal auditory information processing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Research findings from animal models of tinnitus and from electromagnetic imaging of tinnitus patients are reviewed which pertain to the role of deafferentation and neural plasticity in tinnitus and hyperacusis...
December 12, 2017: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221475/a-critical-realist-evaluation-of-a-music-therapy-intervention-in-palliative-care
#2
Sam Porter, Tracey McConnell, Mike Clarke, Jenny Kirkwood, Naomi Hughes, Lisa Graham-Wisener, Joan Regan, Miriam McKeown, Kerry McGrillen, Joanne Reid
BACKGROUND: Music therapy is increasingly used as an adjunct therapy to support symptom management in palliative care. However, studies to date have paid little attention to the processes that lead to changes in patient outcomes. To fill this gap, we examined the processes and experiences involved in the introduction of music therapy as an adjunct complementary therapy to palliative care in a hospice setting in the United Kingdom (UK). METHODS: Using a realistic evaluation approach, we conducted a qualitative study using a variety of approaches...
December 8, 2017: BMC Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165801/sex-and-rank-affect-how-infant-rhesus-macaques-look-at-faces
#3
Annika Paukner, Emily M Slonecker, Ashley M Murphy, Lauren J Wooddell, Amanda M Dettmer
We investigated how differences in infant sex and mothers' dominance status affect infant rhesus macaques' (Macaca mulatta) interest in visually exploring emotional facial expressions. Thirty-eight infants were presented with animated avatars of macaque facial expressions during the first month of life. Sons of high-ranking mothers looked more at faces, especially the eye region, than sons of low-ranking mothers, but no difference in looking duration was found for daughters. Males looked significantly more at eyes than females, but this effect was reversed in infants who were reared without mothers in a primate nursery facility...
November 22, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157077/how-does-early-maternal-separation-and-chronic-stress-in-adult-rats-affect-the-immunoreactivity-of-serotonergic-neurons-within-the-dorsal-raphe-nucleus
#4
Antonella Pollano, Verónica Trujillo, Marta M Suárez
Vulnerability to emotional disorders like depression derives from interactions between early and late environments, including stressful conditions. The serotonin (5HT) system is strongly affected by stress and chronic unpredictable stress can alter the 5HT system. We evaluated the distribution of active serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) through immunohistochemistry in maternally separated and chronically stressed rats treated with an antidepressant, tianeptine, whose mechanism of action is still under review...
November 20, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152674/progress-and-promise-for-the-mdma-drug-development-program
#5
REVIEW
Allison A Feduccia, Julie Holland, Michael C Mithoefer
Pharmacotherapy is often used to target symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but does not provide definitive treatment, and side effects of daily medication are often problematic. Trauma-focused psychotherapies are more likely than drug treatment to achieve PTSD remission, but have high dropout rates and ineffective for a large percentage of patients. Therefore, research into drugs that might increase the effectiveness of psychotherapy is a logical avenue of investigation. The most promising drug studied as a catalyst to psychotherapy for PTSD thus far is 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), commonly known as the recreational drug "Ecstasy...
November 20, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130063/stress-self-regulation-and-context-evidence-from-the-health-and-retirement-survey
#6
Briana Mezuk, Scott Ratliff, Jeannie B Concha, Cleopatra M Abdou, Jane Rafferty, Hedwig Lee, James S Jackson
Health-related behaviors, such as smoking, alcohol use, exercise, and diet, are major determinants of physical health and health disparities. However, a growing body of experimental research in humans and animals also suggests these behaviors can impact the ways our bodies respond to stress, such that they modulate (that is, serve as a means to self-regulate or cope with) the deleterious impact of stressful experiences on mental health. A handful of epidemiologic studies have investigated the intersection between stress and health behaviors on health disparities (both mental and physical), with mixed results...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125086/effects-of-management-practices-on-the-welfare-of-dairy-donkeys-and-risk-factors-associated-with-signs-of-hoof-neglect
#7
Francesca Dai, Giulia Segati, Marta Brscic, Matteo Chincarini, Emanuela Dalla Costa, Lorenzo Ferrari, Faith Burden, Andrew Judge, Michela Minero
This Research Paper aimed to investigate donkey welfare in dairy husbandry systems and to identify the potential factors affecting it at animal level. In 2015, twelve dairy donkey farms (19-170 donkeys per farm, mean = 55 ± 48), distributed throughout Italy, were visited. On each farm, the Animal Welfare Indicators (AWIN) welfare assessment protocol for donkeys was used by two trained assessors to evaluate the welfare of animals for a total of 257 donkeys assessed. The protocol includes animal-based indicators that were entered in a digitalised system...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091943/sound-iconicity-of-abstract-concepts-place-of-articulation-is-implicitly-associated-with-abstract-concepts-of-size-and-social-dominance
#8
Jan Auracher
The concept of sound iconicity implies that phonemes are intrinsically associated with non-acoustic phenomena, such as emotional expression, object size or shape, or other perceptual features. In this respect, sound iconicity is related to other forms of cross-modal associations in which stimuli from different sensory modalities are associated with each other due to the implicitly perceived correspondence of their primal features. One prominent example is the association between vowels, categorized according to their place of articulation, and size, with back vowels being associated with bigness and front vowels with smallness...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076272/human-milk-cortisol-concentration-predicts-experimentally-induced-infant-fear-reactivity-moderation-by-infant-sex
#9
Saara Nolvi, Henna-Maria Uusitupa, David J Bridgett, Henri Pesonen, Anna-Katariina Aatsinki, Eeva-Leena Kataja, Riikka Korja, Hasse Karlsson, Linnea Karlsson
Little consideration has been given to the possibility of human infant development being shaped via lactocrine programming, and by breast milk cortisol levels specifically. Despite animal models indicating that glucocorticoid (GC) exposure via lactation might modify brain development and behavior, only one study has reported that milk cortisol levels were positively associated with infant negative affectivity, especially fearfulness and sadness-early emerging risk factors for internalizing difficulties such as anxiety...
October 27, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070548/excess-iron-considerations-related-to-development-and-early-growth
#10
REVIEW
Marianne Wessling-Resnick
What effects might arise from early life exposures to high iron? This review considers the specific effects of high iron on the brain, stem cells, and the process of erythropoiesis and identifies gaps in our knowledge of what molecular damage may be incurred by oxidative stress that is imparted by high iron status in early life. Specific areas to enhance research on this topic include the following: longitudinal behavioral studies of children to test associations between iron exposures and mood, emotion, cognition, and memory; animal studies to determine epigenetic changes that reprogram brain development and metabolic changes in early life that could be followed through the life course; and the establishment of human epigenetic markers of iron exposures and oxidative stress that could be monitored for early origins of adult chronic diseases...
December 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066426/techniques-for-improving-communication-of-emotional-content-in-text-only-web-based-therapeutic-communications-systematic-review
#11
Christine Louise Paul, Martine Elizabeth Cox, Hannah Julie Small, Allison W Boyes, Lorna O'Brien, Shiho Karina Rose, Amanda L Baker, Frans A Henskens, Hannah Naomi Kirkwood, Della M Roach
BACKGROUND: Web-based typed exchanges are increasingly used by professionals to provide emotional support to patients. Although some empirical evidence exists to suggest that various strategies may be used to convey emotion during Web-based text communication, there has been no critical review of these data in patients with chronic conditions. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to identify the techniques used to convey emotion in written or typed Web-based communication and assess the empirical evidence regarding impact on communication and psychological outcomes...
October 24, 2017: JMIR Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048465/%C3%AE-app-processing-drives-gradual-tau-pathology-in-an-age-dependent-amyloid-rat-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Mickael Audrain, Benoit Souchet, Sandro Alves, Romain Fol, Arthur Viode, Alexis Haddjeri, Satoru Tada, Nicola S Orefice, Charlène Joséphine, Alexis-Pierre Bemelmans, Thierry Delzescaux, Nicole Déglon, Philippe Hantraye, Yvette Akwa, François Becher, Jean-Marie Billard, Brigitte Potier, Patrick Dutar, Nathalie Cartier, Jérôme Braudeau
The treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains challenging and requires a better in depth understanding of AD progression. Particularly, the link between amyloid protein precursor (APP) processing and Tau pathology development remains poorly understood. Growing evidences suggest that APP processing and amyloid-β (Aβ) release are upstream of Tau pathology but the lack of animal models mimicking the slow progression of human AD raised questions around this mechanism. Here, we described that an AD-like βAPP processing in adults wild-type rats, yielding to human APP, βCTF and Aβ levels similar to those observed in AD patients, is sufficient to trigger gradual Tauopathy...
October 18, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030568/cognitive-appraisal-of-environmental-stimuli-induces-emotion-like-states-in-fish
#13
M Cerqueira, S Millot, M F Castanheira, A S Félix, T Silva, G A Oliveira, C C Oliveira, C I M Martins, R F Oliveira
The occurrence of emotions in non-human animals has been the focus of debate over the years. Recently, an interest in expanding this debate to non-tetrapod vertebrates and to invertebrates has emerged. Within vertebrates, the study of emotion in teleosts is particularly interesting since they represent a divergent evolutionary radiation from that of tetrapods, and thus they provide an insight into the evolution of the biological mechanisms of emotion. We report that Sea Bream exposed to stimuli that vary according to valence (positive, negative) and salience (predictable, unpredictable) exhibit different behavioural, physiological and neuromolecular states...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022518/research-on-a-drug-centred-approach-to-psychiatric-drug-treatment-assessing-the-impact-of-mental-and-behavioural-alterations-produced-by-psychiatric-drugs
#14
J Moncrieff
AIMS: This article explores an alternative understanding of how psychiatric drugs work that is referred to as the drug-centred model of drug action. Unlike the current disease-centred model, which suggests that psychiatric drugs work by correcting an underlying brain abnormality, the drug-centred model emphasises how psychiatric drugs affect mental states and behaviour by modifying normal brain processes. The alterations produced may impact on the emotional and behavioural problems that constitute the symptoms of mental disorders...
October 12, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021894/occupational-stress-and-the-importance-of-self-care-and-resilience-focus-on-veterinary-nursing
#15
REVIEW
Ciaran Lloyd, Deirdre P Campion
BACKGROUND: Burnout and compassion fatigue are frequently mentioned in relation to veterinary work. Veterinary nursing is a caring profession and those who seek a career within this field do so because of a natural empathetic desire to care for animals. However it is the individuals who are the most caring and empathetic towards others that will be most at risk of experiencing occupational stress when they are confronted with psychologically demanding workplace roles and working environments...
2017: Irish Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993835/delta-opioid-receptors-and-modulation-of-mood-and-emotion
#16
Isaac J Dripps, Emily M Jutkiewicz
Depression is a pervasive and debilitating mental disorder that is inadequately treated by current pharmacotherapies in a majority of patients. Although opioids have long been known to regulate mood states, the use of opioids to treat depression is rarely discussed. This chapter explores the preclinical and clinical evidence supporting the antidepressant-like effects of opioid ligands, and in particular, delta opioid receptor (DOR) agonists. DOR agonists have been shown to produce antidepressant-like effects in a number of animal models...
October 10, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989266/measuring-anxiety-in-children-the-importance-of-separate-mother-and-father-reports
#17
Mélou Jansen, Denise H M Bodden, Peter Muris, Marleen van Doorn, Isabela Granic
BACKGROUND: Previous research suggests that it is important to use parental reports when assessing children's anxiety, but it remains unclear to what extent there are differences between mothers' and fathers' scores and whether these potential differences have any repercussions for the psychometric properties of the scale being used. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to investigate parental differences on the Parent version of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-Revised (SCARED-RP), a rating scale for measuring child anxiety symptoms...
2017: Child & Youth Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981910/explicit-and-implicit-emotion-regulation-a-multi-level-framework
#18
Laura Martin Braunstein, James J Gross, Kevin N Ochsner
The ability to adaptively regulate emotion is essential for mental and physical well-being. How should we organize the myriad ways people attempt to regulate their emotions? We explore the utility of a framework that distinguishes among four fundamental classes of emotion regulation strategies. The framework describes each strategy class in terms their behavioral characteristics, underlying psychological processes and supporting neural systems. A key feature of this multi-level framework is its conceptualization of the psychological processes in terms of two orthogonal dimensions that describe (i) the nature of the emotion regulation goal (ranging from to implicit to explicit) and (ii) the nature of the emotion change process (ranging from more automatic to more controlled)...
October 1, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978414/acute-and-chronic-pain-processing-in-the-thalamocortical-system-of-humans-and-animal-models
#19
Alexander Groh, Patrik Krieger, Rebecca Audrey Mease, Luke Henderson
The transmission of noxious stimuli from peripheral receptors to the cortex involves multiple central ascending pathways. While projections to areas in the brainstem and diencephalon are likely involved in mediating the immediate behavioral responses to pain, the assessment of the sensory and emotional/motivational components of pain are likely processed in parallel ascending pathways that relay in the thalamus on their way to the cerebral cortex. In this review we discuss experimental animal and human findings that support the view that a lateral thalamocortical pathway is involved in coding the sensory discriminative aspects of pain, while a medial thalamocortical pathway codes the emotional qualities of pain...
October 1, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977761/understanding-and-managing-sleep-disruption-in-children-with-fasd
#20
Ana Hanlon-Dearman, Maida Lynn Chen, Heather Carmichael Olson
Accumulating evidence has revealed high rates of sleep disruption among children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). Multiple animal and clinical studies have found a clear association between sleep problems and prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), and recent research is beginning to characterize the types and extent of sleep disruption in FASD. Nevertheless, sleep disruption in children with FASD often goes unrecognized or is treated without referring to an evidence base. Children's disrupted sleep interferes with parental sleep and increases caregiver burden, which is of particular importance for families raising children with FASD, a group with very high levels of caregiving stress...
October 4, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
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