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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429784/sight-and-sound-persistently-out-of-synch-stable-individual-differences-in-audiovisual-synchronisation-revealed-by-implicit-measures-of-lip-voice-integration
#1
Alberta Ipser, Vlera Agolli, Anisa Bajraktari, Fatimah Al-Alawi, Nurfitriani Djaafara, Elliot D Freeman
Are sight and sound out of synch? Signs that they are have been dismissed for over two centuries as an artefact of attentional and response bias, to which traditional subjective methods are prone. To avoid such biases, we measured performance on objective tasks that depend implicitly on achieving good lip-synch. We measured the McGurk effect (in which incongruent lip-voice pairs evoke illusory phonemes), and also identification of degraded speech, while manipulating audiovisual asynchrony. Peak performance was found at an average auditory lag of ~100 ms, but this varied widely between individuals...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427295/development-of-visuo-haptic-transfer-for-object-recognition-in-typical-preschool-and-school-aged-children
#2
Giulia Purpura, Giovanni Cioni, Francesca Tinelli
Object recognition is a long and complex adaptive process and its full maturation requires combination of many different sensory experiences as well as cognitive abilities to manipulate previous experiences in order to develop new percepts and subsequently to learn from the environment. It is well recognized that the transfer of visual and haptic information facilitates object recognition in adults, but less is known about development of this ability. In this study, we explored the developmental course of object recognition capacity in children using unimodal visual information, unimodal haptic information, and visuo-haptic information transfer in children from 4 years to 10 years and 11 months of age...
April 20, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425479/perturbed-oral-motor-control-due-to-anesthesia-during-intraoral-manipulation-of-food
#3
Joannis Grigoriadis, Abhishek Kumar, Peter Svensson, Krister G Svensson, Mats Trulsson
Sensory information from periodontal mechanoreceptors (PMRs) surrounding the roots of natural teeth is important for optimizing the positioning of food and adjustment of force vectors during precision biting. The present experiment was designed to test the hypothesis; that reduction of afferent inputs from the PMRs, by anesthesia, perturbs the oral fine motor control and related jaw movements during intraoral manipulation of morsels of food. Thirty healthy volunteers with a natural dentition were equally divided into experimental and control groups...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424485/in-vivo-dynamics-of-aav-mediated-gene-delivery-to-sensory-neurons-of-the-trigeminal-ganglia
#4
Chung H Dang, Martine Aubert, Harshana S De Silva Feelixge, Kurt Diem, Michelle A Loprieno, Pavitra Roychoudhury, Daniel Stone, Keith R Jerome
The ability to genetically manipulate trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons would be useful in the study of the craniofacial nervous system and latent alphaherpesvirus infections. We investigated adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors for gene delivery to the TG after intradermal whiskerpad delivery in mice. We demonstrated that AAV vectors of serotypes 1, 7, 8, and 9 trafficked from the whiskerpad into TG neurons and expressed transgenes within cell bodies and axons of sensory neurons in all three branches of the TG...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416679/sensorimotor-independent-development-of-hands-and-tools-selectivity-in-the-visual-cortex
#5
Ella Striem-Amit, Gilles Vannuscorps, Alfonso Caramazza
The visual occipito-temporal cortex is composed of several distinct regions specialized in the identification of different object kinds such as tools and bodies. Its organization appears to reflect not only the visual characteristics of the inputs but also the behavior that can be achieved with them. For example, there are spatially overlapping responses for viewing hands and tools, which is likely due to their common role in object-directed actions. How dependent is occipito-temporal cortex organization on object manipulation and motor experience? To investigate this question, we studied five individuals born without hands (individuals with upper limb dysplasia), who use tools with their feet...
April 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412962/prospects-for-malaria-control-through-manipulation-of-mosquito-larval-habitats-and-olfactory-mediated-behavioural-responses-using-plant-derived-compounds
#6
REVIEW
Jackson M Muema, Joel L Bargul, Sospeter N Njeru, Joab O Onyango, Susan S Imbahale
Malaria presents an overwhelming public health challenge, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa where vector favourable conditions and poverty prevail, potentiating the disease burden. Behavioural variability of malaria vectors poses a great challenge to existing vector control programmes with insecticide resistance already acquired to nearly all available chemical compounds. Thus, approaches incorporating plant-derived compounds to manipulate semiochemical-mediated behaviours through disruption of mosquito olfactory sensory system have considerably gained interests to interrupt malaria transmission cycle...
April 17, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412953/quantification-of-task-dependent-cortical-activation-evoked-by-robotic-continuous-wrist-joint-manipulation-in-chronic-hemiparetic-stroke
#7
Martijn P Vlaar, Teodoro Solis-Escalante, Julius P A Dewald, Erwin E H van Wegen, Alfred C Schouten, Gert Kwakkel, Frans C T van der Helm
BACKGROUND: Cortical damage after stroke can drastically impair sensory and motor function of the upper limb, affecting the execution of activities of daily living and quality of life. Motor impairment after stroke has been thoroughly studied, however sensory impairment and its relation to movement control has received less attention. Integrity of the somatosensory system is essential for feedback control of human movement, and compromised integrity due to stroke has been linked to sensory impairment...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412643/my-action-lasts-longer-potential-link-between-subjective-time-and-agency-during-voluntary-action
#8
Shu Imaizumi, Tomohisa Asai
Time perception distorts across different phases of bodily movement. During motor execution, sensory feedback matching an internal sensorimotor prediction is perceived to last longer. The sensorimotor prediction also underlies sense of agency. We investigated association between subjective time and agency during voluntary action. Participants performed hand action while watching a video feedback of their hand with various delays to manipulate agency. The perceived duration and agency over the video feedback were judged...
April 13, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411474/prior-expectations-modulate-unconscious-evidence-accumulation
#9
Leonardo S Barbosa, Alexandra Vlassova, Sid Kouider
Unconscious processes have been shown to affect both perception and behaviour. However, the flexibility of such processes remains unknown. Here we investigate whether unconscious decisional processes can adapt to the utility of sensory information. To this end, we had participants gradually accumulate information from noisy motion stimuli, until a decision was reached. We titrated conscious awareness of these stimuli by simultaneously presenting a dynamic dichoptic mask. Crucially, we manipulated the likelihood that the suppressed portion of each presentation would contain useful information...
April 12, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408878/reward-based-motor-adaptation-mediated-by-basal-ganglia
#10
Taegyo Kim, Khaldoun C Hamade, Dmitry Todorov, William H Barnett, Robert A Capps, Elizaveta M Latash, Sergey N Markin, Ilya A Rybak, Yaroslav I Molkov
It is widely accepted that the basal ganglia (BG) play a key role in action selection and reinforcement learning. However, despite considerable number of studies, the BG architecture and function are not completely understood. Action selection and reinforcement learning are facilitated by the activity of dopaminergic neurons, which encode reward prediction errors when reward outcomes are higher or lower than expected. The BG are thought to select proper motor responses by gating appropriate actions, and suppressing inappropriate ones...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402428/bayesian-mapping-reveals-that-attention-boosts-neural-responses-to-predicted-and-unpredicted-stimuli
#11
Marta I Garrido, Elise G Rowe, Veronika Halász, Jason B Mattingley
Predictive coding posits that the human brain continually monitors the environment for regularities and detects inconsistencies. It is unclear, however, what effect attention has on expectation processes, as there have been relatively few studies and the results of these have yielded contradictory findings. Here, we employed Bayesian model comparison to adjudicate between 2 alternative computational models. The "Opposition" model states that attention boosts neural responses equally to predicted and unpredicted stimuli, whereas the "Interaction" model assumes that attentional boosting of neural signals depends on the level of predictability...
April 10, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396008/short-latency-muscle-response-patterns-to-multi-directional-unpredictable-perturbations-to-balance-applied-to-the-arm-are-context-dependent
#12
Ali Forghani, Richard Preuss, Theodore Edgar Milner
A number of studies have shown that sensory inputs from the hand can have a profound effect in stabilizing upright posture. This suggests that the central nervous system can extract information about body motion and external forces acting on the body from cutaneous sensory signals. We have recently shown that the central nervous system determines the direction of an unpredictable force applied to the hand so rapidly that it is able to activate ankle muscles in advance of the perturbing effect that this force has at the ankles...
April 8, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385875/correlates-of-perceptual-orientation-biases-in-human-primary-visual-cortex
#13
Matthew L Patten, Damien J Mannion, Colin W G Clifford
Vision can be considered as a process of probabilistic inference. In a Bayesian framework, perceptual estimates from sensory information are combined with prior knowledge, with a stronger influence of the prior when the sensory evidence is less certain. Here, we explored the behavioral and neural consequences of manipulating stimulus certainty in the context of orientation processing. First, we asked participants to judge whether a stimulus was oriented closer to vertical or the clockwise primary oblique (45°) for two stimulus types (spatially-filtered noise textures, sinusoidal gratings) and three manipulations of certainty (orientation bandwidth, contrast, duration)...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383465/emerging-therapies-for-sensorineural-hearing-loss
#14
Matthew Gordon Crowson, Ronna Hertzano, Debara L Tucci
OBJECTIVE: To critically review and evaluate the proposed mechanisms and documented results of the therapeutics currently in active clinical drug trials for the treatment of sensorineural hearing loss. DATA SOURCES: US National Institutes of Health (NIH) Clinical Trials registry, MEDLINE/PubMed. STUDY SELECTION & DATA EXTRACTION: A review of the NIH Clinical Trials registry identified candidate hearing loss therapies, and supporting publications were acquired from MEDLINE/PubMed...
April 5, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380077/vection-is-the-main-contributor-to-motion-sickness-induced-by-visual-yaw-rotation-implications-for-conflict-and-eye-movement-theories
#15
Suzanne A E Nooij, Paolo Pretto, Daniel Oberfeld, Heiko Hecht, Heinrich H Bülthoff
This study investigated the role of vection (i.e., a visually induced sense of self-motion), optokinetic nystagmus (OKN), and inadvertent head movements in visually induced motion sickness (VIMS), evoked by yaw rotation of the visual surround. These three elements have all been proposed as contributing factors in VIMS, as they can be linked to different motion sickness theories. However, a full understanding of the role of each factor is still lacking because independent manipulation has proven difficult in the past...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379350/primary-auditory-cortex-is-required-for-anticipatory-motor-response
#16
Jingcheng Li, Xiang Liao, Jianxiong Zhang, Meng Wang, Nian Yang, Jun Zhang, Guanghui Lv, Haohong Li, Jian Lu, Ran Ding, Xingyi Li, Yu Guang, Zhiqi Yang, Han Qin, Wenjun Jin, Kuan Zhang, Chao He, Hongbo Jia, Shaoqun Zeng, Zhian Hu, Israel Nelken, Xiaowei Chen
The ability of the brain to predict future events based on the pattern of recent sensory experience is critical for guiding animal's behavior. Neocortical circuits for ongoing processing of sensory stimuli are extensively studied, but their contributions to the anticipation of upcoming sensory stimuli remain less understood. We, therefore, used in vivo cellular imaging and fiber photometry to record mouse primary auditory cortex to elucidate its role in processing anticipated stimulation. We found neuronal ensembles in layers 2/3, 4, and 5 which were activated in relationship to anticipated sound events following rhythmic stimulation...
April 4, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377631/a-bayesian-perspective-on-accumulation-in-the-magnitude-system
#17
Benoît Martin, Martin Wiener, Virginie van Wassenhove
Several theoretical and empirical work posit the existence of a common magnitude system in the brain. Such a proposal implies that manipulating stimuli in one magnitude dimension (e.g. duration in time) should interfere with the subjective estimation of another magnitude dimension (e.g. size in space). Here, we asked whether a generalized Bayesian magnitude estimation system would sample sensory evidence using a common, amodal prior. Two psychophysical experiments separately tested participants on their perception of duration, surface, and numerosity when the non-target magnitude dimensions and the rate of sensory evidence accumulation were manipulated...
April 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374009/longitudinal-changes-in-component-processes-of-working-memory
#18
Anna Rieckmann, Sara Pudas, Lars Nyberg
Working memory (WM) entails maintenance and manipulation of information in the absence of sensory input. This study investigated the trajectories and neural basis of these component processes of WM functions in aging. Longitudinal human functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data are presented from 136 older individuals (55-80 years) who were scanned at baseline and again 4 years later. We obtained evidence that age-related changes in parietal and frontal components of the WM core network are dissociable in terms of their role in maintenance of perceptual representations and further manipulation of this information, respectively...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368156/-strategic-control-over-extent-and-timing-of-distractor-based-response-activation-correction-to-jost-et-al-2017
#19
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Strategic control over extent and timing of distractor-based response activation" by Kerstin Jost, Mike Wendt, Aquiles Luna-Rodriguez, Andreas Löw and Thomas Jacobsen (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2017[Feb], Vol 43[2], 326-333). In the article, the images to Figures 2 and 3 were switched during production. The online version of this article has been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-48458-001.) In choice reaction time (RT) tasks, performance is often influenced by the presence of nominally irrelevant stimuli, referred to as distractors...
April 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367901/changes-in-oral-stereognosis-of-healthy-adults-by-age
#20
Jin-Hyuck Park
Rehabilitation for dysfunctions of eating and swallowing should be considered in terms of not only motor but also sensory function. Sensory information from a bolus in the mouth plays an important role in eating and swallowing. Therefore, this study investigated oral stereognosis in 184 healthy adults with normal eating and swallowing function in order to obtain normative data. Oral stereognosis was assessed by using 20 intra-oral test pieces with different shapes. The subjects manipulated the test pieces in the mouth and identified their shapes...
2017: Journal of Oral Science
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