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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104800/frequency-channel-dependent-selectivity-for-temporal-call-characteristics-in-gray-treefrogs-hyla-versicolor
#1
Michael S Reichert, Gerlinde Höbel
Sensory receptors transmit information on multiple stimulus dimensions. Much remains to be understood about how the processing of different signal characteristics is partitioned and integrated in different areas of the nervous system. Amphibian hearing involves two morphologically distinct inner-ear organs that process different components of the frequency spectrum. Many anuran signals contain two frequency peaks, each one matching the sensitivity of one of these two organs. We hypothesized that the processing of temporal characteristics of acoustic signals would differ in these two frequency channels, perhaps because of differences in the response properties of the two inner-ear organs...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103541/playing-with-senses-in-vr-alternate-perceptions-combining-vision-and-touch
#2
Anatole Lecuyer
Virtual reality is an immersive experience based on computer-generated stimulations perceived with multiple sensory channels. It is possible to manipulate these sensory stimulations independently and create conflicting situations in which, for instance, vision and touch are spatially and/or temporally inconsistent. This article discusses how to exploit these ambiguous sensorial situations to generate new kinds of percept using three types of examples: pseudo-haptic effects, self-motion sensations, and body-ownership illusions...
January 2017: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100747/selective-deletion-of-sodium-salt-taste-during-development-leads-to-expanded-terminal-fields-of-gustatory-nerves-in-the-adult-mouse-nucleus-of-the-solitary-tract
#3
Chengsan Sun, Edith Hummler, David L Hill
: Neuronal activity plays a key role in the development of sensory circuits in the mammalian brain. In the gustatory system, experimental manipulations now exist, through genetic manipulations of specific taste transduction processes, to examine how specific taste qualities (i.e., basic tastes) impact the functional and structural development of gustatory circuits. Here, we used a mouse knock-out model in which the transduction component used to discriminate sodium salts from other taste stimuli was deleted in taste bud cells throughout development...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100734/does-the-superior-colliculus-control-perceptual-sensitivity-or-choice-bias-during-attention-evidence-from-a-multialternative-decision-framework
#4
Devarajan Sridharan, Nicholas A Steinmetz, Tirin Moore, Eric I Knudsen
: Distinct networks in the forebrain and the midbrain coordinate to control spatial attention. The critical involvement of the superior colliculus (SC)-the central structure in the midbrain network-in visuospatial attention has been shown by four seminal, published studies in monkeys (Macaca mulatta) performing multialternative tasks. However, due to the lack of a mechanistic framework for interpreting behavioral data in such tasks, the nature of the SC's contribution to attention remains unclear...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100656/perceptual-attraction-in-tool-use-evidence-for-a-reliability-based-weighting-mechanism
#5
Nienke B Debats, Marc O Ernst, Herbert Heuer
Humans are well able to operate tools whereby their hand movement is linked, via a kinematic transformation, to a spatially distant object moving in a separate plane of motion. An everyday example is controlling a cursor on a computer monitor. Despite these separate reference frames, the perceived positions of the hand and the object were found to be biased towards each other. We propose that this perceptual attraction is based on the principles by which the brain integrates redundant sensory information of single objects or events, known as optimal multisensory integration...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100491/motor-control-by-precisely-timed-spike-patterns
#6
Kyle H Srivastava, Caroline M Holmes, Michiel Vellema, Andrea R Pack, Coen P H Elemans, Ilya Nemenman, Samuel J Sober
A fundamental problem in neuroscience is understanding how sequences of action potentials ("spikes") encode information about sensory signals and motor outputs. Although traditional theories assume that this information is conveyed by the total number of spikes fired within a specified time interval (spike rate), recent studies have shown that additional information is carried by the millisecond-scale timing patterns of action potentials (spike timing). However, it is unknown whether or how subtle differences in spike timing drive differences in perception or behavior, leaving it unclear whether the information in spike timing actually plays a role in brain function...
January 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099522/anodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-shows-minimal-measure-specific-effects-on-dynamic-postural-control-in-young-and-older-adults-a-double-blind-sham-controlled-study
#7
Chesney E Craig, Michail Doumas
We investigated whether stimulating the cerebellum and primary motor cortex (M1) using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could affect postural control in young and older adults. tDCS was employed using a double-blind, sham-controlled design, in which young (aged 18-35) and older adults (aged 65+) were assessed over three sessions, one for each stimulatory condition-M1, cerebellar and sham. The effect of tDCS on postural control was assessed using a sway-referencing paradigm, which induced platform rotations in proportion to the participant's body sway, thus assessing sensory reweighting processes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098184/infrared-laser-induced-gene-expression-for-tracking-development-and-function-of-single-c-elegans-embryonic-neurons
#8
Anupriya Singhal, Shai Shaham
Visualizing neural-circuit assembly in vivo requires tracking growth of optically resolvable neurites. The Caenorhabditis elegans embryonic nervous system, comprising 222 neurons and 56 glia, is attractive for comprehensive studies of development; however, embryonic reporters are broadly expressed, making single-neurite tracking/manipulation challenging. We present a method, using an infrared laser, for reproducible heat-dependent gene expression in small sublineages (one to four cells) without radiation damage...
January 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098153/mecp2-regulates-cortical-plasticity-underlying-a-learned-behaviour-in-adult-female-mice
#9
Keerthi Krishnan, Billy Y B Lau, Gabrielle Ewall, Z Josh Huang, Stephen D Shea
Neurodevelopmental disorders are marked by inappropriate synaptic connectivity early in life, but how disruption of experience-dependent plasticity contributes to cognitive and behavioural decline in adulthood is unclear. Here we show that pup gathering behaviour and associated auditory cortical plasticity are impaired in female Mecp2(het) mice, a model of Rett syndrome. In response to learned maternal experience, Mecp2(het) females exhibited transient changes to cortical inhibitory networks typically associated with limited plasticity...
January 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097738/enhanced-predictive-signalling-in-schizophrenia
#10
Katharina Schmack, Marcus Rothkirch, Josef Priller, Philipp Sterzer
Positive symptoms of schizophrenia such as delusions and hallucinations are thought to arise from an alteration in predictive mechanisms of the brain. Here, we empirically tested the hypothesis that schizophrenia is associated with an enhanced signalling of higher-level predictions that shape perception into conformity with acquired beliefs. Twenty-one patients with schizophrenia and twenty-eight healthy controls matched for age and gender took part in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment that assessed the effect of an experimental manipulation of cognitive beliefs on the perception of an ambiguous visual motion stimulus...
January 18, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096485/murine-cytomegalovirus-deubiquitinase-regulates-viral-chemokine-levels-to-control-inflammation-and-pathogenesis
#11
Adam T Hilterbrand, Daniel R Boutz, Edward M Marcotte, Jason W Upton
: Maintaining control over inflammatory processes represents a paradox for viral pathogens. Although many viruses induce host inflammatory responses to facilitate infection, control is necessary to avoid overactivation. One way is through the manipulation of proinflammatory chemokine levels, both host and viral. Murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV), a model betaherpesvirus, encodes a viral C-C chemokine, MCK2, which promotes host inflammatory responses and incorporates into virions to facilitate viral dissemination...
January 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095617/probing-forebrain-to-hindbrain-circuit-functions-in-xenopus
#12
REVIEW
Darcy B Kelley, Taffeta M Elliott, Ben J Evans, Ian C Hall, Elizabeth C Leininger, Heather J Rhodes, Ayako Yamaguchi, Erik Zornik
The vertebrate hindbrain includes neural circuits that govern essential functions including breathing, blood pressure and heart rate. Hindbrain circuits also participate in generating rhythmic motor patterns for vocalization. In most tetrapods, sound production is powered by expiration and the circuitry underlying vocalization and respiration must be linked. Perception and arousal are also linked; acoustic features of social communication sounds - e.g. a baby's cry - can drive autonomic responses. The close links between autonomic functions that are essential for life and vocal expression have been a major in vivo experimental challenge...
January 17, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089758/pupil-responses-and-pain-ratings-to-heat-stimuli-reliability-and-effects-of-expectations-and-a-conditioning-pain-stimulus
#13
James C Eisenach, Regina Curry, Carol A Aschenbrenner, Robert C Coghill, Timothy T Houle
BACKGROUND: The locus coeruleus (LC) signals salience to sensory stimuli and these responses can modulate the experience of pain stimuli. The pupil dilation response (PDR) to noxious stimuli is thought to be a surrogate for LC responses, but PDR response to Peltier-controlled noxious heat stimuli, the most commonly used method in experimental pain research, has not been described. NEW METHOD: Healthy volunteers were presented with randomly presented heat stimuli of 5 sec duration and provided pain intensity ratings to each stimulus...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078360/multimodal-nerve-monitoring-during-periacetabular-osteotomy-identifies-surgical-steps-associated-with-risk-of-injury
#14
Eduardo N Novais, Travis Heare, Lauryn Kestel, Patricia Oliver, Willy Boucharel, Jason Koerner, Kim Strupp
PURPOSE: Sciatic nerve palsy after periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) is a serious complication. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a multimodal sciatic monitoring technique allows for identification of surgical steps that place the sciatic nerve at risk. METHODS: Transcranial electrical motor evoked potentials (TcMEPs), somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs), and spontaneous electromyography (EMG) were monitored in a consecutive series of 34 patients (40 hips) who underwent PAO for the treatment of symptomatic hip dysplasia between January 2012 and November 2014...
January 11, 2017: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077721/temporal-expectations-guide-dynamic-prioritization-in-visual-working-memory-through-attenuated-%C3%AE-oscillations
#15
Freek van Ede, Marcel Niklaus, Anna C Nobre
: Although working memory is generally considered a highly dynamic mnemonic store, popular laboratory tasks used to understand its psychological and neural mechanisms (such as change detection and continuous reproduction) often remain relatively "static," involving the retention of a set number of items throughout a shared delay interval. In the current study, we investigated visual working memory in a more dynamic setting, and assessed the following: (1) whether internally guided temporal expectations can dynamically and reversibly prioritize individual mnemonic items at specific times at which they are deemed most relevant; and (2) the neural substrates that support such dynamic prioritization...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060258/insect-controlled-robot-a-mobile-robot-platform-to-evaluate-the-odor-tracking-capability-of-an-insect
#16
Noriyasu Ando, Shuhei Emoto, Ryohei Kanzaki
Robotic odor source localization has been a challenging area and one to which biological knowledge has been expected to contribute, as finding odor sources is an essential task for organism survival. Insects are well-studied organisms with regard to odor tracking, and their behavioral strategies have been applied to mobile robots for evaluation. This "bottom-up" approach is a fundamental way to develop biomimetic robots; however, the biological analyses and the modeling of behavioral mechanisms are still ongoing...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053574/evaluation-of-different-commercial-feeds-on-grow-out-silver-black-porgy-sparidentex-hasta-valenciennes-for-optimum-growth-performance-fillet-quality-and-cost-of-production
#17
M A Hossain, K M Al-Abdul-Elah, S El-Dakour
The objective of the study was to find a cost-effective feed from three commercial feeds, namely, Arasco (Saudi Arabia), Skretting (Turkey), and Biomar (Greece) for commercially producing silver black porgy (sobaity bream), Sparidentex hasta in Kuwait. For confidentiality, these feeds were randomly given code names, diets 1, 2, and 3, which were known only to the investigating staffs. The trash fish (diet 4) was used as the control. The experiment was conducted for 28 wk with grow-out sobaity bream (210.0 ± 0...
January 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053241/comparative-biology-of-pain-what-invertebrates-can-tell-us-about-how-nociception-works
#18
Brian D Burrell
The inability to adequately treat chronic pain is a worldwide health care crisis. Pain has both an emotional and a sensory component and this latter component, nociception, refers specifically to the detection of damaging or potentially damaging stimuli. Nociception represents a critical interaction between an animal and its environment and exhibits considerable evolutionary conservation across species. Using comparative approaches to understand the basic biology of nociception could promote the development of novel therapeutic strategies to treat pain and studies of nociception in invertebrates can provide especially useful insights towards this goal...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039782/reduced-sensitivity-to-social-priors-during-action-prediction-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#19
Valerian Chambon, Chlöé Farrer, Elisabeth Pacherie, Pierre O Jacquet, Marion Leboyer, Tiziana Zalla
An extensive amount of evidence has documented a diminished ability to predict and understand other people's action in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Recently, two theoretical accounts, the "Hypo-priors" and the "Aberrant precision" hypotheses, have suggested that attenuated Bayesian priors or an imbalance of the precision ascribed to sensory evidence relative to prior expectations may be responsible for the atypical perceptual experience and difficulties with action understanding in ASD...
December 28, 2016: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035900/perceptually-relevant-remapping-of-human-somatotopy-in-24-hours
#20
James Kolasinski, Tamar R Makin, John P Logan, Saad Jbabdi, Stuart Clare, Charlotte J Stagg, Heidi Johansen-Berg
Experience-dependent reorganisation of functional maps in the cerebral cortex is well described in the primary sensory cortices. However, there is relatively little evidence for such cortical reorganisation over the short-term. Using human somatosensory cortex as a model, we investigated the effects of a 24 hr gluing manipulation in which the right index and right middle fingers (digits 2 and 3) were adjoined with surgical glue. Somatotopic representations, assessed with two 7 tesla fMRI protocols, revealed rapid off-target reorganisation in the non-manipulated fingers following gluing, with the representation of the ring finger (digit 4) shifted towards the little finger (digit 5) and away from the middle finger (digit 3)...
December 30, 2016: ELife
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