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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522968/the-effect-of-visual-spatial-and-temporal-manipulations-on-embodiment-and-action
#1
Natasha Ratcliffe, Roger Newport
The feeling of owning and controlling the body relies on the integration and interpretation of sensory input from multiple sources with respect to existing representations of the bodily self. Illusion paradigms involving multisensory manipulations have demonstrated that while the senses of ownership and agency are strongly related, these two components of bodily experience may be dissociable and differentially affected by alterations to sensory input. Importantly, however, much of the current literature has focused on the application of sensory manipulations to external objects or virtual representations of the self that are visually incongruent with the viewer's own body and which are not part of the existing body representation...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515011/sustained-activity-encoding-working-memories-not-fully-distributed
#2
REVIEW
Matthew L Leavitt, Diego Mendoza-Halliday, Julio C Martinez-Trujillo
Working memory (WM) is the ability to remember and manipulate information for short time intervals. Recent studies have proposed that sustained firing encoding the contents of WM is ubiquitous across cortical neurons. We review here the collective evidence supporting this claim. A variety of studies report that neurons in prefrontal, parietal, and inferotemporal association cortices show robust sustained activity encoding the location and features of memoranda during WM tasks. However, reports of WM-related sustained activity in early sensory areas are rare, and typically lack stimulus specificity...
May 14, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513323/modulation-of-somatoparaphrenia-following-left-hemisphere-damage
#3
Daniela D'Imperio, Giampaolo Tomelleri, Giuseppe Moretto, Valentina Moro
Somatoparaphrenic symptoms after left-hemisphere damage are rare. To verify the potential role of body-related sensory (proprioceptive, visual, and somatosensory) manipulation in patients experiencing sensations of hand disownership, the symptoms of a patient suffering from right-hand somatoparaphrenia were monitored and clinical and neuropsychological variables were controlled. Four types of manipulation were administered: changes in spatial position of the hand, multisensory stimulation, and self-observation using video or mirrors...
May 17, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504942/interaction-of-perceived-frequency-and-intensity-in-fingertip-electrotactile-stimulation-dissimilarity-ratings-and-multidimensional-scaling
#4
Kurt A Kaczmarek, Mitchell E Tyler, Uchechukwu O Okpara, Steven J Haase
Sensations elicited by electrical stimulation of touch are multidimensional, varying in perceived intensity and quality in response to changes in stimulus current or waveform timing. This study manipulated both current and frequency while volunteer participants estimated the dissimilarity of all nonidentical pairs of 16 stimulus conditions. Multidimensional scaling analysis revealed that a model having two perceptual dimensions was adequate in representing the electrotactile (electrocutaneous) sensations. The two dimensions were identified as perceptual frequency and intensity, and were strongly correlated with the two stimulus variables, frequency and current, although not in a 1:1 correspondence...
May 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504523/decomposition-of-a-sensory-prediction-error-signal-for-visuomotor-adaptation
#5
Peter A Butcher, Jordan A Taylor
To accomplish effective motor control, the brain contains an internal forward model that predicts the expected sensory consequence of a motor command. When this prediction is inaccurate, a sensory prediction error is produced which adapts the forward model to make more accurate predictions of future movements. Other types of errors, such as task performance errors or reward, play less of a role in adapting a forward model. This raises the following question: What unique information is conveyed by the sensory prediction error that results in forward model adaptation? sensory prediction errors typically contain both the magnitude and direction of the error, but it is unclear if both components are necessary for adaptation or a single component is sufficient...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501420/manipulation-of-visual-information-affects-control-strategy-during-a-visuomotor-tracking-task
#6
Paulina J M Bank, Lucas R M Dobbe, Carel G M Meskers, Jurriaan H de Groot, Erwin de Vlugt
Proper understanding of motor control requires insight into the extent and manner in which task performance and control strategy are influenced by various aspects of visual information. We therefore systematically manipulated the visual presentation (i.e., scaling factor and optical flow density) of a visuomotor tracking task without changing the task itself, and investigated the effect on performance, effort, motor control strategy (i.e., anticipatory or corrective steering) and underlying neuromechanical parameters (i...
May 10, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500220/environmental-enrichment-rescues-binocular-matching-of-orientation-preference-in-the-mouse-visual-cortex
#7
Jared Levine, Hui Chen, Yu Gu, Jianhua Cang
Neural circuits are shaped by experience during critical periods of development. Sensory deprivation during these periods permanently compromises an organism's ability to perceive the outside world. In the mouse visual system, normal visual experience during a critical period in early life drives the matching of individual cortical neurons' orientation preferences through the two eyes, likely a key step in the development of binocular vision. Here, in mice of both sexes, we show that the binocular matching process is completely blocked by monocular deprivation spanning the entire critical period...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499068/mutmapplus-identified-novel-mutant-alleles-of-a-rice-starch-branching-enzyme-iib-gene-for-fine-tuning-of-cooked-rice-texture
#8
Masaru Nakata, Tomomi Miyashita, Rieko Kimura, Yuriko Nakata, Hiroki Takagi, Masaharu Kuroda, Takeshi Yamaguchi, Takayuki Umemoto, Hiromoto Yamakawa
Physico-chemical properties of storage starch largely determine rice grain quality and food characteristics. Therefore, modification of starch property is effective to fine-tune cooked rice textures. To obtain new resources with modified starch property as breeding materials, we screened a mutant population of a japonica cultivar Nipponbare and found two independent mutant lines, altered gelatinization (age) 1 and age2, with moderate changes in starch gelatinization property. A combination of conventional genetic analyses and the latest mapping method, MutMapPlus, revealed that both of these lines harbor novel independent mutant alleles of starch branching enzyme IIb (BEIIb) gene...
May 12, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488908/choosing-doing-and-controlling-implicit-sense-of-agency-over-somatosensory-events
#9
Khatereh Borhani, Brianna Beck, Patrick Haggard
Sense of agency-a feeling of control over one's actions and their outcomes-might include at least two components: free choice over which outcome to pursue and motoric control over the action causing the outcome. We orthogonally manipulated locus of outcome choice (free or instructed choice) and motoric control (active or passive movement), while measuring the perceived temporal attraction between actions and outcomes ( temporal binding) as an implicit marker of agency. Participants also rated stimulus intensity so that we could measure sensory attenuation, another possible implicit marker of agency...
May 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487399/the-zinc-paradigm-for-metalloneurochemistry
#10
REVIEW
Chelsea A Barr, Shawn C Burdette
Neurotransmission and sensory perception are shaped through metal ion-protein interactions in various brain regions. The term "metalloneurochemistry" defines the unique field of bioinorganic chemistry focusing on these processes, and zinc has been the leading target of metalloneurochemists in the almost 15 years since the definition was introduced. Zinc in the hippocampus interacts with receptors that dictate ion flow and neurotransmitter release. Understanding the intricacies of these interactions is crucial to uncovering the role that zinc plays in learning and memory...
May 9, 2017: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479322/spike-timing-matters-in-novel-neuronal-code-involved-in-vibrotactile-frequency-perception
#11
Ingvars Birznieks, Richard M Vickery
Skin vibrations sensed by tactile receptors contribute significantly to the perception of object properties during tactile exploration [1-4] and to sensorimotor control during object manipulation [5]. Sustained low-frequency skin vibration (<60 Hz) evokes a distinct tactile sensation referred to as flutter whose frequency can be clearly perceived [6]. How afferent spiking activity translates into the perception of frequency is still unknown. Measures based on mean spike rates of neurons in the primary somatosensory cortex are sufficient to explain performance in some frequency discrimination tasks [7-11]; however, there is emerging evidence that stimuli can be distinguished based also on temporal features of neural activity [12, 13]...
May 3, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469137/experience-with-crossmodal-statistics-reduces-the-sensitivity-for-audio-visual-temporal-asynchrony
#12
Boukje Habets, Patrick Bruns, Brigitte Röder
Bayesian models propose that multisensory integration depends on both sensory evidence (the likelihood) and priors indicating whether or not two inputs belong to the same event. The present study manipulated the prior for dynamic auditory and visual stimuli to co-occur and tested the predicted enhancement of multisensory binding as assessed with a simultaneity judgment task. In an initial learning phase participants were exposed to a subset of auditory-visual combinations. In the test phase the previously encountered audio-visual stimuli were presented together with new combinations of the auditory and visual stimuli from the learning phase, audio-visual stimuli containing one learned and one new sensory component, and audio-visual stimuli containing completely new auditory and visual material...
May 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455527/neural-coding-of-prior-expectations-in-hierarchical-intention-inference
#13
Valerian Chambon, Philippe Domenech, Pierre O Jacquet, Guillaume Barbalat, Sophie Bouton, Elisabeth Pacherie, Etienne Koechlin, Chlöé Farrer
The ability to infer other people's intentions is crucial for successful human social interactions. Such inference relies on an adaptive interplay of sensory evidence and prior expectations. Crucially, this interplay would also depend on the type of intention inferred, i.e., on how abstract the intention is. However, what neural mechanisms adjust the interplay of prior and sensory evidence to the abstractness of the intention remains conjecture. We addressed this question in two separate fMRI experiments, which exploited action scenes depicting different types of intentions (Superordinate vs...
April 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452405/modulations-of-cognitive-flexibility-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-reflect-dysfunctions-of-perceptual-categorization
#14
Nicole Wolff, Judith Buse, Jadwiga Tost, Veit Roessner, Christian Beste
BACKGROUND: Despite cognitive inflexibility is trait like in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) patients and underlies clinical symptomatology, it is elusive at what stage of information processing deficits, leading to cognitive inflexibility, emerges. We hypothesize that inhibitory control mechanisms during early stimulus categorization and integration into a knowledge system underlie these deficits. METHODS: We examined N = 25 adolescent OCD patients and matched healthy controls (HC) in a paradigm manipulating the importance of the knowledge system to perform task switching...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439225/magnitude-codes-for-cross-modal-working-memory-in-the-primate-frontal-association-cortex
#15
REVIEW
Andreas Nieder
Quantitative features of stimuli may be ordered along a magnitude continuum, or line. Magnitude refers to parameters of different types of stimulus properties. For instance, the frequency of a sound relates to sensory and continuous stimulus properties, whereas the number of items in a set is an abstract and discrete property. In addition, within a stimulus property, magnitudes need to be processed not only in one modality, but across multiple modalities. In the sensory domain, for example, magnitude applies to both to the frequency of auditory sounds and tactile vibrations...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435584/intra-articular-entrapment-of-medial-epicondyle-fracture-fragment-in-elbow-joint-dislocation-causing-ulnar-neuropraxia-a-case-report
#16
J Syed, A R Zamri, S Jamaluddin, J K Ruben, M Gopindran
Traumatic elbow dislocations in children are rare but most of them are complex dislocations, and in such dislocations, medial humerus epicondyle fractureis the most common associated injury. Fracture incarceration in the elbow joint occurs in 5-18% of medial humerus epicondyle fractures but ulnar neuropraxia is very rare. Open reduction internal fixation is indicated in medial humerus epicondyle fracture with fracture incarceration, ulnar neuropraxia, marked instability or open fracture. Operative treatment options include fragment excision and sutures, closed or open reduction and Kirschner wire fixation, open reduction and suture fixation, open reduction and smooth pin fixation, and open reduction and screw fixation...
March 2017: Malaysian Orthopaedic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429784/sight-and-sound-persistently-out-of-synch-stable-individual-differences-in-audiovisual-synchronisation-revealed-by-implicit-measures-of-lip-voice-integration
#17
Alberta Ipser, Vlera Agolli, Anisa Bajraktari, Fatimah Al-Alawi, Nurfitriani Djaafara, Elliot D Freeman
Are sight and sound out of synch? Signs that they are have been dismissed for over two centuries as an artefact of attentional and response bias, to which traditional subjective methods are prone. To avoid such biases, we measured performance on objective tasks that depend implicitly on achieving good lip-synch. We measured the McGurk effect (in which incongruent lip-voice pairs evoke illusory phonemes), and also identification of degraded speech, while manipulating audiovisual asynchrony. Peak performance was found at an average auditory lag of ~100 ms, but this varied widely between individuals...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427295/development-of-visuo-haptic-transfer-for-object-recognition-in-typical-preschool-and-school-aged-children
#18
Giulia Purpura, Giovanni Cioni, Francesca Tinelli
Object recognition is a long and complex adaptive process and its full maturation requires combination of many different sensory experiences as well as cognitive abilities to manipulate previous experiences in order to develop new percepts and subsequently to learn from the environment. It is well recognized that the transfer of visual and haptic information facilitates object recognition in adults, but less is known about development of this ability. In this study, we explored the developmental course of object recognition capacity in children using unimodal visual information, unimodal haptic information, and visuo-haptic information transfer in children from 4 years to 10 years and 11 months of age...
April 20, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425479/perturbed-oral-motor-control-due-to-anesthesia-during-intraoral-manipulation-of-food
#19
Joannis Grigoriadis, Abhishek Kumar, Peter Svensson, Krister G Svensson, Mats Trulsson
Sensory information from periodontal mechanoreceptors (PMRs) surrounding the roots of natural teeth is important for optimizing the positioning of food and adjustment of force vectors during precision biting. The present experiment was designed to test the hypothesis; that reduction of afferent inputs from the PMRs, by anesthesia, perturbs the oral fine motor control and related jaw movements during intraoral manipulation of morsels of food. Thirty healthy volunteers with a natural dentition were equally divided into experimental and control groups...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424485/in-vivo-dynamics-of-aav-mediated-gene-delivery-to-sensory-neurons-of-the-trigeminal-ganglia
#20
Chung H Dang, Martine Aubert, Harshana S De Silva Feelixge, Kurt Diem, Michelle A Loprieno, Pavitra Roychoudhury, Daniel Stone, Keith R Jerome
The ability to genetically manipulate trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons would be useful in the study of the craniofacial nervous system and latent alphaherpesvirus infections. We investigated adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors for gene delivery to the TG after intradermal whiskerpad delivery in mice. We demonstrated that AAV vectors of serotypes 1, 7, 8, and 9 trafficked from the whiskerpad into TG neurons and expressed transgenes within cell bodies and axons of sensory neurons in all three branches of the TG...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
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