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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934683/histological-transformations-of-the-dental-pulp-as-possible-indicator-of-post-mortem-interval-a-pilot-study
#1
Patricio A Carrasco, Claudia I Brizuela, Ismael A Rodriguez, Samuel Muñoz, Marianela E Godoy, Carolina Inostroza
BACKGROUND: The correct estimation of the post mortem interval (PMI) can be crucial on the success of a forensic investigation. Diverse methods have been used to estimate PMI, considering physical changes that occur after death, such as mortis algor, livor mortis, among others. Degradation after death of dental pulp is a complex process that has not yet been studied thoroughly. It has been described that pulp RNA degradation could be an indicator of PMI, however this study is limited to 6 days...
September 11, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921721/effects-of-the-availability-of-accurate-proprioceptive-information-on-older-adults-postural-sway-and-muscle-co-contraction
#2
Chesney E Craig, Glenn H M Calvert, Michail Doumas
During conditions of increased postural instability, older adults exhibit greater lower-limb muscle co-contraction. This response has been interpreted as a compensatory postural strategy, which may be used to i006Ecrease proprioceptive information from muscle spindles or to stiffen the lower limb as a general response to minimise postural sway. The current study aimed to test these two hypotheses by investigating use of muscle co-contraction during sensory transitions that manipulated proprioceptive input. Surface EMG was recorded from the bilateral tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius medialis muscles, in young (aged 18-30) and older adults (aged 68-80) during blind-folded postural assessment...
September 16, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918262/circuit-changes-in-motor-cortex-during-motor-skill-learning
#3
Andrew E Papale, Bryan M Hooks
Motor cortex is important for motor skill learning, particularly the dexterous skills necessary for our favorite sports and careers. We are especially interested in understanding how plasticity in motor cortex contributes to skill learning. Although human studies have been helpful in understanding the importance of motor cortex in learning skilled tasks, animal models are necessary for achieving a detailed understanding of the circuitry underlying these behaviors and the changes that occur during training. We review data from these models to try to identify sites of plasticity in motor cortex, focusing on rodents as a model system...
September 13, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913778/neural-basis-of-early-somatosensory-change-detection-a-magnetoencephalography-study
#4
G Naeije, T Vaulet, V Wens, B Marty, S Goldman, X De Tiège
The mismatch negativity (MMN) reflects the early detection of changes in sensory stimuli at the cortical level. The mechanisms underlying its genesis remain debated. This magnetoencephalography study investigates the spatio-temporal dynamics and the neural mechanisms of the magnetic somatosensory MMN. Somatosensory evoked magnetic fields elicited by tactile stimulation of the right fingertip (Single), tactile stimulation of the right middle phalanx and fingertip (Double) or omissions (Omitted) of tactile stimuli were studied in different paradigms: in oddballs where Double/Omitted followed a sequence of four Single, in sequences of two stimuli where Double occurred after one Single, and in random presentation of Double only...
September 14, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912677/reversible-axonal-dystrophy-by-calcium-modulation-in-frataxin-deficient-sensory-neurons-of-yg8r-mice
#5
Belén Mollá, Diana C Muñoz-Lasso, Fátima Riveiro, Arantxa Bolinches-Amorós, Federico V Pallardó, Angel Fernandez-Vilata, María de la Iglesia-Vaya, Francesc Palau, Pilar Gonzalez-Cabo
Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is a peripheral neuropathy involving a loss of proprioceptive sensory neurons. Studies of biopsies from patients suggest that axonal dysfunction precedes the death of proprioceptive neurons in a dying-back process. We observed that the deficiency of frataxin in sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of the YG8R mouse model causes the formation of axonal spheroids which retain dysfunctional mitochondria, shows alterations in the cytoskeleton and it produces impairment of axonal transport and autophagic flux...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905384/heteromeric-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-glycine-receptors-regulate-excitability-in-parvalbumin-expressing-dorsal-horn-neurons-through-phasic-and-tonic-glycinergic-inhibition
#6
M A Gradwell, K A Boyle, R J Callister, D I Hughes, B A Graham
The dorsal horn (DH) of the spinal cord is an important site for modality specific processing of sensory information and is essential for contextually relevant sensory experience. Parvalbumin-expressing inhibitory interneurons (PV + INs) have functional properties and connectivity that enables them to segregate tactile and nociceptive information. Here we examine inhibitory drive to PV + INs using targeted patch-clamp recording in spinal cord slices from adult transgenic mice that express enhanced green fluorescent protein in PV + INs...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901718/chondroitin-sulfate-proteoglycans-negatively-regulate-the-positioning-of-mitochondria-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-to-distal-axons
#7
Rajiv Sainath, Lorena Armijo-Weingart, Andrea Ketscheck, Zhuxuan Xu, Shuxin Li, Gianluca Gallo
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are components of the extracellular matrix that inhibit the extension and regeneration of axons. However, the underlying mechanism of action remains poorly understood. Mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are functionally inter-linked organelles important to axon development and maintenance. We report that CSPGs impair the targeting of mitochondria and ER to the growth cones of chicken embryonic sensory axons. The effect of CSPGs on the targeting of mitochondria is blocked by inhibition of the LAR receptor for CSPGs...
September 13, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900689/viewing-geometry-determines-the-contribution-of-binocular-vision-to-the-online-control-of-grasping
#8
Bruce D Keefe, Simon J Watt
Binocular vision is often assumed to make a specific, critical contribution to online visual control of grasping by providing precise information about the separation between digits and object. This account overlooks the 'viewing geometry' typically encountered in grasping, however. Separation of hand and object is rarely aligned precisely with the line of sight (the visual depth dimension), and analysis of the raw signals suggests that, for most other viewing angles, binocular feedback is less precise than monocular feedback...
September 12, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887626/probability-differently-modulating-the-effects-of-reward-and-punishment-on-visuomotor-adaptation
#9
Yanlong Song, Ann L Smiley-Oyen
Recent human motor learning studies revealed that punishment seemingly accelerated motor learning but reward enhanced consolidation of motor memory. It is not evident how intrinsic properties of reward and punishment modulate the potentially dissociable effects of reward and punishment on motor learning and motor memory. It is also not clear what causes the dissociation of the effects of reward and punishment. By manipulating probability of distribution, a critical property of reward and punishment, the present study demonstrated that probability had distinct modulation on the effects of reward and punishment in adapting to a sudden visual rotation and consolidation of the adaptation memory...
September 8, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884145/sensory-experience-shapes-the-integration-of-adult-born-neurons-into-the-olfactory-bulb
#10
Elizabeth Hanson, Jessica Swanson, Benjamin R Arenkiel
Olfaction is an ancient sensory modality which is heavily involved in viscerally-important tasks like finding food and identifying mates. Olfactory processing involves interpreting stimuli from a non-continuous odor space, and translating them into an organized pattern of neuronal activity in the olfactory bulb. Additionally, olfactory processing is rapidly modulated by behavioral states and vice versa. This implies strong bidirectional neuromodulation between the olfactory bulb and other brain regions that include the cortex, hippocampus, and basal forebrain...
August 2017: Journal of Nature and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877535/monkeys-and-humans-take-local-uncertainty-into-account-when-localizing-a-change
#11
Deepna Devkar, Anthony A Wright, Wei Ji Ma
Since sensory measurements are noisy, an observer is rarely certain about the identity of a stimulus. In visual perception tasks, observers generally take their uncertainty about a stimulus into account when doing so helps task performance. Whether the same holds in visual working memory tasks is largely unknown. Ten human and two monkey subjects localized a single change in orientation between a sample display containing three ellipses and a test display containing two ellipses. To manipulate uncertainty, we varied the reliability of orientation information by making each ellipse more or less elongated (two levels); reliability was independent across the stimuli...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876981/genetic-and-structural-analyses-of-rrnpp-intercellular-peptide-signaling-of-gram-positive-bacteria
#12
Matthew B Neiditch, Glenn C Capodagli, Gerd Prehna, Michael J Federle
Bacteria use diffusible chemical messengers, termed pheromones, to coordinate gene expression and behavior among cells in a community by a process known as quorum sensing. Pheromones of many gram-positive bac, such as Bacillus and Streptococcus, are small, linear peptides secreted from cells and subsequently detected by sensory receptors such as those belonging to the large family ofRRNPP proteins. These proteins are cytoplasmic pheromone receptors sharing a structurally similar pheromone-binding domain that functions allosterically to regulate receptor activity...
September 6, 2017: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874078/behavioral-manipulation-by-optogenetics-in-the-nonhuman-primate
#13
Chunshan Deng, Hong Yuan, Ji Dai
Given their neuroanatomical similarities to humans and their ability to perform complex behaviors, the nonhuman primate has been an important model for understanding complex systems such as sensory processing, motor control, social interaction, and nervous system disorders. Optogenetics offers cell-type specific neural control with millisecond precision, making it a powerful neural modulation technique. Combining optogenetics with the nonhuman primate model promises to lead to significant advances in both basic and applied research...
September 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871035/odorant-receptor-sensitivity-modulation-in-drosophila
#14
Hao Guo, Kishor Kunwar, Dean Smith
The ability to modulate sensitivity in sensory systems is essential for useful information to be extracted from fluctuating stimuli in a wide range of background conditions. The mechanisms underlying sensitivity regulation in insect primary olfactory neurons are poorly understood. Here we reveal dephosphorylation of Orco(S289) that occurs upon prolonged odor exposure is a mechanism underlying reduction in odorant sensitivity in Drosophila primary olfactory neurons in both sexes. Orco(S289A) mutants, unable to phosphorylate this position, have low intrinsic odorant sensitivity that is independent of altered expression or localization...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867590/grip-force-control-and-hand-dexterity-are-impaired-in-individuals-with-diabetic-peripheral-neuropathy
#15
Kauê Carvalho de Almeida Lima, Leandro da Silva Borges, Elaine Hatanaka, Luiz Clemente Rolim, Paulo Barbosa de Freitas
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) affects the sensory function of the hands and, consequently, may negatively impact hand dexterity, maximum grip strength (GSMax), and hand grip force (GF) control during object manipulation. The aims of this study were to examine and compare the GF control during a simple holding task as well as GSMax and hand dexterity of individuals with DPN and healthy controls. Ten type 2 diabetic individuals diagnosed with DPN and ten age- and gender-matched healthy controls performed two traditional timed hand dexterity tests (i...
September 1, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861843/brain-motor-functional-changes-after-somatosensory-discrimination-training
#16
Elisabetta Sarasso, Federica Agosta, Federico Temporiti, Paola Adamo, Fabio Piccolo, Massimiliano Copetti, Roberto Gatti, Massimo Filippi
Somatosensory discrimination training may modulate cognitive processes, such as movement planning and monitoring, which can be useful during active movements. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of somatosensory discrimination training on brain functional activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during motor and sensory tasks in healthy subjects. Thirty-nine healthy young subjects were randomized into two groups: the experimental group underwent somatosensory discrimination training consisting of shape, surface and two-point distance discrimination; and the control group performed a simple object manipulation...
August 31, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861336/a-whole-brain-computational-modeling-approach-to-explain-the-alterations-in-resting-state-functional-connectivity-during-progression-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Murat Demirtaş, Carles Falcon, Alan Tucholka, Juan Domingo Gispert, José Luis Molinuevo, Gustavo Deco
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common dementia with dramatic consequences. The research in structural and functional neuroimaging showed altered brain connectivity in AD. In this study, we investigated the whole-brain resting state functional connectivity (FC) of the subjects with preclinical Alzheimer's disease (PAD), mild cognitive impairment due to AD (MCI) and mild dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD), the impact of APOE4 carriership, as well as in relation to variations in core AD CSF biomarkers...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857161/structural-and-functional-differences-in-the-barrel-cortex-of-mecp2-null-mice
#18
Li-Jen Lee, Vassiliy Tsytsarev, Reha S Erzurumlu
Functional deficits in sensory systems are commonly noted in neurodevelopmental disorders, such as the Rett syndrome (RTT). Defects in methyl CpG binding protein gene (MECP2) largely accounts for RTT. Manipulations of the Mecp2 gene in mice provide useful models to probe into various aspects of brain development associated with the RTT. In this study, we focused on the somatosensory cortical phenotype in the Bird mouse model of RTT. We used voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSDi) to evaluate whisker sensory evoked activity in the barrel cortex of mice...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844283/all-wrapped-up-environmental-effects-on-myelination
#19
REVIEW
Thomas A Forbes, Vittorio Gallo
To date, studies have demonstrated the dynamic influence of exogenous environmental stimuli on multiple regions of the brain. This environmental influence positively and negatively impacts programs governing myelination, and acts on myelinating oligodendrocyte (OL) cells across the human lifespan. Developmentally, environmental manipulation of OL progenitor cells (OPCs) has profound effects on the establishment of functional cognitive, sensory, and motor programs. Furthermore, central nervous system (CNS) myelin remains an adaptive entity in adulthood, sensitive to environmentally induced structural changes...
August 1, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839194/an-automated-compound-screening-for-anti-aging-effects-on-the-function-of-c-elegans-sensory-neurons
#20
Daphne Bazopoulou, Amrita R Chaudhury, Alexandros Pantazis, Nikos Chronis
Discovery of molecular targets or compounds that alter neuronal function can lead to therapeutic advances that ameliorate age-related neurodegenerative pathologies. Currently, there is a lack of in vivo screening technologies for the discovery of compounds that affect the age-dependent neuronal physiology. Here, we present a high-throughput, microfluidic-based assay for automated manipulation and on-chip monitoring and analysis of stimulus-evoked calcium responses of intact C. elegans at various life stages...
August 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
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