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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329355/when-the-brain-changes-its-mind-oscillatory-dynamics-of-conflict-processing-and-response-switching-in-a-flanker-task-during-alcohol-challenge
#1
Lauren E Beaton, Sheeva Azma, Ksenija Marinkovic
Despite the subjective experience of being in full and deliberate control of our actions, our daily routines rely on a continuous and interactive engagement of sensory evaluation and response preparation streams. They unfold automatically and unconsciously and are seamlessly integrated with cognitive control which is mobilized by stimuli that evoke ambiguity or response conflict. Methods with high spatio-temporal sensitivity are needed to provide insight into the interplay between automatic and controlled processing...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320739/variation-in-activity-state-axonal-projection-and-position-define-the-transcriptional-identity-of-individual-neocortical-projection-neurons
#2
Maxime Chevée, Johanna De Jong Robertson, Gabrielle Heather Cannon, Solange Pezon Brown, Loyal Andrew Goff
Single-cell RNA sequencing has generated catalogs of transcriptionally defined neuronal subtypes of the brain. However, the cellular processes that contribute to neuronal subtype specification and transcriptional heterogeneity remain unclear. By comparing the gene expression profiles of single layer 6 corticothalamic neurons in somatosensory cortex, we show that transcriptional subtypes primarily reflect axonal projection pattern, laminar position within the cortex, and neuronal activity state. Pseudotemporal ordering of 1,023 cellular responses to sensory manipulation demonstrates that changes in expression of activity-induced genes both reinforced cell-type identity and contributed to increased transcriptional heterogeneity within each cell type...
January 9, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301100/a-role-for-the-superior-colliculus-in-decision-criteria
#3
Trinity B Crapse, Hakwan Lau, Michele A Basso
Simple decisions arise from the evaluation of sensory evidence. But decisions are determined by more than just evidence. Individuals establish internal decision criteria that influence how they respond. Where or how decision criteria are established in the brain remains poorly understood. Here, we show that neuronal activity in the superior colliculus (SC) predicts changes in decision criteria. Using a novel "Yes-No" task that isolates changes in decision criterion from changes in decision sensitivity, and computing neuronal measures of sensitivity and criterion, we find that SC neuronal activity correlates with the decision criterion regardless of the location of the choice report...
January 3, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300002/design-strategies-for-dynamic-closed-loop-optogenetic-neurocontrol-in-vivo
#4
Michael F Bolus, Adam A Willats, Clarissa J Whitmire, Christopher J Rozell, Garrett B Stanley
Controlling neural activity enables the possibility of manipulating sensory perception, cognitive processes, and body movement, in addition to providing a powerful framework for functionally disentangling the neural circuits that underlie these complex phenomena. Over the last decade, optogenetic stimulation has become an increasingly important and powerful tool for understanding neural circuit function, owing to the ability to target specific cell types and bidirectionally modulate neural activity. To date, most stimulation has been provided in open-loop or in an on/off closed-loop fashion, where previously-determined stimulation is triggered by an event...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298550/maximising-recovery-from-aphasia-with-central-and-peripheral-agraphia-the-benefit-of-sequential-treatments
#5
Pélagie M Beeson, Chelsea Bayley, Christine Shultz, Kindle Rising
Maximal recovery from acquired language impairment may require progression from one behavioural treatment protocol to the next in order to build upon residual and relearned cognitive-linguistic and sensory-motor processes. We present a five-stage treatment sequence that was initiated at one year post stroke in a woman with acquired impairments of spoken and written language. As is typical of individuals with left perisylvian damage, she demonstrated marked impairment of phonological retrieval and sublexical phonology, but she also faced additional challenges due to impaired letter shape knowledge and visual attention...
January 3, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298327/gabaergic-mechanisms-involved-in-the-prepulse-inhibition-of-auditory-evoked-cortical-responses-in-humans
#6
Koji Inui, Nobuyuki Takeuchi, Shunsuke Sugiyama, Eishi Motomura, Makoto Nishihara
Despite their essential roles in signal processing in the brain, the functions of interneurons currently remain unclear in humans. We recently developed a method using the prepulse inhibition of sensory evoked cortical responses for functional measurements of interneurons. When a sensory feature is abruptly changed in a continuous sensory stimulus, change-related cortical responses are recorded using MEG. By inserting a weak change stimulus (prepulse) before the test change stimulus, it is possible to observe the inhibition of the test response...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281736/characterizing-first-and-third-person-viewpoints-and-their-alternation-for-embodied-interaction-in-virtual-reality
#7
Henrique Galvan Debarba, Sidney Bovet, Roy Salomon, Olaf Blanke, Bruno Herbelin, Ronan Boulic
Empirical research on the bodily self has shown that the body representation is malleable, and prone to manipulation when conflicting sensory stimuli are presented. Using Virtual Reality (VR) we assessed the effects of manipulating multisensory feedback (full body control and visuo-tactile congruence) and visual perspective (first and third person perspective) on the sense of embodying a virtual body that was exposed to a virtual threat. We also investigated how subjects behave when the possibility of alternating between first and third person perspective at will was presented...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276127/feature-specific-organization-of-feedback-pathways-in-mouse-visual-cortex
#8
Carey Y L Huh, John P Peach, Corbett Bennett, Roxana M Vega, Shaul Hestrin
Higher and lower cortical areas in the visual hierarchy are reciprocally connected [1]. Although much is known about how feedforward pathways shape receptive field properties of visual neurons, relatively little is known about the role of feedback pathways in visual processing. Feedback pathways are thought to carry top-down signals, including information about context (e.g., figure-ground segmentation and surround suppression) [2-5], and feedback has been demonstrated to sharpen orientation tuning of neurons in the primary visual cortex (V1) [6, 7]...
December 15, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260503/symmetry-and-its-role-in-the-crossmodal-correspondence-between-shape-and-taste
#9
Nora Turoman, Carlos Velasco, Yi-Chuan Chen, Pi-Chun Huang, Charles Spence
Despite the rapid growth of research on the crossmodal correspondence between visually presented shapes and basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty), most studies that have been published to date have focused on shape contour (roundness/angularity). Meanwhile, other important features, such as symmetry, as well as the underlying mechanisms of the shape-taste correspondence, have rarely been studied. Over two experiments, we systematically manipulated the symmetry and contours of shapes and measured the influences of these variables on shape-taste correspondences...
December 19, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258553/prenatal-alcohol-exposure-is-a-risk-factor-for-adult-neuropathic-pain-via-aberrant-neuroimmune-function
#10
Joshua J Sanchez, Shahani Noor, Suzy Davies, Daniel Savage, Erin D Milligan
BACKGROUND: Clinical studies show that prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) results in effects that persist into adulthood. Experimental animal models of moderate PAE demonstrate that young adults with PAE display potentiated sensitivity to light touch, clinically termed allodynia, following sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI) that coincides with heightened spinal glial, spinal macrophage, and peripheral immune responses. However, basal touch sensitivity and corresponding glial and leukocyte activation are unaltered...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247462/cross-modal-refinement-of-visual-performance-after-brief-somatosensory-deprivation-in-adult-mice
#11
Manuel Teichert, Marcel Isstas, Steven Wenig, Christoph Setz, Konrad Lehmann, Jürgen Bolz
It is well established that the congenital lack of one sensory modality enhances functionality in the spared senses. However, whether a late onset deprivation of one sense leads to such alterations is largely unknown. Here, we investigated whether a somatosensory deprivation induced by bilateral whisker removal affects visual acuity and contrast sensitivity in fully adult mice. Using the visual cortex dependent visual water task, we found that a brief somatosensory deprivation markedly improved behavioral visual acuity and contrast sensitivity by about 40%...
December 15, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244639/oscillatory-mechanisms-of-response-conflict-elicited-by-color-and-motion-direction-an-individual-differences-approach
#12
Marlies E Vissers, K Richard Ridderinkhof, Michael X Cohen, Heleen A Slagter
Goal-directed behavior requires control over automatic behavior, for example, when goal-irrelevant information from the environment captures an inappropriate response and conflicts with the correct, goal-relevant action. Neural oscillations in the theta band (∼6 Hz) measured at midfrontal electrodes are thought to form an important substrate of the detection and subsequent resolution of response conflict. Here, we examined the extent to which response conflict and associated theta-band activity depend on the visual stimulus feature dimension that triggers the conflict...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239806/development-of-postural-control-and-maturation-of-sensory-systems-in-children-of-different-ages-a-cross-sectional-study
#13
Cristina Dos Santos Cardoso de Sá, Catarina Costa Boffino, Renato Teodoro Ramos, Clarice Tanaka
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the stability, postural adjustments and contributions of sensory information for postural control in children. METHODS: 40 boys and 40 girls were equally divided into groups of 5, 7, 9 and 12 years (G5, G7, G9 and G12). All children were submitted to dynamic posturography using a modified sensory organization test, using four sensory conditions: combining stable or sway referencing platform with eyes opened, or closed. The area and displacements of the center of pressure were used to determine stability, while the adjustments were used to measure the speed of the center of pressure displacements...
November 8, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239336/neural-progenitor-cells-but-not-astrocytes-respond-distally-to-thoracic-spinal-cord-injury-in-rat-models
#14
Tara Nguyen, Yilin Mao, Theresa Sutherland, Catherine Anne Gorrie
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is a detrimental condition that causes loss of sensory and motor function in an individual. Many complex secondary injury cascades occur after SCI and they offer great potential for therapeutic targeting. In this study, we investigated the response of endogenous neural progenitor cells, astrocytes, and microglia to a localized thoracic SCI throughout the neuroaxis. Twenty-five adult female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent mild-contusion thoracic SCI (n = 9), sham surgery (n = 8), or no surgery (n = 8)...
November 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233995/adeno-associated-virus-serotype-rh10-is-a-useful-gene-transfer-vector-for-sensory-nerves-that-innervate-bone-in-immunodeficient-mice
#15
Sun H Park, Matthew R Eber, Shunsuke Tsuzuki, Mary E Booker, Aaron G Sunil, D Brooke Widner, Renee A Parker, Christopher M Peters, Yusuke Shiozawa
Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is frequently used to manipulate gene expression in the sensory nervous system for the study of pain mechanisms. Although some serotypes of AAV are known to have nerve tropism, whether AAV can distribute to sensory nerves that innervate the bone or skeletal tissue has not been shown. This information is crucial, since bone pain, including cancer-induced bone pain, is an area of high importance in pain biology. In this study, we found that AAVrh10 transduces neurons in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia of immunodeficient mice with higher efficacy than AAV2, 5, 6, 8, and 9 when injected intrathecally...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231812/oxytocin-signaling-in-the-medial-amygdala-is-required-for-sex-discrimination-of-social-cues
#16
Shenqin Yao, Joseph Bergan, Anne Lanjuin, Catherine Dulac
The neural control of social behaviors in rodents requires the encoding of pheromonal cues by the vomeronasal system. Here we show that the typical preference of male mice for females is eliminated in mutants lacking oxytocin, a neuropeptide modulating social behaviors in many species. Ablation of the oxytocin receptor in aromatase-expressing neurons of the medial amygdala (MeA) fully recapitulates the elimination of female preference in males. Further, single-unit recording in the MeA uncovered significant changes in the sensory representation of conspecific cues in the absence of oxytocin signaling...
December 12, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229704/a-unifying-motif-for-spatial-and-directional-surround-suppression
#17
Liu D Liu, Kenneth D Miller, Christopher C Pack
In the visual system, the response to a stimulus in a neuron's receptive field can be modulated by stimulus context, and the strength of these contextual influences vary with stimulus intensity. Recent work has shown how a theoretical model, the stabilized supralinear network (SSN), can account for such modulatory influences, using a small set of computational mechanisms. While the predictions of the SSN have been confirmed in primary visual cortex (V1), its computational principles apply with equal validity to any cortical structure...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224725/ror%C3%AE-spinal-interneurons-gate-sensory-transmission-during-locomotion-to-secure-a-fluid-walking-gait
#18
Stephanie C Koch, Marta Garcia Del Barrio, Antoine Dalet, Graziana Gatto, Thomas Günther, Jingming Zhang, Barbara Seidler, Dieter Saur, Roland Schüle, Martyn Goulding
Animals depend on sensory feedback from mechanosensory afferents for the dynamic control of movement. This sensory feedback needs to be selectively modulated in a task- and context-dependent manner. Here, we show that inhibitory interneurons (INs) expressing the RORβ orphan nuclear receptor gate sensory feedback to the spinal motor system during walking and are required for the production of a fluid locomotor rhythm. Genetic manipulations that abrogate inhibitory RORβ IN function result in an ataxic gait characterized by exaggerated flexion movements and marked alterations to the step cycle...
December 5, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222517/input-dependent-regulation-of-excitability-controls-dendritic-maturation-in-somatosensory-thalamocortical-neurons
#19
Laura Frangeul, Vassilis Kehayas, Jose V Sanchez-Mut, Sabine Fièvre, K Krishna-K, Gabrielle Pouchelon, Ludovic Telley, Camilla Bellone, Anthony Holtmaat, Johannes Gräff, Jeffrey D Macklis, Denis Jabaudon
Input from the sensory organs is required to pattern neurons into topographical maps during development. Dendritic complexity critically determines this patterning process; yet, how signals from the periphery act to control dendritic maturation is unclear. Here, using genetic and surgical manipulations of sensory input in mouse somatosensory thalamocortical neurons, we show that membrane excitability is a critical component of dendritic development. Using a combination of genetic approaches, we find that ablation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors during postnatal development leads to epigenetic repression of Kv1...
December 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213231/the-roles-of-cortical-slow-waves-in-synaptic-plasticity-and-memory-consolidation
#20
Daisuke Miyamoto, Daichi Hirai, Masanori Murayama
Sleep plays important roles in sensory and motor memory consolidation. Sleep oscillations, reflecting neural population activity, involve the reactivation of learning-related neurons and regulate synaptic strength and, thereby affect memory consolidation. Among sleep oscillations, slow waves (0.5-4 Hz) are closely associated with memory consolidation. For example, slow-wave power is regulated in an experience-dependent manner and correlates with acquired memory. Furthermore, manipulating slow waves can enhance or impair memory consolidation...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
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