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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155208/inflammatory-renin-angiotensin-system-disruption-attenuates-sensory-hyperinnervation-and-mechanical-hypersensitivity-in-a-rat-model-of-provoked-vestibulodynia
#1
Anuradha Chakrabarty, Zhaohui Liao, Ying Mu, Peter G Smith
Vestibulodynia is characterized by peri-vaginal mechanical hypersensitivity, hyperinnervation, and abundant inflammatory cells expressing renin-angiotensin system proteins. We developed a tractable rat model of vestibulodynia to further assess the contributions of the renin-angiotensin system. Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) injected into the posterior vestibule induced marked vestibular hypersensitivity throughout a 7-day test period. Numbers of axons immunoreactive for PGP9.5, calcitonin gene-related peptide, and GFRα2 were increased...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154621/sensory-constraints-on-perceptual-simulation-during-sentence-reading
#2
Xuefei Gao, Ting Jiang
Resource-constrained models of language processing predict that perceptual simulation during language understanding would be compromised by sensory limitations (such as reading text in unfamiliar/difficult font), whereas strong versions of embodied theories of language would predict that simulating perceptual symbols in language would not be impaired even under sensory-constrained situations. In 2 experiments, sensory decoding difficulty was manipulated by using easy and hard fonts to study perceptual simulation during sentence reading (Zwaan, Stanfield, & Yaxley, 2002)...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153322/bats-use-path-integration-rather-than-acoustic-flow-to-assess-flight-distance-along-flyways
#3
Gal Aharon, Meshi Sadot, Yossi Yovel
Navigation can be achieved using different strategies from simple beaconing to complex map-based movement [1-4]. Bats display remarkable navigation capabilities, ranging from nightly commutes of several kilometers and up to seasonal migrations over thousands of kilometers [5]. Many bats have been suggested to fly along fixed routes termed "flyways," when flying from their roost to their foraging sites [6]. Flyways commonly stretch along linear landscape elements such as tree lines, hedges, or rivers [7]. When flying along a flyway, bats must estimate the distance they have traveled in order to determine when to turn...
November 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149699/tetrahymena-cilia-cap-is-built-in-a-multi-step-process-a-study-by-atomic-force-microscopy
#4
Cecília Seixas, João Gonçalves, Luís Viseu Melo, Helena Soares
Cilia are complex and dynamic organelles that have motility and sensory functions. Defects in cilia biogenesis and function are at the origin of human ciliopathies. In motile cilia, a basal body organizes the axoneme composed of nine microtubule doublets surrounding a central pair of singlet microtubules. The distal ends of axonemal microtubules are attached to the membrane by microtubule-capping structures. Little is known about the early steps of cilium assembly. Although cilia grow and resorb from their distal tips, it remains poorly understood where and when the components of the caps are first assembled...
October 20, 2017: Protist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149236/mutations-affecting-glycinergic-neurotransmission-in-hyperekplexia-increase-pain-sensitivity
#5
Pascal Henri Vuilleumier, Raphael Fritsche, Jürg Schliessbach, Bernhard Schmitt, Lars Arendt-Nielsen, Hanns Ulrich Zeilhofer, Michele Curatolo
Inhibitory interneurons in the spinal cord use glycine and GABA for fast inhibitory neurotransmission. While there is abundant research on these inhibitory pain pathways in animal models, their relevance in humans remains unclear, largely due to the limited possibility to manipulate selectively these pathways in humans. Hyperekplexia is a rare human disease that is caused by loss-of-function mutations in genes encoding for glycine receptors and glycine transporters. In the present study, we tested whether hyperekplexia patients display altered pain perception or central pain modulation compared with healthy subjects...
November 15, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119621/evaluating-the-feasibility-of-the-steady-state-visual-evoked-potential-ssvep-to-study-temporal-attention
#6
Anderson Mora-Cortes, K Richard Ridderinkhof, Michael X Cohen
Improvements in perceptual performance can be obtained when events in the environment are temporally predictable-and temporal predictability improves attention and sensory processing. The amplitude of the steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) has been shown to correlate with attention paid to a flickering stimulus even if the flickering stimulus is irrelevant for the task. However, to our knowledge, the validity of the SSVEP to study temporal attention has not been established. Therefore, we designed an SSVEP temporal attention task to evaluate whether the SSVEP and its temporal dynamics can be used to study temporal attention...
November 9, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118695/synapse-innervation-and-associative-memory-cell-are-recruited-for-integrative-storage-of-whisker-and-odor-signals-in-the-barrel-cortex-through-mirna-mediated-processes
#7
Zhuofan Lei, Dangui Wang, Na Chen, Ke Ma, Wei Lu, Zhenhua Song, Shan Cui, Jin-Hui Wang
Associative learning is a common way for information acquisition, and the integrative storage of multiple associated signals is essential for associative thinking and logical reasoning. In terms of the cellular mechanism for associative memory, our studies by behavioral task and cellular imaging demonstrate that paired whisker and odor stimulations lead to odorant-induced whisker motion and associative memory cell recruitment in the barrel cortex (BC), which is driven presumably by synapse innervation from co-activated sensory cortices...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118103/familiar-but-unexpected-effects-of-sound-context-statistics-on-auditory-responses-in-the-songbird-forebrain
#8
Kai Lu, David S Vicario
Rapid discrimination of salient acoustic signals in the noisy natural environment may depend not only on specific stimulus features, but also on previous experience that generates expectations about upcoming events. We studied the neural correlates of expectation in the songbird forebrain by using natural vocalizations as stimuli and manipulating the category and familiarity of context sounds. In our paradigm, we recorded bilaterally from auditory neurons in awake adult male zebra finches with multiple microelectrodes during repeated playback of a conspecific song, followed by further playback of this test song in different interleaved sequences with other conspecific or heterospecific songs...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107888/expected-but-omitted-stimuli-affect-crossmodal-interaction
#9
Marcello Costantini, Daniele Migliorati, Brunella Donno, Miroslav Sirota, Francesca Ferri
One of the most important ability of our brain is to integrate input from different sensory modalities to create a coherent representation of the environment. Does expectation affect such multisensory integration? In this paper, we tackled this issue by taking advantage from the crossmodal congruency effect (CCE). Participants made elevation judgments to visual target while ignoring tactile distractors. We manipulated the expectation of the tactile distractor by pairing the tactile stimulus to the index finger with a high-frequency tone and the tactile stimulus to the thumb with a low-frequency tone in 80% of the trials...
November 3, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107504/overlapping-brain-circuits-for-homeostatic-and-hedonic-feeding
#10
REVIEW
Mark A Rossi, Garret D Stuber
Central regulation of food intake is a key mechanism contributing to energy homeostasis. Many neural circuits that are thought to orchestrate feeding behavior overlap with the brain's reward circuitry both anatomically and functionally. Manipulation of numerous neural pathways can simultaneously influence food intake and reward. Two key systems underlying these processes-those controlling homeostatic and hedonic feeding-are often treated as independent. Homeostatic feeding is necessary for basic metabolic processes and survival, while hedonic feeding is driven by sensory perception or pleasure...
October 26, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106981/zinc-chelation-and-klf9-knockdown-cooperatively-promote-axon-regeneration-after-optic-nerve-injury
#11
Ephraim F Trakhtenberg, Yiqing Li, Qian Feng, Janice Tso, Paul A Rosenberg, Jeffrey L Goldberg, Larry I Benowitz
The inability of axons to regenerate over long-distances in the central nervous system (CNS) limits the recovery of sensory, motor, and cognitive functions after various CNS injuries and diseases. Although pre-clinical studies have identified a number of manipulations that stimulate some degree of axon growth after CNS damage, the extent of recovery remains quite limited, emphasizing the need for improved therapies. Here, we used traumatic injury to the mouse optic nerve as a model system to test the effects of combining several treatments that have recently been found to promote axon regeneration without the risks associated with manipulating known tumor suppressors or oncogenes...
October 27, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105593/manipulation-of-sensory-input-can-improve-stretching-outcomes
#12
Robyn A Capobianco, Awad M Almuklass, Roger M Enoka
The primary purpose of our study was to assess the influence of modulating sensory input with either transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) or self-massage with therapy balls on the maximal range of motion (ROM) about the ankle joint when stretching the calf muscles. We also investigated the influence of these two conditions on the force capacity and force control of plantar flexor muscles. Twenty healthy adults (25 ± 3 yr) performed three sessions of ankle plantar flexor stretching (three stretches of 30 s each): stretching alone (SS), stretching with concurrent TENS (TENS), and stretching after self-massage using therapy balls (SM)...
November 4, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105247/increased-functional-connectivity-in-the-ventral-and-dorsal-streams-during-retrieval-of-novel-words-in-professional-musicians
#13
Eva Dittinger, Seyed Abolfazl Valizadeh, Lutz Jäncke, Mireille Besson, Stefan Elmer
Current models of speech and language processing postulate the involvement of two parallel processing streams (the dual stream model): a ventral stream involved in mapping sensory and phonological representations onto lexical and conceptual representations and a dorsal stream contributing to sound-to-motor mapping, articulation, and to how verbal information is encoded and manipulated in memory. Based on previous evidence showing that music training has an influence on language processing, cognitive functions, and word learning, we examined EEG-based intracranial functional connectivity in the ventral and dorsal streams while musicians and nonmusicians learned the meaning of novel words through picture-word associations...
November 3, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102808/causal-cortical-dynamics-of-a-predictive-enhancement-of-speech-intelligibility
#14
Giovanni M Di Liberto, Edmund C Lalor, Rebecca E Millman
Speech perception may be underpinned by a hierarchical cortical system, which attempts to match "external" incoming sensory inputs with "internal" top-down predictions. Prior knowledge modulates internal predictions of an upcoming stimulus and exerts its effects in temporal and inferior frontal cortex. Here, we used source-space magnetoencephalography (MEG) to study the spatiotemporal dynamics underpinning the integration of prior knowledge in the speech processing network. Prior knowledge was manipulated to i) increase the perceived intelligibility of speech sentences, and ii) dissociate the perceptual effects of changes in speech intelligibility from acoustical differences in speech stimuli...
November 2, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097543/topological-and-modality-specific-representation-of-somatosensory-information-in-the-fly-brain
#15
Asako Tsubouchi, Tomoko Yano, Takeshi K Yokoyama, Chloé Murtin, Hideo Otsuna, Kei Ito
Insects and mammals share similarities of neural organization underlying the perception of odors, taste, vision, sound, and gravity. We observed that insect somatosensation also corresponds to that of mammals. In Drosophila, the projections of all the somatosensory neuron types to the insect's equivalent of the spinal cord segregated into modality-specific layers comparable to those in mammals. Some sensory neurons innervate the ventral brain directly to form modality-specific and topological somatosensory maps...
November 3, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093560/how-goats-avoid-ingesting-noxious-insects-while-feeding
#16
Tali S Berman, Matan Ben-Ari, Tzach A Glasser, Moshe Gish, Moshe Inbar
As mammalian herbivores feed, they often encounter noxious insects on plants. It is unknown how they handle such insects. We experimentally examined the behavioural responses of goats to the noxious spring-webworm (Ocnogyna loewii), and manipulated their sensory perception to reveal the process of insect detection. Goats did not avoid plants with webworms, demonstrating a remarkable ability to sort them apart from the plant (98% of webworms survived). Initial detection of webworms involved tactile stimulation, done by repeatedly touching the leaves with the muzzle...
November 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071697/systematic-review-of-spanish-outcome-measures-on-motor-imagery-ability-use-in-physical-rehabilitation
#17
M Melogno-Klinkas, S Nunez-Nagy, S Ubillos-Landa
INTRODUCTION: Motor imagery is a mental representation of movement without any body movement and its training accelerates motor learning and improves motor skills. A thorough understanding of how to manipulate mental images is necessary before using motor imagery in physical rehabilitation. This systematic review analyzes the psychometric properties of the outcome measures on motor imagery ability for the Spanish-speaking people and discusses its usefulness in people with motor disabilities...
November 1, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070591/anchoring-like-octopus-biologically-inspired-soft-artificial-sucker
#18
Sina Sareh, Kaspar Althoefer, Min Li, Yohan Noh, Francesca Tramacere, Pooya Sareh, Barbara Mazzolai, Mirko Kovac
This paper presents a robotic anchoring module, a sensorized mechanism for attachment to the environment that can be integrated into robots to enable or enhance various functions such as robot mobility, remaining on location or its ability to manipulate objects. The body of the anchoring module consists of two portions with a mechanical stiffness transition from hard to soft. The hard portion is capable of containing vacuum pressure used for actuation while the soft portion is highly conformable to create a seal to contact surfaces...
October 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068019/a-microfluidic-device-for-partial-immobilization-chemical-exposure-and-behavioural-screening-of-zebrafish-larvae
#19
Asal Nady, Amir Reza Peimani, Georg Zoidl, Pouya Rezai
The zebrafish larva is an important vertebrate model for sensory-motor integration studies, genetic screening, and drug discovery because of its excellent characteristics such as optical transparency, genetic manipulability, and genetic similarity to humans. Operations such as precise manipulation of zebrafish larvae, controlled exposure to chemicals, and behavioural monitoring are of utmost importance to the abovementioned studies. In this work, a novel microfluidic device is presented to easily stabilize an individual larva's head using a microfluidic trap while leaving the majority of the body and the tail unhindered to move freely in a downstream chamber...
October 25, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066662/dysphagia-management-in-bilateral-frontal-opercular-syndrome-foix-chavany-marie-syndrome
#20
Thomas Richards, Thomas Tudor Hughes, Jake Moss, Tessa Lomax
An 80-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with acute anarthria and severe dysphagia, characterised by loss of voluntary control of the muscles of facial expression, mastication, bolus manipulation (tongue) and pharyngeal constriction, with relative preservation of involuntary movements. Brain imaging revealed an acute infarct in the left frontal operculum and an area of gliosis consistent with an old infarct in the right frontal operculum. A clinical and radiological diagnosis of bilateral anterior frontal opercular syndrome (Foix-Chavany-Marie-syndrome) was made...
October 24, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
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