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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636667/voice-over-audio-visual-congruency-and-content-recall-in-the-gallery-setting
#1
Merle T Fairhurst, Minnie Scott, Ophelia Deroy
Experimental research has shown that pairs of stimuli which are congruent and assumed to 'go together' are recalled more effectively than an item presented in isolation. Will this multisensory memory benefit occur when stimuli are richer and longer, in an ecological setting? In the present study, we focused on an everyday situation of audio-visual learning and manipulated the relationship between audio guide tracks and viewed portraits in the galleries of the Tate Britain. By varying the gender and narrative style of the voice-over, we examined how the perceived congruency and assumed unity of the audio guide track with painted portraits affected subsequent recall...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633369/fine-subdivisions-of-the-semantic-network-supporting-social-and-sensory-motor-semantic-processing
#2
Nan Lin, Xiaoying Wang, Yangwen Xu, Xiaosha Wang, Huimin Hua, Ying Zhao, Xingshan Li
Neuroimaging studies have consistently indicated that semantic processing involves a brain network consisting of multimodal cortical regions distributed in the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes. However, little is known about how semantic information is organized and processed within the network. Some recent studies have indicated that sensory-motor semantic information modulates the activation of this network. Other studies have indicated that this network responds more to social semantic information than to other information...
June 15, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628379/visuomotor-behaviors-and-performance-in-a-dual-task-paradigm-with-and-without-vibrotactile-feedback-when-using-a-myoelectric-controlled-hand
#3
Eitan Raveh, Jason Friedman, Sigal Portnoy
Prosthesis users allocate visual attention to their prosthetic hand while performing activities of daily living (ADLs), due to absence of sensory feedback. Dual-task assignments present competition for visual attention and may affect the performance of ADLs. Vibrotactile feedback (VTF) is a frequently-used method to provide prosthesis users with tactile feedback. However, the effect of adding VTF on visual attention and performance in a motor dual-task paradigm has not been investigated. Our aim was to compare visual attention and performance during ADLs in a motor dual-task paradigm when using binary VTF and without using VTF...
June 19, 2017: Assistive Technology: the Official Journal of RESNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624575/intestinal-fungal-dysbiosis-associates-with-visceral-hypersensitivity-in-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome-and-rats
#4
Sara Botschuijver, Guus Roeselers, Evgeni Levin, Daisy M Jonkers, Olaf Welting, Sigrid Em Heinsbroek, Heleen H de Weerd, Teun Boekhout, Matteo Fornai, Ad A Masclee, Frank H J Schuren, Wouter J de Jonge, Jurgen Seppen, Rene M van den Wijngaard
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Visceral hypersensitivity is one feature of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Bacterial dysbiosis might be involved in activation of nociceptive sensory pathways, but there have been few studies of the role of the mycobiome (the fungal microbiome) in development of IBS. We analyzed intestinal mycobiomes of patients with IBS and a rat model of visceral hypersensitivity. METHODS: We used internal transcribed spacer 1-based metabarcoding to compare fecal mycobiomes of 18 healthy volunteers with those of 39 patients with IBS (with visceral hypersensitivity or normal levels of sensitivity)...
June 14, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622759/catching-audiovisual-interactions-with-a-first-person-fisherman-video-game
#5
Yile Sun, Timothy J Hickey, Barbara Shinn-Cunningham, Robert Sekuler
The human brain is excellent at integrating information from different sources across multiple sensory modalities. To examine one particularly important form of multisensory interaction, we manipulated the temporal correlation between visual and auditory stimuli in a first-person fisherman video game. Subjects saw rapidly swimming fish whose size oscillated, either at 6 or 8 Hz. Subjects categorized each fish according to its rate of size oscillation, while trying to ignore a concurrent broadband sound seemingly emitted by the fish...
July 2017: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615330/the-visual-encoding-of-purely-proprioceptive-intermanual-tasks-is-due-to-the-need-of-transforming-joint-signals-not-to-their-inter-hemispheric-transfer
#6
Léo Arnoux, Sebastien Fromentin, Dario Farotto, Mathieu Beraneck, Joseph McIntyre, Michele Tagliabue
To perform goal-oriented hand movement humans combine multiple sensory signals (e.g. vision and proprioception) that can be encoded in various reference frames (body-centered and/or exo-centered). In a previous study we showed that when aligning a hand to a remembered target orientation the brain encodes both target and response in visual space when the target is sensed by one hand and the response is performed by the other, even though both are sensed only through proprioception. Here we ask whether such visual encoding is due i) to the necessity of transferring sensory information across the brain hemispheres or ii) to the necessity, due to the arms' anatomical mirror symmetry, of transforming the joint signals of one limb into the reference frame of the other...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614299/homeostatic-circuits-selectively-gate-food-cue-responses-in-insular-cortex
#7
Yoav Livneh, Rohan N Ramesh, Christian R Burgess, Kirsten M Levandowski, Joseph C Madara, Henning Fenselau, Glenn J Goldey, Veronica E Diaz, Nick Jikomes, Jon M Resch, Bradford B Lowell, Mark L Andermann
Physiological needs bias perception and attention to relevant sensory cues. This process is 'hijacked' by drug addiction, causing cue-induced cravings and relapse. Similarly, its dysregulation contributes to failed diets, obesity, and eating disorders. Neuroimaging studies in humans have implicated insular cortex in these phenomena. However, it remains unclear how 'cognitive' cortical representations of motivationally relevant cues are biased by subcortical circuits that drive specific motivational states. Here we develop a microprism-based cellular imaging approach to monitor visual cue responses in the insular cortex of behaving mice across hunger states...
June 14, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612936/sensory-feedback-from-the-urethra-evokes-state-dependent-lower-urinary-tract-reflexes-in-rat
#8
Zachary C Danziger, Warren M Grill
Lower urinary tract reflexes are mediated by peripheral afferents from the bladder (primarily in the pelvic nerve) and the urethra (in the pudendal and pelvic nerves) to maintain continence or initiate micturition. If fluid enters the urethra at low bladder volumes, reflexes relax the bladder and evoke external urethral sphincter (EUS) contraction (guarding reflex) to maintain continence. Conversely, urethral flow at high bladder volumes, excites the bladder (micturition reflex) and relaxes the EUS (augmenting reflex)...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611657/vestibular-adaptations-induced-by-gentle-physical-activity-are-reduced-among-older-women
#9
Julien Maitre, Thierry Paillard
The aim of this study was to compare the ability of older individuals to maintain an efficient upright stance in contexts of vestibular sensory manipulation, according to their physical activity status. Two groups of healthy older women (aged over 65) free from any disorders (i.e., neurological, motor and metabolic disorders) and vestibular disturbances, participated in this study. One group comprised participants who regularly practiced gentle physical activities, i.e., soft gym, aquarobic, active walking, ballroom dancing (active group, age: 73...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607165/the-cumulative-effects-of-predictability-on-synaptic-gain-in-the-auditory-processing-stream
#10
Ryszard Auksztulewicz, Nicolas Barascud, Gerald Cooray, Anna Christina Nobre, Maria Chait, Karl Friston
Stimulus predictability can lead to substantial modulations of brain activity, such as shifts in sustained magnetic field amplitude, measured with magnetoencephalography. Here, we provide a mechanistic explanation of these effects using MEG data acquired from healthy human volunteers (N=13, 7 female). In a source-level analysis of induced responses, we established the effects of orthogonal predictability manipulations of rapid tone-pip sequences (namely, sequence regularity and alphabet size) along the auditory processing stream...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602997/neural-mechanisms-underlying-valence-inferences-to-sound-the-role-of-the-right-angular-gyrus
#11
Fernando Bravo, Ian Cross, Sarah Hawkins, Nadia Gonzalez, Jorge Docampo, Claudio Bruno, Emmanuel Andreas Stamatakis
We frequently infer others' intentions based on non-verbal auditory cues. Although the brain underpinnings of social cognition have been extensively studied, no empirical work has yet examined the impact of musical structure manipulation on the neural processing of emotional valence during mental state inferences. We used a novel sound-based theory-of-mind paradigm in which participants categorized stimuli of different sensory dissonance level in terms of positive/negative valence. Whilst consistent with previous studies which propose facilitated encoding of consonances, our results demonstrated that distinct levels of consonance/dissonance elicited differential influences on the right angular gyrus, an area implicated in mental state attribution and attention reorienting processes...
June 8, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601693/causal-role-for-inverse-reasoning-on-obsessive-compulsive-symptoms-preliminary-evidence-from-a-cognitive-bias-modification-for-interpretation-bias-study
#12
Shiu F Wong, Jessica R Grisham
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The inference-based approach (IBA) is a cognitive account of the genesis and maintenance of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). According to the IBA, individuals with OCD are prone to using inverse reasoning, in which hypothetical causes form the basis of conclusions about reality. Several studies have provided preliminary support for an association between features of the IBA and OCD symptoms. However, there are currently no studies that have investigated the proposed causal relationship of inverse reasoning in OCD...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592691/all-for-one-but-not-one-for-all-excitatory-synaptic-scaling-and-intrinsic-excitability-are-coregulated-by-camkiv-while-inhibitory-synaptic-scaling-is-under-independent-control
#13
Annelise Joseph, Gina G Turrigiano
Neocortical circuits utilize a family of homeostatic plasticity mechanisms to stabilize firing, including excitatory and inhibitory synaptic scaling and homeostatic intrinsic plasticity (Turrigiano and Nelson, 2004). All three mechanisms can be induced in tandem in cultured rat neocortical pyramidal neurons by chronic manipulations of firing, but it is unknown whether they are co-induced by the same activity-sensors and signaling pathways, or whether they are under independent control. CaMKIV is a key sensory/effector in excitatory synaptic scaling that senses perturbations in firing through changes in calcium influx, and translates this into compensatory changes in excitatory quantal amplitude (Goold and Nicoll, 2010; Ibata et al...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588297/targeted-patching-and-dendritic-ca-2-imaging-in-nonhuman-primate-brain-in-vivo
#14
Ran Ding, Xiang Liao, Jingcheng Li, Jianxiong Zhang, Meng Wang, Yu Guang, Han Qin, Xingyi Li, Kuan Zhang, Shanshan Liang, Jiangheng Guan, Jia Lou, Hongbo Jia, Bingbo Chen, Hui Shen, Xiaowei Chen
Nonhuman primates provide an important model not only for understanding human brain but also for translational research in neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, many high-resolution techniques for recording neural activity in vivo that were initially established for rodents have not been yet applied to the nonhuman primate brain. Here, we introduce a combination of two-photon targeted patching and dendritic Ca(2+) imaging to the neocortex of adult common marmoset, an invaluable primate model for neuroscience research...
June 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580046/characterization-of-microfluidic-clamps-for-immobilizing-and-imaging-of-drosophila-melanogaster-larva-s-central-nervous-system
#15
Reza Ghaemi, Pouya Rezai, Fatemeh Rafiei Nejad, Ponnambalam Ravi Selvaganapathy
Drosophila melanogaster is a well-established model organism to understand biological processes and study human diseases at the molecular-genetic level. The central nervous system (CNS) of Drosophila larvae is widely used as a model to study neuron development and network formation. This has been achieved by using various genetic manipulation tools such as microinjection to knock down certain genes or over-express proteins for visualizing the cellular activities. However, visualization of an intact-live neuronal response in larva's Central Nervous System (CNS) is challenging due to robust digging/burrowing behaviour that impedes neuroimaging...
May 2017: Biomicrofluidics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579691/does-prediction-error-drive-one-shot-declarative-learning
#16
Andrea Greve, Elisa Cooper, Alexander Kaula, Michael C Anderson, Richard Henson
The role of prediction error (PE) in driving learning is well-established in fields such as classical and instrumental conditioning, reward learning and procedural memory; however, its role in human one-shot declarative encoding is less clear. According to one recent hypothesis, PE reflects the divergence between two probability distributions: one reflecting the prior probability (from previous experiences) and the other reflecting the sensory evidence (from the current experience). Assuming unimodal probability distributions, PE can be manipulated in three ways: (1) the distance between the mode of the prior and evidence, (2) the precision of the prior, and (3) the precision of the evidence...
June 2017: Journal of Memory and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577447/unconscious-integration-of-multisensory-bodily-inputs-in-the-peripersonal-space-shapes-bodily-self-consciousness
#17
Roy Salomon, Jean-Paul Noel, Marta Łukowska, Nathan Faivre, Thomas Metzinger, Andrea Serino, Olaf Blanke
Recent studies have highlighted the role of multisensory integration as a key mechanism of self-consciousness. In particular, integration of bodily signals within the peripersonal space (PPS) underlies the experience of the self in a body we own (self-identification) and that is experienced as occupying a specific location in space (self-location), two main components of bodily self-consciousness (BSC). Experiments investigating the effects of multisensory integration on BSC have typically employed supra-threshold sensory stimuli, neglecting the role of unconscious sensory signals in BSC, as tested in other consciousness research...
May 31, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577446/that-s-my-hand-therefore-that-s-my-willed-action-how-body-ownership-acts-upon-conscious-awareness-of-willed-actions
#18
Dalila Burin, Maria Pyasik, Adriana Salatino, Lorenzo Pia
Whether and how body ownership ("this body is mine") contributes to human conscious experience of voluntary action is still unclear. In order to answer this question, here we incorporated two signatures (i.e., an ad hoc questionnaire and the sensory attenuation paradigm) of human's sense of agency ("this action is due to my own will") within a well-known experimental manipulation of body ownership (i.e., the rubber hand illusion paradigm). In two different experiments, we showed that the illusory ownership over a fake hand (induced by the rubber hand illusion) triggered also an illusory agency over its movements at both explicit and implicit level...
May 31, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576824/pre-settlement-coral-reef-fish-larvae-respond-to-magnetic-field-changes-during-the-day
#19
Jack O'Connor, Rachel Muheim
Observations of coral-reef fish larvae have revealed remarkably consistent orientation behaviour while swimming offshore, requiring large-scale orientation cues. However, the mechanisms underlying this behaviour are still being investigated. One potential large-scale cue for orientation is the Earth's geomagnetic field. Here, we examined the effect of magnetic field manipulations on the orientation behaviour of coral-reef fish during the pelagic larval phase. In the absence of visual cues, individual larvae responded to a 90° shift of the horizontal component of the magnetic field within a Helmholtz coil with a comparable shift in orientation, demonstrating that they use a magnetic compass for orientation...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562617/taxonomy-based-analysis-of-force-exchanges-during-object-grasping-and-manipulation
#20
Sandra Martin-Brevet, Nathanaël Jarrassé, Etienne Burdet, Agnès Roby-Brami
The flexibility of the human hand in object manipulation is essential for daily life activities, but remains relatively little explored with quantitative methods. On the one hand, recent taxonomies describe qualitatively the classes of hand postures for object grasping and manipulation. On the other hand, the quantitative analysis of hand function has been generally restricted to precision grip (with thumb and index opposition) during lifting tasks. The aim of the present study is to fill the gap between these two kinds of descriptions, by investigating quantitatively the forces exerted by the hand on an instrumented object in a set of representative manipulation tasks...
2017: PloS One
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