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Neurotrophin 3

Sarah Elizabeth Skerratt, Mark D Andrews, Sharan K Bagal, James Bilsland, David Brown, Peter J Bungay, Susan Cole, Karl R Gibson, Russell Jones, Inaki Morao, Angus Nedderman, Kiyoyuki Omoto, Colin Robinson, Thomas Ryckmans, Kimberly Skinner, Paul Anthony Stupple, Gareth Waldron
The neurotrophin family of growth factors, comprised of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin 3 (NT3) and neurotrophin 4 (NT4), is implicated in the physiology of chronic pain. Given the clinical efficacy of anti-NGF monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapies, there is significant interest in the development of small molecule modulators of neurotrophin activity. Neurotrophins signal through the tropomyosin related kinase (Trk) family of tyrosine kinase receptors, hence Trk kinase inhibition represents a potentially "druggable" point of intervention...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Claudia Kathe, Thomas Haynes Hutson, Stephen Brendan McMahon, Lawrence David Falcon Moon
Brain and spinal injury reduce mobility and often impair sensorimotor processing in the spinal cord leading to spasticity. Here, we establish that complete transection of corticospinal pathways in the pyramids impairs locomotion and leads to increased spasms and excessive mono- and polysynaptic low threshold spinal reflexes in rats. Treatment of affected forelimb muscles with an adeno-associated viral vector (AAV) encoding human Neurotrophin-3 at a clinically-feasible time-point after injury reduced spasticity...
October 19, 2016: ELife
Charles Yuen Yung Loh, Aline Yen Ling Wang, Huang-Kai Kao, Esteban Cardona, Sheng-Hao Chuang, Fu-Chan Wei
Traumatic peripheral nerve neurotmesis occurs frequently and functional recovery is often slow and impaired. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have shown much promise in recent years due to its regenerative properties similar to that of embryonic stem cells. However, the potential of iPSCs in promoting the functional recovery of a transected peripheral nerve is largely unknown. This study is the first to investigate in vivo effects of episomal iPSCs (EiPSCs) on peripheral nerve regeneration in a murine sciatic nerve transection model...
2016: PloS One
Jisung Kim, Siyoung Lee, Bo-Ryoung Choi, Hee Yang, Youjin Hwang, Jung Han Yoon Park, Frank M LaFerla, Jung-Soo Han, Ki Won Lee, Jiyoung Kim
SCOPE: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin that supports the survival of existing neurons and encourages the growth and differentiation of new neurons and synapses. We investigated the effect of sulforaphane, a hydrolysis product of glucoraphanin present in Brassica vegetables, on neuronal BDNF expression and its synaptic signaling pathways. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mouse primary cortical neurons and a triple-transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (3 × Tg-AD) were used to study the effect of sulforaphane...
October 13, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Yu-Hui Yan, Shao-Heng Li, Zhong Gao, Sa-Feng Zou, Hong-Yan Li, Zhen-Yu Tao, Jie Song, Jing-Xian Yang
AIMS: Recently, the potential for neural stem cells (NSCs) to be used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been reported; however, the therapeutic effects are modest by virtue of the low neural differentiation rate. In our study, we transfected bone marrow-derived NSCs (BM-NSCs) with Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), a superactive neurotrophic factor that promotes neuronal survival, differentiation, and migration of neuronal cells, to investigate the effects of NT-3 gene overexpression on the proliferation and differentiation into cholinergic neuron of BM-NSCs in vitro and its possible molecular mechanism...
October 6, 2016: Life Sciences
Christopher D L Johnson, Anthony R D'Amato, Ryan J Gilbert
There is currently no cure for individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). While many promising approaches are being tested in clinical trials, the complexity of SCI limits several of these approaches from aiding complete functional recovery. Several different categories of biomaterials are investigated for their ability to guide axonal regeneration, to deliver proteins or small molecules locally, or to improve the viability of transplanted stem cells. The purpose of this study is to provide a brief overview of SCI, present the different categories of biomaterial scaffolds that direct and guide axonal regeneration, and then focus specifically on electrospun fiber guidance scaffolds...
2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Yusuke Naito, Alfred Kihoon Lee, Hideto Takahashi
Tropomyosin-receptor-kinase (Trk) receptors have been extensively studied for their roles in kinase-dependent signaling cascades in nervous system development. Synapse organization is coordinated by trans-synaptic interactions of various cell adhesion proteins, a representative example of which is the neurexin-neuroligin complex. Recently, a novel role for TrkC as a synapse organizing protein has been established. Post-synaptic TrkC binds to pre-synaptic type-IIa receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase sigma (PTPσ)...
September 30, 2016: Neuroscience Research
Fouad Brahimi, Mario Maira, Pablo F Barcelona, Alba Galan, Tahar Aboulkassim, Katrina Teske, Mary-Louise Rogers, Lisa Bertram, Jing Wang, Masoud Yousefi, Robert Rush, Marc Fabian, Neil Cashman, H Uri Saragovi
Full length TrkC (TrkC-FL) is a receptor tyrosine kinase whose mRNA can be spliced to a truncated TrkC.T1 isoform lacking the kinase domain. Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) activates TrkC-FL to maintain motor neuron health and function and TrkC.T1 to produce neurotoxic TNF-α; hence resulting in opposing pathways. In mouse and human ALS spinal cord, the reduction of miR-128 that destabilizes TrkC.T1 mRNA results in up-regulated TrkC.T1 and TNF-α in astrocytes. We exploited conformational differences to develop an agonistic mAb 2B7 that selectively activates TrkC-FL, to circumvent TrkC...
2016: PloS One
Sydney K Vaughan, Olivia L Stanley, Gregorio Valdez
The impact of aging on proprioceptive sensory neurons and intrafusal muscle fibers (IMFs) remains largely unexplored despite the central function these cells play in modulating voluntary movements. Here, we show that proprioceptive sensory neurons undergo deleterious morphological changes in middle age (11- to 13-month-old) and old (15- to 21-month-old) mice. In the extensor digitorum longus and soleus muscles of middle age and old mice, there is a significant increase in the number of Ia afferents with large swellings that fail to properly wrap around IMFs compared with young adult (2- to 4-month-old) mice...
September 29, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Dingmin Yan, Xishi Liu, Sun-Wei Guo
Hyperinnervation in endometriosis is now well documented, but so far only a few neurotrophins have been identified. Since endometriotic stromal cells secrete thromboxane A2 (TXA2), we sought to determine whether TXA2, derived from endometriotic stromal cells, induces neurite outgrowth. Using primary sensory neurons derived from rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and ectopic endometrial stromal cells (EESCs) derived from human ovarian endometrioma tissues, we treated the primary neurons with different concentrations of U-46619, a stable TXA2 mimetic, and performed a neuronal growth assay...
September 29, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
Surabhi Shukla, Zia Shariat-Madar, Larry A Walker, Babu L Tekwani
In this study we investigated the neurotrophic actions of vorinostat (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, SAHA), a class I and class II HDAC inhibitor, on the differentiation of Neuroscreen-1 (NS-1) cells. NS-1 cell is a subclone of the rat pheochromocytoma cell line (PC 12). Vorinostat independently induced neurite outgrowth in NS-1 cells. The NS-1 cells were further interrogated for the effects of vorinostat on intracellular neurotrophin signaling pathways, to understand its mechanism of neurotrophic action...
September 24, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Bettina Maria Foidl, Patricia Do-Dinh, Bianca Hutter-Schmid, Harald R Bliem, Christian Humpel
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder that is mainly characterized by beta-amyloid (Aβ) plaque deposition, Tau pathology and dysfunction of the cholinergic system causing memory impairment. The aim of the present study was to examine (1) anxiety and cognition, (2) Aβ plaque deposition and (3) degeneration of cholinergic neurons in the nucleus basalis of Meynert (nbM) and cortical cholinergic innervation in an Alzheimer mouse model (APP_SweDI; overexpressing amyloid precursor protein (APP) with the Swedish K670N/M671L, Dutch E693Q, and Iowa D694N mutations)...
September 23, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Bi-Qin Lai, Ming-Tian Che, Bao-Ling Du, Xiang Zeng, Yuan-Huan Ma, Bo Feng, Xue-Chen Qiu, Ke Zhang, Shu Liu, Hui-Yong Shen, Jin-Lang Wu, Eng-Ang Ling, Yuan-Shan Zeng
Severe spinal cord injury (SCI) causes loss of neural connectivity and permanent functional deficits. Re-establishment of new neuronal relay circuits after SCI is therefore of paramount importance. The present study tested our hypothesis if co-culture of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) gene-modified Schwann cells (SCs, NT-3-SCs) and TrkC (NT-3 receptor) gene-modified neural stem cells (NSCs, TrkC-NSCs) in a gelatin sponge scaffold could construct a tissue engineering neural network for re-establishing an anatomical neuronal relay after rat spinal cord transection...
December 2016: Biomaterials
David J Sly, Luke Campbell, Aaron Uschakov, Saieda Tasfia Saief, Matthew Lam, Stephen J O'Leary
HYPOTHESIS: Applying neurotrophins to the round window immediately after a single noise exposure will prevent noise-induced hidden hearing loss. BACKGROUND: Loud noise can eliminate neural connections between inner hair cells and their afferent neurons (thereby diminishing sound perception) without causing a detectable change on audiogram. This phenomenon is termed hidden hearing loss. METHODS: Guinea pigs were exposed for 2 hours to 4 to 8 kHz noise at either 95 or 105 dB SPL...
October 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Volkan Coskun, Dawn M Lombardo
The cardiovascular and nervous systems are deeply connected during development, health, and disease. Both systems affect and regulate the development of each other during embryogenesis and the early postnatal period. Specialized neural crest cells contribute to cardiac structures, and a number of growth factors released from the cardiac tissue (e.g., glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, neurturin, nerve growth factor, Neurotrophin-3) ensure proper maturation of the incoming parasympathetic and sympathetic neurons...
December 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Shin-Young Park, Min-Jeong Kang, Joong-Soo Han
We investigated the role of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the neuronal differentiation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) from hippocampi of E16.5 rat embryos. The production of nitric oxide (NO) and nNOS expression increased markedly during neuronal differentiation as did the expression of neurotrophin-3 (NT3), neurotrophin-4/5 (NT 4/5), and synapsin I. nNOS siRNA or the nNOS inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), decreased expression of the neurotrophins and synapsin I, and suppressed neurite outgrowth...
September 13, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Wen-Chen Ji, Xiao-Wei Zhang, Yu-Sheng Qiu
Spinal cord injury usually leads to permanent disability, which could cause a huge financial problem to the patient. Up to now there is no effective method to treat this disease. The key of the treatment is to enable the damage zone axonal regeneration and luckily it could go through the damage zone; last a connection can be established with the target neurons. This study attempts to combine stem cell, material science and genetic modification technology together, by preparing two genes modified adipose-derived stem cells and inducing them into neuron direction; then by compositing them on the silk fibroin/chitosan scaffold and implanting them into the spinal cord injury model, seed cells can have features of neuron cells...
August 20, 2016: World Journal of Experimental Medicine
Jong Heon Kim, Sung-Hoon Kim, Sung-Rae Cho, Ji Yong Lee, Ji Hyun Kim, Ahreum Baek, Hong Sun Jung
OBJECTIVE: To investigate alterations in the expression of the main regulators of neuronal survival and death related to astrocytes and neuronal cells in the brain in a mouse model of spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: Eight-week-old male imprinting control region mice (n=36; 30-35 g) were used in this study and randomly assigned to two groups: the naïve control group (n=18) and SCI group (n=18). The mice in both groups were randomly allocated to the following three time points: 3 days, 1 week, and 2 weeks (n=6 each)...
August 2016: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
Yu-Ping Mo, Hai-Jiang Yao, Wei Lv, Liang-Yu Song, Hong-Tao Song, Xiao-Chen Yuan, Ying-Qiu Mao, Quan-Kai Jing, Su-Hua Shi, Zhi-Gang Li
In an effort to explore new, noninvasive treatment options for spinal cord injuries (SCI), this study investigated the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) for SCI rat models. SCI was induced by a modified Allen's weight-drop method. We investigated the response of EA at Dazhui (GV 14) and Mingmen (GV 4) acupoints to understand the effects and mechanisms of EA in neuroprotection and neuronal function recovery after SCI. BBB testing was used to detect motor function of rats' hind limbs among groups, and EA was shown to promote the recovery of SCI rats' motor function...
2016: Neural Plasticity
Sudhakar Aare, Sally Spendiff, Madhusudanarao Vuda, Daren Elkrief, Anna Perez, Qinghua Wu, Dominique Mayaki, Sabah N A Hussain, Stefan Hettwer, Russell T Hepple
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle displays a marked accumulation of denervated myofibers at advanced age, which coincides with an acceleration of muscle atrophy. METHODS: In this study, we evaluated the hypothesis that the accumulation of denervated myofibers in advanced age is due to failed reinnervation by examining muscle from young adult (YA) and very old (VO) rats and from a murine model of sporadic denervation secondary to neurotrypsin over-expression (Sarco mouse)...
2016: Skeletal Muscle
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