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Neurotrophin 3

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453932/neurotrophin-3-restores-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-striatum-of-a-mouse-model-of-huntington-s-disease
#1
Victor G Gómez-Pineda, Francisco M Torres-Cruz, César I Vivar-Cortés, Elizabeth Hernández-Echeagaray
AIMS: Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) is expressed in the mouse striatum; however, it is not clear the NT-3 role in striatal physiology. The expression levels of mRNAs and immune localization of the NT-3 protein and its receptor TrkC are altered in the striatum following damage induced by an in vivo treatment with 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP), a mitochondrial toxin used to mimic the histopathological hallmarks of Huntington's disease (HD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of NT-3 on corticostriatal synaptic transmission and its plasticity in both the control and damaged striatum...
February 17, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453204/circulating-mirna-profiles-associated-with-hyperglycemia-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#2
Eiichiro Satake, Marcus G Pezzolesi, Zaipul I Md Dom, Adam M Smiles, Monika A Niewczas, Andrzej S Krolewski
We investigated plasma microRNA (miRNA) profiles associated with variation of hyperglycemia, measured as hemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ), in two panels of patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Using the HTG Molecular Diagnostics EdgeSeq platform, 2,083 miRNAs were measured in plasma from 71 patients included in a screening panel. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to measure the candidate miRNAs in plasma from 95 patients included in an independent replication panel. We found 10 miRNAs replicated in both panels and four with high statistical significance...
February 16, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436662/comparison-of-the-properties-of-neural-stem-cells-of-the-hippocampus-in-the-tree-shrew-and-rat-in%C3%A2-vitro
#3
Yuan-Dong Hu, Qiong Zhao, Xue-Rong Zhang, Liu-Lin Xiong, Zi-Bin Zhang, Piao Zhang, Rong-Ping Zhang, Ting-Hua Wang
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are characterized by the ability of self‑renewal and capacity to proliferate and produce new nervous tissue. NSCs are capable of differentiating to three lineages of neural cells, including neurons, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. Furthermore, hippocampal NSCs transplantation can improve the neurological deficits associated with expression of cytokines. Therefore, to compare the properties of NSCs of tree shrews and rats in vitro, NSCs from tree shrews (tsNSCs) and rats f(rNSCs) were isolated...
February 12, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417440/caffeine-protects-against-anticonvulsant-induced-impaired-neurogenesis-in-the-developing-rat-brain
#4
Stefanie Endesfelder, Ulrike Weichelt, Cornelia Schiller, Katja Winter, Clarissa von Haefen, Christoph Bührer
In preterm infants, phenobarbital is the first-line antiepileptic drug for neonatal seizures while caffeine is used for the treatment of apnea. Data from experimental animals suggest that phenobarbital and other anticonvulsants are toxic for the developing brain, while neuroprotective effects have been reported for caffeine both in newborn rodents and preterm human infants. To characterize the interaction of phenobarbital and caffeine in the hippocampus of the developing rodent brain, we examined the effects of both drugs given separately or together on postnatal neurogenesis after administration to neonatal rats throughout postnatal day (P) 4 to P6...
February 7, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407749/differentiation-of-stem-cells-from-human-deciduous-and-permanent-teeth-into-spiral-ganglion-neuron-like-cells
#5
Thanasup Gonmanee, Charoensri Thonabulsombat, Kutkao Vongsavan, Hathaitip Sritanaudomchai
OBJECTIVE: Stem cells from pulp tissue are a promising cell-based therapy for neurodegenerative patients based on their origin in the neural crest. The aim of this study was to differentiate and evaluate the ability of human dental pulp stem cells from permanent teeth (DPSC) and stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) to differentiate into spiral ganglion neurons. DESIGN: After isolation and characterization of mesenchymal stem cell properties, DPSC and SHED were treated with the neurotrophins brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)...
February 1, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406991/a-new-etiologic-model-for-alzheimers-disease
#6
Kathryn A Schiel
This etiologic model proposes that Alzheimers Disease (AD) arises when an unusually rapid increase in ventricle volume triggers axon stretch that culminates in the physical separation of trans-synaptic proteins. As a result, these proteins, such as neurexin, neuroligin, N-Cadherin and Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP), experience a change in the configuration of their cytoplasmic tail, so that instead of transmitting signals to create and maintain synaptic structure they activate enzymes, and generate molecules, that stimulate neurite growth; for example, the transformation of the N-Cadherin tail dissolves its complex with presenilin and β-catenin triggering activation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β) and cytoskeletal disruption...
February 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403547/transfection-of-neurotrophin-3-into-neural-stem-cells-using-ultrasound-with-microbubbles-to-treat-denervated-muscle-atrophy
#7
Lin Gong, Changqing Jiang, Li Liu, Shengxiang Wan, Wen Tan, Sushuang Ma, Xiaojian Jia, Meiwei Wang, Azhen Hu, Yu Shi, Yu Zhang, Yuanyuan Shen, Feng Wang, Yun Chen
Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) has potential as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of patients with denervated muscle atrophy. However, the endogenous secretion of NT-3 is low and exogenous NT-3 lacks sufficient time to accumulate due to its short half-life. The transfection of NT-3 has been demonstrated to have a beneficial effect on denervated muscle and motor endplates. Neural stem cells (NSCs) differentiate into neurons and form motor endplate nerve-muscle connections. It has been previously demonstrated that local and noninvasive transfection can be performed using ultrasound with microbubbles (MBs)...
January 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386650/targeted-knockdown-of-overexpressed-vegfa-or-vegf164-in-m%C3%A3-ller-cells-maintains-retinal-function-by-triggering-different-signaling-mechanisms
#8
Silke Becker, Haibo Wang, Aaron B Simmons, Thipparat Suwanmanee, Gregory J Stoddard, Tal Kafri, M Elizabeth Hartnett
Oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) upregulates Müller cell vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) that causes intravitreal neovascularization similar to severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Safety concerns exist with anti-VEGF treatment for ROP. We evaluated long-term knockdown of Müller cell-VEGFA with short-hairpin RNAs to VEGFA or VEGF164 via subretinal lentivirus delivery (L-VEGFAshRNA, L-VEGF164shRNA) on retinal structure and function in a rat OIR model. Lectin-stained retinal flat mounts analyzed for areas of avascular/total retina (AVA) and intravitreal neovascular/total retina (IVNV) showed initial significantly reduced IVNV by L-VEGFAshRNA and L-VEGF164shRNA compared to control, luciferase-shRNA lentivirus, without late recurrence...
January 31, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384327/differences-in-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-between-neonates-born-to-mothers-with-normal-and-low-ferritin
#9
Yusrawati, Gustuti Rina, Lipoeto Nur Indrawati, Rizanda Machmud
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Maternal iron deficiency in late pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period has an indirect impact to decrease neurotrophin concentration in the fetal hippocampus, namely brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). It plays an important role in the development of learning, memory, and behavior. The aim of this study was to determine the differences in BDNF between neonates born to mothers with normal and low ferritin. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: This was an observational study with a cross-sectional design involving 20 term pregnant women with normal ferritin (>=12 ng/mL) and 20 term pregnant women with low ferritin (<12 ng/mL)...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380702/biological-and-genetic-features-of-neuroblastoma-and-their-clinical-importance
#10
Nevim Aygun
Neuroblastoma derived from primitive cells of the sympathetic nervous system typically develops in the adrenal medulla or paraspinal ganglia. Neuroblastoma usually occurs sporadically, but familial cases are also observed. ALK and PHOX2B germline mutations can cause hereditary neuroblastoma, while a common genetic variation in chromosome 6p22 is associated to sporadic neuroblastoma. However, the aetiology of sporadic neuroblastoma is not exactly known. This embryonic malignancy generally represents the second most common solid tumour after central nervous system tumours throughout the world in childhood...
January 28, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372349/cognitive-impairment-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-role-of-lymphocyte-subsets-cytokines-and-neurotrophic-factors
#11
Laura E Petersen, Talita S A Baptista, Júlia K Molina, Julia G Motta, Aline do Prado, Deise M Piovesan, Tatiana de Nardi, Thiago W Viola, Érica L M Vieira, Antonio L Teixeira, Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira, Moisés Evandro Bauer
To what extent the cognitive impairment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is modulated by autoimmune and/or inflammatory activity is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of peripheral inflammation on cognitive functions of patients with active (Ac-), controlled (Co-) RA and healthy controls. In a cross-sectional study, 102 RA patients and 30 matched healthy controls were recruited. B and T cell subsets were immunophenotyped by flow cytometry. Plasma cytokines and neurotrophins were measured by flow cytometry and ELISA, respectively...
January 25, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352519/nafamostat-mesilate-attenuates-inflammation-and-apoptosis-and-promotes-locomotor-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury
#12
Hui-Quan Duan, Qiu-Li Wu, Xue Yao, Bao-You Fan, Hong-Yu Shi, Chen-Xi Zhao, Yan Zhang, Bo Li, Chao Sun, Xiao-Hong Kong, Xin-Fu Zhou, Shi-Qing Feng
AIM: Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to severe neural damage for which there is currently no effective treatment. Exploration of the neuroprotective effect among clinically approved drugs will speed up clinical translation of SCI. Nafamostat mesilate (NM) as a synthetic serine protease inhibitor has been used clinically in pancreatitis treatments. However, its effectiveness in SCI is unknown. The aim of this study was to confirm the efficacy of NM in ameliorating SCI. METHODS: Intraperitoneal administration of NM was performed on a contusion SCI model in Wistar rat...
January 19, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342911/effects-of-acanthopanax-senticosus-on-brain-injury-induced-by-simulated-spatial-radiation-in-mouse-model-based-on-pharmacokinetics-and-comparative-proteomics
#13
Yingyu Zhou, Cuilin Cheng, Denis Baranenko, Jiaping Wang, Yongzhi Li, Weihong Lu
The active compounds in Acanthopanax senticosus (AS) have different pharmacokinetic characteristics in mouse models. Cmax and AUC of Acanthopanax senticosus polysaccharides (ASPS) were significantly reduced in radiation-injured mice, suggesting that the blood flow of mouse was blocked or slowed, due to the pathological state of ischemia and hypoxia, which are caused by radiation. In contrast, the ability of various metabolizing enzymes to inactivate, capacity of biofilm transport decrease, and lessening of renal blood flow accounts for radiation, resulting in the accumulation of syringin and eleutheroside E in the irradiated mouse...
January 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323721/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-modulates-cholesterol-homeostasis-and-apolipoprotein-e-synthesis-in-human-cell-models-of-astrocytes-and-neurons
#14
Maria Stefania Spagnuolo, Aldo Donizetti, Lucia Iannotta, Vincenza Aliperti, Chiara Cupidi, Amalia Cecilia Bruni, Luisa Cigliano
In the central nervous system, cholesterol is critical to maintain membrane plasticity, cellular function, and synaptic integrity. In recent years, much attention was focused on the role of cholesterol in brain since a breakdown of cholesterol metabolism has been associated with different diseases. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was previously reported to elicit cholesterol biosynthesis and promote the accumulation of presynaptic proteins in cholesterol-rich lipid rafts, but no data are available on its ability to modulate physiological mechanisms involved in cholesterol homeostasis...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321376/retinal-de-novo-lipogenesis-coordinates-neurotrophic-signaling-to-maintain-vision
#15
Rithwick Rajagopal, Sheng Zhang, Xiaochao Wei, Teresa Doggett, Sangeeta Adak, Jennifer Enright, Vaishali Shah, Guoyu Ling, Shiming Chen, Jun Yoshino, Fong-Fu Hsu, Clay F Semenkovich
Membrane lipid composition is central to the highly specialized functions of neurological tissues. In the retina, abnormal lipid metabolism causes severe forms of blindness, often through poorly understood neuronal cell death. Here, we demonstrate that deleting the de novo lipogenic enzyme fatty acid synthase (FAS) from the neural retina, but not the vascular retina, results in progressive neurodegeneration and blindness with a temporal pattern resembling rodent models of retinitis pigmentosa. Blindness was not rescued by protection from light-evoked activity; by eating a diet enriched in palmitate, the product of the FAS reaction; or by treatment with the PPARα agonist fenofibrate...
January 11, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305654/spontaneous-regression-of-neuroblastoma
#16
REVIEW
Garrett M Brodeur
Neuroblastomas are characterized by heterogeneous clinical behavior, from spontaneous regression or differentiation into a benign ganglioneuroma, to relentless progression despite aggressive, multimodality therapy. Indeed, neuroblastoma is unique among human cancers in terms of its propensity to undergo spontaneous regression. The strongest evidence for this comes from the mass screening studies conducted in Japan, North America and Europe and it is most evident in infants with stage 4S disease. This propensity is associated with a pattern of genomic change characterized by whole chromosome gains rather than segmental chromosome changes but the mechanism(s) underlying spontaneous regression are currently a matter of speculation...
January 5, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276736/maternal-separation-stress-leads-to-resilience-against-neuropathic-pain-in-adulthood
#17
Julien Genty, Milène Tetsi Nomigni, Fernand Anton, Ulrike Hanesch
Early life stress (ELS) leads to a permanent reprogramming of biochemical stress response cascades that may also be relevant for the processing of chronic pain states such as neuropathy. Despite clinical evidence, little is known about ELS-related vulnerability for neuropathic pain and the possibly underlying etiology. In the framework of experimental studies aimed at investigating the respective relationships we used the established ELS model of maternal separation (MS). Rat dams and neonates were separated for 3 h/day from post-natal day 2-12...
February 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275062/intravenous-infusion-of-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-reduces-erectile-dysfunction-following-cavernous-nerve-injury-in-rats
#18
Yohei Matsuda, Masanori Sasaki, Yuko Kataoka-Sasaki, Akio Takayanagi, Ko Kobayashi, Shinichi Oka, Masahito Nakazaki, Naoya Masumori, Jeffery D Kocsis, Osamu Honmou
INTRODUCTION: Intravenous preload (delivered before cavernous nerve [CN] injury) of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can prevent or decrease postoperative erectile dysfunction (J Sex Med 2015;12:1713-1721). In the present study, the potential therapeutic effects of intravenously administered MSCs on postoperative erectile dysfunction were evaluated in a rat model of CN injury. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 2 groups after electric CN injury...
December 20, 2017: Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273085/adult-human-periodontal-ligament-derived-stem-cells-delay-retinal-degeneration-and-maintain-retinal-function-in-rcs-rats
#19
Li Huang, Zongyi Li, Haibin Tian, Weiguo Wang, Dawei Cui, Zhe Zhou, Xiao Chen, Herman S Cheung, Guo-Tong Xu, Yu Chen
BACKGROUND: Retinal degeneration (RD) is a leading cause of irreversible blindness, affecting millions of people worldwide. Stem cell transplantation has been considered a promising therapy for retinal degenerative diseases. This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic potential of human periodontal ligament-derived stem cells (hPDLSCs) for intervention in the progress of this degeneration in the Royal College Surgeons (RCS) rat. METHODS: hPDLSCs were injected into the subretinal space of 3-week-old RCS rats...
December 22, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249162/dietary-apostichopus-japonicus-alleviates-diabetes-symptoms-and-modulates-genes-expression-in-kidney-tissues-of-db-db-mice
#20
Lisha Dong, Yanyan Li, Dijun Zhang, Hongyan Zhang, Jiaojiao Han, Zhaoyang Wang, Jun Zhou, Chenyang Lu, Xiurong Su
The effects of Apostichopus japonicus enzymatic hydrolysate on the regulation of dyslipidemia, pathoglycemia, and transcription changes in kidney tissues of db/db mice were evaluated. In this study, the symptoms of diabetes in db/db mice were alleviated after 10 weeks of treatments with low (db/db + LD group) and high dose (db/db + HD group) of Apostichopus japonicus enzymatic hydrolysate, and the high dose treatment showed a better antidiabetic effect. Compared with the db/db group, the fasting blood glucose levels (36...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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