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Zhiye Chen, Xiaoyan Chen, Mengqi Liu, Shuangfeng Liu, Siyun Shu, Lin Ma, Shengyuan Yu
BACKGROUND: The marginal division of neostriatum (MrD) is a flat, pan-shaped zone between the neostriatum and the globus pallidus, and previous documents demonstrated that it was involved in the modulation of pain. The aim of this study is to investigate the roles of the MrD of the human brain in the chronicization migraine using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). METHODS: Conventional MRI, 3D structure images, and rs-fMRI were performed in 18 patients with episodic migraines (EM), 16 patients with chronic migraine (CM), 44 patients with medication overuse headache plus chronic migraine (MOH + CM), and 32 normal controls (NC)...
December 2016: Journal of Headache and Pain
Zhiye Chen, Mengqi Liu, Mengyu Liu, Jinfeng Li, Han Shan, Shuangfeng Liu, Xin Lou, Siyun Shu, Lin Ma
PURPOSE: To investigate the structural changes of marginal division (MrD) which is the high intensity zone between globus pallidus and putamen on phase image in the human brain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The structural changes of MrD were investigated based on MR phase imaging and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data at 3.0 Tesla (T) MR scanner in 72 volunteers. Phase value, including high iron components (HIC), low iron components (LIC), LIC ratio, and average iron components (AIC), were obtained using histogram analysis about the head of caudate nucleus (CA), globus pallidus (GP), putamen (PU), and MrD...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Jun Xu, Qiang-Qiang Gang, Peng Hao, Jia-Ning Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To establish a neonatal Tibet minipig model of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and evaluate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) manifestations and pathological findings. METHODS: Six neonatal (1-3 days old) Tibet minipigs were randomized into model group (n=4) and control group (n=2). In model group, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy was induced by surgical ligation of the bilateral carotid artery followedimmediately by hypoxic exposure in a hypoxia chamber for 1 h...
May 2016: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
Ryoma Morigaki, Satoshi Goto
Among the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits, the putamen plays a critical role in the "motor" circuits that control voluntary movements and motor learning. The human neostriatum comprises two functional subdivisions known as the striosome (patch) and matrix compartments. Accumulating evidence suggests that compartment-specific dysregulations of dopamine activity might be involved in the disease-specific pathology and symptoms of human striatal diseases including movement disorders. This study was undertaken to examine whether or how striatal dopaminergic innervations are organized into the compartmentalized architecture found in the putamen of adult human brains...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
C H Brunia
This series of papers suggests that processes underlying anticipatory attention and motor preparation share a common control mechanism. Both functions are of utmost importance for an optimal adaptation to our environment. While the posterior part of the cortex is aimed at the analysis of incoming information, both from the outer world and our own body, the anterior part is involved in action and reaction. If we know when in the near future we will be confronted with relevant information, and how this has to be responded upon, modality specific sensoric and motoric information channels have to be open in order to guarantee an adequate response...
September 1997: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
Alexandra G DiFeliceantonio, Kent C Berridge
Pavlovian cues for rewards can become attractive incentives: approached and 'wanted' as the rewards themselves. The motivational attractiveness of a previously learned cue is not fixed, but can be dynamically amplified during re-encounter by simultaneous activation of brain limbic circuitry. Here it was reported that opioid or dopamine microinjections in the dorsolateral quadrant of the neostriatum (DLS) of rats selectively amplify attraction toward a previously learned Pavlovian cue in an individualized fashion, at the expense of a competing cue...
May 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Yuan Mei, Patricia Monteiro, Yang Zhou, Jin-Ah Kim, Xian Gao, Zhanyan Fu, Guoping Feng
Because autism spectrum disorders are neurodevelopmental disorders and patients typically display symptoms before the age of three, one of the key questions in autism research is whether the pathology is reversible in adults. Here we investigate the developmental requirement of Shank3 in mice, a prominent monogenic autism gene that is estimated to contribute to approximately 1% of all autism spectrum disorder cases. SHANK3 is a postsynaptic scaffold protein that regulates synaptic development, function and plasticity by orchestrating the assembly of postsynaptic density macromolecular signalling complex...
February 25, 2016: Nature
Abbes Belkhiri, Shoumin Zhu, Wael El-Rifai
Dopamine and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein Mr 32,000 (DARPP-32), also known as phosphoprotein phosphatase-1 regulatory subunit 1B (PPP1R1B), was initially discovered as a substrate of dopamine-activated protein kinase A (PKA) in the neostriatum in the brain. While phosphorylation at Thr-34 by PKA converts DARPP-32 into a potent inhibitor of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), phosphorylation at Thr-75 transforms DARPP-32 into an inhibitor of PKA. Through regulation of DARPP-32 phosphorylation and modulation of protein phosphatase and kinase activities, DARPP-32 plays a critical role in mediating the biochemical, electrophysiological, and behavioral effects controlled by dopamine and other neurotransmitters in response to drugs of abuse and psychostimulants...
April 5, 2016: Oncotarget
Tetyana Buzhdygan, Joshua Lisinicchia, Vipulkumar Patel, Kenneth Johnson, Volker Neugebauer, Slobodan Paessler, Kristofer Jennings, Benjamin Gelman
The prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remains high in patients with effective suppression of virus replication by combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Several neurotransmitter systems were reported to be abnormal in HIV-infected patients, including the inhibitory GABAergic system, which mediates fine-tuning of neuronal processing and plays an essential role in cognitive functioning. To elucidate the role of abnormal GABAergic transmission in HAND, the expression of GABAergic markers was measured in 449 human brain specimens from HIV-infected patients with and without HAND...
June 2016: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
Udo Rüb, Jean Paul V Vonsattel, Helmut Heinsen, Horst-Werner Korf
Huntington’s disease (HD) is a severe, autosomal dominantly inherited, gradually worsening neurological disorder, the clinical features of which were first described in 1863 by Irving W. Lyon and with additional details, in 1872, by George Huntington. Progress in molecular biological research has shown that HD is caused by meiotically unstable CAG-repeats in the mutated HD gene (the so-called IT 15 gene) on chromosome 4p16.3, which encodes the mutated protein huntingtin (Htt). This monograph provides a survey of the stepwise progress in neuropathological HD research made during a time period of more than hundred years, the currently known neuropathological hallmarks of HD, as well as their pathogenic and clinical relevance...
2015: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
Ana M Daugherty, Naftali Raz
Accumulation of non-heme iron is believed to play a major role in neurodegeneration of the basal ganglia. In healthy aging, however, the temporal relationship between change in brain iron content and age-related volume loss is unclear. Here, we present the first long-term longitudinal multi-occasion investigation of changes in iron content and volume in the neostriatum in a sample of healthy middle-aged and older adults (N=32; ages 49-83years at baseline). Iron content, estimated via R2* relaxometry, increased in the putamen, but not the caudate nucleus...
March 2016: NeuroImage
Mariah J Lelos, Victoria H Roberton, Ngoc-Nga Vinh, Carl Harrison, Peter Eriksen, Eduardo M Torres, Susanne P Clinch, Anne E Rosser, Stephen B Dunnett
Huntington's disease (HD) is a debilitating, genetically inherited neurodegenerative disorder that results in early loss of medium spiny neurons from the striatum and subsequent degeneration of cortical and other subcortical brain regions. Behavioral changes manifest as a range of motor, cognitive, and neuropsychiatric impairments. It has been established that replacement of the degenerated medium spiny neurons with rat-derived fetal whole ganglionic eminence (rWGE) tissue can alleviate motor and cognitive deficits in preclinical rodent models of HD...
2016: Cell Transplantation
Timothy M Otchy, Steffen B E Wolff, Juliana Y Rhee, Cengiz Pehlevan, Risa Kawai, Alexandre Kempf, Sharon M H Gobes, Bence P Ölveczky
Rapid and reversible manipulations of neural activity in behaving animals are transforming our understanding of brain function. An important assumption underlying much of this work is that evoked behavioural changes reflect the function of the manipulated circuits. We show that this assumption is problematic because it disregards indirect effects on the independent functions of downstream circuits. Transient inactivations of motor cortex in rats and nucleus interface (Nif) in songbirds severely degraded task-specific movement patterns and courtship songs, respectively, which are learned skills that recover spontaneously after permanent lesions of the same areas...
December 17, 2015: Nature
Ryoma Morigaki, Satoshi Goto
The human neostriatum consists of two functional subdivisions referred to as the striosome (patch) and matrix compartments. The striosome-matrix dopamine systems play a central role in cortico-thalamo-basal ganglia circuits, and their involvement is thought to underlie the genesis of multiple movement and behavioral disorders, and of drug addiction. Human neuropathology also has shown that striosomes and matrix have differential vulnerability patterns in several striatal neurodegenerative diseases. Postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95), also known as disks large homolog 4, is a major scaffolding protein in the postsynaptic densities of dendritic spines...
2015: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
A F Yakimovskii, S Yu Kryzhanovskaya
Zinc chloride and zinc acetate solutions injected in a dose of 1 μg into the rostral neostriatum produced opposite effect on locomotor behavior of rats. Zink chloride disturbed conditioned avoidance and reduced spontaneous motor activity. Zink acetate virtually did not modify avoidance behavior and stimulated motor activity with elements of motor stereotypy. It was hypothesized that important factors here were the relationship between the effect and the level of metal released after salt dissociation and different reactivity of the synaptic substrate of the neostriatum to the presence of zinc ions...
December 2015: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Kristoffer Carl Aberg, Kimberly C Doell, Sophie Schwartz
Some individuals are better at learning about rewarding situations, whereas others are inclined to avoid punishments (i.e., enhanced approach or avoidance learning, respectively). In reinforcement learning, action values are increased when outcomes are better than predicted (positive prediction errors [PEs]) and decreased for worse than predicted outcomes (negative PEs). Because actions with high and low values are approached and avoided, respectively, individual differences in the neural encoding of PEs may influence the balance between approach-avoidance learning...
October 28, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Hiroyoshi Takeuchi, Gary Remington
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2015: Evidence-based Mental Health
Fabian Chersi, Neil Burgess
Spatial navigation can serve as a model system in cognitive neuroscience, in which specific neural representations, learning rules, and control strategies can be inferred from the vast experimental literature that exists across many species, including humans. Here, we review this literature, focusing on the contributions of hippocampal and striatal systems, and attempt to outline a minimal cognitive architecture that is consistent with the experimental literature and that synthesizes previous related computational modeling...
October 7, 2015: Neuron
Robyn M Amos-Kroohs, Colin P Bloor, Momina A Qureshi, Charles V Vorhees, Michael T Williams
Manganese overexposure (MnOE) can be neurotoxic. In humans this can occur through occupational exposure, air or water contamination, well water, soy milk, and some baby formulas. In children MnOE has been associated with cognitive and behavioral deficits. The effects of MnOE may be modified by factors such as iron status. We hypothesized that developmental MnOE would be exacerbated by iron deficiency. A diet with a 90% decrease in iron (FeD) was given to gravid female rats starting on embryonic day 15 and continued through postnatal day (P)28...
2015: Toxicology Reports
Frank Leypoldt, Alexander Münchau
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2015: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
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