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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817108/effects-of-neonatal-methamphetamine-and-stress-on-brain-monoamines-and-corticosterone-in-preweanling-rats
#1
Sarah A Jablonski, Devon L Graham, Charles V Vorhees, Michael T Williams
Neonatal exposure to methamphetamine (MA) and developmental chronic stress significantly alter neurodevelopmental profiles that show a variety of long-term physiological and behavioral effects. In the current experiment, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to one of two housing conditions along with MA. Rats were given 0 (saline), 5, or 7.5 mg/kg MA, four times per day from postnatal day (P)11 to 15 or P11 to 20. Half of the litters were reared in cages with standard bedding and half with no bedding. Separate litters were assessed at P15 or P20 for organ weights (adrenals, spleen, thymus); corticosterone; and monoamine assessments (dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine) and their metabolites within the neostriatum, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex...
November 5, 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793773/gaba%C3%AF-selective-antagonist-tpmpa-partially-inhibits-gaba-mediated-currents-recorded-from-neurones-and-astrocytes-in-mouse-striatum
#2
Daniel Reyes-Haro, José Antonio Hernández-Santos, Ricardo Miledi, Ataúlfo Martínez-Torres
The neostriatum plays a central role in motor coordination where nerve cells operate neuronal inhibition through GABAergic transmission. The neostriatum expresses a wide range of GABA-A subunits, including GABAρ1 and ρ2 which are restricted to a fraction of GABAergic interneurons and astrocytes. Spontaneous postsynaptic currents (sPSCs) evoked by 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) were recorded from neurones of the dorsal neostriatum, and their frequency was reduced > 50% by the selective GABAρ antagonist (1,2,5,6-Tetrahydropyridine-4-yl) methylphosphinic acid (TPMPA)...
October 25, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783210/attention-in-parkinson-s-disease-with-fatigue-evidence-from-the-attention-network-test
#3
Caterina Pauletti, Daniela Mannarelli, Nicoletta Locuratolo, Luca Pollini, Antonio Currà, Lucio Marinelli, Steno Rinalduzzi, Francesco Fattapposta
Fatigue is a non-specific symptom that is common in chronic diseases and represents one of the most disabling symptoms in Parkinson's disease. PD patients often experience cognitive deficits related above all to executive functions. The relationship between cognitive changes and fatigue in PD patients has not been explored in depth. The Attention Network Test (ANT) is a rapid, widely used test to measure the efficiency of three attentional networks, i.e., alerting, orienting, and executive, by evaluating reaction times (RTs) in response to visual stimuli...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670428/altered-functional-connectivity-of-the-marginal-division-in-migraine-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#4
Zhiye Chen, Xiaoyan Chen, Mengqi Liu, Shuangfeng Liu, Siyun Shu, Lin Ma, Shengyuan Yu
BACKGROUND: The marginal division of neostriatum (MrD) is a flat, pan-shaped zone between the neostriatum and the globus pallidus, and previous documents demonstrated that it was involved in the modulation of pain. The aim of this study is to investigate the roles of the MrD of the human brain in the chronicization migraine using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). METHODS: Conventional MRI, 3D structure images, and rs-fMRI were performed in 18 patients with episodic migraines (EM), 16 patients with chronic migraine (CM), 44 patients with medication overuse headache plus chronic migraine (MOH + CM), and 32 normal controls (NC)...
December 2016: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619422/effect-of-normal-aging-on-the-structure-of-marginal-division-of-neostriatum-as-measured-by-mr-phase-imaging-and-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#5
Zhiye Chen, Mengqi Liu, Mengyu Liu, Jinfeng Li, Han Shan, Shuangfeng Liu, Xin Lou, Siyun Shu, Lin Ma
PURPOSE: To investigate the structural changes of marginal division (MrD) which is the high intensity zone between globus pallidus and putamen on phase image in the human brain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The structural changes of MrD were investigated based on MR phase imaging and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data at 3.0 Tesla (T) MR scanner in 72 volunteers. Phase value, including high iron components (HIC), low iron components (LIC), LIC ratio, and average iron components (AIC), were obtained using histogram analysis about the head of caudate nucleus (CA), globus pallidus (GP), putamen (PU), and MrD...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27222190/-pathological-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-findings-in-a-neonatal-tibet-minipig-model-of-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#6
Jun Xu, Qiang-Qiang Gang, Peng Hao, Jia-Ning Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To establish a neonatal Tibet minipig model of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and evaluate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) manifestations and pathological findings. METHODS: Six neonatal (1-3 days old) Tibet minipigs were randomized into model group (n=4) and control group (n=2). In model group, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy was induced by surgical ligation of the bilateral carotid artery followedimmediately by hypoxic exposure in a hypoxia chamber for 1 h...
May 2016: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27092059/putaminal-mosaic-visualized-by-tyrosine-hydroxylase-immunohistochemistry-in-the-human-neostriatum
#7
Ryoma Morigaki, Satoshi Goto
Among the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits, the putamen plays a critical role in the "motor" circuits that control voluntary movements and motor learning. The human neostriatum comprises two functional subdivisions known as the striosome (patch) and matrix compartments. Accumulating evidence suggests that compartment-specific dysregulations of dopamine activity might be involved in the disease-specific pathology and symptoms of human striatal diseases including movement disorders. This study was undertaken to examine whether or how striatal dopaminergic innervations are organized into the compartmentalized architecture found in the putamen of adult human brains...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26972328/the-crossroads-of-anticipatory-attention-and-motor-preparation-i
#8
C H Brunia
This series of papers suggests that processes underlying anticipatory attention and motor preparation share a common control mechanism. Both functions are of utmost importance for an optimal adaptation to our environment. While the posterior part of the cortex is aimed at the analysis of incoming information, both from the outer world and our own body, the anterior part is involved in action and reaction. If we know when in the near future we will be confronted with relevant information, and how this has to be responded upon, modality specific sensoric and motoric information channels have to be open in order to guarantee an adequate response...
September 1997: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26924040/dorsolateral-neostriatum-contribution-to-incentive-salience-opioid-or-dopamine-stimulation-makes-one-reward-cue-more-motivationally-attractive-than-another
#9
Alexandra G DiFeliceantonio, Kent C Berridge
Pavlovian cues for rewards can become attractive incentives: approached and 'wanted' as the rewards themselves. The motivational attractiveness of a previously learned cue is not fixed, but can be dynamically amplified during re-encounter by simultaneous activation of brain limbic circuitry. Here it was reported that opioid or dopamine microinjections in the dorsolateral quadrant of the neostriatum (DLS) of rats selectively amplify attraction toward a previously learned Pavlovian cue in an individualized fashion, at the expense of a competing cue...
May 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26886798/adult-restoration-of-shank3-expression-rescues-selective-autistic-like-phenotypes
#10
Yuan Mei, Patricia Monteiro, Yang Zhou, Jin-Ah Kim, Xian Gao, Zhanyan Fu, Guoping Feng
Because autism spectrum disorders are neurodevelopmental disorders and patients typically display symptoms before the age of three, one of the key questions in autism research is whether the pathology is reversible in adults. Here we investigate the developmental requirement of Shank3 in mice, a prominent monogenic autism gene that is estimated to contribute to approximately 1% of all autism spectrum disorder cases. SHANK3 is a postsynaptic scaffold protein that regulates synaptic development, function and plasticity by orchestrating the assembly of postsynaptic density macromolecular signalling complex...
February 25, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26872373/darpp-32-from-neurotransmission-to-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Abbes Belkhiri, Shoumin Zhu, Wael El-Rifai
Dopamine and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein Mr 32,000 (DARPP-32), also known as phosphoprotein phosphatase-1 regulatory subunit 1B (PPP1R1B), was initially discovered as a substrate of dopamine-activated protein kinase A (PKA) in the neostriatum in the brain. While phosphorylation at Thr-34 by PKA converts DARPP-32 into a potent inhibitor of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), phosphorylation at Thr-75 transforms DARPP-32 into an inhibitor of PKA. Through regulation of DARPP-32 phosphorylation and modulation of protein phosphatase and kinase activities, DARPP-32 plays a critical role in mediating the biochemical, electrophysiological, and behavioral effects controlled by dopamine and other neurotransmitters in response to drugs of abuse and psychostimulants...
April 5, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26829944/neuropsychological-neurovirological-and-neuroimmune-aspects-of-abnormal-gabaergic-transmission-in-hiv-infection
#12
Tetyana Buzhdygan, Joshua Lisinicchia, Vipulkumar Patel, Kenneth Johnson, Volker Neugebauer, Slobodan Paessler, Kristofer Jennings, Benjamin Gelman
The prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remains high in patients with effective suppression of virus replication by combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Several neurotransmitter systems were reported to be abnormal in HIV-infected patients, including the inhibitory GABAergic system, which mediates fine-tuning of neuronal processing and plays an essential role in cognitive functioning. To elucidate the role of abnormal GABAergic transmission in HAND, the expression of GABAergic markers was measured in 449 human brain specimens from HIV-infected patients with and without HAND...
June 2016: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26767207/the-neuropathology-of-huntington%C3%A2-s-disease-classical-findings-recent-developments-and-correlation-to-functional-neuroanatomy
#13
REVIEW
Udo Rüb, Jean Paul V Vonsattel, Helmut Heinsen, Horst-Werner Korf
Huntington’s disease (HD) is a severe, autosomal dominantly inherited, gradually worsening neurological disorder, the clinical features of which were first described in 1863 by Irving W. Lyon and with additional details, in 1872, by George Huntington. Progress in molecular biological research has shown that HD is caused by meiotically unstable CAG-repeats in the mutated HD gene (the so-called IT 15 gene) on chromosome 4p16.3, which encodes the mutated protein huntingtin (Htt). This monograph provides a survey of the stepwise progress in neuropathological HD research made during a time period of more than hundred years, the currently known neuropathological hallmarks of HD, as well as their pathogenic and clinical relevance...
2015: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26746579/accumulation-of-iron-in-the-putamen-predicts-its-shrinkage-in-healthy-older-adults-a-multi-occasion-longitudinal-study
#14
Ana M Daugherty, Naftali Raz
Accumulation of non-heme iron is believed to play a major role in neurodegeneration of the basal ganglia. In healthy aging, however, the temporal relationship between change in brain iron content and age-related volume loss is unclear. Here, we present the first long-term longitudinal multi-occasion investigation of changes in iron content and volume in the neostriatum in a sample of healthy middle-aged and older adults (N=32; ages 49-83years at baseline). Iron content, estimated via R2* relaxometry, increased in the putamen, but not the caudate nucleus...
March 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26727032/direct-comparison-of-rat-and-human-derived-ganglionic-eminence-tissue-grafts-on-motor-function
#15
Mariah J Lelos, Victoria H Roberton, Ngoc-Nga Vinh, Carl Harrison, Peter Eriksen, Eduardo M Torres, Susanne P Clinch, Anne E Rosser, Stephen B Dunnett
Huntington's disease (HD) is a debilitating, genetically inherited neurodegenerative disorder that results in early loss of medium spiny neurons from the striatum and subsequent degeneration of cortical and other subcortical brain regions. Behavioral changes manifest as a range of motor, cognitive, and neuropsychiatric impairments. It has been established that replacement of the degenerated medium spiny neurons with rat-derived fetal whole ganglionic eminence (rWGE) tissue can alleviate motor and cognitive deficits in preclinical rodent models of HD...
2016: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26649821/acute-off-target-effects-of-neural-circuit-manipulations
#16
Timothy M Otchy, Steffen B E Wolff, Juliana Y Rhee, Cengiz Pehlevan, Risa Kawai, Alexandre Kempf, Sharon M H Gobes, Bence P Ölveczky
Rapid and reversible manipulations of neural activity in behaving animals are transforming our understanding of brain function. An important assumption underlying much of this work is that evoked behavioural changes reflect the function of the manipulated circuits. We show that this assumption is problematic because it disregards indirect effects on the independent functions of downstream circuits. Transient inactivations of motor cortex in rats and nucleus interface (Nif) in songbirds severely degraded task-specific movement patterns and courtship songs, respectively, which are learned skills that recover spontaneously after permanent lesions of the same areas...
December 17, 2015: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26648848/postsynaptic-density-protein-95-in-the-striosome-and-matrix-compartments-of-the-human-neostriatum
#17
Ryoma Morigaki, Satoshi Goto
The human neostriatum consists of two functional subdivisions referred to as the striosome (patch) and matrix compartments. The striosome-matrix dopamine systems play a central role in cortico-thalamo-basal ganglia circuits, and their involvement is thought to underlie the genesis of multiple movement and behavioral disorders, and of drug addiction. Human neuropathology also has shown that striosomes and matrix have differential vulnerability patterns in several striatal neurodegenerative diseases. Postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95), also known as disks large homolog 4, is a major scaffolding protein in the postsynaptic densities of dendritic spines...
2015: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26616014/zinc-chloride-and-zinc-acetate-injected-into-the-neostriatum-produce-opposite-effect-on-locomotor-behavior-of-rats
#18
A F Yakimovskii, S Yu Kryzhanovskaya
Zinc chloride and zinc acetate solutions injected in a dose of 1 μg into the rostral neostriatum produced opposite effect on locomotor behavior of rats. Zink chloride disturbed conditioned avoidance and reduced spontaneous motor activity. Zink acetate virtually did not modify avoidance behavior and stimulated motor activity with elements of motor stereotypy. It was hypothesized that important factors here were the relationship between the effect and the level of metal released after salt dissociation and different reactivity of the synaptic substrate of the neostriatum to the presence of zinc ions...
December 2015: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26511241/hemispheric-asymmetries-in-striatal-reward-responses-relate-to-approach-avoidance-learning-and-encoding-of-positive-negative-prediction-errors-in-dopaminergic-midbrain-regions
#19
Kristoffer Carl Aberg, Kimberly C Doell, Sophie Schwartz
Some individuals are better at learning about rewarding situations, whereas others are inclined to avoid punishments (i.e., enhanced approach or avoidance learning, respectively). In reinforcement learning, action values are increased when outcomes are better than predicted (positive prediction errors [PEs]) and decreased for worse than predicted outcomes (negative PEs). Because actions with high and low values are approached and avoided, respectively, individual differences in the neural encoding of PEs may influence the balance between approach-avoidance learning...
October 28, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26459470/improving-symptoms-and-side-effects-in-older-patients-with-schizophrenia-with-decreasing-dopamine-d2-3-receptor-occupancy-following-risperidone-and-olanzapine-dose-reduction
#20
COMMENT
Hiroyoshi Takeuchi, Gary Remington
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2015: Evidence-based Mental Health
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