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Conor Owens-Walton, David Jakabek, Xiaozhen Li, Fiona A Wilkes, Mark Walterfang, Dennis Velakoulis, Danielle van Westen, Jeffrey C L Looi, Oskar Hansson
We sought to investigate morphological and resting state functional connectivity changes to the striatal nuclei in Parkinson disease (PD) and examine whether changes were associated with measures of clinical function. Striatal nuclei were manually segmented on 3T-T1 weighted MRI scans of 74 PD participants and 27 control subjects, quantitatively analysed for volume, shape and also functional connectivity using functional MRI data. Bilateral caudate nuclei and putamen volumes were significantly reduced in the PD cohort compared to controls...
March 7, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Aida Niñerola-Baizán, Judith Gallego, Albert Cot, Pablo Aguiar, Francisco Lomeña, Javier Pavía, Domenec Ros
The aim of this work was to obtain a set of parameters to be applied in [123I]FP-CIT SPECT reconstruction in order to minimize the error between standardized and true values of the Specific Uptake Ratio (SUR) in dopaminergic neurotransmission SPECT studies. To this end, Monte Carlo simulation was used to generate a database of 1,380 projection data-sets from 23 subjects, including normal cases and a variety of pathologies. Studies were reconstructed using Filtered Back Projection (FBP) with attenuation correction and Ordered Subset Expectation Maximization (OSEM) with correction for different degradations (attenuation, scatter and PSF)...
March 19, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Lara M Wierenga, Marieke G N Bos, Elisabeth Schreuders, Ferdi Vd Kamp, Jiska S Peper, Christian K Tamnes, Eveline A Crone
The onset of adolescence in humans is marked by hormonal changes that give rise to secondary sexual characteristics, noted as puberty. It has, however, proven challenging to unravel to what extent pubertal changes may have organizing effects on the brain beyond chronological age, as reported in animal studies. The present longitudinal study aimed to characterize the unique effects of age and puberty on subcortical brain volumes and included three waves of data collection at two-year intervals and 680 T1-weighted MRI scans of 271 participants (54% females) aged between 8 and 29 years old...
March 8, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
J D Santoro, N D Forkert, Q-Z Yang, S Pavitt, S J MacEachern, M E Moseley, K W Yeom
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Tension-type and migraine-type headaches are the most common chronic paroxysmal disorders of childhood. The goal of this study was to compare regional cerebral volumes and diffusion in tension-type and migraine-type headaches against published controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients evaluated for tension-type or migraine-type headache without aura from May 2014 to July 2016 in a single center were retrospectively reviewed. Thirty-two patients with tension-type headache and 23 with migraine-type headache at an average of 4 months after diagnosis were enrolled...
March 15, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Adam J Stark, Christopher T Smith, Kalen J Petersen, Paula Trujillo, Nelleke C van Wouwe, Manus J Donahue, Robert M Kessler, Ariel Y Deutch, David H Zald, Daniel O Claassen
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by widespread degeneration of monoaminergic (especially dopaminergic) networks, manifesting with a number of both motor and non-motor symptoms. Regional alterations to dopamine D2/3 receptors in PD patients are documented in striatal and some extrastriatal areas, and medications that target D2/3 receptors can improve motor and non-motor symptoms. However, data regarding the combined pattern of D2/3 receptor binding in both striatal and extrastriatal regions in PD are limited...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Marenka Smit, David Vállez García, Bauke M de Jong, Evelien Zoons, Jan Booij, Rudi A Dierckx, Antoon T Willemsen, Erik F de Vries, Anna L Bartels, Marina A Tijssen
Purpose: Alterations of the central serotonergic system have been implicated in the pathophysiology of dystonia. In this molecular imaging study, we assessed whether altered presynaptic serotonin transporter (SERT) binding contributes to the pathophysiology of cervical dystonia (CD), concerning both motor and non-motor symptoms (NMS). Methods: We assessed the non-displaceable binding potential (BPND ) using the selective SERT tracer [11 C]DASB and positron emission tomography (PET) in 14 CD patients and 12 age- and gender-matched controls...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Alicja Kalinowska-Łyszczarz, Mikołaj A Pawlak, Aleksandra Wyciszkiewicz, Katarzyna Pawlak-Buś, Piotr Leszczyński, Mariusz Puszczewicz, Włodzimierz Paprzycki, Wojciech Kozubski, Sławomir Michalak
OBJECTIVE: Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) remains poorly understood. Damage within the CNS is driven by the autoimmune response; however, immunopathophysiology of neuropsychiatric (NP) SLE is multifactorial. Immune cell neurotrophin production could be neuroprotective against autoimmunity-driven CNS damage, as has been shown in multiple sclerosis. The aim of this study was to establish whether immune cell neurotrophin production is associated with damage severity in NPSLE...
March 14, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
Ahmed M Elkady, Dana Cobzas, Hongfu Sun, Gregg Blevins, Alan H Wilman
BACKGROUND: Combined R2* and quantitative susceptibility (QS) has been previously used in cross-sectional multiple sclerosis (MS) studies to distinguish deep gray matter (DGM) iron accumulation and demyelination. PURPOSE: We propose and apply discriminative analysis of regional evolution (DARE) to define specific changes in MS and healthy DGM. STUDY TYPE: Longitudinal (baseline and 2-year follow-up) retrospective study. SUBJECTS: Twenty-seven relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), 17 progressive MS (PMS), and corresponding age-matched healthy subjects...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Li-Min Mao, Hunter J Faris, John Q Wang
The Src family kinase (SFK) is a subfamily of non-receptor tyrosine kinases. SFK members, Src and especially Fyn, are expressed in the striatum. These SFK members are involved in the regulation of neuronal and synaptic activities and are linked to the pathogenesis of a variety of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Given the fact that muscarinic acetylcholine (mACh) receptors are highly expressed in striatal neurons and are critical for the regulation of striatal function, we investigated the role of mACh receptors in the regulation of SFKs in the adult rat striatum in vivo...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Logan T Dowdle, Truman R Brown, Mark S George, Colleen A Hanlon
BACKGROUND: In the 20 years since our group established the feasibility of performing interleaved TMS/fMRI, no studies have reported direct comparisons of active prefrontal stimulation with a matched sham. Thus, for all studies there is concern about what is truly the TMS effect on cortical neurons. OBJECTIVE: After developing a sham control for use within the MRI scanner, we used fMRI to test the hypothesis of greater regional BOLD responses for active versus control stimulation...
February 24, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Michelle Achterberg, Anna C K van Duijvenvoorde, Mara van der Meulen, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg, Eveline A Crone
Middle childhood marks an important phase for developing and maintaining social relations. At the same time, this phase is marked by a gap in our knowledge of the genetic and environmental influences on brain responses to social feedback and their relation to behavioral aggression. In a large developmental twin sample (509 7- to 9-year-olds), the heritability and neural underpinnings of behavioral aggression following social evaluation were investigated, using the Social Network Aggression Task (SNAT). Participants viewed pictures of peers that gave positive, neutral, or negative feedback to the participant's profile...
March 12, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
T G Adams, B Kelmendi, C A Brake, P Gruner, C L Badour, C Pittenger
Individuals with OCD often identify psychosocial stress as a factor that exacerbates their symptoms, and many trace the onset of symptoms to a stressful period of life or a discrete traumatic incident. However, the pathophysiological relationship between stress and OCD remains poorly characterized: it is unclear whether trauma or stress is an independent cause of OCD symptoms, a triggering factor that interacts with a preexisting diathesis, or simply a nonspecific factor that can exacerbate OCD along with other aspects of psychiatric symptomatology...
January 2018: Chronic Stress
Katherine E Manning, Roger Tait, John Suckling, Anthony J Holland
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder of genomic imprinting, presenting with a characteristic overeating disorder, mild to moderate intellectual disability, and a variable range of social and behavioral difficulties. Consequently, widespread alterations in neural structure and developmental and maturational trajectory would be expected. To date, there have been few quantitative and systematic studies of brain morphology in PWS, although alterations of volume and of cortical organisation have been reported...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Anne J Blood, Jeff L Waugh, Thomas F Münte, Marcus Heldmann, Aloysius Domingo, Christine Klein, Hans C Breiter, Lillian V Lee, Raymond L Rosales, Norbert Brüggemann
Preliminary evidence from postmortem studies of X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism (XDP) suggests tissue loss may occur first and/or most severely in the striatal striosome compartment, followed later by cell loss in the matrix compartment. However, little is known about how this relates to pathogenesis and pathophysiology. While MRI cannot visualize these striatal compartments directly in humans, differences in relative gradients of afferent cortical connectivity across compartments (weighted toward paralimbic versus sensorimotor cortex, respectively) can be used to infer potential selective loss in vivo...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Seok Jong Chung, Han Soo Yoo, Jungsu S Oh, Jae Seung Kim, Byoung Seok Ye, Young H Sohn, Phil Hyu Lee
INTRODUCTION: To investigate the relationship between the sub-regional pattern of striatal dopamine depletion and cognitive impairment in early-stage Parkinson's disease (PD), and determine the effect of striatal dopamine density on cognitive prognosis. METHODS: Patients with drug-naïve non-demented PD were divided into mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI; n = 129) and cognitively normal (PD-CogN; n = 182) groups. Using quantification of the dopamine transporter (DAT) availability in each striatal sub-region with18 F-FP-CIT PET scans, we performed inter-group comparative analysis of DAT availability and multivariate linear regression analysis to assess the association between DAT availability and cognitive performance...
March 2, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Paul Reidler, Kolja M Thierfelder, Matthias P Fabritius, Wieland H Sommer, Felix G Meinel, Franziska Dorn, Frank A Wollenweber, Marco Duering, Wolfgang G Kunz
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Ipsilateral thalamic diaschisis (ITD) describes the reduction of thalamic function, metabolism, and perfusion resulting from a distant lesion of the ipsilateral hemisphere. Our aim was to evaluate the perfusion characteristics and clinical impact of ITD in acute middle cerebral artery stroke, which does not directly affect the thalamus. METHODS: One hundred twenty-four patients with middle cerebral artery infarction were selected from a prospectively acquired cohort of 1644 patients who underwent multiparametric computed tomography (CT), including CT perfusion for suspected stroke...
March 9, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Ryul Kim, Joongyub Lee, Yoon Kim, Aryun Kim, Mihee Jang, Han-Joon Kim, Beomseok Jeon, Un Jung Kang, Stanley Fahn
INTRODUCTION: The current study was designed to determine whether the degree of presynaptic striatal dopamine depletion can predict the later development of freezing of gait (FOG) in Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 390 de novo patients with PD without FOG at baseline. The participants were divided into tertiles according to the baseline dopamine transporter (DAT) uptake of each striatal subregion, and the cumulative risk of FOG was compared using the Kaplan-Meier method...
February 28, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Ji-Kyung Choi, Grewo Lim, Iris Y Chen, Bruce G Jenkins
Methamphetamine (meth), and other psychostimulants such as cocaine, present a persistent problem for society with chronic users being highly prone to relapse. We show, in a chronic methamphetamine administration model, that discontinuation of drug for more than a week produces much larger changes in overall meth-induced brain connectivity and cerebral blood volume (CBV) response than changes that occur immediately following meth administration. Areas showing the largest changes were hippocampal, limbic striatum and sensorimotor cortical regions as well as brain stem areas including the pedunculopontine tegmentum (PPTg) and pontine nuclei - regions known to be important in mediating reinstatement of drug-taking after abstinence...
March 5, 2018: NeuroImage
Masanori Isobe, Sarah A Redden, Nancy J Keuthen, Dan J Stein, Christine Lochner, Jon E Grant, Samuel R Chamberlain
Trichotillomania (hair-pulling disorder) is characterized by the repetitive pulling out of one's own hair, and is classified as an Obsessive-Compulsive Related Disorder. Abnormalities of the ventral and dorsal striatum have been implicated in disease models of trichotillomania, based on translational research, but direct evidence is lacking. The aim of this study was to elucidate subcortical morphometric abnormalities, including localized curvature changes, in trichotillomania. De-identified MRI scans were pooled by contacting authors of previous peer-reviewed studies that examined brain structure in adult patients with trichotillomania, following an extensive literature search...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Paulina Valuskova, Vladimir Farar, Sandor Forczek, Iva Krizova, Jaromir Myslivecek
Autoradiography helps to determine the distribution and density of muscarinic receptor (MR) binding sites in the brain. However, it relies on the selectivity of radioligands toward their target.3 H-Pirenzepine is commonly believed to label predominantly M1 MR,3 H-AFDX-384 is considered as M2 MR selective ligand. Here we performed series of autoradiographies with3 H-AFDX-384 (2 nM), and3 H-pirenzepine (5 nM) in WT, M1 KO, M2 KO, and M4 KO mice to address the ligand selectivity. Labeling with3 H-pirenzepine using M1 KO, M2 KO, and M4 KO brain sections showed the high selectivity toward M1 MR...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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