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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921389/altered-structure-and-intrinsic-functional-connectivity-in-post-stroke-aphasia
#1
Mi Yang, Pu Yang, Yun-Shuang Fan, Jiao Li, Dezhong Yao, Wei Liao, Huafu Chen
Previous studies have demonstrated that alterations of gray matter exist in post-stroke aphasia (PSA) patients. However, so far, few studies combined structural alterations of gray matter volume (GMV) and intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) imbalances of resting-state functional MRI to investigate the mechanism underlying PSA. The present study investigated specific regions with GMV abnormality in patients with PSA (n = 17) and age- and sex- matched healthy controls (HCs, n = 20) using voxel-based morphometry...
September 18, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919466/intrastriatally-injected-botulinum-neurotoxin-a-differently-effects-cholinergic-and-dopaminergic-fibers-in-c57bl-6-mice
#2
Alexander Hawlitschka, Carsten Holzmann, Sarah Witt, Juliane Spiewok, Anne-Marie Neumann, Oliver Schmitt, Andreas Wree, Veronica Antipova
Unilateral intrastriatal BoNT-A injection abolished apomorphine-induced rotational behavior in a rat model of hemiparkinsonism (hemi-PD) up to 6 months. It was hypothesized that the beneficial effect of botulinum neurotoxin-A (BoNT-A) grounded on the reduction of the Parkinson's diseases (PD) associated striatal hypercholinism. Intrastriatal injection of BoNT-A was not cytotoxic in rat brain, but neuronal fiber swellings in the BoNT-A infiltrated striata appeared and named BoNT-A-induced varicosities (BiVs)...
September 14, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919314/24-hour-alberta-stroke-program-early-ct-score-assessment-in-post-stroke-spasticity-development-in-patients-with-a-first-documented-anterior-circulation-ischemic-stroke
#3
Ondrej Volny, Maria Justanova, Petra Cimflova, Linda Kasickova, Ivana Svobodova, Jan Muzik, Martin Bares
BACKGROUND: Neuroanatomic substrates responsible for development of post-stroke spasticity are still poorly understood. The study is focused on identification of brain regions within the territory of the middle cerebral artery associated with spasticity development. METHODS: This is a single-center prospective cohort study of first documented anterior circulation ischemic strokes with a neurologic deficit lasting >7 days (from March 2014 to September 2016, all patients are involved in a registry)...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918268/a-structural-mri-study-of-excoriation-skin-picking-disorder-and-its-relationship-to-clinical-severity
#4
Michael D Harries, Samuel R Chamberlain, Sarah A Redden, Brian L Odlaug, Austin W Blum, Jon E Grant
Excoriation (skin-picking) disorder (SPD) shares symptomology with other obsessive-compulsive and related disorders. Few studies, however, have examined the neurological profile of patients with SPD. This study examined differences in cortical thickness and basal ganglia structural volumes between 20 individuals with SPD and 16 healthy controls using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There were no significant differences in demographic variables (age, gender, education and race) between groups. All subjects completed a structural MRI scan and completed a battery of clinical assessments focusing on SPD symptom severity, depression and anxiety symptoms, and quality of life...
September 8, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916502/sociability-trait-and-regional-cerebral-oxidative-metabolism-in-rats-predominantly-nonlinear-relations
#5
Margus Kanarik, Jaanus Harro
Deficits in social behaviour are common in psychopathological conditions e.g., depression, autism and schizophrenia. In rats, sociability, defined as the engagement of an animal in non-aggressive social contact with a conspecific in a neutral arena, is as a persistent trait. To elucidate the neuroanatomy of social behaviour in animal models, long term neuronal energy metabolism was studied in rats preselected for sociability levels. Rats were divided into groups with high, medium and low sociability levels (HS, MS and LS) according to the average score of three social interaction tests, and cerebral long-term energy metabolism was assayed with cytochrome oxidase histochemistry...
September 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913718/identify-a-shared-neural-circuit-linking-multiple-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-with-alzheimer-s-pathology
#6
Xixi Wang, Ping Ren, Mark Mapstone, Yeates Conwell, Anton P Porsteinsson, John J Foxe, Rajeev D S Raizada, Feng Lin
Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) are common in Alzheimer's disease (AD)-associated neurodegeneration. However, NPS lack a consistent relationship with AD pathology. It is unknown whether any common neural circuits can link these clinically disparate while mechanistically similar features with AD pathology. Here, we explored the neural circuits of NPS in AD-associated neurodegeneration using multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) of resting-state functional MRI data. Data from 98 subjects (70 amnestic mild cognitive impairment and 28 AD subjects) were obtained...
September 15, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912301/early-onset-drug-induced-parkinsonism-after-exposure-to-offenders-implies-nigrostriatal-dopaminergic-dysfunction
#7
Seok Jong Chung, Han Soo Yoo, Hyojeong Moon, Jungsu S Oh, Jae Seung Kim, Yong Hee Park, Jin Yong Hong, Byoung Seok Ye, Young H Sohn, Phil Hyu Lee
OBJECTIVES: The onset of parkinsonism in patients with drug-induced parkinsonism (DIP) exhibits extensive individual variability following exposure to offending drugs. We investigated whether the individual variations in the onset time of parkinsonism reflected the underlying subtle dopaminergic dysfunction in DIP. METHODS: We enrolled 71 patients with DIP who had visually normal striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) availability in (18)F-FP-CIT positron emission tomography scans...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911049/aberrant-hyperconnectivity-in-the-motor-system-at-rest-is-linked-to-motor-abnormalities-in-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders
#8
Sebastian Walther, Katharina Stegmayer, Andrea Federspiel, Stephan Bohlhalter, Roland Wiest, Petra V Viher
Motor abnormalities are frequently observed in schizophrenia and structural alterations of the motor system have been reported. The association of aberrant motor network function, however, has not been tested. We hypothesized that abnormal functional connectivity would be related to the degree of motor abnormalities in schizophrenia. In 90 subjects (46 patients) we obtained resting stated functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for 8 minutes 40 seconds at 3T. Participants further completed a motor battery on the scanning day...
September 1, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906375/correlations-between-clinical-characteristics-and-neuroimaging-in-chinese-patients-with-subtypes-of-frontotemporal-lobe-degeneration
#9
Zhihong Shi, Shuai Liu, Ying Wang, Shuling Liu, Tong Han, Li Cai, Yuying Zhou, Shuo Gao, Yong Ji
The aim of the study was to obtain an overview of the clinical and neuroimaging features of Chinese patients with subtypes of frontotemporal lobe degeneration (FTLD).We evaluated the demographic features, clinical presentation, and lobe atrophy depicted by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 133 patients with FTLD. Two positron emission tomography (PET) scans were performed at baseline: [C]Pittsburgh compound B PET to assess amyloid-β plaque load and [F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET to assess glucose metabolism...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906054/neuropathological-comorbidity-associated-with-argyrophilic-grain-disease
#10
REVIEW
Osamu Yokota, Tomoko Miki, Chikako Ikeda, Shigeto Nagao, Shintaro Takenoshita, Hideki Ishizu, Takashi Haraguchi, Shigetoshi Kuroda, Seishi Terada, Norihito Yamada
Argyrophilic grain disease (AGD) is a common four-repeat tauopathy in elderly people. While dementia is a major clinical picture of AGD, recent studies support the possibility that AGD may be a pathological base in some patients with mild cognitive impairment, late-onset psychosis, bipolar disorder and depression. AGD often coexists with various other degenerative changes. The frequency of AGD in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) cases was reported to range from 18.8% to 80%. The frequency of AGD in corticobasal degeneration (CBD) cases tends to be higher than that in PSP cases, ranging from 41...
September 14, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906031/design-optimization-for-clinical-trials-in-early-stage-manifest-huntington-s-disease
#11
Chris Frost, Amy Mulick, Rachael I Scahill, Gail Owen, Elizabeth Aylward, Blair R Leavitt, Alexandra Durr, Raymund A C Roos, Beth Borowsky, Julie C Stout, Ralf Reilmann, Douglas R Langbehn, Sarah J Tabrizi, Cristina Sampaio
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to inform the design of randomized clinical trials in early-stage manifest Huntington's disease through analysis of longitudinal data from TRACK-Huntington's Disease (TRACK-HD), a multicenter observational study. METHODS: We compute sample sizes required for trials with candidate clinical, functional, and imaging outcomes, whose aims are to reduce rates of change. The calculations use a 2-stage approach: first using linear mixed models to estimate mean rates of change and components of variability from TRACK-HD data and second using these to predict sample sizes for a range of trial designs...
September 14, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904985/cholinergic-activity-and-levodopa-induced-dyskinesia-a-multitracer-molecular-imaging-study
#12
Joachim Brumberg, Sebastian Küsters, Ehab Al-Momani, Giorgio Marotta, Kelly P Cosgrove, Christopher H van Dyck, Ken Herrmann, György A Homola, Gianni Pezzoli, Andreas K Buck, Jens Volkmann, Samuel Samnick, Ioannis U Isaias
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between levodopa-induced dyskinesias and striatal cholinergic activity in patients with Parkinson's disease. METHODS: This study included 13 Parkinson's disease patients with peak-of-dose levodopa-induced dyskinesias, 12 nondyskinetic patients, and 12 healthy controls. Participants underwent 5-[(123)I]iodo-3-[2(S)-2-azetidinylmethoxy]pyridine single-photon emission computed tomography, a marker of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, [(123)I]N-ω-fluoropropyl-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane single-photon emission computed tomography, to measure dopamine reuptake transporter density and 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography to assess regional cerebral metabolic activity...
September 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899347/case-report-of-hyperglycemic-nonketotic-chorea-with-rapid-radiological-resolution
#13
H M M T B Herath, S P Pahalagamage, Sunethra Senanayake
BACKGROUND: Hemichorea is a rare manifestation of nonketotic hyperglycemia that usually affects elderly Asian women with poor glycemic control. Non-contrast computerized Tomography and T1- weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging shows characteristic hyperintense basal ganglia lesions. CASE PRESENTATION: A Fifty-seven year old Sri Lankan female presented with a two-day history of right upper limb chorea. She had been diagnosed with diabetes mellitus one year ago, but was not on any treatment and did not have any micro vascular or macro vascular complications...
September 12, 2017: BMC Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894300/striatal-dopamine-d1-type-receptor-availability-no-difference-from-control-but-association-with-cortical-thickness-in-methamphetamine-users
#14
K Okita, A M Morales, A C Dean, M C Johnson, V Lu, J Farahi, M A Mandelkern, E D London
Chronic methamphetamine use poses potentially devastating consequences for directly affected individuals and for society. Lower dopamine D2-type receptor availability has been observed in striata of methamphetamine users as compared with controls, but an analogous comparison of D1-type receptors has been conducted only on post-mortem material, with no differences in methamphetamine users from controls in the caudate nucleus and putamen and higher D1-receptor density in the nucleus accumbens. Released from neurons when methamphetamine is self-administered, dopamine binds to both D1- and D2-type receptors in the striatum, with downstream effects on cortical activity...
September 12, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894291/neural-predictors-of-12-month-weight-loss-outcomes-following-bariatric-surgery
#15
L M Holsen, P Davidson, H Cerit, T Hye, P Moondra, F Haimovici, S Sogg, S Shikora, J M Goldstein, A E Evins, L E Stoeckel
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Despite the effectiveness of bariatric surgery, there is still substantial variability in long-term weight outcomes and few factors with predictive power to explain this variability. Neuroimaging may provide a novel biomarker with utility beyond other commonly used variables in bariatric surgery trials to improve prediction of long-term weight-loss outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of sleeve gastrectomy (SG) on reward and cognitive control circuitry postsurgery and determine the extent to which baseline brain activity predicts weight loss at 12-month postsurgery...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893588/resting-state-fmri-observations-of-baseline-brain-functional-activities-and-connectivities-in-primary-blepharospasm
#16
Ming-Fei Ni, Xiao-Feng Huang, Yan-Wei Miao, Zhan-Hua Liang
Primary blepharospasm (BPS) is a focal dystonia characterized by involuntary eyelid spasms and blinking. The pathophysiology of BPS remains unclear. Several functional and structural neuroimaging studies have demonstrated abnormalities of sensorimotor structures such as the sensorimotor cortex, the basal ganglia, the thalamus and the cerebellum in BPS patients. However, some of the results of these studies were inconsistent. In addition, the relationship between the motor and sensory structures in patients with BPS still needs to be investigated...
September 8, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889093/striatal-molecular-alterations-in-hd-gene-carriers-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-pet-studies
#17
REVIEW
Flavia Niccolini, Gennaro Pagano, Paolo Fusar-Poli, Andrew Wood, Ladislav Mrzljak, Cristina Sampaio, Marios Politis
BACKGROUND: Over the past years, positron emission tomography (PET) imaging studies have investigated striatal molecular changes in premanifest and manifest Huntington's disease (HD) gene expansion carriers (HDGECs), but they have yielded inconsistent results. OBJECTIVE: To systematically examine the evidence of striatal molecular alterations in manifest and premanifest HDGECs as measured by PET imaging studies. METHODS: MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Library and Scopus databases were searched for articles published until 7 June 2017 that included PET studies in manifest and premanifest HDGECs...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887898/beta-band-oscillations-during-passive-listening-to-metronome-sounds-reflect-improved-timing-representation-after-short-term-musical-training-in-healthy-older-adults
#18
Takako Fujioka, Bernhard Ross
Sub-second time intervals in musical rhythms provide predictive cues about future events to performers and listeners through an internalized representation of timing. While the acuity of automatic, sub-second timing as well as cognitively controlled, supra-second timing declines with aging, musical experts are less affected. The present study investigated the influence of piano training on temporal processing abilities in older adults using behavioural and neuronal correlates. We hypothesized that neuroplastic changes in beta networks, caused by training in sensorimotor coordination with timing processing, can be assessed even in the absence of movement...
September 9, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887180/gray-matter-volume-showed-dynamic-alterations-in-methamphetamine-users-at-6-and-12months-abstinence-a-longitudinal-voxel-based-morphometry-study
#19
Ruan Xiaolu, Zhong Na, Yang Zhi, Fan Xiaoduo, Zhuang Wenxu, Du Jiang, Jiang Haifeng, Zhao Min
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated brain gray matter reduction in methamphetamine (MA) users; however, little is known about longitudinal brain structural alternations during abstinence. METHOD: Brain volumes were compared among 30 MA-dependent patients (average 6.3years of drug use) at 6months' abstinence and 27 drug-naïve controls by voxel-based morphometry. A longitudinal analysis of MA subjects was performed from 6 to 12months' abstinence, and multiple regression analyses were performed between drug use patterns and gray matter volumes (GMV) at 6months' abstinence...
September 5, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884957/long-term-sequelae-of-hippocampal-lesions-in-patients-with-transient-global-amnesia-a-multiparametric-mri-study
#20
Xiaochuan Wang, Ran Zhang, Wenping Wei, Haibo Jiang, Zhongming Gao, Jianzhong Lin, Jiaxing Zhang
BACKGROUND: MRI signal diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) hyperintensity in the hippocampus in patients with transient global amnesia (TGA) are resolved within several days after the onset of TGA. PURPOSE: To use multiparametric MRI to unravel the sequelae of TGA. STUDY TYPE: A prospective longitudinal study. POPULATION: Eight TGA patients. FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: A 3.0T Siemens Tim Trio MRI scanner with T1 -weighted MPRAGE, diffusion-weighted echo planar imaging, and multiecho gradient-recalled echo sequences...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
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