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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100092/sample-size-requirements-for-one-year-treatment-effects-using-deep-gray-matter-volume-from-3t-mri-in-progressive-forms-of-multiple-sclerosis
#1
Gloria Kim, Renxin Chu, Fawad Yousuf, Shahamat Tauhid, Lynn Stazzone, Maria K Houtchens, James M Stankiewicz, Christopher Severson, Dorlan Kimbrough, Francisco Quintana, Tanuja Chitnis, Howard L Weiner, Brian C Healy, Rohit Bakshi
OBJECTIVE: The subcortical deep gray matter (DGM) develops selective, progressive, and clinically-relevant atrophy in progressive forms of multiple sclerosis (PMS). This patient population is the target of active neurotherapeutic development, requiring the availability of outcome measures. We tested a fully automated MRI analysis pipeline to assess DGM atrophy in PMS. DESIGN/METHODS: Consistent 3D T1-weighted high-resolution 3T brain MRI was obtained over one year in 19 consecutive patients with PMS [15 secondary progressive, 4 primary progressive, 53% women, age (mean±SD) 50...
January 19, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096675/the-role-of-heme-oxygenase-1-ho-1-in-the-regulation-of-inflammatory-reaction-neuronal-cell-proliferation-and-apoptosis-in-rats-after-intracerebral-hemorrhage-ich
#2
Xuezheng Fan, Linshen Mu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the regulation of inflammatory reaction, neuronal cell proliferation and apoptosis in rats after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). METHODS: Thirty-six adult Sprague Dawley (SD) male rats were randomly divided into sham operation, ICH and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) group. Rats (except for the sham operation group) were given 50 μL stereotactic injection of autologous blood from the femoral artery into the caudate nucleus, to establish an ICH model...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095312/neural-correlates-of-babyish-adult-face-processing-in-men
#3
Hirokazu Doi, Minoru Morikawa, Nobuyuki Inadomi, Katsuhiko Aikawa, Masataka Uetani, Kazuyuki Shinohara
The morphological characteristics of an infant's face are collectively referred to as baby schema or babyishness. It has been well established that infant traits are implicitly projected, or overgeneralized, to adults with babyish facial features. However, few studies to date have investigated the neural underpinnings of such overgeneralization. In the present study, we addressed this issue by comparing neural activations elicited by baby-faced and mature-faced adult faces in men using fMRI. We found increased activations in clusters surrounding the bilateral insula, bilateral anterior cingulate cortex, and right inferior frontal gyrus, which have been previously linked to the processing of facial attractiveness and infant-related information...
January 14, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094810/aberrant-development-of-intrinsic-brain-activity-in-a-rat-model-of-caregiver-maltreatment-of-offspring
#4
C-G Yan, M Rincón-Cortés, C Raineki, E Sarro, S Colcombe, D N Guilfoyle, Z Yang, S Gerum, B B Biswal, M P Milham, R M Sullivan, F X Castellanos
Caregiver maltreatment induces vulnerability to later-life psychopathology. Clinical and preclinical evidence suggest changes in prefrontal and limbic circuitry underlie this susceptibility. We examined this question using a rat model of maternal maltreatment and methods translated from humans, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI). Rat pups were reared by mothers provided with insufficient or abundant bedding for nest building from postnatal (PN) days 8 to 12 and underwent behavioral assessments of affect-related behaviors (forced swim, sucrose preference and social interaction) in adolescence (PN45) and early adulthood (PN60)...
January 17, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089970/spatial-working-memory-impairment-in-patients-with-non-neuropsychiatric-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-blood-oxygen-level-dependent-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#5
Chun-Min Zhu, Ye Ma, Lei Xie, Jin-Zhuang Huang, Zong-Bo Sun, Shou-Xing Duan, Zhi-Rong Lin, Jing-Jing Yin, Hong-Bo Le, Dan-Miao Sun, Wen-Can Xu, Shu-Hua Ma
OBJECTIVE: Using ethology and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore mild cognitive dysfunction and spatial working memory (WM) impairment in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) without overt neuropsychiatric symptoms (non-NPSLE) and to study whether any clinical biomarkers could serve as predictors of brain dysfunction in this disease. METHODS: Eighteen non-NPSLE patients and 18 matched subjects were all tested using the Montreal cognitive assessment scale test and scanned using blood-oxygen-level dependent fMRI while performing the n-back task to investigate the activation intensity of some cognition-related areas...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087191/alterations-of-brain-activity-in-fibromyalgia-patients
#6
REVIEW
Passakorn Sawaddiruk, Sahattaya Paiboonworachat, Nipon Chattipakorn, Siriporn C Chattipakorn
Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain syndrome, characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain with diffuse tenderness at multiple tender points. Despite intense investigations, the pathophysiology of fibromyalgia remains elusive. Evidence shows that it could be due to changes in either the peripheral or central nervous system (CNS). For the CNS changes, alterations in the high brain area of fibromyalgia patients have been investigated but the definite mechanisms are still unclear. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Functional Magnetic Resonance (fMRI) have been used to gather evidence regarding the changes of brain morphologies and activities in fibromyalgia patients...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079189/maintenance-and-representation-of-mind-wandering-during-resting-state-fmri
#7
Ying-Hui Chou, Mark Sundman, Heather E Whitson, Pooja Gaur, Mei-Lan Chu, Carol P Weingarten, David J Madden, Lihong Wang, Imke Kirste, Marc Joliot, Michele T Diaz, Yi-Ju Li, Allen W Song, Nan-Kuei Chen
Major advances in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques in the last two decades have provided a tool to better understand the functional organization of the brain both in health and illness. Despite such developments, characterizing regulation and cerebral representation of mind wandering, which occurs unavoidably during resting-state fMRI scans and may induce variability of the acquired data, remains a work in progress. Here, we demonstrate that a decrease or decoupling in functional connectivity involving the caudate nucleus, insula, medial prefrontal cortex and other domain-specific regions was associated with more sustained mind wandering in particular thought domains during resting-state fMRI...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078760/a-study-of-volumetric-variations-of-basal-nuclei-in-the-normal-human-brain-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#8
Amal Elkattan, Amal Mahdy, Mohamed Eltomey, Radwa Ismail
Knowledge of the effects of healthy aging on brain structures is necessary to identify abnormal changes due to diseases. Many studies have demonstrated age-related volume changes in the brain using MRI. 60 healthy individuals who had normal MRI aged from 20 years to 80 years were examined and classified into three groups: Group I: 21 persons; nine males and 12 females aging between 20-39 years old. Group II: 22 persons; 11 males and 11 females aging between 40-59 years old. Group III: 17 persons; eight males and nine females aging between 60-80 years old...
January 12, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078602/sulfatides-primarily-exist-in-the-substantia-nigra-region-of-mouse-brain-tissue
#9
Kab-Tae Park, Jong Cheol Shon, Ji-Eun Kim, Gyu Hwan Park, Hyun Jin Choi, Kwang-Hyeon Liu
Lipid distribution in the brain is important for many biological functions and has been associated with some brain diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate lipid distribution in different regions of brain tissue in mice. To this end, substantia nigra (SN), caudate putamen (CPu), hippocampus (Hip), hypothalamus (Hyp), and cortex (Cx) tissues of mice were analyzed using direct infusion nanoelectrospray-ion trap mass spectrometry and multivariate analyses. The SN, CPu, Hip, Hyp, and Cx groups showed clear differences in lipid distribution using principal component analysis and a partial least-squares discriminant analysis score plot, and lipid levels were significantly different in different brain regions...
January 11, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078505/t2-relaxation-time-measurements-in-the-brains-of-scalded-rats
#10
Tao Jiang, Liqi Xie, Xin Lou, Dawei Li, Zhiye Chen, Huafeng Xiao, Lin Ma
This study aimed to evaluate the T2 relaxation time of the brain in severely scalded rats using a magnetic resonance (MR) T2 mapping sequence, and to investigate the correlation between T2 relaxation time and plasma glucose level. Twenty-eight Wistar rats were randomly divided into the scalded group (n=21) and control group (n=7). Magnetic resonance scans were performed with T1WI, T2WI, and T2-mapping sequences in the scalded group; the scans were performed 1 day prior to scalding and 1, 3, 5, and 7 days post-scalding; in addition, identical MR scans were performed in the control group at the same time points...
January 4, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078134/malignant-transformation-of-biliary-adenofibroma-a-rare-biliary-cystic-tumor
#11
Scott M Thompson, Benjamin Zendejas-Mummert, Mindy L Hartgers, Sudhakar K Venkatesh, Thomas C Smyrk, Amit Mahipal, Rory L Smoot
Biliary adenofibromas (BAFs) are rare, benign biliary cystic tumors with potential for malignant transformation. Of the eleven prior cases of BAF reported in the literature, six showed evidence of malignant transformation. We describe the clinical, imaging and pathology features of two cases of malignant BAF and review the existing literature to raise awareness of this entity and provide additional tools for diagnosing this rare tumor Additionally, we identified a loss of function mutation in the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) tumor suppressor gene in a malignant caudate lobe BAF, thereby providing potential insight into the molecular pathogenesis of BAF malignant transformation...
December 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077120/altered-fractional-amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuation-associated-with-cognitive-dysfunction-in-first-episode-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-major-depressive-disorder-patients
#12
Manli Huang, Shaojia Lu, Liang Yu, Lingjiang Li, Peng Zhang, Jianbo Hu, Weihua Zhou, Shaohua Hu, Ning Wei, Jinwen Huang, Jian Weng, Yi Xu
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated that abnormities of both resting-state brain activity and cognitive dysfunction are frequently observed in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the underlying relationship between these two aspects is less investigated. In this context, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between cognitive dysfunction and altered resting-state brain function in first-episode drug-naïve MDD patients. METHODS: Twenty-five drug-naïve MDD patients and twenty-six age-, sex-, and education-matched normal controls were recruited in this study...
January 11, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074769/-neuroradiological-changes-by-suppression-of-tics
#13
Sara Bohn Larsen, Camilla Birgitte Sørensen, Liselotte Skov, Nanette Mol Debes
Tourette's syndrome is characterized by involuntary tics. First choice of treatment has been pharmacological, but recently, behavioural therapy teaching patients to suppress their tics has been introduced. Neuroimaging studies have shown an increased activity in the prefrontal cortex, temporal lobes and caudate nucleus, and a decreased activity in globus pallidus and putamen during inhibition of tics. The activity in the frontal lobes changes with age, probably caused by a lack of compensatory hypertrophy. In order to fully understand the mechanism behind behavioural therapy further studies are needed...
January 2, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074235/long-term-brain-structural-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-cognitive-functioning-in-children-treated-for-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-with-high-dose-methotrexate-chemotherapy-alone-or-combined-with-cns-radiotherapy-at-reduced-total-dose-to-12%C3%A2-gy
#14
Olga Zając-Spychała, Mikołaj A Pawlak, Katarzyna Karmelita-Katulska, Jakub Pilarczyk, Katarzyna Derwich, Jacek Wachowiak
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to assess the long-term side effects of central nervous system prophylaxis (high-dose chemotherapy alone vs chemotherapy and CNS radiotherapy) according to the ALL IC-BFM 2002. METHODS: Thirty-tree children aged 6.7-19.9 years have been studied. The control group consisted of 12 children newly diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. We assessed subcortical gray matter volume using automatic MRI segmentation and cognitive performance to identify differences between two therapeutic schemes and patients prior to treatment...
January 10, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072842/fractal-analysis-of-brain-blood-oxygenation-level-dependent-bold-signals-from-children-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-mtbi
#15
Olga Dona, Michael D Noseworthy, Carol DeMatteo, John F Connolly
BACKGROUND: Conventional imaging techniques are unable to detect abnormalities in the brain following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Yet patients with mTBI typically show delayed response on neuropsychological evaluation. Because fractal geometry represents complexity, we explored its utility in measuring temporal fluctuations of brain resting state blood oxygen level dependent (rs-BOLD) signal. We hypothesized that there could be a detectable difference in rs-BOLD signal complexity between healthy subjects and mTBI patients based on previous studies that associated reduction in signal complexity with disease...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072713/-11c-r-pk11195-positron-emission-tomography-in-patients-with-complex-regional-pain-syndrome-a-pilot-study
#16
So Yeon Jeon, Seongho Seo, Jae Sung Lee, Soo-Hee Choi, Do-Hyeong Lee, Ye-Ha Jung, Man-Kyu Song, Kyung-Jun Lee, Yong Chul Kim, Hyun Woo Kwon, Hyung-Jun Im, Dong Soo Lee, Gi Jeong Cheon, Do-Hyung Kang
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is characterized by severe and chronic pain, but the pathophysiology of this disease are not clearly understood. The primary aim of our case-control study was to explore neuroinflammation in patients with CRPS using positron emission tomography (PET), with an 18-kDa translocator protein specific radioligand [C]-(R)-PK11195. [C]-(R)-PK11195 PET scans were acquired for 11 patients with CRPS (30-55 years) and 12 control subjects (30-52 years). Parametric image of distribution volume ratio (DVR) for each participant was generated by applying a relative equilibrium-based graphical analysis...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072384/impact-of-cerebellar-atrophy-on-cortical-gray-matter-and-cerebellar-peduncles-as-assessed-by-voxel-based-morphometry-and-high-angular-resolution-diffusion-imaging
#17
Michael Dayan, G Olivito, M Molinari, Mara Cercignani, Marco Bozzali, M Leggio
In recent years the cerebellum has been attributed amore important role in higher-level functions than previously believed. We examined a cohort of patients suffering from cerebellar atrophy resulting in ataxia, with two main objectives: first to investigate which regions of the cerebrum were affected by the cerebellar degeneration, and second to assess whether diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) metrics within the medial (MCP) and superior cerebellar peduncle (SCP) - namely fractional anisotropy (FA) and radial diffusivity (RD) - could be used as a biomarker in patients with this condition...
October 2016: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071892/transient-adenosine-release-is-modulated-by-nmda-and-gabab-receptors
#18
Michael D Nguyen, Ying Wang, Mallikarjunarao Ganesana, B Jill Venton
Adenosine is a neuroprotective agent that modulates neurotransmission and is modulated by other neurotransmitters. Spontaneous, transient adenosine is a recently discovered mode of signaling where adenosine is released and cleared from the extracellular space quickly, in less than three seconds. Spontaneous adenosine release is regulated by adenosine A1 and A2a receptors, but regulation by other neurotransmitter receptors has not been studied. Here, we examined the effect of glutamate and GABA receptors on the concentration and frequency of spontaneous, transient adenosine release by measuring adenosine with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in the rat caudate-putamen...
January 10, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070912/role-of-testosterone-and-y-chromosome-genes-for-the-masculinization-of-the-human-brain
#19
Ivanka Savic, Louise Frisen, Amirhossein Manzouri, Anna Nordenstrom, Angelica Lindén Hirschberg
: Women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) have a male (46,XY) karyotype but no functional androgen receptors. Their condition, therefore, offers a unique model for studying testosterone effects on cerebral sex dimorphism. We present MRI data from 16 women with CAIS and 32 male (46,XY) and 32 female (46,XX) controls. METHODS: FreeSurfer software was employed to measure cortical thickness and subcortical structural volumes. Axonal connections, indexed by fractional anisotropy, (FA) were measured with diffusion tensor imaging, and functional connectivity with resting state fMRI...
January 10, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067006/addressing-reverse-inference-in-psychiatric-neuroimaging-meta-analyses-of-task-related-brain-activation-in-common-mental-disorders
#20
Emma Sprooten, Alexander Rasgon, Morgan Goodman, Ariella Carlin, Evan Leibu, Won Hee Lee, Sophia Frangou
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in psychiatry use various tasks to identify case-control differences in the patterns of task-related brain activation. Differently activated regions are often ascribed disorder-specific functions in an attempt to link disease expression and brain function. We undertook a systematic meta-analysis of data from task-fMRI studies to examine the effect of diagnosis and study design on the spatial distribution and direction of case-control differences on brain activation...
January 9, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
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