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central pattern generators

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443014/the-topographical-mapping-in-drosophila-central-complex-network-and-its-signal-routing
#1
Po-Yen Chang, Ta-Shun Su, Chi-Tin Shih, Chung-Chuan Lo
Neural networks regulate brain functions by routing signals. Therefore, investigating the detailed organization of a neural circuit at the cellular levels is a crucial step toward understanding the neural mechanisms of brain functions. To study how a complicated neural circuit is organized, we analyzed recently published data on the neural circuit of the Drosophila central complex, a brain structure associated with a variety of functions including sensory integration and coordination of locomotion. We discovered that, except for a small number of "atypical" neuron types, the network structure formed by the identified 194 neuron types can be described by only a few simple mathematical rules...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440738/restricted-feeding-modulates-the-daily-variations-of-liver-glutamate-dehydrogenase-activity-expression-and-histological-location
#2
Olivia Vázquez-Martínez, Isabel Méndez, Isaías Turrubiate, Héctor Valente-Godínez, Moisés Pérez-Mendoza, Paola García-Tejada, Mauricio Díaz-Muñoz
Glutamate dehydrogenase is an important enzyme in the hepatic regulation of nitrogen and energy metabolism. It catalyzes one of the most relevant anaplerotic reactions. Although its relevance in liver homeostasis has been widely described, its daily pattern and responsiveness to restricted feeding protocols has not been studied. We explored the daily variations of liver glutamate dehydrogenase transcription, protein, activity, and histochemical and subcellular location in a protocol of daytime food synchronization in rats...
May 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438991/differentiation-of-v2a-interneurons-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#3
Jessica C Butts, Dylan A McCreedy, Jorge Alexis Martinez-Vargas, Frederico N Mendoza-Camacho, Tracy A Hookway, Casey A Gifford, Praveen Taneja, Linda Noble-Haeusslein, Todd C McDevitt
The spinal cord consists of multiple neuronal cell types that are critical to motor control and arise from distinct progenitor domains in the developing neural tube. Excitatory V2a interneurons in particular are an integral component of central pattern generators that control respiration and locomotion; however, the lack of a robust source of human V2a interneurons limits the ability to molecularly profile these cells and examine their therapeutic potential to treat spinal cord injury (SCI). Here, we report the directed differentiation of CHX10(+) V2a interneurons from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs)...
April 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438764/neurogenic-hypertension-and-the-secret-of-respiration
#4
Benedito H Machado, Daniel B Zoccal, Davi J A Moraes
In spite of recent advances on the knowledgement of the neural control of cardiovascular function, the cause of sympathetic overactivity in neurogenic hypertension remains unknown. Studies from our laboratory point out that rats submitted to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), an experimental model of neurogenic hypertension, present changes in the central respiratory network that impact the pattern of sympathetic discharge and the levels of arterial pressure. In addition to the fine coordination of respiratory muscle contraction and relaxation, essential for O2 and CO2 pulmonary exchanges, neurons of the respiratory network are precisely connected to the neurons controlling the sympathetic activity in the brainstem...
April 24, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436559/dopamine-d1-or-d2-receptor-expressing-neurons-in-the-central-nervous-system
#5
Xiaoyan Wei, Tengfei Ma, Yifeng Cheng, Cathy C Y Huang, Xuehua Wang, Jiayi Lu, Jun Wang
Dopamine signals mainly through D1 receptors (D1Rs) and D2 receptors (D2Rs); D1R-expressing or D2R-expressing neurons contribute to distinct reward and addictive behaviors. Traditionally, transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under D1R or D2R promoters are used for fluorescent verification in electrophysiology studies, whereas Cre mice are employed for behavioral research. However, it is unknown whether the same neuronal populations are targeted in GFP and Cre mice. Additionally, while D1Rs and D2Rs are known to be expressed in different striatal neurons, their expression patterns outside the striatum remain unclear...
April 24, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426795/properties-of-healthcare-teaming-networks-as-a-function-of-network-construction-algorithms
#6
Martin S Zand, Melissa Trayhan, Samir A Farooq, Christopher Fucile, Gourab Ghoshal, Robert J White, Caroline M Quill, Alexander Rosenberg, Hugo Serrano Barbosa, Kristen Bush, Hassan Chafi, Timothy Boudreau
Network models of healthcare systems can be used to examine how providers collaborate, communicate, refer patients to each other, and to map how patients traverse the network of providers. Most healthcare service network models have been constructed from patient claims data, using billing claims to link a patient with a specific provider in time. The data sets can be quite large (106-108 individual claims per year), making standard methods for network construction computationally challenging and thus requiring the use of alternate construction algorithms...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424604/mapping-critical-language-sites-in-children-performing-verb-generation-whole-brain-connectivity-and-graph-theoretical-analysis-in-meg
#7
Vahab Youssofzadeh, Brady J Williamson, Darren S Kadis
A classic left frontal-temporal brain network is known to support language processes. However, the level of participation of constituent regions, and the contribution of extra-canonical areas, is not fully understood; this is particularly true in children, and in individuals who have experienced early neurological insult. In the present work, we propose whole-brain connectivity and graph-theoretical analysis of magnetoencephalography (MEG) source estimates to provide robust maps of the pediatric expressive language network...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424311/mechanics-of-the-thorax-in-flies
#8
REVIEW
Tanvi Deora, Namrata Gundiah, Sanjay P Sane
Insects represent more than 60% of all multicellular life forms, and are easily among the most diverse and abundant organisms on earth. They evolved functional wings and the ability to fly, which enabled them to occupy diverse niches. Insects of the hyper-diverse orders show extreme miniaturization of their body size. The reduced body size, however, imposes steep constraints on flight ability, as their wings must flap faster to generate sufficient forces to stay aloft. Here, we discuss the various physiological and biomechanical adaptations of the thorax in flies which enabled them to overcome the myriad constraints of small body size, while ensuring very precise control of their wing motion...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421443/genomic-mapping-of-chromatin-proteins-by-using-dam-inv-modification-of-an-flp-dependent-damid-approach
#9
A V Pindyurin
To identify interactions of chromatin proteins with the genome of the cell type of interest that is a part of heterologous tissues and organs of Drosophila, an FLP-dependent DamID approach was recently developed [4], which does not require sorting of cells or nuclei. Here, a modification of this approach, Dam(inv), is described. The modified approach was validated by generating the binding pattern of the LAM protein, a component of the inner membrane of the nuclear envelope, with the genome of glial cells of the Drosophila larval central brains...
January 2017: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410378/metabolic-changes-and-inflammation-in-cultured-astrocytes-from-the-5xfad-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-alleviation-by-pantethine
#10
Manuel van Gijsel-Bonnello, Kévin Baranger, Philippe Benech, Santiago Rivera, Michel Khrestchatisky, Max de Reggi, Bouchra Gharib
Astrocytes play critical roles in central nervous system homeostasis and support of neuronal function. A better knowledge of their response may both help understand the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and implement new therapeutic strategies. We used the 5xFAD transgenic mouse model of AD (Tg thereafter) to generate astrocyte cultures and investigate the impact of the genotype on metabolic changes and astrocytes activation. Metabolomic analysis showed that Tg astrocytes exhibited changes in the glycolytic pathway and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, compared to wild type (WT) cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405279/fine-scale-frequency-differentiation-along-a-herbivory-gradient-in-the-trichome-dimorphism-of-a-wild-arabidopsis
#11
Yasuhiro Sato, Hiroshi Kudoh
Geographic variation is commonly observed in plant resistance traits, where plant species might experience different selection pressure across a heterogeneous landscape. Arabidopsis halleri subsp. gemmifera is dimorphic for trichome production, generating two morphs, trichome-producing (hairy) and trichomeless (glabrous) plants. Trichomes of A. halleri are known to confer resistance against the white butterfly, cabbage sawfly, and brassica leaf beetle, but not against flea beetles. We combined leaf damage, microclimate, and microsatellite loci data of 26 A...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405011/plasticity-within-excitatory-and-inhibitory-pathways-of-the-vestibulo-spinal-circuitry-guides-changes-in-motor-performance
#12
Diana E Mitchell, Charles C Della Santina, Kathleen E Cullen
Investigations of behaviors with well-characterized circuitry are required to understand how the brain learns new motor skills and ensures existing behaviors remain appropriately calibrated over time. Accordingly, here we recorded from neurons within different sites of the vestibulo-spinal circuitry of behaving macaque monkeys during temporally precise activation of vestibular afferents. Behaviorally relevant patterns of vestibular nerve activation generated a rapid and substantial decrease in the monosynaptic responses recorded at the first central stage of processing from neurons receiving direct input from vestibular afferents within minutes, as well as a decrease in the compensatory reflex response that lasted up to 8 hours...
April 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398545/evolutionary-dynamics-of-mixed-ploidy-populations-in-an-annual-herb-dispersal-local-persistence-and-recurrent-origins-of-polyploids
#13
Martin Certner, Eliška Fenclová, Pavel Kúr, Filip Kolár, Petr Koutecký, Anna Krahulcová, Jan Suda
Background and Aims: Despite the recent wealth of studies targeted at contact zones of cytotypes in various species, some aspects of polyploid evolution are still poorly understood. This is especially the case for the frequency and success rate of spontaneous neopolyploidization or the temporal dynamics of ploidy coexistence, requiring massive ploidy screening and repeated observations, respectively. To fill this gap, an extensive study of spatio-temporal patterns of ploidy coexistence was initiated in the widespread annual weed Tripleurospermum inodorum (Asteraceae)...
April 7, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396913/geographical-variation-in-sexual-behavior-and-body-traits-in-a-sex-role-reversed-wolf-spider
#14
Fedra Bollatti, Virginia Garcia Diaz, Alfredo V Peretti, Anita Aisenberg
Mating partners need to recognize, assess each other, and exchange information through behavioral events that occur before, during, and after mating. Sexual signals, as well as life history traits, are influenced by selective pressures and environmental factors that can vary across distant geographical areas. Allocosa senex is a sand-dwelling wolf spider which constructs burrows along the sandy coasts of Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay. Females are the mobile sex that searches for males and initiates courtship...
June 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392224/the-non-equilibrium-basis-of-turing-instability-and-localised-biological-work
#15
REVIEW
Yoram Schiffmann
Turing's theory for biological pattern formation is based on the instability of the homogeneous state, which occurs if certain key criteria are met. The problem of how localised chemical energy is converted to localised biological work requires one to understand not only the basis of localised power generation, but also the age-old puzzle of how organisms decrease their entropy; these problems can only be solved by the identification of the Turing Instability. At the heart of this is how natural selection, not chemistry, has fashioned the large non-equilibrium overall affinity (ΔG is a large negative quantity) for the oxidation of the fuel molecules...
April 6, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389695/effects-of-low-temperature-on-breathing-pattern-and-ventilatory-responses-during-hibernation-in-the-golden-mantled-ground-squirrel
#16
Cheryl L Webb, William K Milsom
During entrance into hibernation in golden-mantled ground squirrels (Callospermophilus lateralis), ventilation decreases as metabolic rate and body temperature fall. Two patterns of respiration occur during deep hibernation. At 7 °C body temperature (T b ), a breathing pattern characterized by episodes of multiple breaths (20.6 ± 1.9 breaths/episode) separated by long apneas or nonventilatory periods (T nvp ) (mean = 11.1 ± 1.2 min) occurs, while at 4 °C T b , a pattern in which breaths are evenly distributed and separated by a relatively short T nvp (0...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377782/species-delimitation-and-lineage-separation-history-of-a-species-complex-of-aspens-in-china
#17
Honglei Zheng, Liqiang Fan, Richard I Milne, Lei Zhang, Yaling Wang, Kangshan Mao
Species delimitation in tree species is notoriously challenging due to shared polymorphisms among species. An integrative survey that considers multiple operational criteria is a possible solution, and we aimed to test it in a species complex of aspens in China. Genetic [four chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) fragments and 14 nuclear microsatellite loci (nSSR)] and morphological variations were collected for 76 populations and 53 populations, respectively, covering the major geographic distribution of the Populus davidiana-rotundifolia complex...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377772/treatment-of-pediatric-acute-graft-versus-host-disease-lessons-from-primary-immunodeficiency
#18
REVIEW
Aisling M Flinn, Andrew R Gennery
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is used to treat increasing numbers of malignant and non-malignant disorders. Despite significant advances in improved human leukocyte antigens-typing techniques, less toxic conditioning regimens and better supportive care, resulting in improved clinical outcomes, acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) continues to be a major obstacle and, although it principally involves the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and liver, the thymus is also a primary target. An important aim following HSCT is to achieve complete and durable immunoreconstitution with a diverse T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire to recognize a broad range of pathogens providing adequate long-term adaptive T-lymphocyte immunity, essential to reduce the risk of infection, disease relapse, and secondary malignancies...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377710/fast-dynamical-coupling-enhances-frequency-adaptation-of-oscillators-for-robotic-locomotion-control
#19
Timo Nachstedt, Christian Tetzlaff, Poramate Manoonpong
Rhythmic neural signals serve as basis of many brain processes, in particular of locomotion control and generation of rhythmic movements. It has been found that specific neural circuits, named central pattern generators (CPGs), are able to autonomously produce such rhythmic activities. In order to tune, shape and coordinate the produced rhythmic activity, CPGs require sensory feedback, i.e., external signals. Nonlinear oscillators are a standard model of CPGs and are used in various robotic applications. A special class of nonlinear oscillators are adaptive frequency oscillators (AFOs)...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376084/demographic-transition-and-the-dynamics-of-measles-in-six-provinces-in-china-a-modeling-study
#20
Sheng Li, Chao Ma, Lixin Hao, Qiru Su, Zhijie An, Fubao Ma, Shuyun Xie, Aiqiang Xu, Yanyang Zhang, Zhengrong Ding, Hui Li, Lisa Cairns, Huaqing Wang, Huiming Luo, Ning Wang, Li Li, Matthew J Ferrari
BACKGROUND: Industrialization and demographic transition generate nonstationary dynamics in human populations that can affect the transmission and persistence of infectious diseases. Decades of increasing vaccination and development have led to dramatic declines in the global burden of measles, but the virus remains persistent in much of the world. Here we show that a combination of demographic transition, as a result of declining birth rates, and reduced measles prevalence, due to improved vaccination, has shifted the age distribution of susceptibility to measles throughout China...
April 2017: PLoS Medicine
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