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central pattern generators

Laurence D Picton, Keith T Sillar
Dopamine plays important roles in the development and modulation of motor control circuits. Here we show that dopamine exerts potent effects on the central pattern generator circuit controlling locomotory swimming in post-embryonic Xenopus tadpoles. Dopamine (0.5-100 μM) reduced fictive swim bout occurrence and caused both spontaneous and evoked episodes to become shorter, slower and weaker. The D2-like receptor agonist quinpirole mimicked this repertoire of inhibitory effects on swimming, whilst the D4 receptor antagonist, L745,870, had the opposite effects...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ayako Yamaguchi, Jessica Cavin Barnes, Todd Appleby
Central pattern generators (CPG) in the brainstem are considered to underlie vocalizations in many vertebrate species, but the detailed mechanisms underlying how motor rhythms are generated, coordinated, and initiated remain unclear. We addressed these issues using isolated brain preparations of Xenopus laevis from which fictive vocalizations can be elicited. Advertisement calls of male X. laevis that consist of fast and slow trills are generated by vocal CPGs contained in the brainstem. Brainstem central vocal pathways consist of a premotor nucleus (DTAM) and a laryngeal motor nucleus (n...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Katelyn N Benthall, Ryan A Hough, Andrew D McClellan
Following spinal cord injury (SCI) in the lamprey, there is virtually complete recovery of locomotion within a few weeks, but interestingly, axonal regeneration of reticulospinal (RS) neurons is mostly limited to short distances caudal to the injury site. To explain this situation, we hypothesize that descending propriospinal (PS) neurons relay descending drive from RS neurons to indirectly activate spinal central pattern generators (CPGs). In the present study, the contributions of PS neurons to locomotor recovery were tested in the lamprey following SCI...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
M C Burg, P Lunkenheimer, P Niederer, C Brune, K Redmann, M Smerup, U Spiegel, F Becker, D Maintz, W Heindel, R H Anderson
Purpose: There are ongoing arguments as to how cardiomyocytes are aggregated together within the ventricular walls. We used pneumatic distension through the coronary arteries to exaggerate the gaps between the aggregated cardiomyocytes, analyzing the pattern revealed using computed tomography, and validating our findings by histology. Methods: We distended 10 porcine hearts, arresting 4 in diastole by infusion of cardioplegic solutions, and 4 in systole by injection of barium chloride. Mural architecture was revealed by computed tomography, measuring also the angulations of the long chains of cardiomyocytes...
November 2016: RöFo: Fortschritte Auf Dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
Bo Wang, Baogang Quan, Jingwen He, Zhenwei Xie, Xinke Wang, Junjie Li, Qiang Kan, Yan Zhang
A wavelength de-multiplexing metasurface hologram composed of subwavelength metallic antennas is designed and demonstrated experimentally in the terahertz (THz) regime. Different character patterns are generated at the separated working frequencies 0.50 THz and 0.63 THz which determine a narrow frequency bandwidth of 130 GHz. The two working frequencies are around the central resonance frequency of the antennas where antennas behave strong wavefront modulation. Each antenna is fully utilized to control the wavefront of the metasurface at different frequencies by an optimization algorithm...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Mikołaj Morzy, Tomasz Kajdanowicz, Bolesław K Szymański
Many collections of numbers do not have a uniform distribution of the leading digit, but conform to a very particular pattern known as Benford's distribution. This distribution has been found in numerous areas such as accounting data, voting registers, census data, and even in natural phenomena. Recently it has been reported that Benford's law applies to online social networks. Here we introduce a set of rigorous tests for adherence to Benford's law and apply it to verification of this claim, extending the scope of the experiment to various complex networks and to artificial networks created by several popular generative models...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Luis R Hernandez-Miranda, Thomas Müller, Carmen Birchmeier
Neurons of the dorsal hindbrain and spinal cord are central in receiving, processing and relaying sensory perception and participate in the coordination of sensory-motor output. Numerous cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie neuronal development in both regions of the nervous system are shared. We discuss here the mechanisms that generate neuronal diversity in the dorsal spinal cord and hindbrain, and emphasize similarities in patterning and neuronal specification. Insight into the developmental mechanisms has provided tools that can help to assign functions to small subpopulations of neurons...
October 11, 2016: Developmental Biology
Renata Yakubov, Machiel van den Akker, Kaba Machamad, Amit Hochberg, Erez Nadir, Adi Klein
BACKGROUND: Empiric antibiotic treatment of urinary tract infection (UTI) in children relies on surveillance data about epidemiology and resistance patterns of common uropathogens. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of bacteria isolated from urine cultures of children with febrile UTI, seen at the pediatric department of a large regional hospital (Hillel-Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera, Israel) between January 2007 and December 2014. RESULTS: In this study period, 829 positive urine cultures were analyzed...
October 12, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Calvin Zhang, Timothy J Lewis
Many neuronal circuits driving coordinated locomotion are composed of chains of half-center oscillators (HCOs) of various lengths. The HCO is a common motif in central pattern generating circuits (CPGs); an HCO consists of two neurons, or two neuronal populations, connected by reciprocal inhibition. To maintain appropriate motor coordination for effective locomotion over a broad range of frequencies, chains of CPGs must produce approximately constant phase-differences in a robust manner. In this article, we study phase-locking in chains of nearest-neighbor coupled HCOs and examine how the circuit architecture can promote phase-constancy, i...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Prashant Singh, Braden Kuo
Nausea and vomiting result from continuous interactions among gastrointestinal, central nervous system, and autonomic nervous system. Despite being closely associated, central pathways of nausea and vomiting appear to be at least partly different and nausea is no longer considered only a penultimate step of vomiting. Although our understanding of central pathways of nausea has improved over the last one decade, it is still very basic. Afferent pathways from gastrointestinal tract via vagus, vestibular system, and chemoreceptor trigger zone project to nucleus tractus solitarius which, in turn, relays the signal to central pattern generator initiating multiple downstream pathways...
October 12, 2016: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Non-fatal outcomes of disease and injury increasingly detract from the ability of the world's population to live in full health, a trend largely attributable to an epidemiological transition in many countries from causes affecting children, to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) more common in adults. For the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015), we estimated the incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for diseases and injuries at the global, regional, and national scale over the period of 1990 to 2015...
October 8, 2016: Lancet
Jack Fuzell, Ian E Jacobs, Sophia Ackling, Thomas F Harrelson, David Mark Huang, Delmar S Larsen, Adam J Moule
Doping-induced solubility control (DISC) is a recently introduced photolithographic technique for semiconducting polymers, which utilizes reversible changes in polymer solubility upon doping to allow the polymer to function as its own photoresist. Central to this process is a wavelength sensitive optical dedoping reaction, which is poorly understood but generates sub-diffraction-limited topographic features, and provides optical control of the polymer doping level. Here, we examine the mechanism of optical dedoping in the semiconducting polymer poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) doped by 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4TCNQ), via a combination of ultrafast and steady-state spectroscopy, ab initio calculations, and multi-dimensional NMR...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Daniel Ian McSkimming, Shima Dastgheib, Timothy R Baffi, Dominic P Byrne, Samantha Ferries, Steven Thomas Scott, Alexandra C Newton, Claire E Eyers, Krzysztof J Kochut, Patrick A Eyers, Natarajan Kannan
Multiple sequence alignments (MSAs) are a fundamental analysis tool used throughout biology to investigate relationships between protein sequence, structure, function, evolutionary history, and patterns of disease-associated variants. However, their widespread application in systems biology research is currently hindered by the lack of user-friendly tools to simultaneously visualize, manipulate and query the information conceptualized in large sequence alignments, and the challenges in integrating MSAs with multiple orthogonal data such as cancer variants and post-translational modifications, which are often stored in heterogeneous data sources and formats...
October 12, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
Hadrien P A Vanthomme, Elie Tobi, Angelique F Todd, Lisa Korte, Alfonso Alonso
Unsustainable hunting outside protected areas is threatening tropical biodiversity worldwide and requires conservationists to engage increasingly in antipoaching activities. Following the example of ecocertified logging companies, we argue that other extractive industries managing large concessions should engage in antipoaching activities as part of their environmental management plans. Onshore hydrocarbon concessions should also adopt antipoaching protocols as a standard because they represent a biodiversity threat comparable to logging...
October 12, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Marc Possover
We report on unexpected findings in 18 spinal cord injured peoples who underwent a laparoscopic bilateral implantation of neuroprosthesis (LION procedure) to the sciatic/femoral nerves pelvic somatic nerves for functional electrical stimulation (FES)-assisted locomotor training and continuous low-frequency electrical stimulation. Fifteen patients were paraplegics, three low tetraplegics, all of them fully dependent on a wheelchair. After a training period of at least one year, all patients not only started with electrical-assisted standing/stepping using a walker or crutches, but also developed some progressive caudalward recovery of lumbosacral sensoric functions and of supraspinal control of voluntary movements below the lesions...
October 6, 2016: Surgical Technology International
Carolina Roza, Irene Mazo, Iván Rivera-Arconada, Elsa Cisneros, Ismel Alayón, José A López-García
The superficial dorsal horn contains large numbers of interneurons which process afferent and descending information to generate the spinal nociceptive message. Here, we set out to evaluate whether adjustments in patterns and/or temporal correlation of spontaneous discharges of these neurons are involved in the generation of central sensitization caused by peripheral nerve damage. Multielectrode arrays were used to record from discrete groups of such neurons in slices from control or nerve damaged mice. Whole-cell recordings of individual neurons were also obtained...
October 10, 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Lamiece Hassan, Jane Senior, Roger T Webb, Martin Frisher, Mary P Tully, David While, Jenny J Shaw
BACKGROUND: Mental illness is highly prevalent among prisoners. Although psychotropic medicines can ameliorate symptoms of mental illness, prescribers in prisons must balance clinical needs against risks to safety and security. Concerns have been raised at the large number of prisoners reportedly receiving psychotropic medicines in England. Nonetheless, unlike for the wider community, robust prescribing data are not routinely available for prisons. We investigated gender-specific patterns in the prevalence and appropriateness of psychotropic prescribing in English prisons...
October 10, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
Xiao Li, Julio C Armas-Perez, Jose A Martinez-Gonzalez, Xiaoying Liu, Helou Xie, Camille Bishop, Juan P Hernandez-Ortiz, Rui Zhang, Juan J de Pablo, Paul F Nealey
The morphology and through-film optical properties of nematic liquid crystals (LCs) confined between two surfaces may be engineered to create switches that respond to external electric fields, thereby enabling applications in optoelectronics that require fast responses and low power. Interfacial properties between the confining surfaces and the LC play a central role in device design and performance. Here we investigate the morphology of LCs confined in hybrid cells with a top surface that exhibits uniform homeotropic anchoring and a bottom surface that is chemically patterned with sub-micron and micron- wide planar anchoring stripes in a background of homeotropic anchoring...
September 27, 2016: Soft Matter
David J Schulz, Brian J Lane
Plasticity of excitability can come in two general forms: changes in excitability that alter neuronal output (e.g. long-term potentiation of intrinsic excitability) or excitability changes that stabilize neuronal output (homeostatic plasticity). Here we discuss the latter form of plasticity in the context of the crustacean stomatogastric nervous system, and a second central pattern generator circuit, the cardiac ganglion. We discuss this plasticity at three levels: rapid homeostatic changes in membrane conductance, longer-term effects of neuromodulation on excitability, and the impacts of activity-dependent feedback on steady-state channel mRNA levels...
October 6, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Paula I Marcora, Paula A Tecco, Sebastián R Zeballos, Isabell Hensen
Steep climatic gradients boost morphological and physiological adjustments in plants, with consequences on performance. The three principal woody species of the Sierras Grandes Mountains of central Argentina have marked differences in sapling performance along their altitudinal distribution. We hypothesize that the steep gradient of climatic conditions across the species' altitudinal distribution promotes trait differences between populations of different altitudes that are inherited by the following generation...
October 7, 2016: Plant Biology
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