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central pattern generators

Fermín García-Muñoz Rodrigo, Lourdes Urquía Martí, Gloria Galán Henríquez, Sonia Rivero Rodríguez, Alberto Hernández Gómez
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the neural breathing pattern in preterm infants supported with non-invasive neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NIV-NAVA). STUDY DESIGN: Single-center prospective observational study. The electrical activity of the diaphragm (EAdi) was periodically recorded in 30-second series with the Edi catheter and the Servo-n software (Maquet, Solna, Sweden) in preterm infants supported with NIV-NAVA. The EAdiPeak , EAdiMin , EAdiTonic , EAdiPhasic , neural inspiratory, and expiratory times (nTi and nTe) and the neural respiratory rate (nRR) were calculated...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
David M Devilbiss
Flexible and adaptive behaviors have evolved with increasing complexity and numbers of neuromodulator systems. The neuromodulatory locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system is central to regulating cognitive function in a behaviorally-relevant and arousal-dependent manner. Through its nearly ubiquitous efferent projections, the LC-NE system acts to modulate neuron function on a cell-by-cell basis and exert a spectrum of actions across different brain regions to optimize target circuit function. As LC neuron activity, NE signaling, and arousal level increases, cognitive performance improves over an inverted-U shaped curve...
June 13, 2018: Brain Research
Wipawee Wongchana, Pornrat Kongkavitoon, Pattarin Tangtanatakul, Chutamath Sittplangkoon, Patcharavadee Butta, Supatta Chawalitpong, Thitiporn Pattarakankul, Barbara A Osborne, Tanapat Palaga
Macrophages exhibit diverse effector phenotypes depending on the stimuli and their microenvironment. Classically activated macrophages are primed with interferon (IFN)γ and stimulated with pathogen-associated molecular patterns. They produce inflammatory mediators and inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-12. In the presence of immune complexes (ICs), activated macrophages have decreased IL-12 production and increased IL-10 production and presumably act as regulatory macrophages. Notch signaling has been shown to regulate the effector functions of classically activated macrophages...
2018: PloS One
Koudai Morishita, Masafumi Iwami, Taketoshi Kiya
In the central nervous system of insects, motor patterns are generated in the thoracic ganglia under the control of brain, where sensory information is integrated and behavioral decisions are made. Previously, we established neural activity-mapping methods using an immediate early gene, BmHr38, as a neural activity marker in the brain of male silkmoth Bombyx mori. In the present study, to gain insights into neural mechanisms of motor-pattern generation in the thoracic ganglia, we investigated expression of BmHr38 in response to sex pheromone-induced courtship behavior...
June 2018: Zoological Science
Valentina Ciullo, Daniela Vecchio, Tommaso Gili, Gianfranco Spalletta, Federica Piras
The ability to generate probabilistic expectancies regarding when and where sensory stimuli will occur, is critical to derive timely and accurate inferences about updating contexts. However, the existence of specialized neural networks for inferring predictive relationships between events is still debated. Using graph theoretical analysis applied to structural connectivity data, we tested the extent of brain connectivity properties associated with spatio-temporal predictive performance across 29 healthy subjects...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Parneet Kaur Bedi, Narkeesh Arumugam, Harvinder Singh Chhabra
STUDY DESIGN: A multi-centric randomized controlled trial to be conducted at two sites, department of phyhysiotherapypy, Punjabi University, Patiala and rehabilitation department, Indian Spinal Injury Centre, New Delhi, India. PURPOSE: To determine the effectiveness of activity-based therapy in comparison with surface spinal stimulation (SSS) in traumatic incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) with special reference to locomotion-a central pattern generator controlled function...
June 2018: Asian Spine Journal
Satoshi Hirata, Kaname Kojima, Kazuharu Misawa, Olivier Gervais, Yosuke Kawai, Masao Nagasaki
Forensic DNA typing is widely used to identify missing persons and plays a central role in forensic profiling. DNA typing usually uses capillary electrophoresis fragment analysis of PCR amplification products to detect the length of short tandem repeat (STR) markers. Here, we analyzed whole genome data from 1,070 Japanese individuals generated using massively parallel short-read sequencing of 162 paired-end bases. We have analyzed 843,473 STR loci with two to six basepair repeat units and cataloged highly polymorphic STR loci in the Japanese population...
May 2018: Heliyon
Sean P Parsons, Jan D Huizinga
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? What is the nature of slow wave driven contraction frequency gradients in the small intestine? What is the main finding and its importance? Frequency plateaus are composed of discrete waves of increased interval, each wave associated with a contraction dislocation. Smooth frequency gradients are generated by localised neural modulation of wave frequency, leading to functionally important wave turbulence. Both patterns are emergent properties of a network of coupled oscillators, the interstitial cells of Cajal...
June 3, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Wei-Lun Lin, Yu-Ruey Chen, Chun-Ting Lai, Shinya Yamada, Shin-Huei Liu, Yu-Hui Chou, Yun-Ching Fu, Cheryl C H Yang, Terry B J Kuo, Li-Wei Lo, Shih-Ann Chen
BACKGROUND: Sympathetic hyperactivity and poor sleep quality are reported in myocardial infarction (MI) patients and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) can improve long-term survival in these patients. We aimed to evaluate ACEI effects on cardiac autonomic activity (CAA) and disordered sleep patterns in ambulatory rats after MI. METHODS: Polysomnographic recording was performed in sham (n = 8) and MI (n = 9) male rats during normal daytime sleep before and after captopril treatment...
May 1, 2018: Sleep Medicine
E-F Markus Henke, Katherine Wilson, Iain Anderson
Biomimetic, entirely soft robots with animal-like behavior and integrated artificial nervous systems will open up totally new perspectives and applications. However, until now, most presented studies on soft robots were limited to only partly soft designs, since all solutions at least needed conventional, stiff electronics to sense, process signals and activate actuators. We present a novel approach for a set up and the experimental validation of an artificial pace maker that is able to drive basic robotic structures and act as artificial central pattern generator (aCPG)...
May 31, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Mark D White, Jos J A G Kamps, Samuel East, Leah J Taylor Kearney, Emily Flashman
Group VII Ethylene Response Factors (ERF-VIIs) regulate transcriptional adaptation to flooding-induced hypoxia in plants. ERF-VII stability is controlled in an O2 -dependent manner by the Cys/Arg branch of the N-end rule pathway, whereby oxidation of a conserved N-terminal cysteine residue initiates target degradation. This oxidation is catalyzed by Plant Cysteine Oxidases (PCOs) which use O2 as co-substrate to generate Cys-sulfinic acid. The PCOs directly link O2 availability to ERF-VII stability and anaerobic adaptation leading to the suggestion that they act as plant O2 sensors...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Pier Andrea Borea, Stefania Gessi, Stefania Merighi, Fabrizio Vincenzi, Katia Varani
Adenosine is a ubiquitous endogenous autacoid whose effects are triggered through the enrollment of four G protein-coupled receptors: A1 , A2A , A2B , and A3 . Due to the rapid generation of adenosine from cellular metabolism, and the widespread distribution of its receptor subtypes in almost all organs and tissues, this nucleoside induces a multitude of physiopathological effects, regulating central nervous, cardiovascular, peripheral, and immune systems. It is becoming clear that the expression patterns of adenosine receptors vary among cell types, lending weight to the idea that they may be both markers of pathologies and useful targets for novel drugs...
July 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
Nick J Spencer, Timothy J Hibberd, Lee Travis, Lukasz Wiklendt, Marcello Costa, Hongzhen Hu, Simon J Brookes, David A Wattchow, Phil G Dinning, Damien J Keating, Julian Sorensen
The enteric nervous system (ENS) contains millions of neurons essential for organization of motor behaviour of the intestine. It is well established the large intestine requires ENS activity to drive propulsive motor behaviours. However, the firing pattern of the ENS underlying propagating neurogenic contractions of the large intestine remains unknown. To identify this, we used high resolution neuronal imaging with electrophysiology from neighbouring smooth muscle. Myoelectric activity underlying propagating neurogenic contractions along murine large intestine (referred to as colonic migrating motor complexes, CMMCs) consisted of prolonged bursts of rhythmic depolarizations at a frequency of ∼2 Hz...
May 28, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Staci E Engle, Patrick J Antonellis, Logan S Whitehouse, Ruchi Bansal, Michelle R Emond, James D Jontes, Robert A Kesterson, Kirk Mykytyn, Nicolas F Berbari
The neuropeptide, melanin concentrating hormone (MCH), and its G protein-coupled receptor, melanin concentrating hormone receptor 1 (Mchr1), are expressed centrally in adult rodents. MCH signaling has been implicated in diverse behaviors such as feeding, sleep, anxiety, as well as addiction and reward. While a model utilizing the Mchr1 promoter to drive constitutive expression of Cre recombinase (Mchr1-Cre) exists, there is a need for an inducible Mchr1-Cre to determine the roles for this signaling pathway in neural development and adult neuronal function...
May 27, 2018: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
Le Wang, Li-Xin Zhu, Zhao Wang, Ai-Ju Lou, Yi-Xi Yang, Yuan Guo, Song Liu, Chi Zhang, Zheng Zhang, Han-Sheng Hu, Bo Yang, Ping Zhang, Hong-Wei Ouyang, Zhi-Yong Zhang
Great effort has been spent to promote the vascularization of tissue engineering bone grafts (TEBG) for improved therapeutic outcome. However, the thorough vascularization especially in the central region still remained as a major challenge for the clinical translation of TEBG. Here, we developed a new strategy to construct a centrally vascularized TEBG (CV-TEBG) with unique core-shell composite structure, which is consisted of an angiogenic core and an osteogenic shell. The in vivo evaluation in rabbit critical sized femoral defect was conducted to meticulously compare CV-TEBG to other TEBG designs (TEBG with osteogenic shell alone, or angiogenic core alone or angiogenic core+shell)...
August 2018: Biomaterials
Rolf Szedlak, Thomas Hisch, Benedikt Schwarz, Martin Holzbauer, Donald MacFarland, Tobias Zederbauer, Hermann Detz, Aaron Maxwell Andrews, Werner Schrenk, Stefan Rotter, Gottfried Strasser
We demonstrate the on-chip generation of twisted light beams from ring quantum cascade lasers. A monolithic gradient index metamaterial is fabricated directly into the substrate side of the semiconductor chip and induces a twist of the light's wavefront. This significantly influences the obtained beam pattern, which changes from a central intensity minimum to a maximum depending on the discontinuity count of the metamaterial. Our design principle provides an interesting alternative to recent implementations of microlasers operating at an exceptional point...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sarah F McComish, Maeve A Caldwell
Effective and efficient generation of human neural stem cells and subsequently functional neural populations from pluripotent stem cells has facilitated advancements in the study of human development and disease modelling. This review will discuss the established protocols for the generation of defined neural populations including regionalized neurons and astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia. Early protocols were established in embryonic stem cells (ESC) but the discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) in 2006 provided a new platform for modelling human disorders of the central nervous system (CNS)...
July 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Andreas Plaitakis, Dimitra Kotzamani, Zoe Petraki, Maria Delidaki, Vagelis Rinotas, Ioannis Zaganas, Eleni Douni, Kyriaki Sidiropoulou, Cleanthe Spanaki
Human evolution is characterized by brain expansion and up-regulation of genes involved in energy metabolism and synaptic transmission, including the glutamate signaling pathway. Glutamate is the excitatory transmitter of neural circuits sub-serving cognitive functions, with glutamate-modulation of synaptic plasticity being central to learning and memory. GLUD2 is a novel positively-selected human gene involved in glutamatergic transmission and energy metabolism that underwent rapid evolutionary adaptation concomitantly with prefrontal cortex enlargement...
May 18, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Jaspreet Kaur, Rossana Rauti, Andrea Nistri
Activation of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) by nicotine is reported to protect brain neurons from glutamate excitotoxicity. We inquired whether a similar phenomenon can occur in the rat isolated spinal cord (or spinal slice culture) challenged by a transient (1 h) application of kainate (a powerful glutamate receptor agonist) to induce excitotoxicity mimicking spinal injury in vitro. We recorded spinal reflexes and fictive locomotion generated by the locomotor central pattern generator before and 24 h after applying kainate...
May 16, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Kana Ishimatsu, Tom W Hiscock, Zach M Collins, Dini Wahyu Kartika Sari, Kenny Lischer, David L Richmond, Yasumasa Bessho, Takaaki Matsui, Sean G Megason
Little is known about how the sizes of animal tissues are controlled. A prominent example is somite size which varies widely both within an individual and across species. Despite intense study of the segmentation clock governing the timing of somite generation, how it relates to somite size is poorly understood. Here we examine somite scaling and find that somite size at specification scales with the length of the presomitic mesoderm (PSM) despite considerable variation in PSM length across developmental stages and in surgically size-reduced embryos...
May 16, 2018: Development
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