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central pattern generators

Dalia Duran-Flores, Martin Heil
Mammals sense self or non-self extracellular or extranuclear DNA fragments (hereinafter collectively termed eDNA) as indicators of injury or infection and respond with immunity. We hypothesised that eDNA acts as a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) also in plants and that it contributes to self versus non-self discrimination. Treating plants and suspension-cultured cells of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) with fragmented self eDNA (obtained from other plants of the same species) induced early, immunity-related signalling responses such as H2O2 generation and MAPK activation, decreased the infection by a bacterial pathogen (Pseudomonas syringae) and increased an indirect defence to herbivores (extrafloral nectar secretion)...
October 14, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Weichao Yan, Zhongquan Nie, Xueru Zhang, Yuxiao Wang, Yinglin Song
Considering an azimuthally polarized vortex beam with a Gaussian annulus as an incoming light, light induced magnetization fields for both a single high NA lens and a pair of high NA lenses are investigated theoretically. We deduce analytical formulas for the parameters of a magnetization needle and a magnetization chain when the angular width of the incident beam is far less than its central angular position. Through these analytical formulas, the properties of the magnetization needle and the magnetization chain are very clear and distinct...
September 18, 2017: Optics Express
Ryuji Fukuzawa, Matthew R Anaka, Ian M Morison, Anthony E Reeve
Wilms tumour (WT) is an embryonal tumour that recapitulates kidney development. The normal kidney is formed from two distinct embryological origins: the metanephric mesenchyme (MM) and the ureteric bud (UB). It is generally accepted that WT arises from precursor cells in the MM; however whether UB-equivalent structures participate in tumorigenesis is uncertain. To address the question of the involvement of UB, we assessed 55 Wilms tumours for the molecular features of MM and UB using gene expression profiling, immunohistochemsitry and immunofluorescence...
2017: PloS One
Francisco J Molina, Gerardo C Leynaud
Ectotherm species are not capable of generating metabolic heat; therefore, they present different strategies for regulating their body temperatures, ranging from a precise degree of thermoregulation to a passive thermoconformity with ambient temperatures. In reptiles, aerial basking is the most common mechanism for gaining heat. However, among aquatic reptiles, such as freshwater turtles, aquatic basking is also frequent. Hydromedusa tectifera is a turtle of exclusively aquatic and nocturnal habits widely distributed in South America...
October 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
Fanette Chassagne, Clothilde Helouin-Desenne, Jérome Molimard, Reynald Convert, Pierre Badel, Pascal Giraux
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the pressure applied by superimposed bandages and to compare it with the pressure applied by single-component bandages. METHODS: Six different bandages, composed of one elastic bandage, one nonelastic bandage, or both, were applied in a spiral pattern on both legs of 25 patients at risk of venous thrombosis as a consequence of central or peripheral motor deficiency. Pressure was measured at four measurement points on the leg (B1 and C on the medial and lateral sides of the leg) and in three positions: supine, sitting, and standing...
November 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery. Venous and Lymphatic Disorders
Luisa Fernanda Ahunca Velásquez
As life expectancy increases, the number of people diagnosed with neurodegenerative dementia also increases. Although cognitive impairment is central in dementia, neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) are very important because they increase both direct and indirect costs by generating greater morbidity, caregiver distress, use of medication and institutionalisation. Furthermore, it is important to understand the nature of NPS, since they can vary across the different types of dementia and may provide useful clinical information regarding the aetiology of cognitive impairment...
October 2017: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
Donika Saporito, Pamela Brock, Heather Hampel, Jennifer Sipos, Soledad Fernandez, Sandya Liyanarachchi, Albert de la Chapelle, Rebecca Nagy
Familial non-medullary thyroid cancer (FNMTC) is clinically defined as two or more first-degree relatives with NMTC and appears to follow an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern. Approximately 5-7% of NMTC is hereditary and affects multiple generations with a young age of onset. The primary aim of this study was to determine the age-specific penetrance of NMTC in individuals from a large family with FNMTC with a previously identified private mutation at 4q32, with a secondary aim to determine the penetrance for benign thyroid disease in this family...
October 12, 2017: Familial Cancer
Gregory D Funk
Vertebrate behaviours are produced by neuroglial networks that evolved from a common set of ancestral (homologous) traits, as well as unique specializations that created opportunities for new behaviours and exploitation of novel environments. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
October 13, 2017: Journal of Physiology
Mohanalaxmi Indramohan, Christian Stehlik, Andrea Dorfleutner
Sensing and responding to pathogens and tissue damage is a core mechanism of innate immune host defense and inflammasomes represent a central cytosolic pattern recognition receptor (PRR) pathway leading to the generation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 and pyroptotic cell death that causes the subsequent release of danger signals to propagate and perpetuate inflammatory responses. While inflammasome activation is essential for host defense, deregulated inflammasome responses and excessive release of inflammatory cytokines and danger signals are linked to an increasing spectrum of inflammatory diseases...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
W Todd Farmer, Keith Murai
Astrocytes play essential roles in nearly all aspects of brain function from modulating synapses and neurovasculature to preserving appropriate extracellular solute concentrations. To meet the complex needs of the central nervous system (CNS), astrocytes possess highly specialized properties that are optimized for their surrounding neural circuitry. Precisely how these diverse astrocytes types are generated in vivo, however, remains poorly understood. Key to this process is a critical balance of intrinsic developmental patterning and context-dependent environmental signaling events that configures astrocyte phenotype...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Erienne V Olesh, Bradley S Pollard, Valeriya Gritsenko
Human reaching movements require complex muscle activations to produce the forces necessary to move the limb in a controlled manner. How gravity and the complex kinetic properties of the limb contribute to the generation of the muscle activation pattern by the central nervous system (CNS) is a long-standing and controversial question in neuroscience. To tackle this issue, muscle activity is often subdivided into static and phasic components. The former corresponds to posture maintenance and transitions between postures...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Nitin Singh Chouhan, Krithika Mohan, Aurnab Ghose
Social rituals, like male-male aggression in Drosophila, are often stereotyped and the component behavioral patterns modular. The likelihood of transition from one behavioral pattern to another is malleable by experience and confers flexibility to the behavioral repertoire. Experience-dependent modification of innate aggressive behavior in flies alters fighting strategies during fights and establishes dominant-subordinate relationships. Dominance hierarchies resulting from agonistic encounters are consolidated to longer lasting social status-dependent behavioral modifications resulting in a robust loser effect...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
N F Ramsey, E Salari, E J Aarnoutse, M J Vansteensel, M B Bleichner, Z V Freudenburg
For people who cannot communicate due to severe paralysis or involuntary movements, technology that decodes intended speech from the brain may offer an alternative means of communication. If decoding proves to be feasible, intracranial Brain-Computer Interface systems can be developed which are designed to translate decoded speech into computer generated speech or to instructions for controlling assistive devices. Recent advances suggest that such decoding may be feasible from sensorimotor cortex, but it is not clear how this challenge can be approached best...
October 6, 2017: NeuroImage
Chris Q Doe
A small pool of neural progenitors generates the vast diversity of cell types in the CNS. Spatial patterning specifies progenitor identity, followed by temporal patterning within progenitor lineages to expand neural diversity. Recent work has shown that in Drosophila, all neural progenitors (neuroblasts) sequentially express temporal transcription factors (TTFs) that generate molecular and cellular diversity. Embryonic neuroblasts use a lineage-intrinsic cascade of five TTFs that switch nearly every neuroblast cell division; larval optic lobe neuroblasts also use a rapid cascade of five TTFs, but the factors are completely different...
October 6, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
Madelaine E Bartlett
Flowers display fantastic morphological diversity. Despite extreme variability in form, floral organ identity is specified by a core set of deeply conserved proteins-the floral MADS-box transcription factors. This indicates that while core gene function has been maintained, MADS-box transcription factors have evolved to regulate different downstream genes. Thus, the evolution of gene regulation downstream of the MADS-box transcription factors is likely central to the evolution of floral form. Gene regulation is determined by the combination of transcriptional regulators present at a particular cis-regulatory element at a particular time...
July 8, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Alexander Schaefer, Ru Kong, Evan M Gordon, Timothy O Laumann, Xi-Nian Zuo, Avram J Holmes, Simon B Eickhoff, B T Thomas Yeo
A central goal in systems neuroscience is the parcellation of the cerebral cortex into discrete neurobiological "atoms". Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) offers the possibility of in vivo human cortical parcellation. Almost all previous parcellations relied on 1 of 2 approaches. The local gradient approach detects abrupt transitions in functional connectivity patterns. These transitions potentially reflect cortical areal boundaries defined by histology or visuotopic fMRI. By contrast, the global similarity approach clusters similar functional connectivity patterns regardless of spatial proximity, resulting in parcels with homogeneous (similar) rs-fMRI signals...
July 18, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
Jessica Ausborn, Abigail C Snyder, Natalia A Shevtsova, Ilya A Rybak, Jonathan E Rubin
The spinal locomotor central pattern generator (CPG) generates rhythmic activity with alternating flexion and extension phases. This rhythmic pattern is likely to result from inhibitory interactions between neural populations representing flexor and extensor half-centers. However, it is unclear whether the flexor-extensor CPG has a quasi-symmetric organization with both half-centers critically involved in rhythm generation, features an asymmetric organization with flexor-driven rhythmogenesis, or comprises a pair of intrinsically rhythmic half-centers...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
Pooja Biswas, Jacque L Duncan, Muhammad Ali, Hiroko Matsui, Muhammad Asif Naeem, P B Raghavendra, Kelly A Frazer, Heleen H Arts, S Riazuddin, Javed Akram, J Fielding Hejtmancik, S Amer Riazuddin, Radha Ayyagari
PURPOSE: Identification of the molecular cause of autosomal recessive early onset retinal degeneration in a consanguineous pedigree. METHODS: Seventeen members of a four-generation Pakistani family were recruited and underwent a detailed ophthalmic examination. Exomes of four affected and two unaffected individuals were sequenced. Variants were filtered using exomeSuite to identify rare potentially pathogenic variants in genes expressed in the retina and/or brain and consistent with the pattern of inheritance...
September 18, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
David Schoppik, Isaac H Bianco, David A Prober, Adam D Douglass, Drew N Robson, Jennifer M B Li, Joel S F Greenwood, Edward Soucy, Florian Engert, Alexander F Schier
Within reflex circuits, specific anatomical projections allow central neurons to relay sensations to effectors that generate movements. A major challenge is to relate anatomical features of central neural populations -- such as asymmetric connectivity -- to the computations the populations perform. To address this problem, we mapped the anatomy, modeled the function, and discovered a new behavioral role for a genetically-defined population of central vestibular neurons in rhombomeres 5-7 of larval zebrafish...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Fernando Arizmendi, Marcelo Barreiro
Using functional network analysis, we study the seasonality of atmospheric connectivity and its interannual variability depending on the different phases of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. We find a strong variability of the connectivity on seasonal and interannual time scales both in the tropical and extratropical regions. In particular, there are significant changes in the southern hemisphere extratropical atmospheric connectivity during austral spring within the different stages of ENSO: We find that the connectivity patterns due to stationary Rossby waves differ during El Niño and La Niña, showing a very clear wave train originating close to Australia in the former case, as opposed to La Niña that seems to generate a wave train from the central Pacific...
September 2017: Chaos
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