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central pattern generators

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102300/neural-correlates-of-speech-segregation-based-on-formant-frequencies-of-adjacent-vowels
#1
Claude Alain, Jessica S Arsenault, Linda Garami, Gavin M Bidelman, Joel S Snyder
The neural substrates by which speech sounds are perceptually segregated into distinct streams are poorly understood. Here, we recorded high-density scalp event-related potentials (ERPs) while participants were presented with a cyclic pattern of three vowel sounds (/ee/-/ae/-/ee/). Each trial consisted of an adaptation sequence, which could have either a small, intermediate, or large difference in first formant (Δf1) as well as a test sequence, in which Δf1 was always intermediate. For the adaptation sequence, participants tended to hear two streams ("streaming") when Δf1 was intermediate or large compared to when it was small...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100734/does-the-superior-colliculus-control-perceptual-sensitivity-or-choice-bias-during-attention-evidence-from-a-multialternative-decision-framework
#2
Devarajan Sridharan, Nicholas A Steinmetz, Tirin Moore, Eric I Knudsen
: Distinct networks in the forebrain and the midbrain coordinate to control spatial attention. The critical involvement of the superior colliculus (SC)-the central structure in the midbrain network-in visuospatial attention has been shown by four seminal, published studies in monkeys (Macaca mulatta) performing multialternative tasks. However, due to the lack of a mechanistic framework for interpreting behavioral data in such tasks, the nature of the SC's contribution to attention remains unclear...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100208/access-to-primary-health-care-for-acute-vascular-events-in-rural-low-income-settings-a-mixed-methods-study
#3
Shyfuddin Ahmed, Muhammad Ashique Haider Chowdhury, Md Alfazal Khan, Nafisa Lira Huq, Aliya Naheed
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of global mortality. Among the CVDs, acute vascular events (AVE) mainly ischemic heart diseases and stroke are the largest contributors. To achieve 25% reduction in preventable deaths from CVDs by 2025, health systems need to be equipped with extended service coverage in order to provide person-centered care. The overall goal of this proposed study is to assess access to health care in-terms of service availability, care seeking patterns and barriers to access care after AVE in rural Bangladesh...
January 18, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096400/defining-recovery-neurobiology-of-injured-spinal-cord-by-synthetic-matrix-assisted-hmsc-implantation
#4
Alexander E Ropper, Devang K Thakor, InBo Han, Dou Yu, Xiang Zeng, Jamie E Anderson, Zaid Aljuboori, Soo-Woo Kim, Hongjun Wang, Richard L Sidman, Ross D Zafonte, Yang D Teng
Mesenchymal stromal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from adult tissues offer tangible potential for regenerative medicine, given their feasibility for autologous transplantation. MSC research shows encouraging results in experimental stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and neurotrauma models. However, further translational progress has been hampered by poor MSC graft survival, jeopardizing cellular and molecular bases for neural repair in vivo. We have devised an adult human bone marrow MSC (hMSC) delivery formula by investigating molecular events involving hMSCs incorporated in a uniquely designed poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid scaffold, a clinically safe polymer, following inflammatory exposures in a dorsal root ganglion organotypic coculture system...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090611/performance-of-nano-assembly-logic-gates-with-a-dna-multi-hairpin-motif
#5
Lulu Zhang, Annie M Bluhm, Kuan-Jen Chen, Nicholas E Larkey, Sean M Burrows
DNA nano-assemblies have far-reaching implications for molecular computers. Boolean logic gates made from DNA respond to specific combinations of chemical or molecular inputs. In complex samples an assortment of other chemicals and molecules may interfere with the gate's recognition and response mechanisms. For logic gates to accept an increasing number of inputs, while maintaining selectivity, their design must only respond when specific input combinations are available simultaneously. Here we present proof-of-principle for a fluorescent-based nano-assembly logic gate for three inputs...
January 16, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090122/effect-of-static-vs-dynamic-imaging-on-particle-transport-in-ct-based-numerical-models-of-human-central-airways
#6
Shinjiro Miyawaki, Eric A Hoffman, Ching-Long Lin
Advances in quantitative computed tomography (CT) has provided methods to assess the detailed structure of the pulmonary airways and parenchyma, providing the means of applying computational fluid dynamics-based modeling to better understand subject-specific differences in structure-to-function relationships. Most of the previous numerical studies, seeking to predict patterns of inhaled particle deposition, have considered airway geometry and regional ventilation derived from static images. Because geometric alterations of the airway and parenchyma associated with regional ventilation may greatly affect particle transport, we have sought to investigate the effect of rigid vs...
October 2016: Journal of Aerosol Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088450/assessment-of-ganglioside-age-related-and-topographic-specificity-in-human-brain-by-orbitrap-mass-spectrometry
#7
Mirela Sarbu, Liana Dehelean, Cristian V A Munteanu, Željka Vukelić, Alina D Zamfir
The gangliosides (GGs) of the central nervous system (CNS) exhibit age and topographic specificity and these patterns may correlate with the functions and pathologies of the brain regions. Here, chloroform extraction, nanoelectrospray (nanoESI) negative ionization, together with Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (MS) determined the topographic and age-related GG specificity in normal adult human brain. Mapping of GG mixtures extracted from 20 to 82 year old frontal and occipital lobes revealed besides a decrease in the GG number with age, a variability of sialylation degree within the brain regions...
January 11, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081363/distance-dependent-measurements-of-the-conductance-of-porphyrin-nanorods-studied-with-conductive-probe-atomic-force-microscopy
#8
Xianglin Zhai, Denzel Alexander, Pedro Derosa, Jayne C Garno
Protocols for nanopatterning porphyrins on Au(111) were developed based on immersion particle lithography. Porphyrins with and without a central metal ion, 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphyrin (TPP) and 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphyrin cobalt(II) (CoTPP) were selected for study, which spontaneously formed nanorod geometries depending on concentration parameters. The elongated shapes of the nanorods offers an opportunity for successive distance-dependent conductive probe-atomic force microscopy (CP-AFM) measurements along the length of the nanorods...
January 12, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076347/spatiotemporal-feedback-and-network-structure-drive-and-encode-caenorhabditis-elegans-locomotion
#9
James M Kunert, Joshua L Proctor, Steven L Brunton, J Nathan Kutz
Using a computational model of the Caenorhabditis elegans connectome dynamics, we show that proprioceptive feedback is necessary for sustained dynamic responses to external input. This is consistent with the lack of biophysical evidence for a central pattern generator, and recent experimental evidence that proprioception drives locomotion. The low-dimensional functional response of the Caenorhabditis elegans network of neurons to proprioception-like feedback is optimized by input of specific spatial wavelengths which correspond to the spatial scale of real body shape dynamics...
January 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073402/deep-sequencing-analysis-of-tick-borne-encephalitis-virus-from-questing-ticks-at-natural-foci-reveals-similarities-between-quasispecies-pools-of-the-virus
#10
Naveed Asghar, John H-O Pettersson, Patrik Dinnetz, Åshild Andreassen, Magnus Johansson
Every year, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) causes severe central nervous system infection in 10,000 to 15,000 people in Europe and Asia. TBEV is maintained in the environment by an enzootic cycle that requires a tick vector and a vertebrate host, and the adaptation of TBEV to vertebrate and invertebrate environments is essential for TBEV persistence in nature. This adaptation is facilitated by the error-prone nature of the virus' RNA-dependent RNA polymerase that generates genetically distinct virus variants called quasispecies...
January 10, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072493/patterns-of-infections-aetiological-agents-and-antimicrobial-resistance-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-northern-tanzania
#11
Happiness Houka Kumburu, Tolbert Sonda, Blandina Theophil Mmbaga, Michael Alifrangis, Ole Lund, Gibson Kibiki, Frank M Aarestrup
OBJECTIVE: To determine the causative agents of infections and their antimicrobial susceptibility at a tertiary care hospital in Moshi, Tanzania, to guide optimal treatment. METHODS: A total of 590 specimens (stool (56), sputum (122), blood (126) and wound swabs (286)) were collected from 575 patients admitted in the medical and surgical departments. The bacterial species were determined by conventional methods and disk diffusion was used to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the bacteria isolates...
January 10, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071834/molecular-profiling-of-human-ips-derived-hypothalamic-neurons-provides-developmental-insights-to-genetic-loci-for-body-weight-regulation
#12
Li Yao, Yuanhang Liu, Zhifang Qiu, Satish Kumar, Joanne E Curran, John Blangero, Yidong Chen, Donna M Lehman
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Recent data suggests that common genetic risk for metabolic disorders such as obesity may be human-specific and exert effects through the central nervous system. To overcome the limitation of human tissue access for study, we have generated induced human pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived neuronal cultures which recapture many features of hypothalamic neurons within the arcuate nucleus. Here we have comprehensively characterized this model across development, benchmarked these neurons to in vivo events, and demonstrate a link between obesity risk variants and hypothalamic development...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066875/evaluating-the-effects-of-consolidation-on-intrusion-and-retraction-using-temporary-anchorage-devices-a-fem-study
#13
Monica Namburi, Sleevaraju Nagothu, Chetan S Kumar, N Chakrapani, C H Hanumantharao, Supradeep K Kumar
BACKGROUND: Extraction of premolars and retracting the anterior teeth using mini-implants and anterior retraction hooks became advent now a day. In such treatments, consolidation of arches is not done in regular practice. So, the present study is concentrated on effects of consolidation in two implant and three implant combinations of retraction and intrusion. METHODS: A three-dimensional FEM model of maxillary teeth and periodontal ligament housed in the alveolar bone with the first premolars extracted is generated with appropriate number of elements and nodes...
December 2017: Progress in Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063874/polarity-protein-par3-bazooka-follows-myosin-dependent-junction-repositioning
#14
Mo Weng, Eric Wieschaus
The polarity protein Par3/Bazooka (Baz) has been established as a central component of the apical basal polarity system that determines the position of cell-cell junctions in epithelial cells. Consistent with that view, we show that shortly before gastrulation in Drosophila, Baz protein in the mesoderm is down-regulated from junctional sites in response to Snail (Sna) expression. This down-regulation leads to a specific decrease in adherens junctions without affecting other E-Cadherin pools. However, we further show that, interactions between Baz and junctions are not unidirectional...
January 5, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053327/ventral-tegmental-area-cellular-heterogeneity-connectivity-and-behaviour
#15
Marisela Morales, Elyssa B Margolis
Dopamine-releasing neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) have central roles in reward-related and goal-directed behaviours. VTA dopamine-releasing neurons are heterogeneous in their afferent and efferent connectivity and, in some cases, release GABA or glutamate in addition to dopamine. Recent findings show that motivational signals arising from the VTA can also be carried by non-dopamine-releasing projection neurons, which have their own specific connectivity. Both dopamine-releasing and non-dopamine-releasing VTA neurons integrate afferent signals with local inhibitory or excitatory inputs to generate particular output firing patterns...
January 5, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050520/oral-health-and-oral-contraceptive-is-it-a-shadow-behind-broad-day-light-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Irfan Ali, Basavaraj Patthi, Ashish Singla, Ritu Gupta, Kuldeep Dhama, Lav Kumar Niraj, Jishnu Krishna Kumar, Monika Prasad
INTRODUCTION: Oral contraceptives are one of the risk factors for gingival disease. Oral contraceptives can affect the proliferation of cell, growth and differentiation of tissues in the periodontium. Nowadays recent research has suggested that the newer generation oral contraceptives have less influence on gingival diseases. AIM: The purpose of this study was to systematically review the effect of oral contraceptives on periodontium. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature review was performed; PubMed, PubMed Central and Cochrane Library, Embase, Google Scholar were searched from 1970 up to December 2015 to identify appropriate studies...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045893/a-hidden-markov-model-approach-for-simultaneously-estimating-local-ancestry-and-admixture-time-using-next-generation-sequence-data-in-samples-of-arbitrary-ploidy
#17
Russell Corbett-Detig, Rasmus Nielsen
Admixture-the mixing of genomes from divergent populations-is increasingly appreciated as a central process in evolution. To characterize and quantify patterns of admixture across the genome, a number of methods have been developed for local ancestry inference. However, existing approaches have a number of shortcomings. First, all local ancestry inference methods require some prior assumption about the expected ancestry tract lengths. Second, existing methods generally require genotypes, which is not feasible to obtain for many next-generation sequencing projects...
January 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045122/mirsig-a-consensus-based-network-inference-methodology-to-identify-pan-cancer-mirna-mirna-interaction-signatures
#18
Joseph J Nalluri, Debmalya Barh, Vasco Azevedo, Preetam Ghosh
Decoding the patterns of miRNA regulation in diseases are important to properly realize its potential in diagnostic, prog- nostic, and therapeutic applications. Only a handful of studies computationally predict possible miRNA-miRNA interactions; hence, such interactions require a thorough investigation to understand their role in disease progression. In this paper, we design a novel computational pipeline to predict the common signature/core sets of miRNA-miRNA interactions for different diseases using network inference algorithms on the miRNA-disease expression profiles; the individual predictions of these algorithms were then merged using a consensus-based approach to predict miRNA-miRNA associations...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041967/cdx-is-crucial-for-the-timing-mechanism-driving-colinear-hox-activation-and-defines-a-trunk-segment-in-the-hox-cluster-topology
#19
Roel Neijts, Shilu Amin, Carina van Rooijen, Jacqueline Deschamps
Cdx and Hox transcription factors are important regulators of axial patterning and are required for tissue generation along the vertebrate body axis. Cdx genes have been demonstrated to act upstream of Hox genes in midgestation embryos. Here, we investigate the role of Cdx transcription factors in the gradual colinear activation of the Hox clusters. We found that Hox temporally colinear expression is severely affected in epiblast stem cells derived from Cdx null embryos. We demonstrate that after initiation of 3' Hox gene transcription, Cdx activity is crucial for H3K27ac deposition and for accessibility of cis-regulatory elements around the central - or 'trunk' - Hox genes...
December 29, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041793/motile-cilia-mediated-flow-improves-sensitivity-and-temporal-resolution-of-olfactory-computations
#20
Ingrid Reiten, Fazil Emre Uslu, Stephanie Fore, Robbrecht Pelgrims, Christa Ringers, Carmen Diaz Verdugo, Maximillian Hoffman, Pradeep Lal, Koichi Kawakami, Kerem Pekkan, Emre Yaksi, Nathalie Jurisch-Yaksi
Motile cilia are actively beating hair-like structures that cover the surface of multiple epithelia. The flow that ciliary beating generates is utilized for diverse functions and depends on the spatial location and biophysical properties of cilia. Here we show that the motile cilia in the nose of aquatic vertebrates are spatially organized and stably beat with an asymmetric pattern, resulting in a robust and stereotypical flow around the nose. Our results demonstrate that these flow fields attract odors to the nose pit and facilitate detection of odors by the olfactory system in stagnant environments...
December 21, 2016: Current Biology: CB
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