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central pattern generators

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212875/genotyping-by-sequencing-provides-the-first-well-resolved-phylogeny-for-coffee-coffea-and-insights-into-the-evolution-of-caffeine-content-in-its-species-gbs-coffee-phylogeny-and-the-evolution-of-caffeine-content
#1
Perla Hamon, Corrinne E Grover, Aaron P Davis, Jean-Jacques Rakotomalala, Nathalie E Raharimalala, Victor A Albert, Hosahalli L Sreenath, Piet Stoffelen, Sharon E Mitchell, Emmanuel Couturon, Serge Hamon, Alexandre de Kochko, Dominique Crouzillat, Michel Rigoreau, Ucu Sumirat, Sélastique Akaffou, Romain Guyot
A comprehensive and meaningful phylogenetic hypothesis for the commercially important coffee genus (Coffea) has long been a key objective for coffee researchers. For molecular studies, progress has been limited by low levels of sequence divergence, leading to insufficient topological resolution and statistical support in phylogenetic trees, particularly for the major lineages and for the numerous species occurring in Madagascar. We report here the first almost fully resolved, broadly sampled phylogenetic hypothesis for coffee, the result of combining genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) technology with a newly developed, lab-based workflow to integrate short read next-generation sequencing for low numbers of additional samples...
February 14, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211791/motor-control-of-drosophila-feeding-behavior
#2
Olivia Schwarz, Ali Asgar Bohra, Xinyu Liu, Heinrich Reichert, Krishnaswamy VijayRaghavan, Jan Pielage
The precise coordination of body parts is essential for survival and behavior of higher organisms. While progress has been made towards the identification of central mechanisms coordinating limb movement, only limited knowledge exists regarding the generation and execution of sequential motor action patterns at the level of individual motoneurons. Here we use Drosophila proboscis extension as a model system for a reaching-like behavior. We first provide a neuroanatomical description of the motoneurons and muscles contributing to proboscis motion...
February 17, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199003/applications-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-technologies-in-spinal-cord-injury
#3
REVIEW
Narihito Nagoshi, Hideyuki Okano
Numerous basic research studies have suggested the potential efficacy of neural precursor cell (NPC) transplantation in spinal cord injury (SCI). However, in most such studies the origin of the cells used was mainly fetal tissue or embryonic stem cells, both of which carry potential ethical concerns with respect to clinical use. The development of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) opened a new path toward regenerative medicine for SCI. iPSCs can be generated from somatic cells by induction of transcription factors, and induced to differentiate into NPCs with characteristics of cells of the central nervous system...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195039/speed-and-segmentation-control-mechanisms-characterized-in-rhythmically-active-circuits-created-from-spinal-neurons-produced-from-genetically-tagged-embryonic-stem-cells
#4
Matthew J Sternfeld, Christopher A Hinckley, Niall J Moore, Matthew T Pankratz, Kathryn L Hilde, Shawn P Driscoll, Marito Hayashi, Neal D Amin, Dario Bonanomi, Wesley D Gifford, Kamal Sharma, Martyn Goulding, Samuel L Pfaff
Flexible neural networks, such as the interconnected spinal neurons that control distinct motor actions, can switch their activity to produce different behaviors. Both excitatory (E) and inhibitory (I) spinal neurons are necessary for motor behavior, but the influence of recruiting different ratios of E-to-I cells remains unclear. We constructed synthetic microphysical neural networks, called circuitoids, using precise combinations of spinal neuron subtypes derived from mouse stem cells. Circuitoids of purified excitatory interneurons were sufficient to generate oscillatory bursts with properties similar to in vivo central pattern generators...
February 14, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192113/a-randomised-clinical-trial-comparing-the-effects-of-antitussives-on-respiratory-centre-output-in-patients-with-chronic-cough
#5
Claudia Mannini, Federico Lavorini, Alessandro Zanasi, Federico Saibene, Luigi Lanata, Giovanni Fontana
BACKGROUND: Cough is produced by the same neuronal pool implicated in respiratory rhythm generation and antitussive drugs acting at the central level, such as the opioids, may depress ventilation. Levodropropizine is classified as a non-opioid, peripherally-acting antitussive drug acting at the level of airway sensory nerves. However, the lack of a central action by Levodropropizine remains to be fully established. We set out to compare the effects of Levodropropizine and the opioid antitussive agent Dihydrocodeine on the respiratory responses to a conventional CO2 re-breathing test in patients with chronic cough of any origin...
February 10, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181934/novel-pump-control-technology-accelerates-drug-delivery-onset-in-a-model-of-pediatric-drug-infusion
#6
Michael J Parker, Mark A Lovich, Amy C Tsao, Hao Deng, Timothy Houle, Robert A Peterfreund
BACKGROUND: Laboratory data suggest that newly initiated drug infusions reach steady-state delivery after a significant time lag. Depending on drug and carrier flow rates and the infusion system's common volume, lag times may exceed 20 or more minutes, especially in the neonatal/pediatric critical care environment. This study tested the hypothesis that a computer-executed algorithm controlling infusion pumps in a coordinated fashion predictably hastens the achievement of the intended steady-state drug delivery in a model of neonatal/pediatric drug infusion...
February 8, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179112/glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-and-trypanothione-reductase-interaction-protects-leishmania-donovani-from-metalloid-mediated-oxidative-stress
#7
Ayan Kumar Ghosh, Savita Saini, Sushmita Das, Abhishek Mandal, Abul Hasan Sardar, Md Yousuf Ansari, Kumar Abhishek, Ajay Kumar, Ruby Singh, Sudha Verma, Asif Equbal, Vahab Ali, Pradeep Das
Exploration of metabolons as viable drug target is rare in kinetoplastid biology. Here we present a novel protein-protein interaction among Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (LdG6PDH) and Trypanothione reductase (LdTryR) of Leishmania donovani displaying interconnection between central glucose metabolism and thiol metabolism of this parasite. Digitonin fractionation patterns observed through immunoblotting indicated localisation of both LdG6PDH and LdTryR in cytosol. In-silico and in-vitro interaction observed by size exclusion chromatography, co-purification, pull-down assay and spectrofluorimetric analysis revealed LdG6PDH and LdTryR physically interact with each other in a NADPH dependent manner...
February 4, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168748/the-logistics-of-myelin-biogenesis-in-the-central-nervous-system
#8
REVIEW
Nicolas Snaidero, Mikael Simons
Rapid nerve conduction depends on myelin, but not all axons in the central nervous system (CNS) are myelinated to the same extent. Here, we review our current understanding of the biology of myelin biogenesis in the CNS. We focus on how the different steps of myelination are interconnected and how distinct patterns of myelin are generated. Possibly, a "basal" mode of myelination is laying the groundwork in areas devoted to basic homeostasis early in development, whereas a "targeted" mode generates myelin in regions controlling more complex tasks throughout adulthood...
February 7, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167337/profiles-of-brain-central-nervous-system-gene-expression-associated-with-ejaculation-behavior-in-male-rats
#9
Xijun Qin, Xiaojun Ma, Jianhui Liang, Dongping Tu, Zuliang Luo, Jie Huang, Changming Mo
The male rat has been used extensively as a model for evaluating the neurophysiology of sexual behavior. However, gene expression in the brain throughout the process of sexual intercourse has yet to be elucidated. In the present study, we created a transcriptomic BodyMap by performing mRNA-Seq on brain samples from pre-copulatory control (CK), fourth intromission (CR4), ejaculation (EJ) and post-ejaculatory interval 1-min (PEI1) Sprague Dawley rats (n=40, all male, each 10). The resulting analysis generated an average of approximately 47 million sequence reads, indicating changes in roughly 21255 genes for each sample...
February 3, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161997/patterns-of-dna-methylation-across-the-leptin-core-promoter-in-four-diverse-asian-and-north-american-populations
#10
M J Mosher, P E Melton, P Stapleton, M S Schanfield, M H Crawford
DNA methylation is the most widely studied of epigenetic mechanisms, with environmental effects recorded through patterned attachments of methyl groups along the DNA that are capable of modifying gene expression without altering the DNA sequencing. The degree to which these patterns of DNA methylation are heritable, the expected range of normality across populations, and the phenotypic relevance of pattern variation remain unclear. Genes regulating metabolic pathways appear to be vulnerable to ongoing nutritional programming over the life course, as dietary nutrients are significant environmental determinants of DNA methylation, supplying both the methyl groups and energy to generate the methylation process...
April 2016: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158320/dispersal-limitation-of-tillandsia-species-correlates-with-rain-and-host-structure-in-a-central-mexican-tropical-dry-forest
#11
Elizabeth Victoriano-Romero, Susana Valencia-Díaz, Víctor Hugo Toledo-Hernández, Alejandro Flores-Palacios
Seed dispersal permits the colonization of favorable habitats and generation of new populations, facilitating escape from habitats that are in decline. There is little experimental evidence of the factors that limit epiphyte dispersion towards their hosts. In a tropical dry forest in central Mexico, we monitored the phenology of dispersion of epiphyte species of the genus Tillandsia; we tested experimentally whether precipitation could cause failures in seed dispersal and whether seed capture differs among vertical strata and between host species with high (Bursera copallifera) and low (Conzattia multiflora) epiphyte loads...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157072/similar-synapse-elimination-motifs-at-successive-relays-in-the-same-efferent-pathway-during-development-in-mice
#12
Shu-Hsien Sheu, Juan Carlos Tapia, Shlomo Tsuriel, Jeff W Lichtman
In many parts of the nervous system, signals pass across multiple synaptic relays on their way to a destination, but little is known about how these relays form and the function they serve. To get some insight we ask how the connectivity patterns are organized at two successive synaptic relays in a simple, cholinergic efferent pathway. We found that the organization at successive relays in the parasympathetic nervous system strongly resemble each other despite the different embryological origin and physiological properties of the pre- and postsynaptic cells...
February 3, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140365/multichannel-activity-propagation-across-an-engineered-axon-network
#13
Han-Chiao Isaac Chen, John Wolf, Douglas Smith
OBJECTIVE: Although substantial progress has been made in mapping the connections of the brain, less is known about how this organization translates into brain function. In particular, the massive interconnectivity of the brain has made it difficult to specifically examine data transmission between two nodes of the connectome, a central component of the "neural code." Here, we investigated the propagation of multiple streams of asynchronous neuronal activity across an isolated in vitro "connectome unit...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128063/tonic-and-rhythmic-spinal-activity-underlying-locomotion
#14
Yury P Ivanenko, Victor S Gurfinkel, Victor A Selionov, Irina A Solopova, Francesca Sylos-Labini, Pierre A Guertin, Francesco Lacquaniti
In recent years, many researches put significant efforts into understanding and assessing the functional state of the spinal locomotor circuits in humans. Various techniques have been developed to stimulate the spinal cord circuitries, which may include both diffuse and quite specific tuning effects. Overall, the findings indicate that tonic and rhythmic spinal activity control are not separate phenomena but are closely integrated to properly initiate and sustain stepping. The spinal cord does not simply transmit information to and from the brain...
January 25, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126336/modular-neuromuscular-control-of-human-locomotion-by-central-pattern-generator
#15
Seyyed Arash Haghpanah, Farzam Farahmand, Hassan Zohoor
The central pattern generators (CPG) in the spinal cord are thought to be responsible for producing the rhythmic motor patterns during rhythmic activities. For locomotor tasks, this involves much complexity, due to a redundant system of muscle actuators with a large number of highly nonlinear muscles. This study proposes a reduced neural control strategy for the CPG, based on modular organization of the co-active muscles, i.e., muscle synergies. Four synergies were extracted from the EMG data of the major leg muscles of two subjects, during two gait trials each, using non-negative matrix factorization algorithm...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125083/guca1a-mutation-causes-maculopathy-in-a-five-generation-family-with-a-wide-spectrum-of-severity
#16
Xue Chen, Xunlun Sheng, Wenjuan Zhuang, Xiantao Sun, Guohua Liu, Xun Shi, Guofu Huang, Yan Mei, Yingjie Li, Xinyuan Pan, Yani Liu, Zili Li, Qingshun Zhao, Biao Yan, Chen Zhao
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic basis and pathogenic mechanism of variable maculopathies, ranging from mild photoreceptor degeneration to central areolar choroidal dystrophy, in a five-generation family. METHODS: Clinical characterizations, whole-exome sequencing, and genome-wide linkage analysis were carried out on the family. Zebrafish models were used to investigate the pathogenesis of GUCA1A mutations. RESULTS: A novel mutation, GUCA1A p...
January 26, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120807/the-speed-curvature-power-law-in-drosophila-larval-locomotion
#17
Myrka Zago, Francesco Lacquaniti, Alex Gomez-Marin
We report the discovery that the locomotor trajectories of Drosophila larvae follow the power-law relationship between speed and curvature previously found in the movements of human and non-human primates. Using high-resolution behavioural tracking in controlled but naturalistic sensory environments, we tested the law in maggots tracing different trajectory types, from reaching-like movements to scribbles. For most but not all flies, we found that the law holds robustly, with an exponent close to three-quarters rather than to the usual two-thirds found in almost all human situations, suggesting dynamic effects adding on purely kinematic constraints...
October 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120724/neuromodulation-of-spinal-locomotor-networks-in-rodents
#18
Manuel Díaz-Ríos, Pierre A Guertin, Marla Rivera-Oliver
BACKGROUND: The basic motor patterns driving rhythmic limb movements during walking are generated by networks of neurons called central pattern generators (CPGs). Within motor control systems, neuromodulators are necessary for proper and efficient CPG function because they induce or regulate essential components of spinal network activity, including firing parameters of CPG neurons and network synaptic strength, allowing the network to change/adapt and sometimes to even become functional...
January 24, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115483/gap-junction-mediated-signaling-from-motor-neurons-regulates-motor-generation-in-the-central-circuits-of-larval-drosophila
#19
Teruyuki Matsunaga, Hiroshi Kohsaka, Akinao Nose
: In this study, we used the peristaltic crawling of Drosophila larvae as a model to study how motor patterns are regulated by central circuits. We built an experimental system that allows simultaneous application of optogenetics and calcium imaging to the isolated ventral nerve cord (VNC). We then investigated the effects of manipulating local activity of motor neurons (MNs) on fictive locomotion observed as waves of MN activity propagating along neuromeres. Optical inhibition of MNs with halorhodopsin3 (NpHR3) in a middle segment (A4, A5 or A6), but not other segments, dramatically decreased the frequency of the motor waves...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113682/exploring-the-epileptic-brain-network-using-time-variant-effective-connectivity-and-graph-theory
#20
Silvia Storti, Ilaria Boscolo Galazzo, Sehresh Khan, Paolo Manganotti, Gloria Menegaz
The application of time-varying measures of causality between source time series can be very informative to elucidate the direction of communication among the regions of an epileptic brain. The aim of the study was to identify the dynamic patterns of epileptic networks in focal epilepsy by applying multivariate adaptive directed transfer function (ADTF) analysis and graph-theory to high-density electroencephalographic (hdEEG) recordings. The cortical network was modeled after source reconstruction and topology modulations were detected during interictal spikes...
September 9, 2016: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
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