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central pattern generators

Malte F Stuecker
Numerous studies demonstrated that the Pacific Meridional Mode (PMM) can excite Central Pacific (CP) El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events and that the PMM is mostly a stochastic phenomenon associated with mid-latitude atmospheric variability and wind-evaporation-SST feedback. Here we show that CP sea surface temperature (SST) variability exhibits high instantaneous correlations both on interannual (ENSO-related) and decadal (Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO)-related) timescales with the PMM. By prescribing an idealized interannual equatorial CP ENSO SST forcing in a partially-coupled atmosphere/slab ocean model we are able to generate a realistic instantaneous PMM response consistent with the observed statistical ENSO/PMM relationship...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Christian Rominger, Ilona Papousek, Corinna M Perchtold, Bernhard Weber, Elisabeth M Weiss, Andreas Fink
This study investigated EEG activity in the upper alpha band during the well-known Picture Completion Task of the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT), a widely used creative ideation task in the figural domain. The application of a sophisticated computerized version of the TTCT facilitating the online assessment and digitalizing of participant's drawings allowed to separate two central stages of the creative ideation process (i.e., idea generation and idea elaboration). During idea generation, the participants' task was to generate an initial draft of an original and creative completion of the presented abstract lines and figures of the TTCT...
February 13, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Martin Breitbach, Kenichi Kimura, Tiago C Luis, Christopher J Fuegemann, Petter S Woll, Michael Hesse, Raffaella Facchini, Sarah Rieck, Katarzyna Jobin, Julia Reinhardt, Osamu Ohneda, Daniela Wenzel, Caroline Geisen, Christian Kurts, Wolfgang Kastenmüller, Michael Hölzel, Sten E W Jacobsen, Bernd K Fleischmann
Despite much work studying ex vivo multipotent stromal cells (MSCs), the identity and characteristics of MSCs in vivo are not well defined. Here, we generated a CD73-EGFP reporter mouse to address these questions and found EGFP + MSCs in various organs. In vivo, EGFP + mesenchymal cells were observed in fetal and adult bones at proliferative ossification sites, while in solid organs EGFP + cells exhibited a perivascular distribution pattern. EGFP + cells from the bone compartment could be clonally expanded ex vivo from single cells and displayed trilineage differentiation potential...
February 1, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
Loet Leydesdorff, Caroline S Wagner, Lutz Bornmann
Journals were central to Eugene Garfield's research interests. Among other things, journals are considered as units of analysis for bibliographic databases such as the Web of Science and Scopus. In addition to providing a basis for disciplinary classifications of journals, journal citation patterns span networks across boundaries to variable extents. Using betweenness centrality (BC) and diversity, we elaborate on the question of how to distinguish and rank journals in terms of interdisciplinarity. Interdisciplinarity, however, is difficult to operationalize in the absence of an operational definition of disciplines; the diversity of a unit of analysis is sample-dependent...
2018: Scientometrics
Carmen Murciano, Salvador Cazorla-Vázquez, Javier Gutiérrez, Juan Antonio Hijano, Josefa Ruiz-Sánchez, Laura Mesa-Almagro, Flores Martín-Reyes, Tahía Diana Fernández, Manuel Marí-Beffa
The amputation of a teleost fin rapidly triggers an intricate maze of hierarchically regulated signalling processes which ultimately reconstruct the diverse tissues of the appendage. Whereas the generation of the fin pattern along the proximodistal axis brings with it several well-known developmental regulators, the mechanisms by which the fin widens along its dorsoventral axis remain poorly understood. Utilizing the zebrafish as an experimental model of fin regeneration and studying more than 1000 actinopterygian species, we hypothesized a connection between specific inter-ray regulatory mechanisms and the morphological variability of inter-ray membranes found in nature...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Hans-Georg Schaible
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Osteoarthritis is one of the most frequent causes of chronic pain. Because there is no causal treatment of osteoarthritis, sufficient pain control is of uppermost importance but often not met. The review reports recent advances and controversies in our understanding of osteoarthritis pain and its treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Osteoarthritis pain is determined by processes at different levels. An important local factor of pain generation in the joint is inflammation such as synovitis, and neuropathic components of osteoarthritis pain are being discussed...
February 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
Felicia Vachon, Hal Whitehead, Timothy R Frasier
Understanding what factors drive patterns of genetic diversity is a central aspect of many biological questions, ranging from the inference of historical demography to assessing the evolutionary potential of a species. However, as a larger number of datasets have become available, it is becoming clear that the relationship between the characteristics of a species and its genetic diversity is more complex than previously assumed. This may be particularly true for cetaceans, due to their relatively long lifespans, long generation times, complex social structures, and extensive ranges...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Wolfgang Munar, Syed S Wahid, Leslie Curry
Background. Improving performance of primary care systems in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) may be a necessary condition for achievement of universal health coverage in the age of Sustainable Development Goals. The Salud Mesoamerica Initiative (SMI), a large-scale, multi-country program that uses supply-side financial incentives directed at the central-level of governments, and continuous, external evaluation of public, health sector performance to induce improvements in primary care performance in eight LMICs...
January 3, 2018: Gates Open Res
Gergő Vőfély, Tünde Berecz, Eszter Szabó, Kornélia Szebényi, Edit Hathy, Tamás I Orbán, Balázs Sarkadi, László Homolya, Maria C Marchetto, János M Réthelyi, Ágota Apáti
Pluripotent stem cell derived human neuronal progenitor cells (hPSC-NPCs) and their mature neuronal cell culture derivatives may efficiently be used for central nervous system (CNS) drug screening, including the investigation of ligand-induced calcium signalization. We have established hippocampal NPC cultures derived from human induced PSCs, which were previously generated by non-integrating Sendai virus reprogramming. Using established protocols these NPCs were differentiated into hippocampal dentate gyrus neurons...
February 6, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Elisabeth Rosner, Kevin N Rohmann, Andrew H Bass, Boris P Chagnaud
Vocalization is a behavioral feature that is shared among multiple vertebrate lineages, including fish. The temporal patterning of vocal communication signals is set, in part, by central pattern generators (CPGs). Toadfishes are well-established models for CPG coding of vocalization at the hindbrain level. The vocal CPG comprises three topographically separate nuclei: pre-pacemaker, pacemaker, motor. While the connectivity between these nuclei is well understood, their neurochemical profile remains largely unexplored...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Karen J Thompson
Grasshoppers produce an extraordinary oviposition behavior that is associated with multiple specializations of the skeletal and neuromuscular systems in the posterior abdomen, including a central pattern generator (CPG) in the female's terminal abdominal ganglion. Two pairs of shovel-shaped appendages, the ovipositor valves on the abdomen tip, excavate the soil for deposition of eggs. By contrast, the sexually monomorphic pregenital region of the abdomen is without appendages. Morphological homologues of ovipositor muscles and efferent neurons in the eighth abdominal segment are nevertheless present in pregenital segments of males and females...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
Eva M Berg, Maria Bertuzzi, Konstantinos Ampatzis
Neuronal networks in the spinal cord generate and execute all locomotor-related movements by transforming descending signals from supraspinal areas into appropriate rhythmic activity patterns. In these spinal networks, neurons that arise from the same progenitor domain share similar distribution patterns, neurotransmitter phenotypes, morphological and electrophysiological features. However, subgroups of them participate in different functionally distinct microcircuits to produce locomotion at different speeds and of different modalities...
February 8, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Teresa Guillamon-Vivancos, William A Tyler, Maria Medalla, Wayne Wei-En Chang, Mayumi Okamoto, Tarik F Haydar, Jennifer I Luebke
How the variety of neurons that organize into neocortical layers and functional areas arises is a central question in the study of cortical development. While both intrinsic and extrinsic cues are known to influence this process, whether distinct neuronal progenitor groups contribute to neuron diversity and allocation is poorly understood. Using in vivo genetic fate-mapping combined with whole-cell patch clamp recording, we show that the firing pattern and apical dendritic morphology of excitatory neurons in layer 4 of the barrel cortex are specified in part by their neural precursor lineage...
February 3, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Christof Rickert, Karin Lüer, Olaf Vef, Gerhard M Technau
Along the anterior-posterior axis the central nervous system is subdivided into segmental units (neuromeres) the composition of which is adapted to their region-specific functional requirements. In Drosophila melanogaster each neuromere is formed by a specific set of identified neural stem cells (neuroblasts, NBs). In the thoracic and anterior abdominal region of the embryonic ventral nerve cord segmental sets of NBs resemble the ground state (2nd thoracic segment, which does not require input of homeotic genes), and serial (segmental) homologs generate similar types of lineages...
2018: PloS One
James Burridge
We provide a unified mathematical explanation of two classical forms of spatial linguistic spread. The wave model describes the radiation of linguistic change outwards from a central focus. Changes can also jump between population centres in a process known as hierarchical diffusion. It has recently been proposed that the spatial evolution of dialects can be understood using surface tension at linguistic boundaries. Here we show that the inclusion of long-range interactions in the surface tension model generates both wave-like spread, and hierarchical diffusion, and that it is surface tension that is the dominant effect in deciding the stable distribution of dialect patterns...
January 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Shilpi Minocha, Dominic Villeneuve, Leonor Rib, Catherine Moret, Nicolas Guex, Winship Herr
Mammalian partial hepatectomy (PH) induces an orchestrated compensatory hyperplasia, or regeneration, in remaining tissue to restore liver mass; during this process, liver functions are maintained. We probed this process in mice with feeding- and light/dark-entrained animals subjected to sham or PH surgery. Early on (i.e., 10 hours), irrespective of sham or PH surgery, hepatocytes equidistant from the portal and central veins (i.e., midlobular) accumulated the G1-phase cell-division-cycle marker cyclin D1. By 24 hours, however, cyclin D1 disappeared absent PH but was reinforced in midlobular hepatocytes after PH...
November 2017: Hepatology Communications
Juozas Dudutis, Rokas Stonys, Gediminas Račiukaitis, Paulius Gečys
It is known that Bessel beam generation with a non-ideal axicon induces beam pattern distortions. In this paper, we introduce a simple method for non-ideal axicon-generated Bessel beam reconstruction by tilting the axicon perpendicular to its optical axis. We found an optimum axicon tilt angle where beam distortions can be compensated by inducing additional astigmatic aberrations. At optimal tilt angle, the central spot symmetry and focal depth was increased. By this method we could control crack formation symmetry in the bulk of glass, which is essential for many transparent material processing applications...
February 5, 2018: Optics Express
Lin Meng, Catherine A Macleod, Bernd Porr, Henrik Gollee
This paper proposes the design of a bipedal robotic controller where the function between the sensory input and motor output is treated as a black box derived from human data. In order to achieve this, we investigated the causal relationship between ground contact information from the feet and leg muscle activity n human walking and calculated filter functions which transform sensory signals to motor actions. A minimal, nonlinear, and robust control system was created and subsequently analysed by applying it to our bipedal robot RunBot III without any central pattern generators or precise trajectory control...
February 5, 2018: Biological Cybernetics
Yunjian Xu, Fang Liu, Guomin Han, Beijiu Cheng
The present study identified several important candidate Pi regulation genes of maize and provides a better understanding on the generation of PHR genes in gramineous plants. Plants have evolved adaptive responses to cope with low phosphate (Pi) soils. The previous studies have indicated that phosphate starvation response (PHR) genes play central roles in regulating plant Pi starvation responses. However, the investigation of PHR family in gramineous plants is limited. In this study, we identified 64 PHR genes in four gramineous plants, including maize, rice, sorghum, and brachypodium, and conducted systematical analyses on phylogenetic, structure, collinearity, and expression pattern of these PHR genes...
February 2, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
Eithan Kotkowski, Larry R Price, P Mickle Fox, Thomas J Vanasse, Peter T Fox
Purpose: The hippocampus plays a central role in cognitive and affective processes and is commonly implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. Our study aimed to identify and describe a hippocampal network model (HNM) using trans-diagnostic MRI data from the BrainMap® database. We used meta-analysis to test the network degeneration hypothesis (NDH) (Seeley et al., 2009) by identifying structural and functional covariance in this hippocampal network. Methods: To generate our network model, we used BrainMap's VBM database to perform a region-to-whole-brain (RtWB) meta-analysis of 269 VBM experiments from 165 published studies across a range of 38 psychiatric and neurological diseases reporting hippocampal gray matter density alterations...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
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