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central pattern generators

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224155/targeted-bisulfite-sequencing-using-the-seqcap-epi-enrichment-system
#1
Jennifer Wendt, Heidi Rosenbaum, Todd A Richmond, Jeffrey A Jeddeloh, Daniel L Burgess
Cytosine methylation has been shown to have a role in a host of biological processes. In mammalian biology these include stem cell differentiation, embryonic development, genomic imprinting, inflammation, and silencing of transposable elements. Given the central importance of these processes, it is not surprising to find aberrant cytosine methylation patterns associated with many disorders in humans, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurological disease. While whole genome shotgun bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) has recently become feasible, generating high sequence coverage data for the entire genome is expensive, both in terms of money and analysis time, when generally only a small subset of the genome is of interest to most researchers...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220824/extensive-geographical-and-social-structure-in-the-paternal-lineages-of-saudi-arabia-revealed-by-analysis-of-27-y-strs
#2
Yahya M Khubrani, Jon H Wetton, Mark A Jobling
Saudi Arabia's indigenous population is organized into patrilineal descent groups, but to date, little has been done to characterize its population structure, in particular with respect to the male-specific region of the Y chromosome. We have used the 27-STR Yfiler® Plus kit to generate haplotypes in 597 unrelated Saudi males, classified into five geographical regions (North, South, Central, East and West). Overall, Yfiler® Plus provides a good discrimination capacity of 95.3%, but this is greatly reduced (74...
December 2, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216270/generation-and-characterization-of-kctd15-mutations-in-zebrafish
#3
Alison Heffer, Gregory D Marquart, Allisan Aquilina-Beck, Nabil Saleem, Harold A Burgess, Igor B Dawid
Potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 15 (Kctd15) was previously found to have a role in early neural crest (NC) patterning, specifically delimiting the region where NC markers are expressed via repression of transcription factor AP-2a and inhibition of Wnt signaling. We used transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) to generate null mutations in zebrafish kctd15a and kctd15b paralogs to study the in vivo role of Kctd15. We found that while deletions producing frame-shift mutations in each paralog showed no apparent phenotype, kctd15a/b double mutant zebrafish are smaller in size and show several phenotypes including some affecting the NC, such as expansion of the early NC domain, increased pigmentation, and craniofacial defects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215335/previous-antibiotic-exposure-and-antimicrobial-resistance-patterns-of-acinetobacter-spp-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolated-from-patients-with-nosocomial-infections
#4
Zorana M Djordjevic, Marko M Folic, Slobodan M Jankovic
BACKGROUND: The alarming spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria causing healthcare-associated infections has been extensively reported in recent medical literature. AIMS: To compare trends in antimicrobial consumption and development of resistance among isolates of Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa that cause hospital infections. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: A study was conducted in a tertiary healthcare institution in central Serbia, during the 7-year period between January 2009 and December 2015...
December 1, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214211/targeted-kinase-inhibition-relieves-slowness-and-tremor-in-a-drosophila-model-of-lrrk2-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Amy C Cording, Nicolas Shiaelis, Stavroula Petridi, C Adam Middleton, Laurence G Wilson, Christopher J H Elliott
In a number of Drosophila models of genetic Parkinson's disease (PD) flies climb more slowly than wild-type controls. However, this assay does not distinguish effects of PD-related genes on gravity sensation, "arousal", central pattern generation of leg movements, or muscle. To address this problem, we have developed an assay for the fly proboscis extension response (PER). This is attractive because the PER has a simple, well-identified reflex neural circuit, in which sucrose sensing neurons activate a pair of "command interneurons", and thence motoneurons whose activity contracts the proboscis muscle...
2017: NPJ Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214039/clinical-and-genetic-analysis-of-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-7-sca7-in-zambian-families
#6
Masharip Atadzhanov, Danielle C Smith, Mwila H Mwaba, Omar K Siddiqi, Alan Bryer, L Jacquie Greenberg
Background: To date, 43 types of Spinocerebellar Ataxias (SCAs) have been identified. A subset of the SCAs are caused by the pathogenic expansion of a CAG repeat tract within the corresponding gene. Ethnic and geographic differences are evident in the prevalence of the autosomal dominant SCAs. Few descriptions of the clinical phenotype and molecular genetics of the SCAs are available from the African continent. Established studies mostly concern the South African populations, where there is a high frequency of SCA1, SCA2 and SCA7...
2017: Cerebellum & Ataxias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204381/a-fuzzy-controller-for-movement-stabilization-using-afferent-control-controller-synthesis-and-simulation
#7
Zahra Khodadadi, Hamid R Kobravi, Milad F Majd
Stimulation of spinal sensorimotor circuits can improve motor control in animal models and humans with spinal cord injury (SCI). More recent evidence suggests that the stimulation increases the level of excitability in the spinal circuits, activates central pattern generators, and it is also able to recruit distinctive afferent pathways connected to specific sensorimotor circuits. In addition, the stimulation generates well-defined responses in leg muscles after each pulse. The problem is that in most of the neuromodulation devices, electrical stimulation parameters are regulated manually and stay constant during movement...
October 2017: Journal of Medical Signals and Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199106/recovering-the-evolutionary-history-of-crowned-pigeons-columbidae-goura-implications-for-the-biogeography-and-conservation-of-new-guinean-lowland-birds
#8
Jade Bruxaux, Maëva Gabrielli, Hidayat Ashari, Robert Prŷs-Jones, Leo Joseph, Borja Milá, Guillaume Besnard, Christophe Thébaud
Assessing the relative contributions of immigration and diversification into the buildup of species diversity is key to understanding the role of historical processes in driving biogeographical and diversification patterns in species-rich regions. Here, we investigated how colonization, in situ speciation, and extinction history may have generated the present-day distribution and diversity of Goura crowned pigeons (Columbidae), a group of large forest-dwelling pigeons comprising four recognized species that are all endemic to New Guinea...
November 30, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191114/gene-cg15630-fipi-is-involved-in-regulation-of-the-interpulse-interval-in-drosophila-courtship-song
#9
Sergey A Fedotov, Julia V Bragina, Natalia G Besedina, Larisa V Danilenkova, Elena A Kamysheva, Nikolai G Kamyshev
To study the central pattern generators functioning, previously we identified genes, whose neurospecific knockdowns led to deviations in the courtship song of Drosophila melanogaster males. Reduced expression of the gene CG15630 caused a decrease in the interpulse interval. To investigate the role of CG15630, which we have called here fipi (factor of interpulse interval), in the courtship song production, at first, we have characterized fipi transcripts and protein (FIPI) in the mutant flies carrying P insertion and deletions in this gene and in flies with its RNAi knockdown...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187551/model-of-a-bilateral-brown-type-central-pattern-generator-for-symmetric-and-asymmetric-locomotion
#10
Anton Sobinov, Sergiy Yakovenko
The coordinated activity of muscles is produced in part by spinal rhythmogenic neural circuits, termed central pattern generators (CPGs). A classical CPG model is a system of coupled oscillators that transform locomotor drive into coordinated and gait-specific patterns of muscle recruitment. The network properties of this conceptual model can be simulated by a system of ordinary differential equations with a physiologically-inspired coupling locus of interactions capturing the timing relationship for bilateral coordination of limbs in locomotion...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180880/identification-of-cox5b-as-a-novel-biomarker-in-high-grade-glioma-patients
#11
Tieyi Hu, Jiazhuang Xi
Background: Malignant glioma is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and is known to exhibit a high degree of heterogeneity in its deregulation of different oncogenic pathways. The molecular subclasses of human glioma are not well known. Thus, it is crucial to identify vital oncogenic pathways in glioma with significant relationships to patient survival. Methods: In this study, we devised a bioinformatics strategy to map patterns of oncogenic pathway activation in glioma, from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO)...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180480/motor-module-activation-sequence-and-topography-in-the-spinal-cord-during-air-stepping-in-human-insights-into-the-traveling-wave-in-spinal-locomotor-circuits
#12
Hikaru Yokoyama, Kohtaroh Hagio, Tetsuya Ogawa, Kimitaka Nakazawa
Coordinated locomotor muscle activity is generated by the spinal central pattern generators (CPGs), which are modulated by peripheral and supraspinal inputs. The CPGs would consist of multiple motor modules generating basic muscle activity, which are distributed rostrocaudally along the spinal cord. To activate the motor modules in proper sequence, rostrocaudally traveling waves of activation in the spinal cord are important mechanisms in the CPGs. The traveling waves of activation have been observed in nonhuman vertebrates...
November 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178821/mosaicism-in-cutaneous-disorders
#13
Young H Lim, Zoe Moscato, Keith A Choate
Genetic mosaicism arises when a zygote harbors two or more distinct genotypes, typically due to de novo, somatic mutation during embryogenesis. The clinical manifestations largely depend on the differentiation status of the mutated cell; earlier mutations target pluripotent cells and generate more widespread disease affecting multiple organ systems. If gonadal tissue is spared-as in somatic genomic mosaicism-the mutation and its effects are limited to the proband, whereas mosaicism also affecting the gametes, such as germline or gonosomal mosaicism, is transmissible...
November 27, 2017: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170508/differential-distribution-of-y-chromosome-haplotypes-in-swiss-and-southern-european-goat-breeds
#14
Oriol Vidal, Cord Drögemüller, Gabriela Obexer-Ruff, Irene Reber, Jordi Jordana, Amparo Martínez, Valentin Adrian Bâlteanu, Juan Vicente Delgado, Shahin Eghbalsaied, Vincenzo Landi, Felix Goyache, Amadou Traoré, Michele Pazzola, Giuseppe Massimo Vacca, Bouabid Badaoui, Fabio Pilla, Mariasilvia D'Andrea, Isabel Álvarez, Juan Capote, Abdoallah Sharaf, Àgueda Pons, Marcel Amills
The analysis of Y-chromosome variation has provided valuable clues about the paternal history of domestic animal populations. The main goal of the current work was to characterize Y-chromosome diversity in 31 goat populations from Central Eastern (Switzerland and Romania) and Southern Europe (Spain and Italy) as well as in reference populations from Africa and the Near East. Towards this end, we have genotyped seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), mapping to the SRY, ZFY, AMELY and DDX3Y Y-linked loci, in 275 bucks from 31 populations...
November 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168132/heavy-metals-in-the-surface-sediments-of-lakes-on-the-tibetan-plateau-china
#15
Bixi Guo, Yongqin Liu, Fan Zhang, Juzhi Hou, Hongbo Zhang, Chaoliu Li
Heavy metal contamination has affected many regions in the world, particularly the developing countries of Asia. We investigated 8 heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Co, Ni, and As) in the surface sediments of 18 lakes on the Tibetan Plateau. It was found that the distributions of the heavy metals showed no clear spatial pattern on the plateau. The results indicated that the mean concentrations of these metals in the sediment samples diminished as follows: Cr > As > Zn > Ni > Pb > Cu > Co > Cd...
November 22, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167626/exploring-spatial-and-temporal-patterns-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-endemic-areas-of-bangladesh
#16
Ashraf Dewan, Abu Yousuf Md Abdullah, Md Rakibul Islam Shogib, Razimul Karim, Md Masudur Rahman
Background: Visceral leishmaniasis is a considerable public health burden on the Indian subcontinent. The disease is highly endemic in the north-central part of Bangladesh, affecting the poorest and most marginalized communities. Despite the fact that visceral leishmaniasis (VL) results in mortality, severe morbidity, and socioeconomic stress in the region, the spatiotemporal dynamics of the disease have largely remained unexplored, especially in Bangladesh. Methods: Monthly VL cases between 2010 and 2014, obtained from subdistrict hospitals, were studied in this work...
2017: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165248/neuromodulatory-connectivity-defines-the-structure-of-a-behavioral-neural-network
#17
Feici Diao, Amicia D Elliott, Fengqiu Diao, Sarav Shah, Benjamin H White
Neural networks are typically defined by their synaptic connectivity, yet synaptic wiring diagrams often provide limited insight into network function. This is due partly to the importance of non-synaptic communication by neuromodulators, which can dynamically reconfigure circuit activity to alter its output. Here we systematically map the patterns of neuromodulatory connectivity in a network that governs a developmentally critical behavioral sequence in Drosophila. This sequence, which mediates pupal ecdysis, is governed by the serial release of several key factors, which act both somatically as hormones and within the brain as neuromodulators...
November 22, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159059/triangulation-of-language-cognitive-impairments-naming-errors-and-their-neural-bases-post-stroke
#18
Ajay D Halai, Anna M Woollams, Matthew A Lambon Ralph
In order to gain a better understanding of aphasia one must consider the complex combinations of language impairments along with the pattern of paraphasias. Despite the fact that both deficits and paraphasias feature in diagnostic criteria, most research has focused only on the lesion correlates of language deficits, with minimal attention on the pattern of patients' paraphasias. In this study, we used a data-driven approach (principal component analysis - PCA) to fuse patient impairments and their pattern of errors into one unified model of chronic post-stroke aphasia...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158446/drosophila-embryonic-type-ii-neuroblasts-origin-temporal-patterning-and-contribution-to-the-adult-central-complex
#19
Kathleen T Walsh, Chris Q Doe
Drosophila neuroblasts are an excellent model for investigating how neuronal diversity is generated. Most brain neuroblasts generate a series of ganglion mother cells (GMCs) that each make two neurons (type I lineage), but sixteen brain neuroblasts generate a series of intermediate neural progenitors (INPs) that each produce 4-6 GMCs and 8-12 neurons (type II lineage). Thus, type II lineages are similar to primate cortical lineages, and may serve as models for understanding cortical expansion. Yet the origin of type II neuroblasts remains mysterious: do they form in the embryo or larva? If they form in the embryo, do their progeny populate the adult central complex, as do the larval type II neuroblast progeny? Here we present molecular and clonal data showing that all type II neuroblasts form in the embryo, produce INPs, and express known temporal transcription factors...
November 20, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157227/metabolic-adaptation-of-two-in-silico-mutants-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-during-infection
#20
Víctor A López-Agudelo, Andres Baena, Howard Ramirez-Malule, Silvia Ochoa, Luis F Barrera, Rigoberto Ríos-Estepa
BACKGROUND: Up to date, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) remains as the worst intracellular killer pathogen. To establish infection, inside the granuloma, Mtb reprograms its metabolism to support both growth and survival, keeping a balance between catabolism, anabolism and energy supply. Mtb knockouts with the faculty of being essential on a wide range of nutritional conditions are deemed as target candidates for tuberculosis (TB) treatment. Constraint-based genome-scale modeling is considered as a promising tool for evaluating genetic and nutritional perturbations on Mtb metabolic reprogramming...
November 21, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
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