keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

central pattern generators

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535392/nervous-system-development-temporal-patterning-of-large-neural-lineages
#1
Stefan Thor
Neural progenitor cells in most, if not all, systems generate different cell types according to a fixed birth-order. Studies in the Drosophila central nervous system now identify an expanding regulatory network underlying temporal diversification of very large neural lineages.
May 22, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533780/innate-immune-function-of-mitochondrial-metabolism
#2
REVIEW
David Sancho, Michel Enamorado, Johan Garaude
Sensing of microbe-associated molecular patterns or danger signals by innate immune receptors drives a complex exchange of information. Innate receptor signaling not only triggers transcriptional events but also induces profound changes in metabolic fluxes, redox balance, and metabolite abundance thereby influencing immune cell function. Mitochondria are at the core of metabolic adaptation to the changing environment. The close interaction between mitochondrial metabolism and immune signaling has emerged as a central regulator of innate sensing...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532887/the-influence-of-walking-aids-on-the-plasticity-of-spinal-interneuronal-networks-central-pattern-generators-and-the-recovery-of-gait-post-stroke-a-literature-review-and-scholarly-discussion
#3
REVIEW
Clare C Maguire, Judith M Sieben, Robert A de Bie
BACKGROUND: Many aspects of post-stroke gait-rehabilitation are based on low-level evidence or expert opinion. Neuroscientific principles are often not considered when evaluating the impact of interventions. The use of walking-aids including canes and rollators, although widely used for long periods, has primarily been investigated to assess the immediate kinetic, kinematic or physiological effects. The long-term impact on neural structures und functions remains unclear. METHODS: A literature review of the function of and factors affecting plasticity of spinal interneuronal-networks and central-pattern-generators (CPG) in healthy and post-stroke patients...
April 2017: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531967/climate-response-of-oak-quercus-spp-an-evidence-of-a-bioclimatic-boundary-induced-by-the-carpathians
#4
Constantin Nechita, Ionel Popa, Ólafur Eggertsson
Tree-ring information and climate response data were applied to investigate the potential of the Carpathian Mountains to influence tree-growth patterns. Recent studies reveal the importance of constructing a dense spatial network of oak tree-ring chronologies in this area, which may be the key to linking the North Central European and East Mediterranean tree records. We establish sixteen oak (Quercus robur L.) and sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.) site chronologies along a longitudinal gradient (from 22...
May 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529049/heterogeneity-of-transverse-axial-tubule-system-in-mouse-atria-remodeling-in-atrial-specific-na-ca-2-exchanger-knockout-mice
#5
Xin Yue, Rui Zhang, Brian Kim, Aiqun Ma, Kenneth D Philipson, Joshua I Goldhaber
Transverse-axial tubules (TATs) are commonly assumed to be sparse or absent in atrial myocytes from small animals. Atrial myocytes from rats, cats and rabbits lack TATs, which results in a characteristic "V"-shaped Ca release pattern in confocal line-scan recordings due to the delayed rise of Ca in the center of the cell. To examine TAT expression in isolated mouse atrial myocytes, we loaded them with the membrane dye Di-4-ANEPPS to label TATs. We found that >80% of atrial myocytes had identifiable TATs...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518193/4n-electron-aromatic-cycles-in-polycyclic-hydrocarbons
#6
Michael Mauksch, Svetlana B Tsogoeva
Polycyclic fully conjugated hydrocarbons in which aromatics are fused to aromatics - or aromatics to antiaromatics - are important as potential organic semiconductors. Herein we explore the only remaining fusion pattern of antiaromatics to antiaromatics. It is shown computationally that the central antiaromatic unit (cyclobutadiene or pentalene) in such a three-unit polycyclic hydrocarbon, generated by fusion of three antiaromatic molecules, turns aromatic according to magnetic shielding (NICS) criteria. The resulting neutral 4N electron molecules possess a 4N π electron perimeter with pronounced CC bond length equalization (as indicated by the HOMA geometric index) and significant aromatic stabilization energies (computed using the isomerization-stabilization method) and could be promising synthetic targets with small HOMO-LUMO gaps...
May 18, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514713/pattern-recognition-receptors-and-coordinated-cellular-pathways-involved-in-tuberculosis-immunopathogenesis-emerging-concepts-and-perspectives
#7
REVIEW
Abhishek Mishra, Shamim Akhtar, Chinnaswamy Jagannath, Arshad Khan
Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) play a central role in the recognition of numerous pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, resulting in activation of innate and adaptive immune responses. Besides Toll Like Receptors, C-type Lectin Receptors and Nod Like Receptors are now being recognized for their involvement in inducing immune response against M. tuberculosis infection. Although, a functional redundancy of the PRRs has also been reported in many studies, emerging evidences support the notion that a cooperative and coordinated response generated by these receptors is critical to sustain the full immune control of M...
May 14, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505852/generation-of-higher-order-rogue-waves-from-multibreathers-by-double-degeneracy-in-an-optical-fiber
#8
Lihong Wang, Jingsong He, Hui Xu, Ji Wang, Kuppuswamy Porsezian
In this paper, we construct a special kind of breather solution of the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation, the so-called breather-positon (b-positon for short), which can be obtained by taking the limit λ_{j}→λ_{1} of the Lax pair eigenvalues in the order-n periodic solution, which is generated by the n-fold Darboux transformation from a special "seed" solution-plane wave. Further, an order-n b-positon gives an order-n rogue wave under a limit λ_{1}→λ_{0}. Here, λ_{0} is a special eigenvalue in a breather of the NLS equation such that its period goes to infinity...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504943/towards-multimodal-human-robot-interaction-to-enhance-active-participation-of-users-in-gait-rehabilitation
#9
Kai Gui, Honghai Liu, Dingguo Zhang
Robotic exoskeletons for physical rehabilitation have been utilized for retraining patients suffering from paraplegia and enhancing motor recovery in recent years. However, users are not voluntarily involved in most systems. This work aims to develop a locomotion trainer with multiple gait patterns, which can be controlled by the active motion intention of users. A multimodal human-robot interaction (HRI) system is established to enhance subject's active participation during gait rehabilitation, which includes cognitive human-robot interaction (cHRI) and physical human-robot interaction (pHRI)...
May 11, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502613/generation-of-a-targeted-expression-system-for-branchless-and-characterization-of-novel-cellular-expression-patterns-of-the-gene-in-drosophila
#10
Lijuan Du, Amy Zhou, Akshay Patel, Mishal Rao, Kelsey Anderson, Sougata Roy
Fibroblast growth factors (FGF) are essential signaling proteins that regulate diverse cellular functions in developmental and metabolic processes. In Drosophila, the FGF homolog, branchless (bnl) is expressed in a dynamic and spatiotemporally restricted pattern to induce branching morphogenesis of the trachea, which expresses the Bnl-receptor, breathless (btl). Here we have developed a new strategy to determine bnl- expressing cells and study their interactions with the btl-expressing cells in the range of tissue patterning during Drosophila development...
May 11, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495600/the-effect-of-cortical-and-subcortical-lesions-on-spontaneous-expression-of-memory-encoded-and-emotionally-infused-information-evidence-for-a-role-of-the-ventral-stream
#11
Efthymia Efthymiopoulou, Dimitrios S Kasselimis, Apostolia Ghika, Andreas Kyrozis, Christos Peppas, Ioannis Evdokimidis, Michael Petrides, Constantin Potagas
The ventral stream of language processing has been implicated in the spontaneous expression of memory-encoded and emotionally infused information. The present study investigated whether left hemispheric lesions in post-stroke right-handed aphasic patients may be selectively associated with specific language functions. Speech rate was assessed with two tasks, one based on autobiographical memory of an emotionally infused event (stroke story narration) and the other based on information that is visually available at the time of speech generation ("cookie theft" picture description)...
May 8, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487834/effect-of-treadmill-training-protocols-on-locomotion-recovery-in-spinalized-rats
#12
Hamid R Kobravi, Ali Moghimi, Zahra Khodadadi
Both treadmill training and epidural stimulation can help to reactivate the central pattern generator (CPG) in the spinal cord after a spinal cord injury. However, designing an appropriate training approach and a stimulation profile is still a controversial issue. Since the spinal afferent signals are the input signals of CPG in the spinal cord, it can be concluded that the number of input afferent signals can affect the quality of movement recovery, such a phenomenon is in accordance with Hebbian theory. Therefore, at first in this paper, through some simulation studies on a model of CPGs, the effective influence of increasing the afferent input weight on activating CPG model was certified...
January 2017: Journal of Medical Signals and Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484384/mechanisms-of-winner-take-all-and-group-selection-in-neuronal-spiking-networks
#13
Yanqing Chen
A major function of central nervous systems is to discriminate different categories or types of sensory input. Neuronal networks accomplish such tasks by learning different sensory maps at several stages of neural hierarchy, such that different neurons fire selectively to reflect different internal or external patterns and states. The exact mechanisms of such map formation processes in the brain are not completely understood. Here we study the mechanism by which a simple recurrent/reentrant neuronal network accomplish group selection and discrimination to different inputs in order to generate sensory maps...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484370/clustered-protocadherins-are-required-for-building-functional-neural-circuits
#14
Sonoko Hasegawa, Hiroaki Kobayashi, Makiko Kumagai, Hiroshi Nishimaru, Etsuko Tarusawa, Hiro Kanda, Makoto Sanbo, Yumiko Yoshimura, Masumi Hirabayashi, Takahiro Hirabayashi, Takeshi Yagi
Neuronal identity is generated by the cell-surface expression of clustered protocadherin (Pcdh) isoforms. In mice, 58 isoforms from three gene clusters, Pcdhα, Pcdhβ, and Pcdhγ, are differentially expressed in neurons. Since cis-heteromeric Pcdh oligomers on the cell surface interact homophilically with that in other neurons in trans, it has been thought that the Pcdh isoform repertoire determines the binding specificity of synapses. We previously described the cooperative functions of isoforms from all three Pcdh gene clusters in neuronal survival and synapse formation in the spinal cord...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475061/modulation-of-parkinsonian-state-with-uncertain-disturbance-based-on-sliding-mode-control
#15
Yulin Zhu, Jiang Wang, Huiyan Li, Bin Deng, Chen Liu
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a degenerative disorder of central nervous system that endangers the olds' health seriously. The motor symptoms of PD can be attributed to the distorted relay reliability of thalamus to cortical sensorimotor input that results from the increase of inhibitory input from internal segment of the globus pallidum (GPi). Based on this, we construct the GPithalamocortical computational model to generate the normal and pathological firing patterns by varying GPi spike train input. A kind of closed-loop deep brain stimulation (DBS) strategy is proposed here...
May 2, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469000/circuit-feedback-increases-activity-level-of-a-circuit-input-through-interactions-with-intrinsic-properties
#16
Dawn M Blitz
Central pattern generator (CPG) motor circuits underlying rhythmic behaviors provide feedback to the projection neuron inputs that drive these circuits. This feedback elicits projection neuron bursting linked to CPG rhythms. The brief periodic interruptions in projection neuron activity in turn influence CPG output, gate sensory input, and enable coordination of multiple target CPGs. However, despite the importance of projection neuron activity level for circuit output, it remains unknown whether feedback also regulates projection neuron intraburst firing rates...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467736/spinal-transection-alters-external-urethral-sphincter-activity-during-spontaneous-voiding-in-freely-moving-rats
#17
Brandon K LaPallo, Jonathan R Wolpaw, Xiang Yang Chen, Jonathan Carp
The rat is a commonly used model for the study of lower urinary tract function before and after spinal cord injury. We have previously reported that in unanesthetized, freely-moving rats, although phasic external urethral sphincter (EUS) activity (bursting) is most common during micturition, productive voiding can occur in the absence of bursting, which differs from results seen in anesthetized or unanesthetized restrained animals. The purpose of the present study was to characterize EUS behavior in unanesthetized, freely-moving rats before and after mid-thoracic (T8) or thoraco-lumbar (T13-L1) spinal transection to determine how EUS behavior after spinal cord injury differs from that seen in anesthetized or unanesthetized restrained rats...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463306/experimental-demonstration-of-square-fresnel-zone-plate-with-chiral-side-lobes
#18
A Vijayakumar, B Vinoth, Igor V Minin, Joseph Rosen, Oleg V Minin, Chau-Jern Cheng
In this study, we introduce what we believe is a novel holographic optical element called a chiral square Fresnel zone plate (CSFZP). The chirality is imposed on a square Fresnel zone plate (SFZP) using a nonclassical technique by rotating the half-period zones relative to one another. The rotation of the half-period zones, in turn, twists the side lobes of the diffraction pattern without altering the focusing properties inherent to a SFZP. As a consequence, the beam profile is hybrid, consisting of a strong central Gaussian focal spot with gradient force similar to that generated by a lens and twisted side lobes with orbital angular momentum...
May 1, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449714/detecting-central-fixation-by-means-of-artificial-neural-networks-in-a-pediatric-vision-screener-using-retinal-birefringence-scanning
#19
Boris I Gramatikov
BACKGROUND: Reliable detection of central fixation and eye alignment is essential in the diagnosis of amblyopia ("lazy eye"), which can lead to blindness. Our lab has developed and reported earlier a pediatric vision screener that performs scanning of the retina around the fovea and analyzes changes in the polarization state of light as the scan progresses. Depending on the direction of gaze and the instrument design, the screener produces several signal frequencies that can be utilized in the detection of central fixation...
April 27, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443014/the-topographical-mapping-in-drosophila-central-complex-network-and-its-signal-routing
#20
Po-Yen Chang, Ta-Shun Su, Chi-Tin Shih, Chung-Chuan Lo
Neural networks regulate brain functions by routing signals. Therefore, investigating the detailed organization of a neural circuit at the cellular levels is a crucial step toward understanding the neural mechanisms of brain functions. To study how a complicated neural circuit is organized, we analyzed recently published data on the neural circuit of the Drosophila central complex, a brain structure associated with a variety of functions including sensory integration and coordination of locomotion. We discovered that, except for a small number of "atypical" neuron types, the network structure formed by the identified 194 neuron types can be described by only a few simple mathematical rules...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
keyword
keyword
96596
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"