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midbrain rehabilitation

David Drijkoningen, Inge Leunissen, Karen Caeyenberghs, Wouter Hoogkamer, Stefan Sunaert, Jacques Duysens, Stephan P Swinnen
Many patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) suffer from postural control impairments that can profoundly affect daily life. The cerebellum and brain stem are crucial for the neural control of posture and have been shown to be vulnerable to primary and secondary structural consequences of TBI. The aim of this study was to investigate whether morphometric differences in the brain stem and cerebellum can account for impairments in static and dynamic postural control in TBI. TBI patients (n = 18) and healthy controls (n = 30) completed three challenging postural control tasks on the EquiTest® system (Neurocom)...
December 2015: Human Brain Mapping
M Cornelia Stoeckel, Roland W Esser, Matthias Gamer, Christian Büchel, Andreas von Leupoldt
Dyspnea is a prevalent and threatening cardinal symptom in many diseases including asthma. Whether patients suffering from dyspnea show habituation or sensitization toward repeated experiences of dyspnea is relevant for both quality of life and treatment success. Understanding the mechanisms, including the underlying brain activation patterns, that determine the dynamics of dyspnea perception seems crucial for the improvement of treatment and rehabilitation. Toward this aim, we investigated the interplay between short-term changes of dyspnea perception and changes of related brain activation...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
Georg Berding, Florian Wilke, Thilo Rode, Cathleen Haense, Gert Joseph, Geerd J Meyer, Martin Mamach, Minoo Lenarz, Lilli Geworski, Frank M Bengel, Thomas Lenarz, Hubert H Lim
Considerable progress has been made in the treatment of hearing loss with auditory implants. However, there are still many implanted patients that experience hearing deficiencies, such as limited speech understanding or vanishing perception with continuous stimulation (i.e., abnormal loudness adaptation). The present study aims to identify specific patterns of cerebral cortex activity involved with such deficiencies. We performed O-15-water positron emission tomography (PET) in patients implanted with electrodes within the cochlea, brainstem, or midbrain to investigate the pattern of cortical activation in response to speech or continuous multi-tone stimuli directly inputted into the implant processor that then delivered electrical patterns through those electrodes...
2015: PloS One
Rajendra Singh Jain, Sunil Kumar, Rakesh Agarwal, Pankaj Kumar Gupta
Heat stroke is common in tropical country like India especially during the summer season. We report an unusual case of acute vertebrobasilar territory infarcts due to heat stroke. A middle-aged man developed hyperpyrexia (42.2°C) after strenuous fieldwork in a hot summer day. Next morning, he was found in altered sensorium. The brain imaging showed acute posteromedial midbrain and cerebellar infarcts. A diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke due to heat stroke was made, and the patient was put under the intensive care unit...
June 2015: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Afsaneh Zarghi, Alireza Zali, Mehdi Tehranidost
A variety of nervous system components such as medulla, pons, midbrain, cerebellum, basal ganglia, parietal, frontal and occipital lobes have role in Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) processes. The eye movement is done simultaneously for attracting client's attention to an external stimulus while concentrating on a certain internal subject. Eye movement guided by therapist is the most common attention stimulus. The role of eye movement has been documented previously in relation with cognitive processing mechanisms...
2013: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Sayaka Chuganji, Jiro Nakano, Yuki Sekino, Yohei Hamaue, Junya Sakamoto, Minoru Okita
Cast immobilization of limbs causes hyperalgesia, which is a decline of the threshold of mechanical and thermal mechanical stimuli. The immobilization-induced hyperalgesia (IIH) can disturb rehabilitation and activities of daily living in patients with orthopedic disorders. However, it is unclear what therapeutic and preventive approaches can be used to alleviate IIH. Exercise that activates the descending pain modulatory system may be effective for IIH. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of treadmill exercise during the immobilization period, using the non-immobilized limbs, on IIH...
January 1, 2015: Neuroscience Letters
Jennie Ponsford, Mark Bayley, Catherine Wiseman-Hakes, Leanne Togher, Diana Velikonja, Amanda McIntyre, Shannon Janzen, Robyn Tate
INTRODUCTION: Traumatic brain injury, due to its diffuse nature and high frequency of injury to frontotemporal and midbrain reticular activating systems, may cause disruption in many aspects of attention: arousal, selective attention, speed of information processing, and strategic control of attention, including sustained attention, shifting and dividing of attention, and working memory. An international team of researchers and clinicians (known as INCOG) convened to develop recommendations for the management of attentional problems...
July 2014: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
K S Jeng, S H Chu, C C Huang, C K Lin, C C Lin, K H Chen
INTRODUCTION: Loss of speech after living-related liver transplantation is uncommon. Either immunosuppressive agents, related sequelae, or a neurological event may cause it. CASE REPORT: A 46-year-old man developed dysarthria and dysphagia on the 10th day after living-related donor liver transplantation for alcoholic cirrhosis with Child-Pugh class C. Brain magnetic resonance images and electroencephalograms could not detect any lesion, but the diffusion tensor image showed a subacute lacunar infarction at right midbrain...
April 2014: Transplantation Proceedings
Jeong Pyo Seo, Sung Ho Jang
OBJECTIVE: We describe here a patient with intracerebral haemorrhage who showed recovery of an injured medial lemniscus and its related thalamocortical pathway on follow- up diffusion tensor tractography. CASE REPORT: A 48-year-old man presented with right hemiplegia following a spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage in the left corona radiata and basal ganglia. He underwent conservative management for intracerebral haemorrhage and comprehensive rehabilitative therapy...
May 2014: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Xintong Li, Nitin Agarwal, David R Hansberry, Charles J Prestigiacomo, Chirag D Gandhi
The artery of Percheron (AOP) is a rare anatomic variant of the paramedian thalamic-mesencephalic arterial supply, arising as a solitary arterial trunk from the P1 segment of the posterior cerebral artery. Its occlusion, commonly caused by cardioembolism, leads to distal bilateral paramedian thalamic ischemia, oftentimes affecting the midbrain and/or the anterior thalamus. AOP occlusion presents with a clinical triad of altered mental status, vertical gaze palsy, and memory impairment, along with other associated symptoms...
February 2015: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
Soo Yeon Kim, Hye Kyung Park, Dae Heon Song, Myung Eun Chung, Young Moon Kim, Jae Hyun Woo
Ptosis could be caused by oculomotor nerve palsy in the midbrain infarction. Bilateral ptosis has been reported in several reports, which focused on clinical characteristics of midbrain infarction. Little research attention has been paid to the treatment of patients with bilateral ptosis in midbrain infarction. We experienced a case of severe bilateral ptosis occurring after midbrain infarction. The patient could not open her eyes, perform basic activities or achieve effective rehabilitation. Neurogenic ptosis can improved after the underlying cause is treated...
December 2013: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
Craig A Atencio, Jonathan Y Shih, Christoph E Schreiner, Steven W Cheung
Cochlear implant electrical stimulation of the auditory system to rehabilitate deafness has been remarkably successful. Its deployment requires both an intact auditory nerve and a suitably patent cochlear lumen. When disease renders prerequisite conditions impassable, such as in neurofibromatosis type II and cochlear obliterans, alternative treatment targets are considered. Electrical stimulation of the cochlear nucleus and midbrain in humans has delivered encouraging clinical outcomes, buttressing the promise of central auditory prostheses to mitigate deafness in those who are not candidates for cochlear implantation...
March 2014: Journal of Neurophysiology
Sophia N Kouni, Sotirios Giannopoulos, Nausika Ziavra, Constantinos Koutsojannis
PURPOSE AND BACKGROUND: Acoustic signals are transmitted through the external and middle ear mechanically to the cochlea where they are transduced into electrical impulse for further transmission via the auditory nerve. The auditory nerve encodes the acoustic sounds that are conveyed to the auditory brainstem. Multiple brainstem nuclei, the cochlea, the midbrain, the thalamus, and the cortex constitute the central auditory system. In clinical practice, auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) to simple stimuli such as click or tones are widely used...
November 2013: American Journal of Otolaryngology
Seong Woo Kim, Jong Hun Kim, Zee-A Han
BACKGROUND: Intracranial stab wounds are low-velocity, penetrating injuries to the brain and fatality and outcome significantly depend on route, depth and location of cranial penetration. Due to the effective barrier provided by the adult calvarium, most injuries occur through the orbitae or temporal regions where bony layers are thin. Self-inflicted intracranial stab wounds are an even rarer form of traumatic brain injury, with common entry points being the orbital space and the nose...
2013: Brain Injury: [BI]
K S Dhami, M A Churchward, G B Baker, K G Todd
Depression is one of the most common disorders appearing following a stroke, and is also a major factor limiting recovery and rehabilitation in stroke patients. Antidepressants are the most common prescribed treatment for depression and have shown to have anti-inflammatory properties within the central nervous system (CNS). The major source of pro-inflammatory factors within the CNS is from activated microglia, the innate immune cells of the CNS. Antidepressants have been shown to promote midbrain and hippocampal neuronal survival following an ischemic insult and this survival is mediated through the anti-inflammatory effects on microglia, but the effects on cortical neuronal survival after this insult have yet to be investigated...
September 2013: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Sang Seok Yeo, Sung Ho Jang
The main function of the corticospinal tract (CST) is control of the distal musculature used for fine movements, in contrast, the corticoreticular pathway (CRP) innervates the proximal and axial musculature. We report on a patient with an intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) who showed recovery of an injured CST and an injured CRP by diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). The patient, a 38-year-old man, presented with severe paralysis of the right upper and lower extremities due to a spontaneous ICH in the left corona radiata and basal ganglia...
2013: NeuroRehabilitation
Xuegan Lian, Debing Xu, Jian Wu, Min Lin, Qin Yin, Gelin Xu, Xinfeng Liu, Renliang Zhang
OBJECTIVES: Clinical-diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) mismatch (CDM) in patients with anterior circulation occlusions is an optional method used to select patients for recanalisation outside the 3-h time window. A similar concept has not been reported with posterior circulation occlusions. METHODS: CDM was defined as a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score <8 with DWI lesions not located in the dorsal pons, midbrain or thalamus at the time of admission. Eligible patients were treated with endovascular recanalisation therapy (ERT)...
July 2013: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Luca Massimi, Giuseppe M Della Pepa, Massimo Caldarelli, Concezio Di Rocco
Chiari I malformation (CI) continues to raise great interest among physicians due to the larger and larger number of newly diagnosed cases. The clinical and radiological picture and the management options of such a chronic disease are well acknowledged as well as those of the associated syringomyelia. Little is known, on the other hand, about abrupt clinical onset following decompensation of CI/syringomyelia complex. This review on the sudden onset of these two conditions shows that this is a very rare phenomenon; only 41 cases are being reported in the last three decades...
July 2012: Neurosurgical Review
Alexandre Batista Penido, Gustavo Henrique de Souza Rezende, Renata Viana Abreu, Antônio Carlos Pinheiro de Oliveira, Patrícia Alves Maia Guidine, Grace Schenatto Pereira, Deoclécio Alves Chianca, André Ricardo Massensini, Tasso Moraes-Santos, Márcio Flávio Dutra Moraes
The brain that grows and develops under the continued influence of malnutrition presents permanent impairment on functioning and neurotransmitter release. The aim of this study was to investigate the chronic effects of neonatal food restriction on neurochemical and neurodynamical aspects within the primary auditory sensory pathway. Our working hypothesis is that neonatal malnutrition may affect the flow of primary sensory information both at a neurochemical and neurodynamical level. To test this hypothesis, three groups of rats were assigned, from birth to 370 days of life, to the following dietary scheme: a well-nourished (WN) group fed ad libitum lab chow diet; an undernourished (UN) group fed 60% of diet consumed by WN group; and a rehabilitated group, undergoing same dietary restriction as undernourished until 42 days of age and thereafter fed ad libitum until the end of the experiment...
January 2012: Nutritional Neuroscience
John G Nutt, Bastiaan R Bloem, Nir Giladi, Mark Hallett, Fay B Horak, Alice Nieuwboer
Freezing of gait (FoG) is a unique and disabling clinical phenomenon characterised by brief episodes of inability to step or by extremely short steps that typically occur on initiating gait or on turning while walking. Patients with FoG, which is a feature of parkinsonian syndromes, show variability in gait metrics between FoG episodes and a substantial reduction in step length with frequent trembling of the legs during FoG episodes. Physiological, functional imaging, and clinical-pathological studies point to disturbances in frontal cortical regions, the basal ganglia, and the midbrain locomotor region as the probable origins of FoG...
August 2011: Lancet Neurology
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