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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822019/gypenoside-ix-suppresses-p38-mapk-akt-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-activation-and-inflammatory-responses-in-astrocytes-stimulated-by-proinflammatory-mediators
#1
Xiaoshuang Wang, Liu Yang, Li Yang, Faping Xing, Hua Yang, Liyue Qin, Yunyi Lan, Hui Wu, Beibei Zhang, Hailian Shi, Cheng Lu, Fei Huang, Xiaojun Wu, Zhengtao Wang
Gypenoside IX (GP IX) is a pure compound isolated from Panax notoginseng. Gypenosides have been implicated to benefit the recovery of enormous neurological disorders. By suppressing the activation of astrocytes, gypenosides can improve the cognitive impairment. However, so far, little is known about whether GP IX could restrain the inflammatory responses in astrocytes or reactive astrogliosis. In present study, the anti-inflammatory effects of GP IX were investigated in reactive astrocytes induced by proinflammatory mediators both in vitro and in vivo...
August 18, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821452/pinocembrin-a-novel-histidine-decarboxylase-inhibitor-with-anti-allergic-potential-in-in-vitro
#2
Hamza Hanieh, Villianur Ibrahim Hairul Islam, Subramanian Saravanan, Muthiah Chellappandian, Kessavane Ragul, Arumugam Durga, Kaliyamoorthy Venugopal, Venugopal Senthilkumar, Palanisamy Senthilkumar, Krishnaraj Thirugnanasambantham
Pinocembrin (5, 7- dihydroxy flavanone) is the most abundant chiral flavonoid found in propolis, exhibiting antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effect of Pinocembrin on allergic response is unexplored. Thus, current study aimed at investigating the effects of Pinocembrin on IgE-mediated allergic response in vitro. A special emphasis was directed toward histidine decarboxylase (HDC) and other pro-allergic and pro-inflammatory mediators. Preliminary studies, using a microbiological model of Klebsiella pneumoniae, provided first evidences that suggest Pinocembrin as a potential thermal stable inhibitor for HDC...
August 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821163/metformin-maintains-mucosal-integrity-in-experimental-model-of-colitis-by-inhibiting-oxidative-stress-and-pro-inflammatory-signaling
#3
Abhimanu Pandey, Sneh Verma, Vijay L Kumar
Metformin, an antidiabetic drug, is well known for its multifarious properties and its ability to modulate inflammatory cascade. Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory condition of the colon where drugs exhibiting anti-inflammatory property have been shown to induce and maintain remission. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of metformin against acetic-acid induced colitis in rat. The study included five groups of rats namely normal control, experimental control, drug treated groups (50 and 500mg/kg of metformin, MET50, MET500 and 300mg/kg of mesalazine, MSZ300)...
August 14, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821008/trans-caryophyllene-inhibits-amyloid-%C3%AE-a%C3%AE-oligomer-induced-neuroinflammation-in-bv-2-microglial-cells
#4
Yawei Hu, Ziling Zeng, Baojie Wang, Shougang Guo
Amyloid β (Aβ) is the major component of senile plaques (SP) in the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, and serves as an inflammatory stimulus for microglia. Trans-caryophyllene (TC), a major component in the essential oils derived from various species of medicinal plants, has displayed its neuro-protective effects in previous studies. However, whether TC has a protective role in AD remains unknown. In this study, the effects of TC on Aβ1-42-induced neuro-inflammation were investigated. We found that TC reduced the release of LDH in BV-2 microglial cells treated with Aβ1-42...
August 15, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820603/walrobsins-a-and-b-two-anti-inflammatory-limonoids-from-root-barks-of-walsura-robusta
#5
Fa-Liang An, Dong-Mei Sun, Rui-Jun Li, Miao-Miao Zhou, Ming-Hua Yang, Yong Yin, Ling-Yi Kong, Jun Luo
Walrobsins A (1) and B (2), two limonoids featuring an unprecedented 5-oxatricyclo[5.4.1(1,4)]hendecane ring system, were isolated from the root barks of Walsura robusta. Their structures, including their absolute configurations, were determined by analyses of HR-ESIMS, 1D/2D NMR, and X-ray crystallography. Compounds 1 and 2 possessed a stable hemiketal structure formed between the OH-11 and 3-carbonyl group in the hexatomic oxoheterocyclic ring. Compound 1 showed significant anti-inflammatory activity with an IC50 value of 7...
August 18, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819545/circulating-mirnas-in-pediatric-pulmonary-hypertension-show-promise-as-biomarkers-of-vascular-function
#6
Vitaly O Kheyfets, Carmen C Sucharov, Uyen Truong, Jamie Dunning, Kendall Hunter, Dunbar Ivy, Shelley Miyamoto, Robin Shandas
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of circulating miRNAs as biomarkers of vascular function in pediatric pulmonary hypertension. METHOD: Fourteen pediatric pulmonary arterial hypertension patients underwent simultaneous right heart catheterization (RHC) and blood biochemical analysis. Univariate and stepwise multivariate linear regression was used to identify and correlate measures of reactive and resistive afterload with circulating miRNA levels...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818741/identification-of-sterols-from-the-soft-coral-dendronephthya-gigantea-and-their-anti-inflammatory-potential
#7
I P Shanura Fernando, K K Asanka Sanjeewa, Hyun-Soo Kim, Seo-Young Kim, Seung-Hong Lee, Won Woo Lee, You-Jin Jeon
Exploration of anti-inflammatory phytochemicals has received tremendous attention worldwide owing to the rapid increase in inflammatory diseases. Current study reveals the identification of eight 3β-hydroxy-Δ(5)-steroidal congeners from a nonpolar column fraction of the ethanol solubles from the soft coral Dendronephthya gigantea collected from Jeju Island South Korea, using GC-MS/MS analysis. The sterol-rich fraction (DGEH21) showed a significant anti-inflammatory activity as exhibited by the inhibition of NO production (IC50 4...
August 9, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817687/morphologic-phenotypic-and-transcriptomic-characterization-of-classically-and-alternatively-activated-canine-blood-derived-macrophages-in-vitro
#8
Franziska Heinrich, Annika Lehmbecker, Barbara B Raddatz, Kristel Kegler, Andrea Tipold, Veronika M Stein, Arno Kalkuhl, Ulrich Deschl, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Reiner Ulrich, Ingo Spitzbarth
Macrophages are a heterogeneous cell population playing a pivotal role in tissue homeostasis and inflammation, and their phenotype strongly depends on the micromilieu. Despite its increasing importance as a translational animal model for human diseases, there is a considerable gap of knowledge with respect to macrophage polarization in dogs. The present study comprehensively investigated the morphologic, phenotypic, and transcriptomic characteristics of unstimulated (M0), M1- (GM-CSF, LPS, IFNγ-stimulated) and M2- (M-CSF, IL-4-stimulated)-polarized canine blood-derived macrophages in vitro...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817116/total-tanshinones-exhibits-anti-inflammatory-effects-through-blocking-tlr4-dimerization-via-the-myd88-pathway
#9
Hongwei Gao, Xin Liu, Wen Sun, Naixin Kang, Yanli Liu, Shilin Yang, Qiong-Ming Xu, Chunming Wang, Xiuping Chen
Tanshinones belong to a group of lipophilic constituents of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Danshen), which is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. A deluge of studies demonstrated that tanshinones exert anti-inflammatory effects, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear to date. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory effects and mechanisms of total tanshinones (TTN). TTN suppressed the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the secretion of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in RAW264...
August 17, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815802/prophylactic-effects-of-ellagic-acid-and-rosmarinic-acid-on-doxorubicin-induced-neurotoxicity-in-rats
#10
Hanan A Rizk, Marwa A Masoud, Omar W Maher
Doxorubicin (DOX) is a chemotherapeutic agent widely used in human malignancies. Its long-term use cause neurobiological side effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prophylactic effect exerted by daily administration of ellagic acid (EA) and rosmarinic acid (RA) on DOX-induced neurotoxicity in rats. Our data showed that DOX-induced significant elevation of brain malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), caspase-3, and cholinesterase associated with significant reduction in reduced glutathione, monoamines namely serotonin, dopamine, as well as norepinephrine...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815036/bacterial-stimuli-activate-nitric-oxide-colonic-mucosal-production-in-diverticular-disease-protective-effects-of-l-casei-dg%C3%A2-lactobacillus-paracasei-cncm-i-1572
#11
Fabio Turco, Paolo Andreozzi, Ilaria Palumbo, Francesco Paolo Zito, Martina Cargiolli, Walter Fiore, Nicola Gennarelli, Giovanni Domenico De Palma, Giovanni Sarnelli, Rosario Cuomo
BACKGROUND: Micro-inflammation and changes in gut microbiota may play a role in the pathogenesis of diverticular disease (DD). OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to evaluate the expression of nitric oxide (NO)-related mediators and S100B in colonic mucosa of patients with DD in an ex vivo model of bacterial infection. METHODS: Intestinal biopsies obtained from patients with diverticulosis, symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (SUDD) and SUDD with previous acute diverticulitis (SUDD+AD) were stimulated with the probiotic L...
August 2017: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814437/adaptive-responses-of-rat-descending-vasa-recta-to-ischemia
#12
Zhong Zhang, Kristie Payne, Thomas L Pallone
We tested whether rat descending vasa recta (DVR) undergo regulatory adaptions after the kidney is exposed to ischemia. Left kidneys (LK) were subjected to 30 minute renal artery cross clamp. After 48 hours, the post-ischemic LK and contralateral right kidney (RK) were harvested for study. When compared to DVR isolated from either sham operated LK or the contralateral RK, post-ischemic LK DVR markedly increased their NO generation. The selective inducible NOS (iNOS) inhibitor, 1400W, blocked the NO response...
August 16, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813782/urea-cycle-pathway-targeted-therapeutic-action-of-naringin-against-ammonium-chloride-induced-hyperammonemic-rats
#13
Arumugam Ramakrishnan, Natesan Vijayakumar
Ammonia is a well-known neurotoxin that causes liver disease and urea cycle disorder. Excessive ammonia content in the blood leads to hyperammonemic condition and affects both excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission including brain edema and coma. Naringin, a plant bioflavonoid present in various citrus fruits and mainly extracted from the grape fruit. This study was designed to assess the protective effect of naringin on ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) induced hyperammonemic rats. Experimental hyperammonemia was induced by intraperitoneal injections (i...
August 12, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813479/metabolomic-profiling-of-amines-in-sepsis-predicts-changes-in-nos-canonical-pathways
#14
Abel Tesfai, Niall MacCallum, Nicholas S Kirkby, Hime Gashaw, Nicola Gray, Elizabeth Want, Gregory J Quinlan, Sharon Mumby, James M Leiper, Mark Paul-Clark, Blerina Ahmetaj-Shala, Jane A Mitchell
RATIONALE: Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is a biomarker/target in sepsis. NOS activity is driven by amino acids, which cycle to regulate the substrate L-arginine in parallel with cycles which regulate the endogenous inhibitors ADMA and L-NMMA. The relationship between amines and the consequence of plasma changes on iNOS activity in early sepsis is not known. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to apply a metabolomics approach to determine the influence of sepsis on a full array of amines and what consequence these changes may have on predicted iNOS activity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812292/effect-of-low-selenium-high-fat-diet-on-pig-peripheral-blood-lymphocytes-perspectives-from-selenoproteins-heat-shock-proteins-and-cytokines
#15
Tianqi Liu, Tianshu Yang, Tingru Pan, Ci Liu, Shu Li
The aim of the present study was to clarify the effect of low selenium (Se)/high fat on the mRNA expression of selenoproteins, heat shock proteins (HSPs) and cytokines in pig peripheral blood lymphocytes. Forty crossbred boar piglets with healthy lean body weights of 10 kg were randomly divided into four treatment groups (group C, group L-Se, group H-fat, and group L-Se-H-fat) (n = 10/group) and fed with the corresponding diet for 16 weeks. The pig peripheral blood lymphocytes were extracted, and the mRNA expression of selenoproteins, HSPs, and cytokines was measured...
August 15, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811826/anti-inflammatory-effect-of-piper-attenuatum-methanol-extract-in-lps-stimulated-inflammatory-responses
#16
You Jin Kim, Jeong Deok, Sunggyu Kim, Deok Hyo Yoon, Gi-Ho Sung, Adithan Aravinthan, Seungihm Lee, Mi-Nam Lee, Suntaek Hong, Jong-Hoon Kim, Young-Jin Son, Jae Youl Cho
Piper attenuatum is used as a traditional medicinal plant in India. One of the substances in P. attenuatum has been suggested to have anti-inflammatory effects. However, there is insufficient research about the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of action of P. attenuatum. The effects of P. attenuatum methanol extract (Pa-ME) on the production of inflammatory mediators nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), the expression of proinflammatory genes, the translocation level of transcription factors, and intracellular signaling activities were investigated using macrophages...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811825/ethanol-extract-of-mylabris-phalerata-inhibits-m2-polarization-induced-by-recombinant-il-4-and-il-13-in-murine-macrophages
#17
Hwan-Suck Chung, Bong-Seon Lee, Jin Yeul Ma
Mylabris phalerata (MP) is an insect used in oriental herbal treatments for tumor, tinea infections, and stroke. Recent studies have shown that tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) have detrimental roles such as tumor progression, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Although TAM has phenotypes and characteristics in common with M2-polarized macrophages, M1 macrophages have tumor suppression and immune stimulation effects. Medicines polarizing macrophages to M1 have been suggested to have anticancer effects via the modulation of the tumor microenvironment...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811686/influence-of-the-flavonoid-quercetin-on-antioxidant-status-lipid-peroxidation-and-histopathological-changes-in-hyperammonemic-rats
#18
Sivamani Kanimozhi, Pakkiri Bhavani, Perumal Subramanian
We have studied the ability of quercetin (a bioflavonoid) in tackling oxidative stress to alleviate the symptoms during ammonium chloride-induced hyperammonemia. Hyperammonemia was induced by the treatment of ammonium chloride (AC) 100 mg/kg b.w for 56 days. Hyperammonemic rats exhibited reduced urea (in plasma) and increased ammonia (in blood), uric acid (in plasma), creatinine (in serum), oxidative stress markers (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and hydroperoxides (HP) and decreased levels of antioxidants (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH) in plasma and tissues (liver and brain) vitamins E and C (in plasma))...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811678/patchoulene-epoxide-isolated-from-patchouli-oil-suppresses-acute-inflammation-through-inhibition-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-downregulation-of-cox-2-inos
#19
Jia-Li Liang, Jia-Zhen Wu, Yu-Hong Liu, Zhen-Biao Zhang, Qi-Duan Wu, Han-Bin Chen, Yan-Feng Huang, Yao-Xing Dou, Jiang-Tao Zhou, Zi-Ren Su, Janis Ya-Xian Zhan
According to the GC-MS analysis, compositional variation was observed between samples of patchouli oil, of which an unknown compound identified as patchoulene epoxide (PAO) was found only in the long-stored oil, whose biological activity still remains unknown. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the potential anti-inflammatory activity with three in vivo inflammatory models: xylene-induced ear edema, acetic acid-induced vascular permeability, and carrageenan-induced paw edema. Further investigation into its underlying mechanism on carrageenan-induced paw edema was conducted...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811249/male-specific-pulmonary-hemorrhage-and-cytokine-gene-expression-in-golden-hamster-in-early-phase-leptospira-interrogans-serovar-hebdomadis-infection
#20
Rina Tomizawa, Hiromu Sugiyama, Ryoichi Sato, Makoto Ohnishi, Nobuo Koizumi
Leptospirosis causes severe clinical signs more frequently in men than in women, but the mechanism underlying the gender differences in leptospirosis remains unclear. In this study, petechial hemorrhage was observed in male but not in female hamster lung tissues infected with Leptospira interrogans serovar Hebdomadis at 120 h pi, demonstrating that male hamsters were more susceptible to the development of a severe disease upon Leptospira infection. No leptospiral DNA was detected in the lung tissues at 120 h pi when pulmonary hemorrhage was observed, indicating that pulmonary hemorrhage is attributable to the immune reactions of the host rather than from the direct effect of leptospires...
August 12, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
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