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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458168/apoptosis-of-enterocytes-and-nitration-of-junctional-complex-proteins-promote-alcohol-induced-gut-leakiness-and-liver-injury
#1
Young-Eun Cho, Li-Rong Yu, Mohamed A Abdelmegeed, Seong-Ho Yoo, Byoung-Joon Song
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Binge alcohol causes gut leakiness, contributing to increased endotoxemia and inflammatory liver injury, although the molecular mechanisms are still elusive. This study was aimed at investigating the roles of apoptosis of enterocytes and nitration followed by degradation of intestinal tight junction (TJ) and adherent junction (AJ) proteins in binge alcohol-induced gut leakiness. METHODS: The levels of intestinal (ileum) junctional complex proteins, oxidative stress markers and apoptosis-related proteins in rodents, T84 colonic cells and autopsied human ileums were determined by immunoblot, immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence, and mass-spectral analyses...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458045/aldose-reductase-inhibitor-fidarestat-prevents-doxorubicin-induced-endothelial-cell-death-and-dysfunction
#2
Himangshu Sonowal, Pabitra Pal, Kirtikar Shukla, Ashish Saxena, Satish K Srivastava, Kota V Ramana
Despite doxorubicin (Dox) being one of the most widely used chemotherapy agents for breast, blood and lung cancers, its use in colon cancer is limited due to increased drug resistance and severe cardiotoxic side effects that increase mortality associated with its use at high doses. Therefore, better adjuvant therapies are warranted to improve the chemotherapeutic efficacy and to decrease cardiotoxicity. We have recently shown that aldose reductase inhibitor, fidarestat, increases the Dox-induced colon cancer cell death and reduces cardiomyopathy...
February 16, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458016/renal-toxicological-evaluations-of-sulphonated-nanocellulose-from-khaya-sengalensis-seed-in-wistar-rats
#3
Adewale Adewuyi, Chiagoziem A Otuechere, Olusegun L Adebayo, Chibuzo Anazodo, Fabiano V Pereira
Nanocellulose is currently gaining attention due to its unique properties. This attention includes its application as building blocks for developing novel functional materials, plant drug and also in drug delivery systems. However, its safety remains largely untested or less understood. Thus, sulphonated nanocellulose (KSS) was prepared from cellulose (KSC) isolated from Khaya senegalensis seed (KS). KS, KSC and KSS were characterized using Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), particle size distribution (PSD), zeta potential and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
February 16, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457300/glucagon-like-peptide-2-decreases-osteoclasts-by-stimulating-apoptosis-dependent-on-nitric-oxide-synthase
#4
Yi Lu, Dongdong Lu, Yu Hu
OBJECTIVES: Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP2) is involved in the regulation of energy absorption and metabolism. Despite the importance of the GLP2 signalling mechanisms on osteoclast, little has been studied on how GLP2 works during osteoclastogenesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: RAW264.7 cells were infected with rLV-Green-GLP2. The induction of osteoclasts was performed by RANKL. TRAP were detected by RT-PCR, Western blotting and staining. Total nitric oxide and total NOS activity were measured...
February 19, 2018: Cell Proliferation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455054/seco-labdane-diterpenoids-from-the-leaves-of-callicarpa-nudiflora-showing-nitric-oxide-inhibitory-activity
#5
Xiaocong Sun, Feng Liu, Xueyuan Yang, Jinghan Wang, Bangjian Dong, Chunfeng Xie, Da-Qing Jin, Jie Zhang, Dongho Lee, Yasushi Ohizumi, Jing Xu, Yuanqiang Guo
Nine previously undescribed seco-labdane diterpenoids, nudiflopenes A-I, were isolated from the leaves of Callicarpa nudiflora. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data analysis, and the absolute configurations of these compounds were established by the modified Mosher's method and experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism spectra. Nudiflopenes A-I belong to the class of seco-labdane diterpenoids. All of the isolates showed inhibitory activities on lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in murine microglial BV-2 cells...
February 15, 2018: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454969/jip3-knockout-protects-mice-against-high-fat-diet-induced-liver-injury
#6
Xiao-Jun Ma, Hai-Zhou Xing, Gao-Fei Ren, Xiao-Juan Rao, Zhi-Zhen Li
Multiple pathways contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in response to high fat diets (HFD). A homolog of mammalian JNK-interacting protein 3 (JIP3), also known as JSAP-1, activates different components in various signaling pathways to modulate cellular processes. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of JIP3 in obesity-related pathologies pathway. Wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 and JIP3-knockout (JIP3-/- ) mice were randomized to chow or HFD. HFD-fed WT mice increased hepatic JIP3 expression...
February 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453985/zika-virus-infected-primary-microglia-impairs-npcs-proliferation-and-differentiation
#7
Jin Wang, Jing Liu, Rui Zhou, Xin Ding, Qipeng Zhang, Chenyu Zhang, Liang Li
Zika virus (ZIKV) can lead to severe birth defects especially microcephaly in newborns by infecting human neural progenitors and impairing brain development. However, as the resident immune cells in the brain, the role of microglia in the ZIKV pathology is not clearly defined. To understand the interplay between immune response and neural cells, we investigate the interaction between microglia and NPCs during ZIKV infection. Our results demonstrate that primary microglia infected with ZIKV induces an inflammatory response similar to that in human, producing high level of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)...
February 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453519/tricurin-a-synergistic-formulation-of-curcumin-resveratrol-and-epicatechin-gallate-repolarizes-tumor-associated-macrophages-and-triggers-an-immune-response-to-cause-suppression-of-hpv-tumors
#8
Sumit Mukherjee, Rahman Hussaini, Richard White, Doaa Atwi, Angela Fried, Samay Sampat, Longzhu Piao, Quintin Pan, Probal Banerjee
Our earlier studies reported a unique potentiated combination (TriCurin) of curcumin (C) with two other polyphenols. The TriCurin-associated C displays an IC50 in the low micromolar range for cultured HPV+ TC-1 cells. In contrast, because of rapid degradation in vivo, the TriCurin-associated C reaches only low nano-molar concentrations in the plasma, which are sub-lethal to tumor cells. Yet, injected TriCurin causes a dramatic suppression of tumors in TC-1 cell-implanted mice (TC-1 mice) and xenografts of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) cells in nude/nude mice...
February 16, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453346/anti-inflammatory-effect-of-tauroursodeoxycholic-acid-in-raw-264-7-macrophages-bone-marrow-derived-macrophages-bv2-microglial-cells-and-spinal-cord-injury
#9
Seong Jun Kim, Wan-Kyu Ko, Min-Jae Jo, Yoshie Arai, Hyemin Choi, Hemant Kumar, In-Bo Han, Seil Sohn
This study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) after spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. We induced an inflammatory process in RAW 264.7 macrophages, BV2 microglial cells, and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) using lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The anti-inflammatory effects of TUDCA on LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, BV2 microglial cells, and BMMs were analyzed using nitric oxide (NO) assays, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions (qRT-PCR), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA)...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452193/antidepressant-activity-of-vorinostat-is-associated-with-amelioration-of-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-a-corticosterone-induced-chronic-stress-model-in-mice
#10
Athira Kv, Rajaram Mohanrao Madhana, Indu Chandran Js, Mangala Lahkar, Swapnil Sinha, V G M Naidu
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a multifactorial neuropsychiatric disorder. Chronic administration of corticosterone (CORT) to rodents is used to mimic the stress associated dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, a well-established feature found in depressive patients. Recently, preclinical studies have demonstrated the antidepressant potential of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. So, we examined the antidepressant potential of vorinostat (VOR), a HDAC inhibitor against CORT injections in male mice...
February 13, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452136/neuroprotective-effects-of-valproic-acid-on-brain-ischemia-are-related-to-its-hdac-and-gsk3-inhibitions
#11
Monalisa Ribeiro Silva, Alyne Oliveira Correia, Gabriel Cabral Alencar Dos Santos, Lucas Leimig Telles Parente, Keicy Parente de Siqueira, Danielly Gonçalves Sombra Lima, Jonathan Almeida Moura, Ana Elisa da Silva Ribeiro, Roberta Oliveira Costa, Daniel Luna Lucetti, Elaine Cristina Pereira Lucetti, Kelly Rose Tavares Neves, Glauce Socorro de Barros Viana
Valproic acid (VA) is an antiepileptic that is also used for the treatment of bipolar disorders. The objective was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of VA on a brain ischemia model. The groups of male Wistar rats were: SO (sham-operated), ischemic and ischemic treated with VA (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.). After anesthesia with ketamine and xilazine, the animals were subjected to clamping of carotid arteries (30 min) and reperfusion. Except for the carotid clamping, the SO group was submitted to the same procedure...
February 13, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451663/the-analysis-on-the-expression-of-gasotransmitters-in-early-trauma-patients
#12
Zhiyong Wang, Mignxing Fang, Jianying Guo, Yong Yang, Fengjun Tian
OBJECTIVE: Nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) were endogenously-generated molecules gas. They owned important biological activity and participated in many pathophysiological processes. This study aimed to examine the levels of three gasotransmitters in the early phase of trauma patients. METHOD: Blood samples were collected from 60 trauma patients and ten healthy volunteers. Concentration of serum iNOS and HO-1 were analyzed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and plasma H2S was determined by colorimetric method...
November 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451295/evaluation-of-hif-1%C3%AE-and-inos-in-ischemia-reperfusion-gastric-model-bioimpedance-histological-and-immunohistochemical-analyses
#13
Eduardo Peña-Mercado, Mario Garcia-Lorenzana, Elena Arechaga-Ocampo, Claudia H González-De la Rosa, Nohra E Beltran
Gastrointestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) generates pathological alterations that could lead to death. Early ischemic damage markers could be used to guide therapy and improve outcomes. AIM: To relate hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) activation and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression to gastric impedance changes due to I/R damage. METHODS: Experimental animals were randomly distributed into 3 groups: control, ischemia (30 min) and I/R (60 min)...
February 16, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451015/chemical-constituents-from-the-rhizomes-of-polygonatum-sibiricum-red-and-anti-inflammatory-activity-in-raw264-7-macrophage-cells
#14
Huan Zhao, Qiao-Lian Wang, Shu-Bing Hou, Guang Chen
Chemical investigation of the rhizomes of Polygonatum sibiricum Red. led to the identification of 27 constituents. Among them, a total of 16 compounds were obtained from Polygonatum for the first time, in which, 3 and 4 were also firstly isolated as natural products. Anti-inflammatory activity studies on 13 isolated compounds showed that β-carboline constituents, especially compounds 1 and 2, significantly inhibited the expression of NO, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW264.7 macrophage cells...
February 16, 2018: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450536/administration-of-nitric-oxide-through-a-novel-copper-chitosan-delivery-system-in-human-corneal-and-limbal-epithelial-cell-injury
#15
Vasiliki Tellios, Hong Liu, Nikoleta Tellios, Xiangji Li, Cindy M L Hutnik
Purpose: Nitric oxide (NO) has gained attention for its role in facilitating wound healing by promoting cell migration, while being cytoprotective in a variety of cell types. We determined the efficacy of NO, administered using a novel application of copper-chitosan treatments (Cu-Ch), in facilitating corneal epithelial wound healing using an in vitro model of corneal epithelial and limbal epithelial cell injury. Methods: Human corneal epithelial (HCE) and human limbal epithelial (HLE) cells were monitored under no-scratch (CON), untreated scratch (CS), scratch + plain chitosan composite (0%), scratch + 1% copper solution Cu-Ch (1%), and scratch + 2% copper solution Cu-Ch (2%) conditions...
February 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449840/c-abl-twist1-epigenetically-dysregulate-inflammatory-responses-during-mycobacterial-infection-by-co-regulating-bone-morphogenesis-protein-and-mir27a
#16
Kasturi Mahadik, Praveen Prakhar, R S Rajmani, Amit Singh, Kithiganahalli Narayanaswamy Balaji
Mycobacteria propelled modulation of host responses is of considerable interest in the face of emerging drug resistance. Although it is known that Abl tyrosine kinases affect entry and persistence of mycobacteria, mechanisms that couple c-Abl to proximal signaling pathways during immunity are poorly understood. Loss-of-function of c-Abl through Imatinib, in a mouse model of tuberculosis or RNA interference, identified bone morphogenesis protein (BMP) signaling as its cellular target. We demonstrate that c-Abl promotes mycobacterial survival through epigenetic modification brought about by KAT5-TWIST1 at Bmp loci...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449632/inducible-nitric-oxide-synthase-during-the-late-phase-of-sepsis-is-associated-with-hypothermia-and-immune-cell-migration
#17
Yudai Takatani, Kenji Ono, Hiromi Suzuki, Masato Inaba, Makoto Sawada, Naoyuki Matsuda
Hypothermia is a significant sign of sepsis, which is associated with poor prognosis, but few mechanisms underlying the regulation of hypothermia are known. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is a key inflammatory mediator of sepsis. However, the therapeutic benefit of iNOS inhibition in sepsis is still controversial, and requires elucidation in an accurate model system. In this study, wild-type (WT) mice showed temperature drops in a biphasic manner at the early and late phase of sepsis, and all mice died within 48 h of sepsis...
February 14, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449623/targeted-disruption-of-the-inos-gene-improves-adipose-tissue-inflammation-and-fibrosis-in-leptin-deficient-ob-ob-mice-role-of-tenascin-c
#18
S Becerril, A Rodríguez, V Catalán, L Méndez-Giménez, B Ramírez, N Sáinz, M Llorente, X Unamuno, J Gómez-Ambrosi, G Frühbeck
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Obesity is related to a dynamic extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, which involves the synthesis and degradation of different proteins, such as tenascin C (TNC) in the adipose tissue (AT). Given the functional relationship between leptin and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), our aim was to analyze the impact of the absence of the iNOS gene in AT inflammation and ECM remodeling in ob/ob mice. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The expression of genes involved in inflammation and ECM remodeling was evaluated in 10-week-old male double knockout (DBKO) mice simultaneously lacking the ob and iNOS genes as well as in ob/ob mice classified into three groups [control, leptin-treated (1 mg kg -1 day -1 ) and pair-fed]...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448936/chitinase-3-like-1-is-a-biomarker-of-acute-kidney-injury-and-mortality-in-paediatric-severe-malaria
#19
Andrea L Conroy, Michael T Hawkes, Robyn Elphinstone, Robert O Opoka, Sophie Namasopo, Christopher Miller, Chandy C John, Kevin C Kain
BACKGROUND: Chitinase-3-like 1 (CHI3L1) is a glycoprotein elevated in paediatric severe malaria, and an emerging urinary biomarker of acute kidney injury (AKI). Based on the hypothesis that elevated CHI3L1 levels in malaria are associated with disease severity, the relationship between plasma CHI3L1 levels, AKI and mortality was investigated in Ugandan children enrolled in a clinical trial evaluating inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) as an adjunctive therapy for severe malaria. METHODS: Plasma CHI3L1 levels were measured daily for 4 days in children admitted to hospital with severe malaria and at day 14 follow up...
February 15, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448512/thymosin-%C3%AE-4-reduces-h%C3%A2-o%C3%A2-induced-oxidative-stress-in-mc3t3-e1-cells-on-titanium-surface
#20
Baik-Dong Choi, Do-Seon Lim, Seung-Yeon Lee, Tae-Hee Nho, Soon-Jeong Jeong, Yeong-Mu Ko, Sung-Nam Gang, Young-Joon Kim, Xing-Hui Piao, Moon-Jin Jeong
Thymosin β4 (Tβ4) is known to inhibit an inflammatory response and to increase the survival of osteoblasts on titanium (Ti) surfaces. Ti is the most widely used graft material in dentistry; however, an inflammatory response induced following implant placement results in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The oxidative stress from the production of ROS such as nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) can damage surrounding cells, resulting in implant failure by decreasing cell viability...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
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