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P53 p63 p73 cancer

Elio A Cino, Iaci N Soares, Murilo M Pedrote, Guilherme A P de Oliveira, Jerson L Silva
The p53 family of proteins is comprised of p53, p63 and p73. Because the p53 DNA binding domain (DBD) is naturally unstable and possesses an amyloidogenic sequence, it is prone to form amyloid fibrils, causing loss of functions. To develop p53 therapies, it is necessary to understand the molecular basis of p53 instability and aggregation. Light scattering, thioflavin T (ThT) and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) assays showed that p53 DBD aggregates faster and to a greater extent than p63 and p73 DBDs, and was more susceptible to denaturation...
2016: Scientific Reports
Olivier Billant, Alice Léon, Solenn Le Guellec, Gaëlle Friocourt, Marc Blondel, Cécile Voisset
The tumor suppression activity of p53 is frequently impaired in cancers even when a wild-type copy of the gene is still present, suggesting that a dominant-negative effect is exerted by some of p53 mutants and isoforms. p63 and p73, which are related to p53, have also been reported to be subjected to a similar loss of function, suggesting that a dominant-negative interplay might happen between p53, p63 and p73. However, to which extent p53 hotspot mutants and isoforms of p53, p63 and p73 are able to interfere with the tumor suppressive activity of their siblings as well as the underlying mechanisms remain undeciphered...
August 31, 2016: Oncotarget
Danielly C F Costa, Guilherme A P de Oliveira, Elio A Cino, Iaci N Soares, Luciana P Rangel, Jerson L Silva
Prion diseases are disorders that share several characteristics that are typical of many neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, several studies have extended the prion concept to pathological aggregation in malignant tumors involving misfolded p53, a tumor-suppressor protein. The aggregation of p53 and its coaggregation with p53 family members, p63 and p73, have been shown. Certain p53 mutants exert a dominant-negative regulatory effect on wild-type (WT) p53. The basis for this dominant-negative effect is that amyloid-like mutant p53 converts WT p53 into an aggregated species, leading to a gain-of-function (GoF) phenotype and the loss of its tumor-suppressor function...
October 3, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Sebastian Kehrloesser, Christian Osterburg, Marcel Tuppi, Birgit Schäfer, Karen Heather Vousden, Volker Dötsch
The high percentage of p53 missense mutations found in cancer has been attributed to mutant acquired oncogenic gain of functions. Different aspects of these tumour-promoting functions are caused by repression of the transcriptional activity of p53 family members p63 and p73. A subset of frequently occurring p53 mutations results in thermodynamic destabilisation of the DNA-binding domain (DBD) rendering this domain highly unstable. These conformational mutants (such as p53R175H) have been suggested to directly bind to p63 and p73 via a co-aggregation mechanism mediated by their DBDs...
July 22, 2016: Cell Death and Differentiation
Maren Cam, Heather L Gardner, Ryan D Roberts, Joelle M Fenger, Denis C Guttridge, Cheryl A London, Hakan Cam
p63 is a structural homolog within the 53 family encoding two isoforms, ΔNp63 and TAp63. The oncogenic activity of ΔNp63 has been demonstrated in multiple cancers, however the underlying mechanisms that contribute to tumorigenesis are poorly characterized. Osteosarcoma (OSA) is the most common primary bone tumor in dogs, exhibiting clinical behavior and molecular biology essentially identical to its human counterpart. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential contribution of ΔNp63 to the biology of canine OSA...
July 6, 2016: Oncotarget
Maria Ferraiuolo, Silvia Di Agostino, Giovanni Blandino, Sabrina Strano
The p53 gene family members p53, p73, and p63 display several isoforms derived from the presence of internal promoters and alternative splicing events. They are structural homologs but hold peculiar functional properties. p53, p73, and p63 are tumor suppressor genes that promote differentiation, senescence, and apoptosis. p53, unlike p73 and p63, is frequently mutated in cancer often displaying oncogenic "gain of function" activities correlated with the induction of proliferation, invasion, chemoresistance, and genomic instability in cancer cells...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
Luis Alfonso Martinez
TP53 is one of the most frequently inactivated tumor suppressor genes in human cancer. However, unlike other tumor suppressor genes whose expression is lost, TP53 is usually inactivated as a result of a single nucleotide change within the coding region. Typically, these single nucleotide mutations result in a codon change that creates an amino acid substitution. Thus, unlike other tumor suppressor genes whose expression is lost due to genetic or epigenetic changes, the p53 gene primarily suffers missense mutations, and therefore, the cells retain and express a mutant form of the p53 protein (mtp53)...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
Sara Nicolai, Antonello Rossi, Nicola Di Daniele, Gerry Melino, Margherita Annicchiarico-Petruzzelli, Giuseppe Raschellà
Cells are constantly exposed to endogenous and exogenous factors that threaten the integrity of their DNA. The maintenance of genome stability is of paramount importance in the prevention of both cancer and aging processes. To deal with DNA damage, cells put into operation a sophisticated and coordinated mechanism, collectively known as DNA damage response (DDR). The DDR orchestrates different cellular processes, such as DNA repair, senescence and apoptosis. Among the key factors of the DDR, the related proteins p53, p63 and p73, all belonging to the same family of transcription factors, play multiple relevant roles...
December 2015: Aging
Avinashnarayan Venkatanarayan, Payal Raulji, William Norton, Elsa R Flores
TP53 is highly mutated in human cancers, thus targeting this tumor suppressor pathway is highly desirable and will impact many cancer patients. (1,2) Therapeutic strategies to reactivate the p53-pathway have been challenging, (3,4) and no effective treatment exists. (5) We utilized the p53-family members, p63 and p73, which are not frequently mutated in cancer, to treat p53-defective cancers. The N-terminal splice variants of p63 and p73 are denoted as the TA and ΔN isoforms. We recently demonstrated that deletion of either ΔNp63 or ΔNp73 in p53-deficient mouse tumors results in tumor regression mediated by metabolic programming...
2016: Cell Cycle
Y Li, A Ahmad, F H Sarkar
The well-known guardian of genome, p53 plays critical roles in the induction of apoptosis typically upon DNA damage whereas mutant p53 containing cells are unable to undergo apoptosis which leads to aggressive tumor growth and drug resistance. Moreover, another molecule regulating wild-ype p53 function is ASPP (apoptosis stimulating proteins of p53) family. ASPP family consists of ASPP1 and ASPP2, and functions as tumor suppressors whereas the inhibitor of ASPP (iASPP) functions as oncogene. By binding to apoptosis regulating proteins such as p53, p63, p73, Bcl-2, NF-κB p65, etc...
2015: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Stefania Gonfloni, Valerio Caputo, Valentina Iannizzotto
TP63 is the most ancient member of the p53 gene family. The p53 family comprises three transcription factors (p53/p63/p73). They share a high degree of homology and similar domain structure. Yet, they can exist as truncated isoforms. Alternative promoters and splicing sites lead to the generation of several molecules. P53/p63/p73 are important to maintain cell homeostasis. P63 and p73 regulate many p53 target genes. This is due to their common structural features. Both proteins may compensate the loss of p53...
2015: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Ivano Amelio, Gerry Melino
HIFs have long been associated with resistance to therapy, metastasis, and poor survival rates in cancer patients. In parallel, although the tumor-suppressor p53 acts as the first barrier against tumor transformation, its inactivation also appears to be crucial for enabling cancer progression at advanced stages. p53 has been proposed to antagonize HIF, and emerging evidence suggests that the p53 siblings p63 and p73 also participate in this interplay. Crosstalk between HIFs and the p53 family acts as a determinant of cancer progression through regulating angiogenesis, the tumor microenvironment, dormancy, metastasis, and recurrence...
August 2015: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
Faiz-Ur Rahman, Amjad Ali, Rong Guo, Wei-Kun Wang, Hui Wang, Zhan-Ting Li, Yuejian Lin, Dan-Wei Zhang
A series of trans-Pt(II)(salicylaldimine)(4-picoline)Cl complexes were synthesized in 78-87% yield using a one-pot procedure from commercially available precursors. The structures of these complexes were characterized by (1)H, (19)F and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, HRMS (ESI) as well as single crystal X-ray analysis. Bioactivity investigations including bio-assay, time- and dose-dependent, cell cycle progression study, caspase 3 and 9 apoptosis marker assay and DNA interaction using pBR322 plasmid DNA by gel electrophoresis were performed...
June 7, 2015: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Leanne G Ahronian, David R Driscoll, David S Klimstra, Brian C Lewis
Hepatocellular carcinoma is a highly deadly malignancy, accounting for approximately 800,000 deaths worldwide every year. Mutation of the p53 tumor suppressor gene is a common genetic change in HCC, present in 30% of cases. p53R175H (corresponding to p53R172H in mice) is a hotspot for mutation that demonstrates "prometastatic" gain-of-function in other cancer models. Since the frequency of p53 mutation increases with tumor grade in HCC, we hypothesized that p53R172H is a gain-of-function mutation in HCC that contributes to a decrease in tumor-free survival and an increase in metastasis...
2015: PloS One
Steven J Isakoff, Erica L Mayer, Lei He, Tiffany A Traina, Lisa A Carey, Karen J Krag, Hope S Rugo, Minetta C Liu, Vered Stearns, Steven E Come, Kirsten M Timms, Anne-Renee Hartman, Darrel R Borger, Dianne M Finkelstein, Judy E Garber, Paula D Ryan, Eric P Winer, Paul E Goss, Leif W Ellisen
PURPOSE: The identification of patients with metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (mTNBC) who are expected to benefit from platinum-based chemotherapy is of interest. We conducted a single-arm phase II clinical trial of single-agent platinum for mTNBC with biomarker correlates. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with mTNBC received first- or second-line cisplatin (75 mg/m(2)) or carboplatin (area under the concentration-time curve 6) by physician's choice once every 3 weeks...
June 10, 2015: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
GuoZhen Wang, Alan R Fersht
Destabilized mutant p53s coaggregate with WT p53, p63, and p73 in cancer cell lines. We found that stoichiometric amounts of aggregation-prone mutants induced only small amounts of WT p53 to coaggregate, and preformed aggregates did not significantly seed the aggregation of bulk protein. Similarly, p53 mutants trapped only small amounts of p63 and p73 into their p53 aggregates. Tetrameric full-length protein aggregated at similar rates and kinetics to isolated core domains, but there was some induced aggregation of WT by mutants in hetero-tetramers...
February 24, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Fiamma Mantovani, Alessandro Zannini, Alessandra Rustighi, Giannino Del Sal
BACKGROUND: The p53 protein family, comprising p53, p63 and p73, is primarily involved in preserving genome integrity and preventing tumor onset, and also affects a range of physiological processes. Signal-dependent modifications of its members and of other pathway components provide cells with a sophisticated code to transduce a variety of stress signaling into appropriate responses. TP53 mutations are highly frequent in cancer and lead to the expression of mutant p53 proteins that are endowed with oncogenic activities and sensitive to stress signaling...
October 2015: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Keshab R Parajuli, Qiuyang Zhang, Sen Liu, Neil K Patel, Hua Lu, Shelya X Zeng, Guangdi Wang, Changde Zhang, Zongbing You
Methoxyacetic acid (MAA) is a primary metabolite of ester phthalates that are used in production of consumer products and pharmaceutical products. MAA causes embryo malformation and spermatocyte death through inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs). Little is known about MAA's effects on cancer cells. In this study, two immortalized human normal prostatic epithelial cell lines (RWPE-1 and pRNS-1-1) and four human prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP, C4-2B, PC-3, and DU-145) were treated with MAA at different doses and for different time periods...
2014: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
Mei Yong, Ling Yang, Qimuge Suyila, Wenyan Han, Hongwei Yuan, Cheng Zhao, Xiulan Su
BACKGROUND/AIM: To investigate the expression of P53, P63, and P73 proteins in malignant parotid gland tumors and adjacent nonneoplastic tissues and the association between the 3 proteins and their clinical characteristics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 40 pairs of paraffin-embedded malignant parotid gland tumors and adjacent nonneoplastic tissues were collected. We detected P53, P63, and P73 protein expression by immunohistochemistry. Statistical analysis was performed by using the chi-square test...
2014: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
Paulina Orzol, Jitka Holcakova, Marta Nekulova, Rudolf Nenutil, Borivoj Vojtesek, Philip J Coates
p63 and p73, the two other members of the p53 family, were identified almost 15 years ago. Here, we review their potential use for diagnosis, prognosis and prediction of response to therapy in various cancers. The two genes show distinct expression patterns in both normal and cancer tissues and each gene gives rise to multiple protein isoforms with different activities, including those with tumour-suppressor or oncogenic effects. Despite such complexity, some common themes emerge; p63 is commonly overexpressed as the ΔNp63 isoform and sometimes associated with TP63 amplification, whereas p73 is often reduced (by methylation or gene loss), or there is an increase in the ratio of ΔNp73 to TAp73...
May 2015: Histology and Histopathology
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