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Sumona Chaudhury, Gloria K Mayondi, Paige L Williams, Jean Leidner, Roger Shapiro, Modiegi Diseko, Gbolahan Ajibola, Penny Holding, Vicki Tepper, Joseph Makhema, Chipo Petlo, George R Seage, Shahin Lockman, Betsy Kammerer
OBJECTIVE: Conflicting data exist regarding the impact of in utero exposure to maternal combination antiretrovirals. We compared neurodevelopmental outcomes between HIV-exposed/uninfected (HEU) children exposed in utero to 3-drug combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) versus zidovudine (ZDV) monotherapy. DESIGN: Prospective study of child neurodevelopment, nested within two cohorts of HIV-infected mothers and their children in Botswana (one observational, one interventional)...
March 15, 2018: AIDS
Manuel Marchiò, Raffaele Flaminio, Laurent Pinard, Daniéle Forest, Christoph Deutsch, Paula Heu, David Follman, Garrett D Cole
Given their excellent optical and mechanical properties, substrate-transferred crystalline coatings are an exciting alternative to amorphous multilayers for applications in precision interferometry. The high mechanical quality factor of these single-crystal interference coatings reduces the limiting thermal noise in precision optical instruments such as reference cavities for narrow-linewidth laser systems and interferometric gravitational wave detectors. In this manuscript, we explore the optical performance of GaAs/AlGaAs crystalline coatings transferred to 50...
March 5, 2018: Optics Express
Pui-Ying Iroh Tam, Matthew O Wiens, Jerome Kabakyenga, Julius Kiwanuka, Elias Kumbakumba, Peter P Moschovis
We evaluated the association between HIV exposed-uninfected (HEU) status, malnutrition, and risk of death in Ugandan children hospitalized with pneumonia. Both HIV exposure and infection were associated with lower anthropometric indices on univariate analysis, and mid-upper arm circumference was significantly associated with overall mortality (OR 0.96) in a multivariable model. HIV infection (OR 5.0) but not HEU status was associated with overall mortality. Malnutrition may contribute to poor pneumonia outcomes among HIV-infected and HEU children requiring hospitalization...
March 2, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Anicet Christel Maloupazoa Siawaya, Ofilia Mvoundza Ndjindji, Eliane Kuissi Kamgaing, Amandine Mveang-Nzoghe, Chérone Nancy Mbani Mpega, Marielle Leboueny, Roselyne Kengue Boussougou, Armel Mintsa Ndong, Paulin N Essone, Joel Fleury Djoba Siawaya
Pathogen sensing and recognition through pattern recognition receptors, and subsequent production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, is the cornerstone of the innate immune system. Despite the fact that HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants are prone to serious bacterial infections, no study has focused on the functionality of their bacteria recognition system. This is the first study to investigate baseline levels of three critically important immune response molecules in this population: complement component (C)-3, toll-like receptor (TLR)-4, and C-reactive protein (CRP)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Lisa M Cranmer, Heather R Draper, Anna M Mandalakas, Soyeon Kim, George McSherry, Emma Krezinski, Joan Coetzee, Charles Mitchell, Sharon Nachman, Mercia van der Linde, Mark F Cotton, Anneke C Hesseling
Young HIV-exposed children are at high risk for TB infection. We performed QuantiFERON®-TB Gold (QFT) among HIV-exposed children in South Africa at enrolment and one year follow-up. The incidence of TB infection was high for HIV+ (11 cases/100 child-years) and HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children (15 cases/100 child-years). QFT may identify HIV-exposed children at risk for TB disease progression.
February 16, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Matthew A Budd, Kristina Calli, Lindy Samson, Jennifer Bowes, Anthony Y Y Hsieh, John C Forbes, Ari Bitnun, Joel Singer, Fatima Kakkar, Ariane Alimenti, Evelyn J Maan, M E Suzanne Lewis, Carole Gentile, Hélène C F Côté, Jason C Brophy
Long-term outcomes of perinatal exposure to maternal antiretroviral therapy in HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children are unknown. However, both HIV antiretroviral therapy and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been associated with mitochondrial alterations. Leukocyte mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content can serve as a marker for mitochondrial dysfunction. In this cross-sectional, nested case-control study, HEU children with ASD were matched approximately 1:3 on age, sex, and ethnicity to HEU children without ASD, HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) controls, and HUU children with ASD...
February 11, 2018: Viruses
Megan S McHenry, Carole I McAteer, Eren Oyungu, Brenna C McDonald, Chris B Bosma, Philani B Mpofu, Andrew R Deathe, Rachel C Vreeman
CONTEXT: HIV-infected (HIV+) children have worse neurodevelopmental outcomes compared with HIV-uninfected children. However, little is known regarding the differences in neurodevelopment between young HIV+ children, HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) children, and HIV-unexposed and uninfected (HUU) children. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review and meta-analyze data on neurodevelopmental performance between young HIV+, HEU, and HUU children. DATA SOURCES: We systematically searched the following electronic bibliographic databases: Ovid Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Education Resources Information Center, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews...
January 26, 2018: Pediatrics
Andrzej Mikuła, Magdalena Król, Włodzimierz Mozgawa, Andrzej Koleżyński
Vibrational spectroscopy can be considered as one of the most important methods used for structural characterization of various porous aluminosilicate materials, including zeolites. On the other hand, vibrational spectra of zeolites are still difficult to interpret, particularly in the pseudolattice region, where bands related to ring oscillations can be observed. Using combination of theoretical and computational approach, a detailed analysis of these regions of spectra is possible; such analysis should be, however, carried out employing models with different level of complexity and simultaneously the same theory level...
January 20, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Ingrid J M Snijdewind, Colette Smit, Mieke H Godfried, Rachel Bakker, Jeannine F J B Nellen, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Elisabeth van Leeuwen, Peter Reiss, Eric A P Steegers, Marchina E van der Ende
BACKGROUND: The benefits of combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) in HIV-positive pregnant women (improved maternal health and prevention of mother to child transmission [pMTCT]) currently outweigh the adverse effects due to cART. As the variety of cART increases, however, the question arises as to which type of cART is safest for pregnant women and women of childbearing age. We studied the effect of timing and exposure to different classes of cART on adverse birth outcomes in a large HIV cohort in the Netherlands...
2018: PloS One
Mabel L Rice, Jonathan S Russell, Toni Frederick, Murli Purswani, Paige L Williams, George K Siberry, Sean M Redmond, Howard J Hoffman, Tzy-Jyun Yao
BACKGROUND: Perinatally HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) children have elevated risk of late language emergence at age 1 year, with possible links to in utero antiretroviral (ARV) exposure. We investigated possible risks for speech impairments (SI) and language impairments (LI) in preschool monolingual HEU children in the United States. METHODS: Speech and language assessments were conducted as part of the PHACS Surveillance Monitoring of ART Toxicities (SMARTT) study at ages 3 (N= 208) and 5 (N = 429) years...
December 22, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Abhinav Ajaykumar, Hugo Soudeyns, Fatima Kakkar, Jason Brophy, Ari Bitnun, Ariane Alimenti, Arianne Y K Albert, Deborah M Money, Hélène C F Côté
Background: Maternal combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) during pregnancy could impact the health of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed, HIV-uninfected (HEU) children, because some antiretrovirals cross the placenta and can inhibit telomerase. Our objective was to compare leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in HEU children and HIV-unexposed, HIV-uninfected (HUU) children at birth and in early life and to investigate any relationship with cART exposure. Methods: HEU and HUU children's blood LTL was compared cross-sectionally at birth, and during the first three years of life...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Olusoga Babatunde Ogunfowora, Tinuade Adetutu Ogunlesi, Abiodun Folashade Adekanmbi, Victor Ayodeji Ayeni
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed infants enrolled into the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV program generally receive antiretroviral therapy (ARV), but the feeding methods differ based on several socioeconomic and cultural differences. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to examine the incidence and pattern of morbidities among HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) Nigerian infants and determine any relationship with infant feeding methods...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
Itziar Familiar, Shalean M Collins, Alla Sikorskii, Horacio Ruisenor-Escudero, Barnabas Natamba, Paul Bangirana, Elizabeth M Widen, Daniel Achidri, Harriet Achola, Daniel Onen, Michael Boivin, Sera L Young
OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate whether maternal characteristics and infant developmental milieu were predictive of early cognitive development in HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) and HIV-unexposed uninfected (HU) infants in Uganda. DESIGN: Longitudinal pregnancy study. METHODS: Ugandan women (n = 228) were enrolled into the Postnatal Nutrition and Psychosocial Health Outcomes study with a 2:1 HIV-uninfected: infected ratio. Maternal sociodemographic, perceived social support, and depressive symptomatology were assessed...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Regina Cm Succi, Margot R Krauss, D Robert Harris, Daisy M Machado, Maria I de Moraes-Pinto, Marisa M Mussi-Pinhata, Noris Pavia Ruz, Russell B Pierre, Lenka A Kolevic Roca, Esaú Joao, Irene Foradori, Marcelo C Scotta, Rohan Hazra, George K Siberry
BACKGROUND: Perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) children are at risk for undervaccination and poor vaccine response at four years of age. Childhood vaccine coverage and immune response were compared between PHIV and HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children in Latin America and the Caribbean. METHODS: PHIV and HEU children were enrolled prospectively at fifteen sites from 2002-2009. Full vaccination by age four years was defined as: three hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine doses; four tetanus toxoid-containing vaccine doses; three doses of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine by age 12 months or ≥1 dose given after age 12 months; one measles-containing vaccine dose; one rubella-containing vaccine dose...
November 14, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Priscilla E Springer, Amy L Slogrove, Barbara Laughton, Julie A Bettinger, Henriëtte H Saunders, Christopher D Molteno, Mariana Kruger
OBJECTIVES: To compare neurodevelopmental outcomes of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) and HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) infants in a peri-urban South African population. HEU infants living in Africa face unique biological and environmental risks, but uncertainty remains regarding their neurodevelopmental outcome. This is partly due to lack of well-matched HUU comparison groups needed to adjust for confounding factors. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study of infants enrolled at birth from a low-risk midwife obstetric facility...
January 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Michael J Boivin, Linda Barlow-Mosha, Miriam Chernoff, Barbara Laughton, Bonnie Zimmer, Celeste Joyce, Mutsa Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Mmule Ratswana, Nasreen Abrahams, Lee Fairlie, Hermien Gous, Portia Kamthunzi, Katie McCarthy, Itziar Familiar-Lopez, Patrick Jean-Phillippe, Joan Coetzee, Avy Violari, Mark Cotton, Paul Palumbo
OBJECTIVE & DESIGN: Children with HIV infection (HIV+) are at neuropsychological risk, but few studies have evaluated this at multiple sites in low and middle income countries (LMICs). We compared neuropsychological outcomes at enrollment (>5 yrs age) among HIV+, HIV-uninfected perinatally-exposed (HEU), and HIV unexposed (HU) children from 4 sub-Saharan countries. METHODS: IMPAACT P1060 compared Nevirapine (NVP) versus Lopinavir/Ritonavir (LPVr)-based ART in HIV-infected children 6 to 35 months of age...
November 2, 2017: AIDS
Toshiyuki Iwahori, Hirotsugu Ueshima, Naoto Ohgami, Hideyuki Yamashita, Naoko Miyagawa, Keiko Kondo, Sayuki Torii, Katsushi Yoshita, Toshikazu Shiga, Takayoshi Ohkubo, Hisatomi Arima, Katsuyuki Miura
BACKGROUND: Reducing the urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio is important for reducing both blood pressure and risk of cardiovascular disease. Among free-living Japanese individuals, we carried out a randomized trial to clarify the effect of lifestyle modification for lowering urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio using a self-monitoring device. METHODS: This was an open, prospective, parallel randomized, controlled trial. Ninety-two individuals were recruited from Japanese volunteers...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology
Melissa Ghulam-Smith, Alex Olson, Laura F White, Charles S Chasela, Sascha R Ellington, Athena P Kourtis, Denise J Jamieson, Gerald Tegha, Charles M van der Horst, Manish Sagar
A significant number of infants acquire HIV-1 through their infected mother's breast milk, primarily due to limited access to antiretrovirals. Passive immunization with neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) may prevent this transmission. Previous studies, however, have generated conflicting results about the ability of nAbs to halt mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) and their impact on infant outcomes. This study compared plasma neutralizing activity in exposed infants and the infected mothers (n = 63) against heterologous HIV-1 variants and the quasispecies present in the mother...
October 24, 2017: MBio
Vundli Ramokolo, Ameena E Goga, Carl Lombard, Tanya Doherty, Debra J Jackson, Ingunn Ms Engebretsen
BACKGROUND: Despite the recognized benefit of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for preventing and treating HIV, some studies have reported adverse birth outcomes with in utero ART exposure. We evaluated the effect of infant in utero HIV and ART exposure on preterm delivery (PTD), low birth weight (LBW), small for gestational age (SGA), and underweight for age (UFA) at 6 weeks. METHODS: We surveyed 6179 HIV-unexposed-uninfected (HUU) and 2599 HIV-exposed-uninfected (HEU) infants...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Timothy J Kurtti, Nicole Y Burkhardt, Chan C Heu, Ulrike G Munderloh
Rickettsiae of indeterminate pathogenicity are widely associated with ticks. The presence of these endosymbionts can confound a One Health approach to combatting tick-borne diseases. Genomic analyses of symbiotic rickettsiae have revealed that they harbor mutations in gene coding for proteins involved in rickettsial pathogenicity and motility. We have isolated and characterized two rickettsial symbionts-Rickettsia peacockii and R. buchneri-both from ticks using tick cell cultures. To better track these enigmatic rickettsiae in ticks and at the tick-mammal interface we transformed the rickettsiae to express fluorescent proteins using shuttle vectors based on rickettsial plasmids or a transposition system driving insertional mutagenesis...
November 17, 2016: Veterinary Sciences
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