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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081048/a-prospective-cohort-study-of-common-childhood-infections-in-south-african-hiv-exposed-uninfected-and-hiv-unexposed-infants
#1
Amy L Slogrove, Monika M Esser, Mark F Cotton, David P Speert, Tobias R Kollmann, Joel Singer, Julie A Bettinger
BACKGROUND: Much evidence of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infant infectious morbidity predates availability of maternal combination antiretroviral therapy and does not control for universal risk factors (preterm birth, low birth weight, suboptimal breastfeeding and poverty). METHODS: This prospective cohort study identified HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers and their newborns from South African community midwife unit. The primary outcome, infectious cause hospitalization or death before 6 months of age, was compared between HEU and HIV-unexposed (HU) infants and classified for type and severity using validated study-specific case definitions...
February 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079828/vaccination-with-10-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-infants-according-to-hiv-status
#2
Shabir A Madhi, Anthonet Koen, Lisa Jose, Nadia van Niekerk, Peter V Adrian, Clare Cutland, Nancy François, Javier Ruiz-Guiñazú, Juan-Pablo Yarzabal, Marta Moreira, Dorota Borys, Lode Schuerman
BACKGROUND: Phase III, open-label, single-center, controlled study in South Africa (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00829010) to evaluate immunogenicity, reactogenicity, and safety of the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected (HIV+), HIV-exposed-uninfected (HEU), and HIV-unexposed-uninfected (HUU) children. METHODS: Children stratified by HIV status received PHiD-CV primary vaccination (age 6/10/14 weeks; coadministered with routine childhood vaccines) and booster dose (age 9-10 months)...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011912/cmv-acquisition-and-inflammation-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-zimbabwean-infants
#3
Ceri Evans, Bernard Chasekwa, Sandra Rukobo, Margaret Govha, Kuda Mutasa, Robert Ntozini, Jean H Humphrey, Andrew J Prendergast
Cytomegalovirus acquisition and inflammation were evaluated in 231 HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) and 100 HIV-unexposed Zimbabwean infants at age 6 weeks. HEU and HIV-unexposed infants had a similarly high prevalence of CMV (81.4% vs. 74.0%, respectively; P=0.14), but HEU infants had higher CMV viral loads (P=0.005) and >2-fold higher CRP concentrations (P<0.0001). CMV-positive HEU infants had higher CRP than CMV-negative HEU infants; this association disappeared after adjusting for maternal HIV viral load...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999576/optimizing-research-methods-to-understand-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infant-and-child-morbidity-report-of-the-second-heu-infant-and-child-workshop
#4
Amy L Slogrove, Moherndran Archary, Mark F Cotton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915254/ompf-of-pectobacterium-carotovorum-subsp-carotovorum-pcc3-is-required-for-carocin-d-sensitivity
#5
Jeong-A Lim, Jisoo Hong, Jonguk Kim, Sunggi Heu, Eunjung Roh
Carocin D is a bacteriocin produced by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum Pcc21. Carocin D inhibits the growth of P carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and closely related strains. Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum is a causative bacterium for soft rot disease and leads to severe economic losses. Bacteriocins recognize and interact with a specific membrane protein of target bacteria as a receptor. To identify the receptor responsible for carocin D recognition, mutants that underwent a phenotypic change from carocin D sensitivity to carocin D insensitivity were screened...
December 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904465/simultaneous-detection-of-three-bacterial-seed-borne-diseases-in-rice-using-multiplex-polymerase-chain-reaction
#6
In Jeong Kang, Mi-Hyung Kang, Tae-Hwan Noh, Hyeong Kwon Shim, Dong Bum Shin, Suggi Heu
Burkholderia glumae (bacterial grain rot), Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (bacterial leaf blight), and Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (bacterial brown stripe) are major seedborne pathogens of rice. Based on the 16S and 23S rDNA sequences for A. avenae subsp. avenae and B. glumae, and transposase A gene sequence for X. oryzae pv. oryzae, three sets of primers had been designed to produce 402 bp for B. glumae, 490 bp for X. oryzae, and 290 bp for A. avenae subsp. avenae with the 63°C as an optimum annealing temperature...
December 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899925/increased-risk-of-group-b-streptococcus-invasive-infection-in-hiv-exposed-but-uninfected-infants-a-review-of-the-evidence-and-possible-mechanisms
#7
REVIEW
Nicolas Dauby, Mustapha Chamekh, Pierrette Melin, Amy L Slogrove, Tessa Goetghebuer
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a major cause of neonatal sepsis and mortality worldwide. Studies from both developed and developing countries have shown that HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) infants are at increased risk of infectious morbidity, as compared to HIV-unexposed uninfected infants (HUU). A higher susceptibility to GBS infections has been reported in HEU infants, particularly late-onset diseases and more severe manifestations of GBS diseases. We review here the possible explanations for increased susceptibility to GBS infection...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898591/tenofovir-exposure-in-utero-and-linear-growth-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants
#8
Stanzi M le Roux, Jennifer Jao, Kirsty Brittain, Tamsin K Phillips, Seun Olatunbosun, Agnes Ronan, Allison Zerbe, Elaine J Abrams, Landon Myer
OBJECTIVE: Tenofovir (TDF) affects bone health and is widely used in pregnancy but data are limited on the effects of TDF exposure in utero. We examined the association between duration of in-utero TDF exposure and linear growth in HIV-exposed, uninfected (HEU) infants. DESIGN: A prospective cohort of pregnant women initiating TDF-containing regimens at primary care services in Cape Town, South Africa, were enrolled and followed with their breastfeeding infants through 12 months postpartum...
January 2, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861788/phenotypically-resembling-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-are-increased-in-children-with-hiv-and-exposed-infected-with-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#9
Nelita Du Plessis, Ruschca Jacobs, Andrea Gutschmidt, Zhuo Fang, Paul D van Helden, Manfred B Lutz, Anneke C Hesseling, Gerhard Walzl
Increased disease susceptibility during early life has been linked to immune immaturity, regulatory T-cell/TH2 immune biasing and hyporesponsiveness. The contribution of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) remains uninvestigated. Here, we assessed peripheral MDSC in HIV-infected and -uninfected children with tuberculosis (TB) disease before, during and after TB treatment, along with matched household contacts (HHCs), HIV-exposed, -infected and -uninfected children without recent TB exposure. Serum analytes and enzymes associated with MDSC accumulation/activation/function were measured by colorimetric- and fluorescence arrays...
January 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847176/association-of-serum-bactericidal-antibody-and-opsonic-antibody-levels-after-neisseria-meningitidis-serogroup-c-conjugate-vaccine-in-brazilian-children-and-adolescents-infected-or-not-infected-with-hiv
#10
Wânia F Pereira-Manfro, Raquel M Alvino, Aline C Cruz, Giselle P Silva, Raquel B N Castro, Bianca Ferreira, Daniella M Barreto, Ana Cristina C Frota, Cristina B Hofer, Lucimar G Milagres
Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C (MenC) is the main causative agent of meningitis in Brazil. HIV infection affects the quality of the immune system. HIV(+) children have an increased risk of infection to encapsulated bacteria such as N. meningitidis. We evaluated the opsonic antibody (OPA) levels and its correlation with serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) levels induced by one and two doses of a MenC conjugate vaccine in children and adolescents HIV(+) and HIV-exposed but uninfected children (HEU) group. Overall the data show the importance of two doses of vaccine for HIV(+) individuals...
December 7, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805806/protein-binders-specific-for-immunoglobulin-g-from-different-species-for-immunoassays-and-multiplex-imaging
#11
Sukyo Jeong, Woosung Heu, Jong-Won Kim, Hak-Sung Kim
An immunoassay is the most widely used method for analyzing a variety of analytes based on antigen-antibody interactions in the biological and medical sciences. However, the use of secondary antibodies has certain shortcomings, such as a high cost, cross-reactivity, and loss of binding affinity during labeling. Herein, we present the development of repebodies specifically binding to immunoglobulin G with a different origin, which is a small-sized nonantibody scaffold composed of leucine-rich repeat (LRR) modules, for use in immunoassays and imaging...
December 6, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798548/growth-at-two-years-of-age-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-children-in-the-us-by-trimester-of-maternal-antiretroviral-initiation
#12
Denise L Jacobson, Kunjal Patel, Paige L Williams, Mitchell E Geffner, George K Siberry, Linda A Dimeglio, Marilyn J Crain, Ayesha Mirza, Janet S Chen, Elizabeth McFarland, Deborah Kacanek, Margarita Silio, Kenneth Rich, William Borkowsky, Russell B Van Dyke, Tracie L Miller
BACKGROUND: Abnormal childhood growth may affect future health. Maternal tenofovir (TFV) use was associated with lower body length and head circumference at one year of age in HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) US children. METHODS: We studied 509 HEU children in the US-based Surveillance Monitoring of ART Toxicities cohort whose HIV-infected mothers were not using antiretrovirals at the last menstrual period and began combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in pregnancy (cART-initiators)...
October 27, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789837/direct-frequency-comb-measurement-of-od-co-%C3%A2-doco-kinetics
#13
B J Bjork, T Q Bui, O H Heckl, P B Changala, B Spaun, P Heu, D Follman, C Deutsch, G D Cole, M Aspelmeyer, M Okumura, J Ye
The kinetics of the hydroxyl radical (OH) + carbon monoxide (CO) reaction, which is fundamental to both atmospheric and combustion chemistry, are complex because of the formation of the hydrocarboxyl radical (HOCO) intermediate. Despite extensive studies of this reaction, HOCO has not been observed under thermal reaction conditions. Exploiting the sensitive, broadband, and high-resolution capabilities of time-resolved cavity-enhanced direct frequency comb spectroscopy, we observed deuteroxyl radical (OD) + CO reaction kinetics and detected stabilized trans-DOCO, the deuterated analog of trans-HOCO...
October 28, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781102/cytomegalovirus-and-paediatric-hiv-infection
#14
EDITORIAL
Jennifer A Slyker
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) was among the most common AIDS-defining illnesses prior to the advent of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART). In the ART era, CMV disease remains a significant public health threat among HIV-infected adults and children with delayed HIV diagnosis. CMV co-infection may additionally contribute to accelerated HIV progression, development of inflammation-related comorbidities, immune senescence and developmental deficits. Elimination of CMV would have tremendous public health significance and is an important priority; however, current vaccine strategies are not targeted at HIV-infected individuals...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756308/malaria-burden-in-a-birth-cohort-of-hiv-exposed-uninfected-ugandan-infants-living-in-a-high-malaria-transmission-setting
#15
Abel Kakuru, Paul Natureeba, Mary K Muhindo, Tamara D Clark, Diane V Havlir, Deborah Cohan, Grant Dorsey, Moses R Kamya, Theodore Ruel
BACKGROUND: HIV-exposed, uninfected (HEU) infants suffer high morbidity and mortality in the first year of life compared to HIV-unexposed, uninfected (HUU) infants, but accurate data on the contribution of malaria are limited. METHODS: The incidence of febrile illnesses and malaria were evaluated in a birth cohort of HEU infants. Infants were prescribed daily trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TS) prophylaxis from 6 weeks of age until exclusion of HIV-infection after cessation of breastfeeding...
October 18, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755111/tenofovir-exposure-in-utero-and-linear-growth-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants-a-prospective-study
#16
Stanzi M le Roux, Jennifer Jao, Kirsty Brittain, Tamsin K Phillips, Seun Olatunbosun, Agnes Ronan, Allison Zerbe, Elaine J Abrams, Landon Myer
OBJECTIVE: Tenofovir (TDF) affects bone health and is widely used in pregnancy but data are limited on the effects of TDF exposure in utero. We examined the association between duration of in utero TDF exposure and linear growth in HIV-exposed, uninfected (HEU) infants. DESIGN: A prospective cohort of pregnant women initiating TDF-containing regimens at primary care services in Cape Town, South Africa were enrolled and followed with their breastfeeding infants through 12 months postpartum...
October 14, 2016: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741954/disclosing-in-utero-hiv-arv-exposure-to-the-hiv-exposed-uninfected-adolescent-is-it-necessary
#17
Jennifer Jao, Rohan Hazra, Claude A Mellins, Robert H Remien, Elaine J Abrams
INTRODUCTION: The tremendous success of antiretroviral therapy has resulted in a diminishing population of perinatally HIV-infected children on the one hand and a mounting number of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children on the other. As the oldest of these HEU children are reaching adolescence, questions have emerged surrounding the implications of HEU status disclosure to these adolescents. This article outlines the arguments for and against disclosure of a child's HEU status. DISCUSSION: Disclosure of a child's HEU status, by definition, requires disclosure of maternal HIV status...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736654/a-novel-monolithic-leu-foil-target-based-on-a-pvd-manufacturing-process-for-99-mo-production-via-fission
#18
Tobias Hollmer, Winfried Petry
(99)Mo is the most widely used radioactive isotope in nuclear medicine. Its main production route is the fission of uranium. A major challenge for a reliable supply is the conversion from highly enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU). A promising candidate to realize this conversion is the cylindrical LEU irradiation target. The target consists of a uranium foil encapsulated between two coaxial aluminum cladding cylinders. This target allows a separate processing of the irradiated uranium foil and the cladding when recovering the (99)Mo...
December 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733852/the-immune-system-of-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants
#19
Bahaa Abu-Raya, Tobias R Kollmann, Arnaud Marchant, Duncan M MacGillivray
Infants born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected women are HIV-exposed but the majority remains uninfected [i.e., HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU)]. HEU infants suffer greater morbidity and mortality from infections compared to HIV-unexposed (HU) peers. The reason(s) for these worse outcomes are uncertain, but could be related to an altered immune system state. This review comprehensively summarizes the current literature investigating the adaptive and innate immune system of HEU infants. HEU infants have altered cell-mediated immunity, including impaired T-cell maturation with documented hypo- as well as hyper-responsiveness to T-cell activation...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716731/health-and-survival-of-hiv-perinatally-exposed-but-uninfected-children-born-to-hiv-infected-mothers
#20
Sophie Desmonde, Tessa Goetghebuer, Claire Thorne, Valériane Leroy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The number of HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) infants exposed to both HIV and multiple antiretroviral drugs in utero and during prolonged breastfeeding is increasing in low-income countries where HIV prevalence is the highest. We review recent evidence on the effects of perinatal/postnatal exposure to maternal HIV and combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) on health outcomes of HEU children (mitochondrial and metabolic toxicity, adverse pregnancy outcomes, neurodevelopment, growth, infectious morbidity, and mortality)...
September 2016: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
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