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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422809/associations-between-dietary-intake-prior-to-6-months-of-age-and-rapid-weight-gain-among-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants
#1
Daniela Neri, Fernanda C Oliveira, Aline M Carvalho, Gabriel A Somarriba, Gwendolyn B Scott, Tracie L Miller
INTRODUCTION: HIV-exposed, uninfected (HEU) infants are potentially at risk for cardiovascular disease due to in utero exposures. Feeding practices of the infant could compound this risk. However, few studies have evaluated dietary intake of HEU infants. We determined dietary factors associated with rapid weight gain (RWG) among HEU infants from birth to 6 months followed at the University of Miami HIV Screening Program. METHODS: In this cross-sectional analysis, logistic regression was used to determine dietary factors associated with RWG defined as a greater than 0...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409265/genomic-characterization-of-bacteriophage-vb_pcap_pp2-infecting-pectobacterium-carotovorum-subsp-carotovorum-a-new-member-of-a-proposed-genus-in-the-subfamily-autographivirinae
#2
Jeong-A Lim, Sunggi Heu, Jinwoo Park, Eunjung Roh
Bacteriophage vB_PcaP_PP2 (PP2) is a novel virulent phage that infects the plant-pathogenic bacterium Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. PP2 phage has a 41,841-bp double-stranded DNA encoding 47 proteins, and it was identified as a member of the family Podoviridae by transmission electron microscopy. Nineteen of its open reading frames (ORFs) show homology to functional proteins, and 28 ORFs have been characterized as hypothetical proteins. PP2 phage is homologous to Cronobacter phage vB_CskP_GAP227 and Dev-CD-23823...
April 13, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396584/a-high-glucose-diet-affects-achilles-tendon-healing-in-rats
#3
Stefanie Korntner, Nadja Kunkel, Christine Lehner, Renate Gehwolf, Andrea Wagner, Peter Augat, Daniel Stephan, Verena Heu, Hans-Christian Bauer, Andreas Traweger, Herbert Tempfer
Chronic and acute tendinopathies are difficult to treat and tendon healing is generally a very slow and incomplete process and our general understanding of tendon biology and regeneration lags behind that of muscle or bone. Although still largely unexplored, several studies suggest a positive effect of nutritional interventions on tendon health and repair. With this study, we aim to reveal effects of a high-glucose diet on tendon neoformation in a non-diabetic rat model of Achilles tenotomy. After surgery animals received either a high-glucose diet or a control diet for 2 and 4 weeks, respectively...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395844/effect-of-co-trimoxazole-on-mortality-in-hiv-exposed-but-uninfected-children-in-botswana-the-mpepu-study-a-double-blind-randomised-placebo-controlled-trial
#4
Shahin Lockman, Michael Hughes, Kate Powis, Gbolahan Ajibola, Kara Bennett, Sikhulile Moyo, Erik van Widenfelt, Jean Leidner, Kenneth McIntosh, Loeto Mazhani, Joseph Makhema, Max Essex, Roger Shapiro
BACKGROUND: Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis reduces mortality among HIV-infected children, but efficacy in HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) children in a non-malarial, low-breastfeeding setting with a low risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV is unclear. METHODS: HEU children in Botswana were randomly assigned to receive co-trimoxazole (100 mg/20 mg once daily until age 6 months and 200 mg/40 mg once daily thereafter) or placebo from age 14-34 days to age 15 months...
May 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381539/transient-tissue-priming-via-rock-inhibition-uncouples-pancreatic-cancer-progression-sensitivity-to-chemotherapy-and-metastasis
#5
Claire Vennin, Venessa T Chin, Sean C Warren, Morghan C Lucas, David Herrmann, Astrid Magenau, Pauline Melenec, Stacey N Walters, Gonzalo Del Monte-Nieto, James R W Conway, Max Nobis, Amr H Allam, Rachael A McCloy, Nicola Currey, Mark Pinese, Alice Boulghourjian, Anaiis Zaratzian, Arne A S Adam, Celine Heu, Adnan M Nagrial, Angela Chou, Angela Steinmann, Alison Drury, Danielle Froio, Marc Giry-Laterriere, Nathanial L E Harris, Tri Phan, Rohit Jain, Wolfgang Weninger, Ewan J McGhee, Renee Whan, Amber L Johns, Jaswinder S Samra, Lorraine Chantrill, Anthony J Gill, Maija Kohonen-Corish, Richard P Harvey, Andrew V Biankin, T R Jeffry Evans, Kurt I Anderson, Shane T Grey, Christopher J Ormandy, David Gallego-Ortega, Yingxiao Wang, Michael S Samuel, Owen J Sansom, Andrew Burgess, Thomas R Cox, Jennifer P Morton, Marina Pajic, Paul Timpson
The emerging standard of care for patients with inoperable pancreatic cancer is a combination of cytotoxic drugs gemcitabine and Abraxane, but patient response remains moderate. Pancreatic cancer development and metastasis occur in complex settings, with reciprocal feedback from microenvironmental cues influencing both disease progression and drug response. Little is known about how sequential dual targeting of tumor tissue tension and vasculature before chemotherapy can affect tumor response. We used intravital imaging to assess how transient manipulation of the tumor tissue, or "priming," using the pharmaceutical Rho kinase inhibitor Fasudil affects response to chemotherapy...
April 5, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337206/cases-of-impaired-oxidative-burst-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants-neutrophils-a-pilot-study
#6
Anicet Christel Maloupazoa Siawaya, Amandine Mveang-Nzoghe, Ofilia Mvoundza Ndjindji, Armel Mintsa Ndong, Paulin N Essone, Joel Fleury Djoba Siawaya
An increased risk of serious bacterial infections in HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants has been demonstrated. Although neutrophils are essential for the protection of infants against bacterial infections, no study has investigated their profile in HEU infants to date. In this study, we assessed the function of neutrophils in HEU infants using the nitroblue tetrazolium reduction test. Among 25 HEU infants, 9 (36%) showed a reduced ability of their neutrophils to produce reactive oxygen species upon stimulation with bacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302082/growth-of-hiv-exposed-uninfected-compared-with-hiv-unexposed-zambian-children-a-longitudinal-analysis-from-infancy-to-school-age
#7
Anna Rosala-Hallas, Jonathan W Bartlett, Suzanne Filteau
BACKGROUND: Early growth of HIV-exposed, uninfected (HEU) children is poorer than that of their HIV-unexposed, uninfected (HUU) counterparts but there is little longitudinal or longer term information about the growth effects of early HIV exposure. METHODS: We performed a longitudinal analysis to compare growth of HEU and HUU infants and children using data from two cohort studies in Lusaka, Zambia. Initially 207 HUU and 200 HEU infants from the Breastfeeding and Postpartum Health (BFPH) study and 580 HUU and 165 HEU from the Chilenje Infant Growth, Nutrition and Infection Study (CIGNIS) had anthropometric measurements taken during infancy and again when school-aged, at which time 66 BFPH children and 326 CIGNIS children were available...
March 16, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279683/long-term-pulmonary-complications-in-perinatally-hiv-infected-youth
#8
William T Shearer, Denise L Jacobson, Wendy Yu, George K Siberry, Murli Purswani, Suzanne Siminski, Laurie Butler, Erin Leister, Gwendolyn Scott, Russell B Van Dyke, Ram Yogev, Mary E Paul, Ana Puga, Andrew A Colin, Meyer Kattan
BACKGROUND: Increased incidence and prevalence of asthma have been documented for perinatally HIV-infected (HIV) youth 10-21 years of age (youth) compared to HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) youth. OBJECTIVE: To perform objective pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in HIV and HEU youth with and without diagnosed asthma. METHOD: Asthma was determined in 370 participants (218 HIV, 152 HEU) by chart review and self-report at 13 sites. Interpretable PFTs (188 HIV, 132 HEU) were classified as obstructive, restrictive, or normal and reversibility was determined after bronchodilator inhalation...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279682/lymphocyte-subsets-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants-and-hiv-unexposed-uninfected-infants
#9
Yanling Huo, Kunjal Patel, Gwendolyn B Scott, Russell B Van Dyke, George K Siberry, Sandra K Burchett, William T Shearer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 6, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278563/development-assessment-of-hiv-exposed-children-aged-6-18-months-a-cohort-study-from-north-india
#10
Remya Rajan, Anju Seth, Sharmila B Mukherjee, Jagdish Chandra
HIV exposed children are vulnerable to developmental delay irrespective of their HIV status due to combined effect of risk factors like poverty, prenatal drug exposure, stress and chronic illness in family and malnutrition. This cohort study assessed the development of 50 HIV exposed children aged 6-18 months at a Pediatric Centre of Excellence in HIV care in India. The development was assessed using Development Assessment Scale for Indian Infants (DASII) at enrolment, 3 and 6 months later. The development quotient (DQ) scores and proportion of children with developmental delay (DQ ≤ 70) were compared among two sub-groups, HIV infected (HI) and HIV exposed uninfected (HEU) children...
March 5, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272523/controlling-self-assembly-of-diphenylalanine-peptides-at-high-ph-using-heterocyclic-capping-groups
#11
Adam D Martin, Jonathan P Wojciechowski, Andrew B Robinson, Celine Heu, Christopher J Garvey, Julian Ratcliffe, Lynne J Waddington, James Gardiner, Pall Thordarson
Using small angle neutron scattering (SANS), it is shown that the existence of pre-assembled structures at high pH for a capped diphenylalanine hydrogel is controlled by the selection of N-terminal heterocyclic capping group, namely indole or carbazole. At high pH, changing from a somewhat hydrophilic indole capping group to a more hydrophobic carbazole capping group results in a shift from a high proportion of monomers to self-assembled fibers or wormlike micelles. The presence of these different self-assembled structures at high pH is confirmed through NMR and circular dichroism spectroscopy, scanning probe microscopy and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy...
March 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198792/child-growth-according-to-maternal-and-child-hiv-status-in-zimbabwe
#12
Adetayo O Omoni, Robert Ntozini, Ceri Evans, Andrew J Prendergast, Lawrence H Moulton, Parul S Christian, Jean H Humphrey
BACKGROUND: Growth failure is common among HIV-infected infants, but there are limited data on the effects of HIV exposure or timing of HIV acquisition on growth. METHODS: 14110 infants were enrolled in the ZVITAMBO trial in Zimbabwe before the availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) or co-trimoxazole. Anthropometric measurements were taken from birth through 12-24 months of age. Growth outcomes were compared between 5 groups of children: HIV-infected in utero (IU), intrapartum (IP) or postnatally (PN); HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU); and HIV-unexposed...
February 13, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193553/an-investigation-of-reactivity-effect-due-to-inadvertent-filling-of-the-irradiation-channels-with-water-in-nirr-1-nigeria-research-reactor-1
#13
U Iliyasu, Y V Ibrahim, Sadiq Umar, S A Agbo, Y Jibrin
Investigation of reactivity variation due to flooding of the irradiation channels of Nigeria Research Reactor (NIRR-1) a low power miniature neutron source reactor (MNSR) located at the Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria Nigeria using the MCNP code for High Enrich Uranium (HEU) and Low Enrich Uranium (LEU) core has been simulated in this present study. In this work, the excess reactivity worth of flooding HEU core for 1 inner, 2 inner, 3 inner, 4 inner and all inner are 0...
February 9, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081048/a-prospective-cohort-study-of-common-childhood-infections-in-south-african-hiv-exposed-uninfected-and-hiv-unexposed-infants
#14
Amy L Slogrove, Monika M Esser, Mark F Cotton, David P Speert, Tobias R Kollmann, Joel Singer, Julie A Bettinger
BACKGROUND: Much evidence of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infant infectious morbidity predates availability of maternal combination antiretroviral therapy and does not control for universal risk factors (preterm birth, low birth weight, suboptimal breastfeeding and poverty). METHODS: This prospective cohort study identified HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers and their newborns from South African community midwife unit. The primary outcome, infectious cause hospitalization or death before 6 months of age, was compared between HEU and HIV-unexposed (HU) infants and classified for type and severity using validated study-specific case definitions...
February 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079828/vaccination-with-10-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-infants-according-to-hiv-status
#15
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Shabir A Madhi, Anthonet Koen, Lisa Jose, Nadia van Niekerk, Peter V Adrian, Clare Cutland, Nancy François, Javier Ruiz-Guiñazú, Juan-Pablo Yarzabal, Marta Moreira, Dorota Borys, Lode Schuerman
BACKGROUND: Phase III, open-label, single-center, controlled study in South Africa (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00829010) to evaluate immunogenicity, reactogenicity, and safety of the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected (HIV+), HIV-exposed-uninfected (HEU), and HIV-unexposed-uninfected (HUU) children. METHODS: Children stratified by HIV status received PHiD-CV primary vaccination (age 6/10/14 weeks; coadministered with routine childhood vaccines) and booster dose (age 9-10 months)...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011912/cytomegalovirus-acquisition-and-inflammation-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-exposed-uninfected-zimbabwean-infants
#16
Ceri Evans, Bernard Chasekwa, Sandra Rukobo, Margaret Govha, Kuda Mutasa, Robert Ntozini, Jean H Humphrey, Andrew J Prendergast
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) acquisition and inflammation were evaluated in 231 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed uninfected (HEU) and 100 HIV-unexposed Zimbabwean infants aged 6 weeks. The HEU and HIV-unexposed infants had a similarly high prevalence of CMV (81.4% vs 74.0%, respectively; P = .14), but HEU infants had higher CMV loads (P = .005) and >2-fold higher C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations (P < .0001). The CMV-positive HEU infants had higher CRP than the CMV-negative HEU infants; this association disappeared after adjusting for maternal HIV load...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999576/optimizing-research-methods-to-understand-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infant-and-child-morbidity-report-of-the-second-heu-infant-and-child-workshop
#17
Amy L Slogrove, Moherndran Archary, Mark F Cotton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915254/ompf-of-pectobacterium-carotovorum-subsp-carotovorum-pcc3-is-required-for-carocin-d-sensitivity
#18
Jeong-A Lim, Jisoo Hong, Jonguk Kim, Sunggi Heu, Eunjung Roh
Carocin D is a bacteriocin produced by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum Pcc21. Carocin D inhibits the growth of P carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and closely related strains. Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum is a causative bacterium for soft rot disease and leads to severe economic losses. Bacteriocins recognize and interact with a specific membrane protein of target bacteria as a receptor. To identify the receptor responsible for carocin D recognition, mutants that underwent a phenotypic change from carocin D sensitivity to carocin D insensitivity were screened...
December 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904465/simultaneous-detection-of-three-bacterial-seed-borne-diseases-in-rice-using-multiplex-polymerase-chain-reaction
#19
In Jeong Kang, Mi-Hyung Kang, Tae-Hwan Noh, Hyeong Kwon Shim, Dong Bum Shin, Suggi Heu
Burkholderia glumae (bacterial grain rot), Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (bacterial leaf blight), and Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (bacterial brown stripe) are major seedborne pathogens of rice. Based on the 16S and 23S rDNA sequences for A. avenae subsp. avenae and B. glumae, and transposase A gene sequence for X. oryzae pv. oryzae, three sets of primers had been designed to produce 402 bp for B. glumae, 490 bp for X. oryzae, and 290 bp for A. avenae subsp. avenae with the 63°C as an optimum annealing temperature...
December 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899925/increased-risk-of-group-b-streptococcus-invasive-infection-in-hiv-exposed-but-uninfected-infants-a-review-of-the-evidence-and-possible-mechanisms
#20
REVIEW
Nicolas Dauby, Mustapha Chamekh, Pierrette Melin, Amy L Slogrove, Tessa Goetghebuer
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a major cause of neonatal sepsis and mortality worldwide. Studies from both developed and developing countries have shown that HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) infants are at increased risk of infectious morbidity, as compared to HIV-unexposed uninfected infants (HUU). A higher susceptibility to GBS infections has been reported in HEU infants, particularly late-onset diseases and more severe manifestations of GBS diseases. We review here the possible explanations for increased susceptibility to GBS infection...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
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