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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140938/immunity-following-childhood-vaccinations-in-perinatally-hiv-exposed-children-with-and-without-hiv-infection-in-latin-america
#1
Regina Cm Succi, Margot R Krauss, D Robert Harris, Daisy M Machado, Maria I de Moraes-Pinto, Marisa M Mussi-Pinhata, Noris Pavia Ruz, Russell B Pierre, Lenka A Kolevic Roca, Esaú Joao, Irene Foradori, Marcelo C Scotta, Rohan Hazra, George K Siberry
BACKGROUND: Perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) children are at risk for undervaccination and poor vaccine response at four years of age. Childhood vaccine coverage and immune response were compared between PHIV and HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children in Latin America and the Caribbean. METHODS: PHIV and HEU children were enrolled prospectively at fifteen sites from 2002-2009. Full vaccination by age four years was defined as: three hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine doses; four tetanus toxoid-containing vaccine doses; three doses of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine by age 12 months or ≥1 dose given after age 12 months; one measles-containing vaccine dose; one rubella-containing vaccine dose...
November 14, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131457/neurodevelopmental-outcome-of-hiv-exposed-but-uninfected-infants-in-the-mother-and-infants-health-study-cape-town-south-africa
#2
Priscilla E Springer, Amy L Slogrove, Barbara Laughton, Julie A Bettinger, Henriëtte H Saunders, Christopher D Molteno, Mariana Kruger
OBJECTIVES: To compare neurodevelopmental outcomes of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) and HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) infants in a peri-urban South African population. HEU infants living in Africa face unique biological and environmental risks but uncertainty remains regarding their neurodevelopmen-tal outcome. This is partly due to lack of well-matched HUU comparison groups needed to adjust for confounding factors. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study of infants enrolled at birth from a low- risk midwife obstetric facility...
November 13, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112069/neuropsychological-performance-in-african-children-with-hiv-enrolled-in-a-multi-site-anti-retroviral-clinical-trial
#3
Michael J Boivin, Linda Barlow-Mosha, Miriam Chernoff, Barbara Laughton, Bonnie Zimmer, Celeste Joyce, Mutsa Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Mmule Ratswana, Nasreen Abrahams, Lee Fairlie, Hermien Gous, Portia Kamthunzi, Katie McCarthy, Itziar Familiar-Lopez, Patrick Jean-Phillippe, Joan Coetzee, Avy Violari, Mark Cotton, Paul Palumbo
OBJECTIVE & DESIGN: Children with HIV infection (HIV+) are at neuropsychological risk, but few studies have evaluated this at multiple sites in low and middle income countries (LMICs). We compared neuropsychological outcomes at enrollment (>5 yrs age) among HIV+, HIV-uninfected perinatally-exposed (HEU), and HIV unexposed (HU) children from 4 sub-Saharan countries. METHODS: IMPAACT P1060 compared Nevirapine (NVP) versus Lopinavir/Ritonavir (LPVr)-based ART in HIV-infected children 6 to 35 months of age...
November 2, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093302/effectiveness-of-a-self-monitoring-device-for-urinary-sodium-to-potassium-ratio-on-dietary-improvement-in-free-living-adults-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Toshiyuki Iwahori, Hirotsugu Ueshima, Naoto Ohgami, Hideyuki Yamashita, Naoko Miyagawa, Keiko Kondo, Sayuki Torii, Katsushi Yoshita, Toshikazu Shiga, Takayoshi Ohkubo, Hisatomi Arima, Katsuyuki Miura
BACKGROUND: Reducing the urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio is important for reducing both blood pressure and risk of cardiovascular disease. Among free-living Japanese individuals, we carried out a randomized trial to clarify the effect of lifestyle modification for lowering urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio using a self-monitoring device. METHODS: This was an open, prospective, parallel randomized, controlled trial. Ninety-two individuals were recruited from Japanese volunteers...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066544/maternal-but-not-infant-anti-hiv-1-neutralizing-antibody-response-associates-with-enhanced-transmission-and-infant-morbidity
#5
Melissa Ghulam-Smith, Alex Olson, Laura F White, Charles S Chasela, Sascha R Ellington, Athena P Kourtis, Denise J Jamieson, Gerald Tegha, Charles M van der Horst, Manish Sagar
A significant number of infants acquire HIV-1 through their infected mother's breast milk, primarily due to limited access to antiretrovirals. Passive immunization with neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) may prevent this transmission. Previous studies, however, have generated conflicting results about the ability of nAbs to halt mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) and their impact on infant outcomes. This study compared plasma neutralizing activity in exposed infants and the infected mothers (n = 63) against heterologous HIV-1 variants and the quasispecies present in the mother...
October 24, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062860/in-utero-art-exposure-and-birth-and-early-growth-outcomes-among-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants-attending-immunization-services-results-from-national-pmtct-surveillance-south-africa
#6
Vundli Ramokolo, Ameena E Goga, Carl Lombard, Tanya Doherty, Debra J Jackson, Ingunn Ms Engebretsen
BACKGROUND: Despite the recognized benefit of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for preventing and treating HIV, some studies have reported adverse birth outcomes with in utero ART exposure. We evaluated the effect of infant in utero HIV and ART exposure on preterm delivery (PTD), low birth weight (LBW), small for gestational age (SGA), and underweight for age (UFA) at 6 weeks. METHODS: We surveyed 6179 HIV-unexposed-uninfected (HUU) and 2599 HIV-exposed-uninfected (HEU) infants...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056742/fluorescent-protein-expressing-rickettsia-buchneri-and-rickettsia-peacockii-for-tracking-symbiont-tick-cell-interactions
#7
Timothy J Kurtti, Nicole Y Burkhardt, Chan C Heu, Ulrike G Munderloh
Rickettsiae of indeterminate pathogenicity are widely associated with ticks. The presence of these endosymbionts can confound a One Health approach to combatting tick-borne diseases. Genomic analyses of symbiotic rickettsiae have revealed that they harbor mutations in gene coding for proteins involved in rickettsial pathogenicity and motility. We have isolated and characterized two rickettsial symbionts-Rickettsia peacockii and R. buchneri-both from ticks using tick cell cultures. To better track these enigmatic rickettsiae in ticks and at the tick-mammal interface we transformed the rickettsiae to express fluorescent proteins using shuttle vectors based on rickettsial plasmids or a transposition system driving insertional mutagenesis...
November 17, 2016: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033797/white-matter-abnormalities-in-children-with-hiv-infection-and-exposure
#8
Marcin Jankiewicz, Martha J Holmes, Paul A Taylor, Mark F Cotton, Barbara Laughton, André J W van der Kouwe, Ernesta M Meintjes
Background: Due to changes in guidelines and access to treatment, more children start combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in infancy. With few studies examining the long-term effects of perinatal HIV infection and early ART on neurodevelopment, much is still unknown about brain maturation in the presence of HIV and ART. Follow-up studies of HIV infected (HIV+) children are important for monitoring brain development in the presence of HIV infection and ART. Methods: We use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to examine white matter (WM) in 65 HIV+ and 46 control (HIV exposed uninfected (HEU) and HIV unexposed uninfected (HU)) 7-year-old children...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960594/birthweight-hiv-exposure-and-infant-feeding-as-predictors-of-malnutrition-in-botswanan-infants
#9
P Chalashika, C Essex, D Mellor, J A Swift, S Langley-Evans
BACKGROUND: A better understanding of the nutritional status of infants who are HIV-Exposed-Uninfected (HEU) and HIV-Unexposed-Uninfected (HUU) during their first 1000 days is key to improving population health, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: A cross-sectional study compared the nutritional status, feeding practices and determinants of nutritional status of HEU and HUU infants residing in representative selected districts in Botswana during their first 1000 days of life...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934432/intestinal-damage-and-inflammatory-biomarkers-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-exposed-and-hiv-infected-zimbabwean-infants
#10
Andrew J Prendergast, Bernard Chasekwa, Sandra Rukobo, Margaret Govha, Kuda Mutasa, Robert Ntozini, Jean H Humphrey
Background: Disease progression is rapid in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected infants. Whether intestinal damage and inflammation underlie mortality is unknown. Methods: We measured plasma intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP), soluble CD14 (sCD14), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein (CRP) at 6 weeks and 6 months of age in 272 HIV-infected infants who either died (cases) or survived (controls), and in 194 HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) and 197 HIV-unexposed infants...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932223/editorial-immune-mechanisms-underlying-the-increased-morbidity-and-mortality-of-hiv-exposed-uninfected-heu-children
#11
EDITORIAL
Tessa Goetghebuer, Sarah L Rowland-Jones, Tobias R Kollmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926411/lower-mitochondrial-dna-and-altered-mitochondrial-fuel-metabolism-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants-in-cameroon
#12
Jennifer Jao, Kathleen M Powis, Brian Kirmse, Chunli Yu, Fanny Epie, Emmanuel Nshom, Elaine J Abrams, Rhoda S Sperling, Derek Leroith, Mitchell E Geffner, Irwin J Kurland, Hélène C F Côté
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate blood mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content in HIV/antiretroviral-exposed uninfected (HEU) vs. HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) infants and investigate differences in mitochondrial-related metabolites by exposure group. DESIGN: We enrolled a prospective cohort of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected pregnant woman/infant pairs in Cameroon. METHODS: Dried blood spot mtDNA : nuclear DNA ratio was measured by monochrome multiplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction in HEU infants exposed to in-utero antiretrovirals and postnatal zidovudine (HEU-Z) or nevirapine (HEU-N), and in HUU infants at 6 weeks of life...
November 28, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926409/effects-of-concurrent-exposure-to-antiretrovirals-and-cotrimoxazole-prophylaxis-among-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants
#13
Alexander C Ewing, Caroline C King, Jeffrey B Wiener, Charles S Chasela, Michael G Hudgens, Debbie Kamwendo, Gerald Tegha, Mina C Hosseinipour, Denise J Jamieson, Charles Van der Horst, Athena P Kourtis
BACKGROUND: Given the potential of cotrimoxazole preventive therapy (CPT) to prevent bacterial and malarial infections in HIV-exposed, uninfected (HEU) infants, it is important to evaluate the effects of its concurrent use with antiretroviral agents that have overlapping toxicity profiles. METHODS: We used data from the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition study (2004-2010) to evaluate the association of CPT and antiretrovirals with hematologic measures (hemoglobin, neutrophil, and alanine aminotransferase levels) from 6 to 48 weeks of age in 2006 HEU infants in Lilongwe, Malawi...
November 28, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916107/genetically-functionalized-ferritin-nanoparticles-with-a-high-affinity-protein-binder-for-immunoassay-and-imaging
#14
Jong-Won Kim, Woosung Heu, Sukyo Jeong, Hak-Sung Kim
Molecular detection of target molecules with high sensitivity and specificity is of great significance in bio and medical sciences. Here, we present genetically functionalized ferritin nanoparticles with a high-affinity protein binder, and their utility as a signal generator in a variety of immunoassays and imaging. As a high-affinity protein binder, human IgG-specific repebody, which is composed of LRR (Leucine-rich repeat) modules, was used. The repebody was genetically fused to the N-terminal heavy-chain ferritin, and the resulting subunits were self-assembled to the repebody-ferritin nanoparticles composed of 24 subunits...
October 2, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912368/neurodevelopment-of-hiv-exposed-and-hiv-unexposed-uninfected-children-at-24-months
#15
Sumona Chaudhury, Paige L Williams, Gloria K Mayondi, Jean Leidner, Penny Holding, Vicki Tepper, Sharon Nichols, Jane Magetse, Maureen Sakoi, Kebaiphe Moabi, Joseph Makhema, Charlotte Mdluli, Haruna Jibril, George R Seage, Betsy Kammerer, Shahin Lockman
BACKGROUND: We sought to determine if HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children had worse neurodevelopmental outcomes at 24 months compared with HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) children in Botswana. METHODS: HIV-infected and uninfected mothers enrolled in a prospective observational study ("Tshipidi") in Botswana from May 2010 to July 2012. Child neurodevelopment was assessed at 24 months with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III: cognitive, gross motor, fine motor, expressive language, and receptive language domains) and the Development Milestones Checklist (DMC), a caregiver-completed questionnaire (locomotor, fine motor, language and personal-social domains)...
October 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857649/immune-responses-to-oral-poliovirus-vaccine-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-zimbabwean-infants
#16
James A Church, Sandra Rukobo, Margaret Govha, Marya P Carmolli, Sean A Diehl, Bernard Chasekwa, Robert Ntozini, Kuda Mutasa, Jean H Humphrey, Beth D Kirkpatrick, Andrew J Prendergast
It remains uncertain whether HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants have impaired responses to oral vaccines. We performed a cross-sectional study of 6-month-old infants recruited at birth to the ZVITAMBO trial in Zimbabwe between 1997-2001, before introduction of prevention of mother-to-child transmission interventions. We measured poliovirus-specific IgA to type 1-3 polio strains by semi-quantitative capture ELISA in cryopreserved serum samples collected from 85 HEU and 101 HIV-unexposed infants at 6 months of age, one month after their last immunisation with trivalent OPV...
August 31, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801550/active-neutron-and-gamma-ray-imaging-of-highly-enriched-uranium-for-treaty-verification
#17
Michael C Hamel, J Kyle Polack, Marc L Ruch, Matthew J Marcath, Shaun D Clarke, Sara A Pozzi
The detection and characterization of highly enriched uranium (HEU) presents a large challenge in the non-proliferation field. HEU has a low neutron emission rate and most gamma rays are low energy and easily shielded. To address this challenge, an instrument known as the dual-particle imager (DPI) was used with a portable deuterium-tritium (DT) neutron generator to detect neutrons and gamma rays from induced fission in HEU. We evaluated system response using a 13.7-kg HEU sphere in several configurations with no moderation, high-density polyethylene (HDPE) moderation, and tungsten moderation...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795230/improved-multiplex-pcr-primers-for-rapid-identification-of-coagulase-negative-staphylococci
#18
Jonguk Kim, Jisoo Hong, Jeong-A Lim, Sunggi Heu, Eunjung Roh
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are opportunistic pathogens that are currently emerging as causative agents of human disease. Though CNS are widespread in the clinic and food, their precise identification at species level is important. Here, using 16S rRNA sequencing, 55 staphylococcal isolates were identified as S. capitis, S. caprae, S. epidermidis, S. haemolyticus, S. pasteuri, S. saprophyticus, S. warneri, and S. xylosus. Although 16S rRNA sequencing is universally accepted as a standard for bacterial identification, the method did not effectively discriminate closely related species, and additional DNA sequencing was required...
August 9, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746260/perinatal-hiv-infection-and-exposure-and-their-association-with-dental-caries-in-nigerian-children
#19
Modupe Coker, Samer El-Kamary, Cyril Enwonwu, William Blattner, Patricia Langenberg, Emmanuel Mongodin, Paul Akhigbe, Ozo Obuekwe, Austin Omoigberale, Manhattan Charurat
BACKGROUND: Although HIV infection is associated with well-known oral pathologies, there remains a dearth of comparative studies aimed at determining the association between HIV infection/exposure and early childhood caries. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study using a convenience sample of 3 groups of children receiving care at a tertiary care hospital in Nigeria. The groups include HIV infected (HI); HIV exposed but uninfected (HEU); and HIV unexposed and uninfected (HUU) children aged 6 through 72 months...
July 19, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707345/the-cascade-of-care-to-prevent-mother-to-child-transmission-in-rio-de-janeiro-brazil-1996-2013-improving-but-still-some-way-to-go
#20
Cristina Barroso Hofer, Matthias Egger, Mary-Ann Davies, Ana Cristina Cisne Frota, Ricardo Hugo de Oliveira, Thalita Fernandes Abreu, Lúcia Evangelista Araújo, Bernardo Bastos Witthlin, Alice Weber Carvalho, Janaína Rivas Cordeiro, Giulia Pasqualini Lima, Olivia Keiser
OBJECTIVE: To describe the cascade of care to HIV mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) in a Rio de Janeiro reference paediatric clinic and evaluate the main factors possibly associated with HIV transmission. METHODS: Data on antenatal care (ANC), perinatal and neonatal assistance to HIV-infected and HIV-exposed but uninfected children assisted in the clinic from 1996 to 2013 were collected. The cascade of care was graphically demonstrated, and possible factors associated with HIV infection were described using regression models for bivariate and multivariate analysis...
October 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
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