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Neonatal HIV

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097445/pregnancy-outcomes-in-hiv-positive-women-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#1
Kholoud Arab, Andrea R Spence, Nicholas Czuzoj-Shulman, Haim A Abenhaim
PURPOSE: In the United States, an estimated 8500 HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) positive women gave birth in 2014. This rate appears to be increasing annually. Our objective is to examine obstetrical outcomes of pregnancy among HIV-positive women. METHODS: A population-based cohort study was conducted using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database (2003-2011) from the United States. Pregnant HIV-positive women were identified and compared to pregnant women without HIV...
January 17, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029221/the-antepartum-stillbirth-syndrome-risk-factors-and-pregnancy-conditions-identified-from-the-intergrowth-21-st-project
#2
J E Hirst, J Villar, C G Victora, A T Papageorghiou, D Finkton, F C Barros, M G Gravett, F Giuliani, M Purwar, I O Frederick, R Pang, L Cheikh Ismail, A Lambert, W Stones, Y A Jaffer, D G Altman, J A Noble, E O Ohuma, S H Kennedy, Z A Bhutta
OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors for antepartum stillbirth, including fetal growth restriction, among women with well-dated pregnancies and access to antenatal care. DESIGN: Population-based, prospective, observational study. SETTING: Eight international urban populations. POPULATION: Pregnant women and their babies enrolled in the Newborn Cross-Sectional Study of the INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project. METHODS: Cox proportional hazard models were used to compare risks among antepartum stillborn and liveborn babies...
December 28, 2016: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027284/antiretroviral-treatment-initiated-in-the-first-month-of-life
#3
Lisa Frigati, Elke Wynberg, Jean Maritz, Sandi Holgate, Mark F Cotton, Helena Rabie
BACKGROUND: Earlier diagnosis of HIV-infected infants facilitates earlier access to therapy and improved clinical outcomes. AIM: The aim of this study was describe the management of infants who started antiretroviral therapy in the first month of life. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed on HIV-infected neonates who started ART within the first month of life between January 2013 and March 2015. RESULTS: 997 neonates had one HIV PCR test...
December 23, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013100/the-impact-of-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-on-obstetric-conditions-a-review
#4
REVIEW
Hannah M Sebitloane, Dhayendre Moodley
HIV is the leading cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality in resource constrained countries. Highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) initiated in pregnancy has now almost eliminated mother to child transmission of the virus, and is beginning to show the desired effect of reducing HIV related maternal mortality. By modulating host immunological responses HAART has the potential to alter infections during pregnancy, in addition to modifying clinical conditions such as preeclampsia. There is increasing evidence of the benefits of HAART given to pregnant women, however there is paucity of data that distinguishes HIV or HAART as the cause or exacerbation of pre-existing medical conditions or conditions specific to pregnancy...
December 9, 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005986/a-systematic-review-of-cost-effectiveness-studies-reporting-cost-per-daly-averted
#5
Peter J Neumann, Teja Thorat, Yue Zhong, Jordan Anderson, Megan Farquhar, Mark Salem, Eileen Sandberg, Cayla J Saret, Colby Wilkinson, Joshua T Cohen
INTRODUCTION: Calculating the cost per disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted associated with interventions is an increasing popular means of assessing the cost-effectiveness of strategies to improve population health. However, there has been no systematic attempt to characterize the literature and its evolution. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of cost-effectiveness studies reporting cost-per-DALY averted from 2000 through 2015. We developed the Global Health Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (GHCEA) Registry, a repository of English-language cost-per-DALY averted studies indexed in PubMed...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999698/necrotizing-retinitis-secondary-to-congenital-cytomegalovirus-infection-associated-with-severe-combined-immunodeficiency
#6
Pehmen Yasin Ozcan, Hasan Tolga Celik, Kenan Sonmez, Melda Celik
A 20-day-old male infant who was born at 39 weeks of gestation was admitted to neonatal intensive care unit due to severe respiratory insufficiency. In retinal examination, peripheric retinal white-black color areas that correspond to necrotizing retinitis, moderate vitritis, macular and optic nerve head involvement, vascular leakage, and sheathing indicating perivasculitis were revealed. Despite the fact that CMV specific IgM was undetectable, CMV DNA with high viral load was found in his blood sample by means of real-time polymerase chain reaction assay...
2016: Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994102/intermittent-preventive-treatment-with-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine-more-than-just-an-antimalarial
#7
EDITORIAL
Julie Gutman, Laurence Slutsker
Malaria in pregnancy is associated with increased risk for both maternal and neonatal adverse outcomes, notably low birthweight and neonatal mortality.(1) Since 2004, following studies that showed that intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) reduced the risk of these adverse events,(2) the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended IPTp-SP for all areas in Africa with moderate-to-high malaria transmission.(3) IPTp-SP is associated with significant reductions in low birthweight, with a protective efficacy of approximately 26% in an analysis of national survey data from 32 countries...
December 19, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965866/progesterone-supplementation-for-hiv-positive-pregnant-women-on-protease-inhibitor-based-antiretroviral-regimens-the-prospar-study-a-study-protocol-for-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Kaitlin Siou, Sharon L Walmsley, Kellie E Murphy, Janet Raboud, Mona Loutfy, Mark H Yudin, Michael Silverman, Noor N Ladhani, Lena Serghides
BACKGROUND: In Canada, the majority of HIV-positive pregnant women receive combination antiretroviral therapy that includes a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission. However, protease inhibitor-based combination antiretroviral therapy has been associated with increased rates of preterm, low birth weight, and small for gestational age births. Our previous experimental findings demonstrate that protease inhibitor use during pregnancy is associated with decreased progesterone levels that correlate with fetal growth, and that progesterone supplementation can improve protease inhibitor-induced fetal growth restriction...
2016: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939493/hypertensive-disease-in-pregnancy-in-botswana-prevalence-and-impact-on-perinatal-outcomes
#9
Katherine M Johnson, Rebecca Zash, Miriam J Haviland, Michele R Hacker, Rebecca Luckett, Modiegi Diseko, Gloria Mayondi, Roger Shapiro
OBJECTIVES: Perinatal morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa has been attributed to infection, obstetric emergencies, and preterm birth, but less is known about hypertension in pregnancy. Our objective was to characterize the prevalence of hypertension in pregnancy and the impact of hypertension on perinatal outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa. STUDY DESIGN: We performed surveillance of obstetric records at eight of the largest public hospitals in Botswana. Women were included in this analysis if they were HIV-uninfected and had singleton gestations and at least one prenatal blood pressure measurement...
October 2016: Pregnancy Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934956/placental-antibody-transfer-efficiency-and-maternal-levels-specific-for-measles-coxsackievirus-a16-enterovirus-71-poliomyelitis-i-iii-and-hiv-1-antibodies
#10
Chuanxi Fu, Long Lu, Hao Wu, Jeffrey Shaman, Yimin Cao, Fang Fang, Qiongying Yang, Qing He, Zhicong Yang, Ming Wang
Maternal antibodies transported across the placenta can provide vital immunity against infectious pathogens for infants. We here examine maternal antibody (MA) levels and their association with neonatal antibody levels. Pregnant women of gestational age ≥35 weeks were enrolled at a Guangzhou China hospital and mother-infant paired sera were collected. Measles IgG antibody was detected using ELISA assay, neutralizing antibodies titers against coxsackievirus A16 (CA16), enterovirus 71 (EV71), PV I-III and HIV-1 were performed...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905971/trends-causes-and-risk-factors-of-mortality-among-children-under-5-in-ethiopia-1990-2013-findings-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2013
#11
Amare Deribew, Gizachew Assefa Tessema, Kebede Deribe, Yohannes Adama Melaku, Yihunie Lakew, Azmeraw T Amare, Semaw F Abera, Mesoud Mohammed, Abiy Hiruye, Efrem Teklay, Awoke Misganaw, Nicholas Kassebaum
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia has made remarkable progress in reducing child mortality over the last two decades. However, the under-5 mortality rate in Ethiopia is still higher than the under-5 mortality rates of several low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). On the other hand, the patterns and causes of child mortality have not been well investigated in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to investigate the mortality trend, causes of death, and risk factors among children under 5 in Ethiopia during 1990-2013...
November 14, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899925/increased-risk-of-group-b-streptococcus-invasive-infection-in-hiv-exposed-but-uninfected-infants-a-review-of-the-evidence-and-possible-mechanisms
#12
REVIEW
Nicolas Dauby, Mustapha Chamekh, Pierrette Melin, Amy L Slogrove, Tessa Goetghebuer
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a major cause of neonatal sepsis and mortality worldwide. Studies from both developed and developing countries have shown that HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) infants are at increased risk of infectious morbidity, as compared to HIV-unexposed uninfected infants (HUU). A higher susceptibility to GBS infections has been reported in HEU infants, particularly late-onset diseases and more severe manifestations of GBS diseases. We review here the possible explanations for increased susceptibility to GBS infection...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891065/trends-causes-and-risk-factors-of-mortality-among-children-under-5-in-ethiopia-1990-2013-findings-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2013
#13
Amare Deribew, Gizachew Assefa Tessema, Kebede Deribe, Yohannes Adama Melaku, Yihunie Lakew, Azmeraw T Amare, Semaw F Abera, Mesoud Mohammed, Abiy Hiruye, Efrem Teklay, Awoke Misganaw, Nicholas Kassebaum
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia has made remarkable progress in reducing child mortality over the last two decades. However, the under-5 mortality rate in Ethiopia is still higher than the under-5 mortality rates of several low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). On the other hand, the patterns and causes of child mortality have not been well investigated in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to investigate the mortality trend, causes of death, and risk factors among children under 5 in Ethiopia during 1990-2013...
2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869441/immunology-update-primary-immunodeficiency-diseases
#14
S Paul Starr
There are 264 primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs), most of which are rare. They are caused by complement deficiencies, defects in phagocyte function, impaired T-cell function, and/or impaired B-cell function with antibody deficiencies. Most patients with PIDs will present, at varying ages, with frequent infections. These infections can be common respiratory tract infections such as otitis media or pneumonia, or they can be unusual bacterial, fungal, or parasitic infections. Neonatal screening for severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome, one of the most common and serious PIDs, is now performed in most US states, but many PIDs manifest and are detected after birth...
November 2016: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864000/timing-of-initiation-of-antiretroviral-therapy-and-adverse-pregnancy-outcomes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Olalekan A Uthman, Jean B Nachega, Jean Anderson, Steve Kanters, Edward J Mills, Françoise Renaud, Shaffiq Essajee, Meg C Doherty, Lynne M Mofenson
BACKGROUND: Although lifelong combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) is recommended for all individuals with HIV, few data exist for pregnancy outcomes associated with ART initiation before conception. We assessed adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with ART initiated before conception compared with that of ART started after conception. METHODS: We did a systematic review of studies from low-income, middle-income, and high-income countries by searching the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, LILACS, MEDLINE, Toxline, Web of Knowledge, and WHO Global Index Medicus and trials in progress (International Clinical Trials Registry Platform) for randomised trials, quasi-randomised trials, and prospective cohort studies done between Jan 1, 1980, and June 1, 2016, in which timing of ART initiation in pregnant women living with HIV was reported...
January 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831952/tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-safety-for-women-and-their-infants-during-pregnancy-and-breastfeeding
#16
Lynne M Mofenson, Rachel C Baggaley, Ioannis Mameletzis
OBJECTIVES: Pregnant/lactating women in some sub-Saharan Africa settings are at substantial risk of HIV acquisition and could benefit from preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), but safety data in pregnancy/lactation are limited. DESIGN: Systematic data review through August 2016. METHODS: We reviewed research reports/conference abstracts with maternal/child adverse outcome data in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected pregnant/lactating women receiving TDF alone or in combination with other drugs compared with non-TDF regimens...
January 14, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819215/dietary-iron-and-calcium-intakes-during-pregnancy-are-associated-with-lower-risk-of-prematurity-stillbirth-and-neonatal-mortality-among-women-in-tanzania
#17
Dominic Mosha, Enju Liu, Ellen Hertzmark, Grace Chan, Christopher Sudfeld, Honorati Masanja, Wafaie Fawzi
OBJECTIVE: Prematurity, stillbirth and other adverse birth outcomes remain major concerns in resource-limited settings. Poor dietary intake of micronutrients during pregnancy has been associated with increased risk of adverse outcomes. We determined the relationships between dietary Fe and Ca intakes during pregnancy and risks of adverse birth outcomes among HIV-negative women. DESIGN: Women's diet was assessed through repeated 24 h diet recalls in pregnancy. Mean intakes of total Fe, Fe from animal sources and Ca during pregnancy were examined in relation to adverse birth outcomes and neonatal mortality...
November 7, 2016: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806243/benefits-and-risks-of-antiretroviral-therapy-for-perinatal-hiv-prevention
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Mary G Fowler, Min Qin, Susan A Fiscus, Judith S Currier, Patricia M Flynn, Tsungai Chipato, James McIntyre, Devasena Gnanashanmugam, George K Siberry, Anne S Coletti, Taha E Taha, Karin L Klingman, Francis E Martinson, Maxensia Owor, Avy Violari, Dhayendre Moodley, Gerhard B Theron, Ramesh Bhosale, Raziya Bobat, Benjamin H Chi, Renate Strehlau, Pendo Mlay, Amy J Loftis, Renee Browning, Terence Fenton, Lynette Purdue, Michael Basar, David E Shapiro, Lynne M Mofenson
Background Randomized-trial data on the risks and benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART) as compared with zidovudine and single-dose nevirapine to prevent transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in HIV-infected pregnant women with high CD4 counts are lacking. Methods We randomly assigned HIV-infected women at 14 or more weeks of gestation with CD4 counts of at least 350 cells per cubic millimeter to zidovudine and single-dose nevirapine plus a 1-to-2-week postpartum "tail" of tenofovir and emtricitabine (zidovudine alone); zidovudine, lamivudine, and lopinavir-ritonavir (zidovudine-based ART); or tenofovir, emtricitabine, and lopinavir-ritonavir (tenofovir-based ART)...
November 3, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789674/the-effect-of-neonatal-vitamin-a-supplementation-on-morbidity-and-mortality-at-12-months-a-randomized-trial
#19
Emily R Smith, Alfa Muhihi, Salum Mshamu, Christopher R Sudfeld, Ramadhani Abdallah Noor, Donna Spiegelman, Roger L Shapiro, Honorati Masanja, Wafaie Fawzi
BACKGROUND: Neonatal vitamin A supplementation (NVAS) is an intervention hypothesized to reduce infant morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of neonatal vitamin A supplementation in reducing infant morbidity and mortality and assess potential sources of heterogeneity of the effect of NVAS. METHODS: We completed an individually randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in Tanzania. Infants were randomized within 3 days of birth to a single dose of vitamin A (50 000 IU) or placebo...
October 27, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784298/the-global-pendulum-swing-towards-community-health-workers-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-scoping-review-of-trends-geographical-distribution-and-programmatic-orientations-2005-to-2014
#20
REVIEW
Helen Schneider, Dickson Okello, Uta Lehmann
BACKGROUND: There has been a substantial increase in publications and interest in community health workers (CHWs) in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) over the last years. This paper examines the growth, geographical distribution and programmatic orientations of the indexed literature on CHWs in LMIC over a 10-year period. METHODS: A scoping review of publications on CHWs from 2005 to 2014 was conducted. Using an inclusive list of terms, we searched seven databases (including MEDLINE, CINAHL, Cochrane) for all English-language publications on CHWs in LMIC...
October 26, 2016: Human Resources for Health
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