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Neonatal HIV

Lola Madrid, Rosauro Varo, Sonia Maculuve, Tacilta Nhampossa, Carmen Muñoz-Almagro, Enrique J Calderón, Cristina Esteva, Carla Carrilho, Mamudo Ismail, Begoña Vieites, Vicente Friaza, María Del Carmen Lozano-Dominguez, Clara Menéndez, Quique Bassat
BACKGROUND: Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection is the most prevalent congenital infection acquired worldwide, with higher incidence in developing countries and among HIV-exposed children. Less is known regarding vertical transmission of parvovirus B19 (B19V) and enterovirus (EV). We aimed to assess the prevalence of CMV, B19V and EV vertical transmission and compare results of screening of congenital CMV obtained from two different specimens in a semirural Mozambican maternity...
2018: PloS One
Karl-Heinz Deeg
Prenatal, neonatal meningoencephalitis and infections of the brain in older infants are often associated with serious complications which can be diagnosed by sonography through the open fontanelles. Most frequently postmeningitic hydrocephalus and subdural effusions occur. Rarer complications are brain abscesses and ventriculitis which are caused by gram negative bacteria such as E. coli, Serratia marcescens, Proteus and Enterobacter. A serious complication after ventriculitis is the development of compartment hydrocephalus...
March 13, 2018: Ultraschall in der Medizin
Kristina Adachi, Jiahong Xu, Bonnie Ank, D Heather Watts, Margaret Camarca, Lynne M Mofenson, Jose Henrique Pilotto, Esau Joao, Glenda Gray, Gerhard Theron, Breno Santos, Rosana Fonseca, Regis Kreitchmann, Jorge Pinto, Marisa M Mussi-Pinhata, Daisy Maria Machado, Mariana Ceriotto, Mariza G Morgado, Yvonne J Bryson, Valdilea G Veloso, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Mark Mirochnick, Jack Moye, Karin Nielsen-Saines
BACKGROUND: Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection (cCMV) is an important cause of hearing loss and cognitive impairment. Prior studies suggest that HIV-exposed children are at higher risk of acquiring cCMV. We assessed the presence, magnitude, and risk factors associated with cCMV among infants born to HIV-infected women, who were not receiving antiretrovirals during pregnancy. METHODS: cCMV and urinary CMV load were determined in a cohort of infants born to HIV-infected women not receiving antiretrovirals during pregnancy...
March 9, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Peter Sifuna, Lucas Otieno, Sheila Ogwang, Bernhards Ogutu, Ben Andagalu, John Owuoth, Valentine Singoei, Jessica Cowden, Walter Otieno
BACKGROUND: The vast majority of deaths in the health and Kombewa demographic surveillance system (HDSS) study area are not registered and reported through official systems of vital registration. As a result, few data are available regarding causes of death in this population. OBJECTIVES: To describe causes of death among residents of all ages in the Kombewa HDSS, located in rural Western Kenya. METHODS: Verbal autopsy (VA) interviews at the site were conducted using the modified 2007 and later 2012 standardized WHO questionnaires...
2018: Global Health Action
T Isnard, A Vincent-Rohfritsch, C Le Ray, F Goffinet, J Patkai, J Sibiude
OBJECTIVE: To describe survival rate after preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) before 25 weeks of gestation and compare neonatal morbidity and mortality among those born alive with a control group of infants born at a similar gestational age without premature rupture of membranes. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective single-centre study at Port-Royal maternity, from 2007 to 2015, comparing neonatal outcomes between liveborninfants exposed to PPROM prior to 25 weeks of gestation (WG) and a control group not exposed to premature rupture of the membranes...
February 26, 2018: Gynecologie, Obstetrique, Fertilite & Senologie
Emma R Allanson, Robert C Pattison, Nathan A Elizabeth, Jan E Dickinson
OBJECTIVES: To assess umbilical artery lactate levels and perinatal outcomes among women with and without HIV infection. METHODS: The present prospective cohort study recruited women planning to undergo vaginal delivery at Kalafong Hospital, South Africa, between March 3 and November 12, 2014. Umbilical artery lactate levels were measured and perinatal outcome data were recorded. Outcome analyses were stratified by maternal HIV status, and a subgroup analysis was performed where women with a CD4 count below 350×106 cells/L were compared with women without HIV...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
Silvia Baroncelli, Clementina Maria Galluzzo, Giuseppe Liotta, Mauro Andreotti, Sandro Mancinelli, Robert Mphwere, Enok Bokola, Roberta Amici, Maria Cristina Marazzi, Leonardo Palombi, Francesca Lucaroni, Marina Giuliano
BACKGROUND: Transplacental passage of IgGs is impaired in HIV + pregnant women, possibly determining an inadequate immunological protection in their children. We aimed to determine the impact of maternal immunological IgG profile and immunoactivation status on the efficiency of transplacental passage of IgG subclasses in HIV + mothers. METHODS: 16 mother/infants pairs were studied in Malawi. Mothers received antiretroviral therapy (ART) from the third trimester of pregnancy...
February 27, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Elizabeth Fitzgerald, Rachel Mlotha-Mitole, Emily J Ciccone, Alyssa E Tilly, Jennie M Montijo, Hans-Joerg Lang, Michelle Eckerle
BACKGROUND: Death audits have been used to describe pediatric mortality in under-resourced settings, where record keeping is often a challenge. This information provides the cornerstone for the foundation of quality improvement initiatives. Malawi, located in sub-Saharan Africa, currently has an Under-5 mortality rate of 64/1000. Kamuzu Central Hospital, in the capital city Lilongwe, is a busy government referral hospital, which admits up to 3000 children per month. A study published in 2013 reported mortality rates as high as 9%...
February 21, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Yi-Chia Huang, Szu-Min Hsieh, Wang-Huei Sheng, Yu-Shan Huang, Kuan-Yin Lin, Guan-Jhou Chen, Shang-Ping Yang, Wen-Chun Liu, Yi-Ching Su, Hsin-Yun Sun, Chien-Ching Hung, Shan-Chwen Chang
BACKGROUND: Serological responses to revaccination against hepatitis B virus (HBV) are unclear in HIV-positive adults who had undergone neonatal HBV vaccination and whose antibodies against HBV had waned in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). METHODS: Between 2000 and 2017, 666 HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) who were born after 1986, when nationwide neonatal HBV vaccination program was implemented in Taiwan, were included for analyses...
February 15, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Robert C Bailey, Irene Nyaboke, Mary Ellen Mackesy-Amiti, Erick Okello, Valentine Pengo, Betha Ochomo, Mary Emmaculate Auma, Simon Were, Stella Ojuok, Evelyne Adoyo, Mildred Adhiambo, Marisa R Young, Rebeca M Plank, Fredrick O Otieno
BACKGROUND: As countries scale up adult voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) for HIV prevention, they are looking ahead to long term sustainable strategies, including introduction of early infant male circumcision (EIMC). Although a number of devices for EIMC are prequalified by the World Health Organization, evaluation of additional devices can provide policy-makers and clinicians the information required to make informed decisions. We undertook a field evaluation of the safety and acceptability of the AccuCirc device in Kisumu County, Kenya...
2018: PloS One
H Crichton, N O'Connell, H Rabie, A C Whitelaw, A Dramowski
BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of neonatal and paediatric community-acquired and healthcare-associated bloodstream infections (BSI) at South African (SA) district hospitals is under-researched. OBJECTIVE: Retrospective review of neonatal and paediatric BSI (0 - 13 years) at Khayelitsha District Hospital, Cape Town, SA, over 3 years (1 March 2012 - 28 February 2015). METHODS: We used laboratory, hospital, patient and prescription data to determine BSI rates, blood culture yield and contamination rates, pathogen profile, antimicrobial resistance, patient demographics, BSI outcome and antibiotic prescribing practice...
February 1, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Cheryl L Amoroso, Marie Paul Nisingizwe, Dominique Rouleau, Dana R Thomson, Daniel M Kagabo, Tatien Bucyana, Peter Drobac, Fidele Ngabo
BACKGROUND: Sustained investments in Rwanda's health system have led to historic reductions in under five (U5) mortality. Although Rwanda achieved an estimated 68% decrease in the national under U5 mortality rate between 2002 and 2012, according to the national census, 5.8% of children still do not reach their fifth birthday, requiring the next wave of child mortality prevention strategies. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of 9002 births to 6328 women age 15-49 in the 2010 Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey...
February 5, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Charfudin Sacoor, Beth Payne, Orvalho Augusto, Faustino Vilanculo, Ariel Nhacolo, Marianne Vidler, Prestige Tatenda Makanga, Khátia Munguambe, Tang Lee, Eusébio Macete, Peter von Dadelszen, Esperança Sevene
Reliable statistics on maternal morbidity and mortality are scarce in low and middle-income countries, especially in rural areas. This is the case in Mozambique where many births happen at home. Furthermore, a sizeable number of facility births have inadequate registration. Such information is crucial for developing effective national and global health policies for maternal and child health. The aim of this study was to generate reliable baseline socio-demographic information on women of reproductive age as well as to establish a demographic surveillance platform to support the planning and implementation of the Community Level Intervention for Pre-eclampsia (CLIP) study, a cluster randomized controlled trial...
2018: PloS One
Farah Bokharaei-Salim, Saeed Kalantari, Zahra Gholamypour, AliReza Najafi, Hossein Keyvani, Maryam Esghaei, Seyed Hamidreza Monavari, Khadijeh Khanaliha, Mohammad-Navid Bastani, Atousa Fakhim, Saba Garshasbi
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is mostly spreading in developing countries. One of the most important pathways of HIV infection in these nations is the vertical route, from mother to infant. Therefore, this study evaluated the effectiveness of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) program for HIV among Iranian neonates born to HIV-positive mothers. A total of 54 neonates born to HIV-1 positive mothers, all of whom were in a PMTCT program for HIV, as per the Iranian guidelines, were enrolled in this descriptive cross sectional study from March 2014 to July 2017...
January 30, 2018: Archives of Virology
Martin R Gaudinski, Emily E Coates, Katherine V Houser, Grace L Chen, Galina Yamshchikov, Jamie G Saunders, LaSonji A Holman, Ingelise Gordon, Sarah Plummer, Cynthia S Hendel, Michelle Conan-Cibotti, Margarita Gomez Lorenzo, Sandra Sitar, Kevin Carlton, Carolyn Laurencot, Robert T Bailer, Sandeep Narpala, Adrian B McDermott, Aryan M Namboodiri, Janardan P Pandey, Richard M Schwartz, Zonghui Hu, Richard A Koup, Edmund Capparelli, Barney S Graham, John R Mascola, Julie E Ledgerwood
BACKGROUND: VRC01 is a human broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody (bnMAb) against the CD4-binding site of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) that is currently being evaluated in a Phase IIb adult HIV-1 prevention efficacy trial. VRC01LS is a modified version of VRC01, designed for extended serum half-life by increased binding affinity to the neonatal Fc receptor. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This Phase I dose-escalation study of VRC01LS in HIV-negative healthy adults was conducted by the Vaccine Research Center (VRC) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Clinical Center (Bethesda, MD)...
January 2018: PLoS Medicine
Joshua A Eudailey, Maria L Dennis, Morgan E Parker, Bonnie L Phillips, Tori N Huffman, Camden P Bay, Michael G Hudgens, Roger W Wiseman, Justin J Pollara, Genevieve G Fouda, Guido Ferrari, David J Pickup, Pamela A Kozlowski, Koen K A Van Rompay, Kristina De Paris, Sallie R Permar
Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) contributes to an estimated 150,000 new infections annually. Maternal vaccination has proven safe and effective at mitigating the impact of other neonatal pathogens and is one avenue toward generating the potentially protective immune responses necessary to inhibit HIV-1 infection of infants through breastfeeding. In the present study, we tested the efficacy of a maternal vaccine regimen consisting of a modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) 1086...
January 2018: MSphere
A U Happel, S L Barnabas, R Froissart, J S Passmore
Probiotics are used in the prophylaxis and treatment of several conditions, including irritable bowel syndrome, diarrhoea, necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) and colic in infants. Despite the long history of probiotic use in humans, there is still significant debate about their efficacy and safety, particularly in HIV-infected and immunocompromised individuals. Here, we reviewed the safety and adverse event (AE) reporting from clinical trials that have tested probiotics in at risk populations, including HIV-infected individuals, the terminally ill and elderly, and neonates...
January 18, 2018: Beneficial Microbes
Silvia Baroncelli, Clementina M Galluzzo, Giuseppe Liotta, Mauro Andreotti, Fausto Ciccacci, Sandro Mancinelli, Victor T Tolno, Jane Gondwe, Roberta Amici, Maria C Marazzi, Stefano Vella, Marina Giuliano, Leonardo Palombi, Lucia Palmisano
PROBLEM: Data on soluble CD14 (sCD14) during pregnancy and lactation are scarce. We assessed the levels of sCD14 in plasma and breastmilk of Malawian HIV-positive women and evaluated the possible association with morbidity and mortality in the HIV-exposed children. METHOD OF STUDY: One hundred and forty-nine mother/child pairs were studied. Women received antiretroviral therapy from 26 weeks of gestation to at least 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding. sCD14 concentrations were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
January 11, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Anna Larsen, Mireille Cheyip, Getahun Aynalem, Thu-Ha Dinh, Debra Jackson, Nobubelo Ngandu, Witness Chirinda, Mary Mogashoa, Gupreet Kindra, Carl Lombard, Ameena Goga
Background: Achieving World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations for postnatal care (PNC) within the first few weeks of life is vital to eliminating early mother-to-child transmission of HIV (MTCT) and improving infant health. Almost half of the annual global deaths among children under five occur during the first six weeks of life. This study aims to identify uptake of three PNC visits within the first six weeks of life as recommended by WHO among South African mother-infant pairs, and factors associated with uptake...
December 2017: Journal of Global Health
Maria Isabel Rodriguez, Mary E Gaffield, Leo Han, Aaron B Caughey
OBJECTIVE: The association between increased risk of HIV acquisition and use of progestin-only injectables (POIs) is controversial. We sought to compare the competing risks of maternal mortality and HIV acquisition with use of POIs using updated data on this association and considering an expanded number of African countries. METHODS: We designed a decision-analytic model to compare the benefits and risks of POIs on the competing risks of maternal mortality and HIV acquisition on life expectancy for women in 9 African countries...
December 28, 2017: Global Health, Science and Practice
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