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Neonatal HIV

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406596/improving-early-identification-of-hiv-infected-neonates-with-birth-pcr-testing-in-a-large-urban-hospital-in-johannesburg-south-africa-successes-and-challenges
#1
Karl-Günter Technau, Louise Kuhn, Ashraf Coovadia, Sergio Carmona, Gayle Sherman
INTRODUCTION: Timely diagnosis is necessary to avert early death in HIV-infected neonates. Birth PCR testing may improve early identification and facilitate access to care. We implemented a birth HIV diagnosis programme in Johannesburg, South Africa and present successes and challenges of the first two and a half years of operation. METHODS: Between June 2014 and December 2016, we sought to identify all HIV-exposed births and offer newborn HIV PCR testing before discharge after delivery...
April 10, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396556/pregnancy-outcomes-in-association-with-stds-including-genital-hsv-2-shedding-in-a-south-african-cohort-study
#2
Dhayendre Moodley, Benn Sartorius, Savithree Madurai, Vani Chetty, Suzanne Maman
OBJECTIVES: Genital herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) shedding in pregnant women in association with neonatal herpes infection has been widely studied but there is limited evidence of its association with pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: In this retrospective observational study, we included a subgroup of pregnant women who were enrolled in a randomized control behavioural intervention study that was conducted in South Africa in 2008-2010. In pregnancy, women had a HIV rapid test done and a genital swab taken to test for curable STIs and HSV-2 DNA...
April 10, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394273/hippocampal-neuronal-loss-in-infant-macaques-orally-infected-with-virulent-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-siv
#3
Heather Carryl, Koen K A Van Rompay, Kristina De Paris, Mark W Burke
The neurological impact of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) on children includes loss of brain growth, motor abnormalities and cognitive dysfunction. Despite early antiretroviral treatment (ART) intervention to suppress viral load, neurological consequences of perinatal HIV-1 infection persist. Utilizing the pediatric simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection model, we tested the hypothesis that early-life SIV infection depletes neuronal population in the hippocampus. A total of 22 ART-naïve infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) from previous studies were retrospectively analyzed...
April 10, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391635/prevalence-and-vertical-transmission-of-human-pegivirus-among-pregnant-women-infected-with-hiv
#4
Lucas M Santos, Rubens C Lobato, Maria Fernanda M Barral, Carla V Gonçalves, Vanusa P da Hora, Ana Maria B Martinez
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of human pegivirus (HPgV) and factors associated with vertical transmission among pregnant women infected with HIV. METHOD: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant women treated at an HIV reference service in Rio Grande, Brazil, between January 1, 2010, and January 1, 2015. The polymerase chain reaction was used to diagnose HPgV infection among the women and their neonates. Clinical, obstetric, and neonatal data were obtained from medical records...
April 8, 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374653/mother-to-child-hiv-transmissions-in-israel-1985-2011
#5
Z Mor, R Sheffer, D Chemtob
Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is the leading cause of paediatric HIV-infection in Israel. This study aimed to assess MTCT rates and analyse temporal changes in relation to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) introduction in 1996. This historical prospective study included all HIV-infected women who delivered in Israel between 1988 and 2011. Demographic, clinical, laboratory and therapy characteristics were compared between HIV-infected newborns with all others, and between infants born before and after 1996...
April 4, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325171/pregnancy-and-neonatal-outcomes-among-a-cohort-of-hiv-infected-women-in-a-large-italian-teaching-hospital-a-30-year-retrospective-study
#6
S Grignolo, R Agnello, D Gerbaldo, C Gotta, C Alicino, F Del Puente, L Taramasso, B Bruzzone, C Gustavino, S Trasino, A DE Maria, G Icardi, C Viscoli, A DI Biagio
The primary study objective was to investigate three decades from 1985 to 2014 of changes in pregnancies among HIV-infected women. The secondary objective was to assess risk factors associated with preterm delivery and severe small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants in HIV-infected women. A retrospective review of deliveries among pregnant HIV-infected women at the University of Genoa and IRCCS San Martino-IST in Genoa between 1985 and 2014 was performed. Univariate and multivariable analyses were used to study the variables associated with neonatal outcomes...
March 22, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304326/group-b-streptococcus-colonization-and-hiv-in-pregnancy-a-cohort-study-in-nigeria
#7
R Biobaku Oluwafunmilola, O Olaleye Atinukek, F Adefusi Olorunwa, A Adeyemi Babalola, O Onipede Anthony, M Loto Olabisi, O Imaralu John
BACKGROUND: Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of maternal and neonatal infectious morbidity. HIV is prevalent among pregnant women in Nigeria. AIM: To determine the rates of anogenital GBS colonization in our institution and compare GBS colonization rates between HIV positive and negative pregnant women. METHODS: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted over 6 months. Patients were separated according to their HIV status: positive and negative...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291053/safety-of-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-based-antiretroviral-therapy-regimens-in-pregnancy-for-hiv-infected-women-and-their-infants-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Jean B Nachega, Olalekan A Uthman, Lynne M Mofenson, Jean R Anderson, Steve Kanters, Francoise Renaud, Nathan Ford, Shaffiq Essajee, Meg C Doherty, Edward J Mills
BACKGROUND: There are limited data on adverse effects of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) on pregnant women and their infants. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of studies published between January 1980 and January 2017 that compared adverse outcomes in HIV-infected women receiving TDF- vs. non-TDF-based ART during pregnancy. The relative risk for associations was pooled using a fixed-effects model. RESULTS: Sixteen studies met study inclusion criteria...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277349/missed-opportunities-for-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#9
Gwendolyn B Scott, Susan B Brogly, Daniel Muenz, Alice M Stek, Jennifer S Read
OBJECTIVE: To identify missed opportunities for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS: Data regarding HIV-infected children born between 2002 and 2009 to HIV-infected women enrolled in the U.S. International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials prospective cohort study (protocol P1025) were reviewed. The characteristics of the HIV-infected infants and their mothers and the mothers' clinical management are described...
April 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266230/the-introduction-of-syphilis-point-of-care-tests-in-resource-limited-settings
#10
Michael Marks, David Cw Mabey
Syphilis remains an important and preventable cause of stillbirth and neonatal mortality. About 1 million women with active syphilis become pregnant each year. Without treatment, 25% of them will deliver a stillborn baby and 33% a low birth weight baby with an increased chance of dying in the first month of life. Adverse pregnancy outcomes due to syphilis can be prevented by screening pregnant women, and treating those who test positive with a single dose of penicillin before 28 weeks' gestation. Areas covered: This manuscript covers the impact of syphilis on pregnancy outcome, the diagnosis of syphilis, with a special focus on point of care (POC) tests, and challenges to the introduction of POC tests, and their potential impact on the control and prevention of syphilis in resource limited settings...
March 14, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262553/global-health-ethics-the-case-of-maternal-and-neonatal-survival
#11
REVIEW
Frank W J Anderson, Timothy R B Johnson, Raymond de Vries
Through their Sustainable Development Goals the United Nations recognizes the moral significance of health, stating that the elimination of maternal and early neonatal mortality are health outcomes that should be available to all women in the world. Complete prevention requires addition of a skill set for maternal care teams that is a magnitude greater than what we have today. As universities, individuals, institutions and NGO's engage in initiatives to end preventable maternal and neonatal mortality, an expanded context of ethical imperatives becomes increasingly important...
February 10, 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258582/maternal-and-neonatal-outcomes-among-women-with-hiv-infection-and-their-infants-in-malawi
#12
Michelle S Chevalier, Caroline C King, Sascha Ellington, Jeffrey Wiener, Dumbani Kayira, Charles S Chasela, Denise J Jamieson, Athena P Kourtis
OBJECTIVE: To describe maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality among women with HIV infection and their infants. METHODS: A secondary analysis was undertaken of data obtained in the BAN Study, a trial of postnatal antiretrovirals among pregnant women with HIV infection enrolled in 2004-2010. Mothers and infants had 13 scheduled visits through 48 weeks of follow-up. Serious maternal morbidity and mortality were examined at delivery (n=2791), from delivery to 6 weeks later (n=2369) and from 7 to 48 weeks (n=1980)...
March 3, 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257809/the-global-health-impact-of-vaginal-dysbiosis
#13
Janneke H H M van de Wijgert, Vicky Jespers
The most common dysbiosis of the vaginal microbiome (defined here as a vaginal microbiome not dominated by lactobacilli) is bacterial vaginosis, an anaerobic polybacterial dysbiosis. Other dysbiotic states of importance to global health are vaginal microbiota with a high abundance of streptococci, staphylococci or Enterobacteriaceae, vaginal candidiasis and trichomoniasis. Knowledge about the different types of dysbiosis and their relationship to urogenital and reproductive disease burden has increased in recent years by applying non-culture-based techniques, but is far from complete...
March 1, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241053/release-of-hiv-1-sequestered-in-the-vesicles-of-oral-and-genital-mucosal-epithelial-cells-by-epithelial-lymphocyte-interaction
#14
Aizezi Yasen, Rossana Herrera, Kristina Rosbe, Kathy Lien, Sharof M Tugizov
Oropharyngeal mucosal epithelia of fetuses/neonates/infants and the genital epithelia of adults play a critical role in HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission and sexual transmission of virus, respectively. To study the mechanisms of HIV-1 transmission through mucosal epithelium, we established polarized tonsil, cervical and foreskin epithelial cells. Analysis of HIV-1 transmission through epithelial cells showed that approximately 0.05% of initially inoculated virions transmigrated via epithelium. More than 90% of internalized virions were sequestered in the endosomes of epithelial cells, including multivesicular bodies (MVBs) and vacuoles...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239604/predictors-of-antenatal-care-skilled-birth-attendance-and-postnatal-care-utilization-among-the-remote-and-poorest-rural-communities-of-zambia-a-multilevel-analysis
#15
Choolwe Jacobs, Mosa Moshabela, Sitali Maswenyeho, Nildah Lambo, Charles Michelo
OBJECTIVE: Optimal utilization of maternal health-care services is associated with reduction of mortality and morbidity for both mothers and their neonates. However, deficiencies and disparity in the use of key maternal health services within most developing countries still persist. We examined patterns and predictors associated with the utilization of specific indicators for maternal health services among mothers living in the poorest and remote district populations of Zambia. METHODS: A cross-sectional baseline household survey was conducted in May 2012...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209492/reproductive-considerations-in-the-setting-of%C3%A2-chronic-viral-illness
#16
REVIEW
Brent M Hanson, Jessie A Dorais
Special considerations must be taken when patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B, or hepatitis C desire to become pregnant. Patients with chronic viral illnesses desire to have children at rates similar to the general population, and options are available to decrease both vertical transmission and viral transmission between partners. Preconception counseling or consultation with fertility specialists is imperative in patients with HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C so that reproductive goals can be addressed and optimized...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198351/therapeutic-drug-monitoring-guided-raltegravir-dosing-for-prevention-of-vertical-transmission-in-a-premature-neonate-born-to-a-woman-living-with-perinatally-acquired-hiv
#17
Denise Kreutzwiser, Nancy Sheehan, Natalie Dayneka, Benoît Lemire, Alison Wong, Lindy Samson, Jason Brophy
We report a case of therapeutic drug monitoring guided raltegravir use for the prevention of vertical HIV transmission in a premature neonate born to a woman living with perinatally acquired HIV and documented resistance to multiple HIV drugs. Maternal viral load was above 1,000 copies/mL at delivery. This case demonstrates delayed raltegravir elimination in a neonate born at 33 weeks gestational age and a need for less frequent raltegravir dosing than is used in older infants and children.
February 15, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195113/congenital-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-a-neonate-born-to-hiv-infected-mother-a-case-report
#18
Dhaneshwar Namdeorao Lanjewar, Sushma Nagsen Ramraje
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184323/congenital-tuberculosis-a-newborn-case-report-with-rare-manifestation
#19
Hadi Khorsand Zak, Shahin Mafinezhad, Ali Haghbin
INTRODUCTION: Congenital tuberculosis is an infrequently encountered condition and only 300 cases were reported in the literature till 1989. There are no specific signs and symptoms pathognomonic for congenital TB, and the devastating consequences in the absence of early therapy signify the importance of early diagnosis and treatment during the neonatal period. CASE PRESENTATION: In this paper we report on a case of congenital TB in a newborn who was admitted to our clinic with seizures and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) due to TB meningitis...
October 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180012/seroprevalence-and-co-infection-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-and-herpes-simplex-virus-hsv-among-pregnant-women-in-lokoja-north-central-nigeria
#20
Olatunji Matthew Kolawole, Oluwatomi Olufunke Amuda, Charles Nzurumike, Muhammed Mustapha Suleiman, Jeremiah Ikhevha Ogah
BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is normally associated with orofacial (orolabial) infections and encephalitis, whereas HSV-2 usually causes genital infections and can be transmitted from infected mothers to neonates. The evidence suggesting that HSV is facilitating the spread of the global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic and the risk posed by these synergies to neonates in developing countries informed this study. OBJECTIVES: To determine the seroprevalence and co-infection of HIV and HSV, as well as their associated risk factors, in Lokoja, Nigeria...
October 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
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