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Neonatal HIV

Yeshwondm Mamuye, Balkachew Nigatu, Delayehu Bekele, Mekonen Getahun
BACKGROUND: Maternal cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Rubella infections result in adverse neonatal outcomes. Both CMV and Rubella are more widespread in developing countries and in communities with lower socioeconomic status. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine IgM specific to CMV and Rubella among newborns and Maternal CMV-seroprevalence and to identify risk factors. METHOD AND FINDING: Using cross sectional study design a total of 312 (156 newborns and 156 mothers) study participants were recruited by simple random sampling technique from gynecology outpatient department (OPD) and ward, starting from April 1, 2015 to June 30, 2015...
October 21, 2016: BMC Research Notes
Pedro Pallangyo, Isaac Mawenya, Paulina Nicholaus, Henry Mayala, Amida Kalombola, Godwin Sharau, Naiz Majani, Mohamed Janabi
BACKGROUND: Congenital complete heart block is a life-threatening condition which is highly associated with autoimmune and connective tissue disorders. Presence of maternal autoantibodies for associated conditions increases the risk of delivering a child with congenital complete heart block, however, less than a half of all women with such antibodies are symptomatic even after delivery. Mortality rate is highest during the neonatal period (45 %) and about two-thirds of all cases will require permanent pacing at some point in their lives...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
E Nelson Kankaka, G Kigozi, D Kayiwa, N Kighoma, F Makumbi, T Murungi, D Nabukalu, R Nampijja, S Watya, D Namuguzi, F Nalugoda, G Nakigozi, D Sserwadda, M Wawer, R H Gray
Early infant circumcision (EIC) is the most common neonatal surgical procedure in males.(1) It has also been incorporated as a component in combination HIV prevention in 14 of Sub-Saharan African countries with high HIV prevalence and low circumcision coverage.(2,3) EIC has advantages over adult circumcision due to lower adverse events, no risk of early resumption of sex and potentially lower cost(4-6) . Sub-Saharan African countries have low physician coverage, but comparatively higher coverage of non-physicians who could facilitate roll out of circumcision for HIV prevention...
October 18, 2016: BJU International
Diana F Clarke, Inci Yildirim, Ellen R Cooper
We report our experience with two infants with in utero HIV-1 infection who began very early combination antiretroviral therapy within 4 hours of birth. Further neonatal studies of antiretroviral pharmacokinetics, safety, efficacy, and treatment strategies are critically needed for the development of more potent regimens for use in HIV-infected infants.
October 3, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Improving survival and extending the longevity of life for all populations requires timely, robust evidence on local mortality levels and trends. The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study (GBD 2015) provides a comprehensive assessment of all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2015. These results informed an in-depth investigation of observed and expected mortality patterns based on sociodemographic measures. METHODS: We estimated all-cause mortality by age, sex, geography, and year using an improved analytical approach originally developed for GBD 2013 and GBD 2010...
October 8, 2016: Lancet
Violeta J Rodriguez, Ryan R Cook, Karl Peltzer, Deborah L Jones
Pregnant women living with HIV (WLHIV) in South Africa (SA) report higher rates of suicidal ideation than those who are HIV uninfected, and antenatal suicidal ideation has been previously associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. Few studies have attempted to identify correlates and psychosocial predictors of suicidal ideation in this population. In this study, we sought to estimate the prevalence of and identify risk factors for suicidal ideation among pregnant WLHIV in rural SA (N = 673)...
October 2, 2016: AIDS Care
Barbara Van Der Pol
HSV-1 and HSV-2 are among the most common causes of sexually transmitted infections (stis) globally. these infections are strongly associated with increased risk of hiv acquisition and rare, but devastating, neonatal disease. available treatment options can reduce HSV transmission and improve quality of life. accurate diagnosis early in disease can improve patient management. Areas covered: This paper describes the clinical manifestations of HSV infection often used for clinical diagnostic purposes. The paper then describes the evolution of laboratory diagnostic assays...
October 8, 2016: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
William J Muller
Viral infections in the fetus or newborn often involve the central nervous system (CNS) and can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Substantial progress has been made in identifying interventions decreasing adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in this population. This review highlights progress in treatment of important viruses affecting the CNS in these susceptible hosts, focusing on herpes simplex (HSV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and enteroviruses. The observation that high-dose acyclovir improves mortality in neonatal HSV disease culminated decades of antiviral research for this disease...
September 27, 2016: Pediatric Research
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: In September, 2015, the UN General Assembly established the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The SDGs specify 17 universal goals, 169 targets, and 230 indicators leading up to 2030. We provide an analysis of 33 health-related SDG indicators based on the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015). METHODS: We applied statistical methods to systematically compiled data to estimate the performance of 33 health-related SDG indicators for 188 countries from 1990 to 2015...
October 8, 2016: Lancet
Richard H Beigi, Lisa M Noguchi, Elizabeth Montgomery, Joseph Biggio, Craig W Hendrix, Mark A Marzinke, James Y Dai, Jason Pan, Ratiya Kunjara Na Ayudhya, Jill L Schwartz, Karen Isaacs, Jeanna M Piper, D Heather Watts
INTRODUCTION: Vaginal tenofovir (TFV) 1% gel may reduce incident HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus 2 infection. Pregnancy may increase risk of HIV acquisition, and incident HIV in pregnancy potentiates perinatal HIV transmission. Our objective was to investigate the safety and pharmacokinetics of seven days of TFV 1% vaginal gel in term and near-term pregnancy. METHODS: Ninety-eight healthy pregnant women, stratified to a term cohort followed by a near-term cohort, were enrolled into a 2:1 randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Kenichiro Yaita, Shigeru Inoue, Takashi Horinouchi, Masahiro Kinoshita, Mitsuaki Unno, Osuke Iwata, Yuhei Tanaka, Kenji Gotoh, Mikio Ishibashi, Yoshiro Sakai, Kenji Masunaga, Hiroshi Watanabe, Masaki Tominaga
A 27-year-old HIV-infected pregnant Japanese woman was admitted to our hospital at gestational week 14. The patient's HIV viral load was 71,000 copies/mL, and her CD4 cell count was 147 cells/mm(3). Zidovudine, lamivudine, and lopinavir/ritonavir were administered at gestational week 18. Because the viral load increased to 222,000 copies/mL at the initiation of antiretroviral therapy, we added raltegravir. The decrease in the viral load was satisfactory, and a caesarean delivery was performed. Although the plasma concentration of raltegravir in the neonate was significantly high (2,482 ng/mL), no adverse event was confirmed...
2016: Internal Medicine
Deborah Lynne Jones, Ryan Cook, JoNell Efantis Potter, Talya Miron-Shatz, Nahida Chakhtoura, Andrew Spence, Margaret M Byrne
OBJECTIVE: Rates of pregnancy among women living with HIV (WLHIV) have increased with the availability of effective HIV treatment. Planning for pregnancy and childbirth is an increasingly important element of HIV care. Though rates of unintended pregnancies are high among women in general, among couples affected by HIV, significant planning and reproductive decisions must be considered to prevent negative health consequences for WLHIV and their neonates. To gain insight into this reproductive decision-making process among WLHIV, this study explored women's knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding fertility planning, reproductive desires, and safer conception practices...
2016: PloS One
Azeez Butali, Chinyere Ezeaka, Osayame Ekhaguere, Nancy Weathers, Jenna Ladd, Iretiola Fajolu, Christopher Esezobor, Christian Makwe, Bukola Odusanya, Rose Anorlu, Wasiu Adeyemo, Edna Iroha, Mathias Egri-Okwaji, Prisca Adejumo, Lawal Oyeneyin, Moses Abiodun, Bolaji Badejoko, Kelli Ryckman
INTRODUCTION: Preterm birth is a dire complication of pregnancy that poses huge long-term medical and financial burdens for affected children, their families, and the health care system. The aim of the present study was to identify characteristics associated with preterm births at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), Lagos, Nigeria from 2011 to 2013. METHODS: We obtained Information from 5,561 maternal, fetal/neonatal and obstetric records from the labor ward...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
Anna C Seale, Angela C Koech, Anna E Sheppard, Hellen C Barsosio, Joyce Langat, Emily Anyango, Stella Mwakio, Salim Mwarumba, Susan C Morpeth, Kirimi Anampiu, Alison Vaughan, Adam Giess, Polycarp Mogeni, Leahbell Walusuna, Hope Mwangudzah, Doris Mwanzui, Mariam Salim, Bryn Kemp, Caroline Jones, Neema Mturi, Benjamin Tsofa, Edward Mumbo, David Mulewa, Victor Bandika, Musimbi Soita, Maureen Owiti, Norris Onzere, A Sarah Walker, Stephanie J Schrag, Stephen H Kennedy, Greg Fegan, Derrick W Crook, James A Berkley
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus, GBS) causes neonatal disease and stillbirth, but its burden in sub-Saharan Africa is uncertain. We assessed maternal recto-vaginal GBS colonization (7,967 women), stillbirth and neonatal disease. Whole-genome sequencing was used to determine serotypes, sequence types and phylogeny. We found low maternal GBS colonization prevalence (934/7,967, 12%), but comparatively high incidence of GBS-associated stillbirth and early onset neonatal disease (EOD) in hospital (0...
2016: Nature Microbiology
Alka Khaitan, Max Kilberg, Adam Kravietz, Tiina Ilmet, Cihan Tastan, Mussa Mwamzuka, Fatma Marshed, Mengling Liu, Aabid Ahmed, William Borkowsky, Derya Unutmaz
Mucosal-associated invariant T cells (MAIT) are innate T cells restricted by major histocompatibility related molecule 1 (MR1) presenting riboflavin metabolite ligands derived from microbes. Specificity to riboflavin metabolites confers MAIT cells a broad array of host-protective activity against gram-negative and -positive bacteria, mycobacteria, and fungal pathogens. MAIT cells are present at low levels in the peripheral blood of neonates and gradually expand to relatively abundant levels during childhood...
2016: PloS One
Amira El-Messidi, Nicholas Czuzoj-Shulman, Andrea R Spence, Haim Arie Abenhaim
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, tuberculosis remains a major health concern, with an estimated 9.6 million people infected in the year 2014, of which one-third were women. Tuberculosis is estimated to be even more prevalent in pregnant women than the general population. To date there is conflicting evidence on the maternal and neonatal complications of tuberculosis in pregnancy OBJECTIVE: To determine the trends in the incidence of tuberculosis in pregnancy and to examine the associations between tuberculosis in pregnancy and maternal and fetal complications...
August 13, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Shona Dalal, Julia Samuelson, Jason Reed, Ahmadu Yakubu, Buhle Ncube, Rachel Baggaley
With efforts focused on the elimination of maternal and neonatal tetanus, less attention has been given to tetanus incidence and mortality among men. Since 2007 voluntary medical male circumcision has been scaled-up in 14 sub-Saharan African countries as an effective intervention to reduce the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition among men. As part of a review of adverse events from these programmes, we identified 13 cases of tetanus from five countries reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) up to March 2016...
August 1, 2016: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
James E Voss, Matthew S Macauley, Kenneth A Rogers, Francois Villinger, Lijie Duan, Liang Shang, Elizabeth A Fink, Raiees Andrabi, Arnaud D Colantonio, James E Robinson, R Paul Johnson, Dennis R Burton, Ashley T Haase
Vaccination with SIVmac239Δnef provides robust protection against subsequent challenge with wild type SIV, but safety issues have precluded designing an HIV-1 vaccine based on a live attenuated virus concept. Safe immunogens and adjuvants that could reproduce identified immune correlates of SIVmac239Δnef protection therefore offer an alternative path for development of an HIV vaccine. Here we describe SIV envelope trimeric gp41 (gp41t) immunogens based on a protective correlate of antibodies to gp41t concentrated on the path of virus entry by the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) in cervical vaginal epithelium...
July 13, 2016: AIDS
D Acharya, R Paudel
Background Despite greater emphasis on maternal and neonatal health through policy and programming in Nepal, maternal and neonatal health is still not impressive. Health care providers' knowledge assessment on maternal and neonatal care has been well documented elsewhere, but it is very little understood in Nepal. Objective The primary objective of this study was to assess the critical knowledge of primary level nurse- midwives on maternal and newborn care in Kapilvastu District of Nepal. Method This was an Institution based cross-sectional study, conducted in Kapilvastu district, Nepal among sixty eight nurse-midwives...
October 2015: Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ)
Q Wang, L H Wang, A L Wang, F Wang, X Y Wang, Y P Qiao, M Su, L X Dou, L W Fang
OBJECTIVE: To describe the changing demographic profile over time of pregnant women diagnosed with HIV infection, and trends in mode of delivery and pregnancy outcome. METHODS: An observational investigation was conducted based on a population of 1 128 HIV-positive pregnant women at eight sites in China in provinces with high prevalence of HIV among pregnant women and children between 2007 and 2013. The study area included Shangcai and Weishi counties in Henan province; Ruili and Longchuan counties and Linxiang prefecture in Yunnan province; Yining County in Xinjiang; and Lingshan county and Babu district in Guangxi province...
July 6, 2016: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
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