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Birth HIV testing

Vanessa M Oddo, Parul Christian, Joanne Katz, Li Liu, Naoko Kozuki, Robert E Black, Robert Ntozini, Jean Humphrey
BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, one-third of all births are small for gestational age (SGA), and 4.4 million children are stunted; both conditions increase the risk of child mortality. SGA has also been shown to increase the risk of stunting. OBJECTIVE: We tested whether the association between SGA and postneonatal mortality is mediated by stunting. METHODS: We used longitudinal data from children aged 6 wk to 24 mo (n = 12,155) enrolled in the ZVITAMBO (Zimbabwe Vitamin A for Mothers and Babies) trial...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Improving survival and extending the longevity of life for all populations requires timely, robust evidence on local mortality levels and trends. The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study (GBD 2015) provides a comprehensive assessment of all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2015. These results informed an in-depth investigation of observed and expected mortality patterns based on sociodemographic measures. METHODS: We estimated all-cause mortality by age, sex, geography, and year using an improved analytical approach originally developed for GBD 2013 and GBD 2010...
October 8, 2016: Lancet
Jacob Sakala, Nellisiwe Chizuni, Selestine Nzala
INTRODUCTION: Despite roll-out of cost-effective point-of-care tests, less than half antenatal attendees in rural western Zambia are screened for syphilis. This study formulated a clinical, risk-based assessment criteria and evaluated its usefulness as a non-biomedical alternative for identifying high-risk prenatal cases. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of antenatal clinic attendees in Kaoma, Luampa and Nkeyema districts to collect data on exposure to nine pre-selected syphilis risk factors...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
Alexandra B Balaji, Emeka Oraka, Amy M Fasula, Paula E Jayne, Monique G Carry, Jerris L Raiford
Adolescents need information about sex-related topics in order to reduce risk behavior and engage in healthy sexual decision-making. Parents have the potential to be an important source of this information. Using the 2006-2010 and 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth, we examined associations between parent-adolescent communication before age 18 about sex-related topics and HIV testing among respondents aged 18-24 that ever had sexual intercourse (women = 3893; men = 3359). Analyses showed that for both men and women, discussing how to prevent HIV/AIDS and how to use a condom with a parent before age 18 were positively associated with HIV testing...
October 4, 2016: AIDS Care
Manoel Sarno, Marcelo Aquino, Kleber Pimentel, Renata Cabral, Gisela Costa, Fernanda Bastos, Carlos Brites
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to describe the pattern and progression of Central Nervous System (CNS) lesions of microcephalic fetuses with suspected Zika Virus (ZIKV) infection. METHODS: We analyzed fetuses diagnosed with microcephaly after a routine primary care ultrasound scan suspect a fetal microcephaly in Salvador, Brazil, from July/2015 to February/2016 and these pregnancies were followed until delivery. Microcephaly was diagnosed when the head circumference was below two or more standard deviation for gestational age and its relationship with ZIKV infection was defined according to World Health Organization criteria...
September 19, 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
E Keane, A L Funk, Y Shimakawa
BACKGROUND: The risk of mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been quoted as 70-90% among women positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and e antigen (HBeAg), and 5-30% among HBsAg-positive HBeAg-negative women. These risks are derived from Asia; little is known about sub-Saharan Africa. AIM: To determine the risk of mother-to-child transmission in sub-Saharan Africa, according to maternal HBeAg and type of prophylaxis. METHODS: We searched Medline, Global Health, Embase, African Journals Online and African Index Medicus...
November 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Mwayiwawo Madanitsa, Linda Kalilani, Victor Mwapasa, Anna M van Eijk, Carole Khairallah, Doreen Ali, Cheryl Pace, James Smedley, Kyaw-Lay Thwai, Brandt Levitt, Duolao Wang, Arthur Kang'ombe, Brian Faragher, Steve M Taylor, Steve Meshnick, Feiko O Ter Kuile
BACKGROUND: In Africa, most plasmodium infections during pregnancy remain asymptomatic, yet are associated with maternal anemia and low birthweight. WHO recommends intermittent preventive therapy in pregnancy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP). However, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) efficacy is threatened by high-level parasite resistance. We conducted a trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of scheduled intermittent screening with malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and treatment of RDT-positive women with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) as an alternative strategy to IPTp-SP...
September 2016: PLoS Medicine
K Hauck, S Martin, P C Smith
The WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health set out an impressive collection of policy proposals on the social determinants of health. However, a serious weakness for securing implementation is the difficulty for policymakers in identifying priorities for action. The objective of this study is to determine a small set of the most influential determinants using existing data and an empirical approach. 45 Indicators from the World Bank's World Development Indicators are selected to measure attainment for the determinants proposed by the Commission...
October 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Naveed Z Janjua, Margot Kuo, Amanda Yu, Maria Alvarez, Stanley Wong, Darrel Cook, Jason Wong, Jason Grebely, Zahid A Butt, Hasina Samji, Alnoor Ramji, Mark Tyndall, Mel Krajden
BACKGROUND: Population-level monitoring of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected people across the cascade of care identifies gaps in access and engagement in care and treatment. We characterized a population-level cascade of care for HCV in British Columbia (BC), Canada and identified factors associated with leakage at each stage. METHODS: The BC Hepatitis Testers Cohort (BC-HTC) includes 1.5million individuals tested for HCV, HIV, reported cases of hepatitis B, and active tuberculosis in BC from 1990 to 2013 linked to medical visits, hospitalizations, cancers, prescription drugs and mortality data...
August 25, 2016: EBioMedicine
Njeri Wabiri, Matthew Chersich, Olive Shisana, Duane Blaauw, Helen Rees, Ntabozuko Dwane
BACKGROUND: Rates of maternal mortality and morbidity vary markedly, both between and within countries. Documenting these variations, in a very unequal society like South Africa, provides useful information to direct initiatives to improve services. The study describes inequalities over time in access to maternal health services in South Africa, and identifies differences in maternal health outcomes between population groups and across geographical areas. METHODS: Data were analysed from serial population-level household surveys that applied multistage-stratified sampling...
2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Jodie Dionne-Odom, Rahel Mbah, Nicole J Rembert, Samuel Tancho, Gregory E Halle-Ekane, Comfort Enah, Thomas K Welty, Pius M Tih, Alan T N Tita
Objectives. We estimated seroprevalence and correlates of selected infections in pregnant women and blood donors in a resource-limited setting. Methods. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of laboratory seroprevalence data from pregnant women and voluntary blood donors from facilities in Cameroon in 2014. Rapid tests were performed to detect hepatitis B surface antigen, syphilis treponemal antibodies, and HIV-1/2 antibodies. Blood donations were also tested for hepatitis C and malaria. Results. The seroprevalence rates and ranges among 7069 pregnant women were hepatitis B 4...
2016: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Jordan A Francke, Martina Penazzato, Taige Hou, Elaine J Abrams, Rachel L MacLean, Landon Myer, Rochelle P Walensky, Valériane Leroy, Milton C Weinstein, Robert A Parker, Kenneth A Freedberg, Andrea Ciaranello
BACKGROUND:  Early infant HIV diagnosis (EID) and antiretroviral therapy dramatically reduce mortality. EID is recommended at six weeks of age, but many infant infections are missed. DESIGN/METHODS:  We simulated four EID strategies for HIV-exposed infants in South Africa: no EID (diagnosis only after illness), testing once (birth alone; 6 weeks alone) and twice (birth and 6 weeks). We calculated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) using discounted costs and life expectancies for all HIV-exposed (infected and uninfected) infants...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Ross Shegog, Stephanie Craig Rushing, Gwenda Gorman, Cornelia Jessen, Jennifer Torres, Travis L Lane, Amanda Gaston, Taija Koogei Revels, Jennifer Williamson, Melissa F Peskin, Jina D'Cruz, Susan Tortolero, Christine M Markham
Sexually transmitted infection (STI) and birth rates among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth indicate a need for effective middle school HIV/STI and pregnancy prevention curricula to delay, or mitigate, the consequences of early sexual activity. While effective curricula exist, there is a dearth of curricula with content salient to AI/AN youth. Further, there is a lack of sexual health curricula that take advantage of the motivational appeal, reach, and fidelity of communication technology for this population, who are sophisticated technology users...
August 12, 2016: Journal of Primary Prevention
Carol-Ann Swain, Lou C Smith, Denis Nash, Wendy P Pulver, Victoria Lazariu, Bridget J Anderson, Barbara L Warren, Guthrie S Birkhead, Louise-Anne McNutt
Mother-to-child-transmission of HIV in the United States has been greatly reduced, with clear benefits for the child. However, little is known about factors that predict maternal loss to HIV care in the postpartum year. This retrospective cohort study included 980 HIV-positive women, diagnosed with HIV at least one year before pregnancy, who had a live birth during 2008-2010 in New York State. Women who did not meet the following criterion in the 12 months after the delivery-related hospital discharge were considered to be lost to HIV care: two or more laboratory tests (CD4 or HIV viral load), separated by at least 90 days...
2016: PloS One
Alireza Abdollahi, Hana Saffar
It is estimated that the number of HIV infected children globally has increased from 1.6 million in 2001 to 3.3 million in 2012. The number of children below 15 years of age living with HIV has increased worldwide. Published data from recent studies confirmed dramatic survival benefit for infants started anti-retroviral therapy (ART) as early as possible after diagnosis of HI. Early confirmation of HIV diagnosis is required in order to identify infants who need immediate ART. WHO has designed recommendations to improve programs for both early diagnoses of HIV infection and considering ART whenever indicated? It is strongly recommended that HIV virologocal assays for diagnosis of HIV have sensitivity of at least 95% and ideally greater than 98% and specificity of 98% or more under standardized and validated conditions...
2016: Iranian Journal of Pathology
Dante R Culqui-Lévano, Elena Rodriguez-Valín, Juan de Mata Donado-Campos
INTRODUCTION: This study sought to study the epidemiological characteristics of the extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) in relation to pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) from 2007 to 2012 in Spain, and plot its trend across the same period. METHODS: We conducted an analytical cross-sectional study in which the following variables were analysed: age; sex; disease site; history of antituberculosis treatment; country of birth; presence of HIV infection; and culture results...
July 26, 2016: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
Diana M Sheehan, Mary Jo Trepka, Kristopher P Fennie, Guillermo Prado, Gladys Ibanez, Lorene M Maddox
Only about 85% of men who have sex with men (MSM) with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have been tested for and diagnosed with HIV. Racial/ethnic disparities in HIV risk and HIV care outcomes exist within MSM. We examined racial/ethnic disparities in delayed HIV diagnosis among MSM. Males aged ≥13 reported to the Florida Enhanced HIV/AIDS Reporting System 2000-2014 with a reported HIV transmission mode of MSM were analyzed. We defined delayed HIV diagnosis as an AIDS diagnosis within three months of the HIV diagnosis...
July 25, 2016: AIDS Care
Qiang Xia, Dipal Shah, Balwant Gill, Lucia V Torian, Sarah L Braunstein
OBJECTIVE: The HIV care continuum outlines the steps from HIV infection to diagnosis, linkage to care, and viral suppression among people living with HIV. We examined data for steps along the HIV care continuum among people living with perinatally acquired infection in New York City using surveillance data. METHODS: This study included data for people who acquired HIV infection perinatally and lived in New York City as of December 31, 2014. We defined "in care" as having ≥1 CD4 or viral load test in 2014, "in continuous care" as having ≥2 CD4 or viral load tests ≥3 months apart in 2014, and "virally suppressed" as having a viral load of #200 copies per milliliter in the most recent test in 2014...
July 2016: Public Health Reports
Alaya Koneru, Noele Nelson, Susan Hariri, Lauren Canary, Kathy J Sanders, Justine F Maxwell, Xiaohua Huang, John A D Leake, John W Ward, Claudia Vellozzi
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a leading cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality (1). Transmission of HCV is primarily via parenteral blood exposure, and HCV can be transmitted vertically from mother to child. Vertical transmission occurs in 5.8% (95% confidence interval = 4.2%-7.8%) of infants born to women who are infected only with HCV and in up to twice as many infants born to women who are also infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (2) or who have high HCV viral loads (3,4); there is currently no recommended intervention to prevent transmission of infection from mother to child (3)...
2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Naveed Zafar Janjua, Amanda Yu, Margot Kuo, Maria Alvarez, Darrel Cook, Jason Wong, Mark W Tyndall, Mel Krajden
BACKGROUND: We characterized the twin epidemics of new and prevalent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in British Columbia, Canada to inform prevention, care and treatment programs. METHODS: The BC Hepatitis Testers Cohort (BC-HTC) includes individuals tested for HCV, HIV or reported as a case of HBV, HCV, HIV or active TB between 1990-2013 linked with data on their medical visits, hospitalizations, cancers, prescription drugs and mortality. Prevalent infection was defined as being anti-HCV positive at first test...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
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