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Birth HIV testing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143681/economic-evaluation-of-hcv-testing-approaches-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#1
REVIEW
Jake R Morgan, Maria Servidone, Philippa Easterbrook, Benjamin P Linas
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection represents a major public health burden with diverse epidemics worldwide, but at present, only a minority of infected persons have been tested and are aware of their diagnosis. The advent of highly effective direct acting antiviral (DAA) therapy, which is becoming available at increasingly lower costs in low and middle income countries (LMICs), represents a major opportunity to expand access to testing and treatment. However, there is uncertainty as to the optimal testing approaches and who to prioritize for testing...
November 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112689/hiv-prevalence-and-behavioral-and-psychosocial-factors-among-transgender-women-and-cisgender-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-8-african-countries-a-cross-sectional-analysis
#2
Tonia Poteat, Benjamin Ackerman, Daouda Diouf, Nuha Ceesay, Tampose Mothopeng, Ky-Zerbo Odette, Seni Kouanda, Henri Gautier Ouedraogo, Anato Simplice, Abo Kouame, Zandile Mnisi, Gift Trapence, L Leigh Ann van der Merwe, Vicente Jumbe, Stefan Baral
INTRODUCTION: Sub-Saharan Africa bears more than two-thirds of the worldwide burden of HIV; however, data among transgender women from the region are sparse. Transgender women across the world face significant vulnerability to HIV. This analysis aimed to assess HIV prevalence as well as psychosocial and behavioral drivers of HIV infection among transgender women compared with cisgender (non-transgender) men who have sex with men (cis-MSM) in 8 sub-Saharan African countries. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Respondent-driven sampling targeted cis-MSM for enrollment...
November 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109072/factors-associated-with-access-to-hiv-testing-and-primary-care-among-migrants-living-in-europe-cross-sectional-survey
#3
Ibidun Fakoya, Débora Álvarez-Del Arco, Andrew J Copas, Bryan Teixeira, Koen Block, Anne-Francoise Gennotte, Alain Volny-Anne, Janneke P Bil, Giota Touloumi, Julia Del Amo, Fiona M Burns
BACKGROUND: There is a heavy and disproportionate burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among migrant communities living in Europe. Despite this, the published evidence related to HIV testing, prevention, and treatment needs for migrants is sparse. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with access to primary care and HIV testing among migrant groups living in Europe. METHODS: A Web-based survey (available in 14 languages) was open to all people aged 18 years and older, living outside their country of birth in the World Health Organization (WHO) European area...
November 6, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031892/altered-angiogenesis-as-a-common-mechanism-underlying-preterm-birth-small-for-gestational-age-and-stillbirth-in-women-living-with-hiv
#4
Andrea L Conroy, Chloe R McDonald, Joel L Gamble, Peter Olwoch, Paul Natureeba, Deborah Cohan, Moses R Kamya, Diane V Havlir, Grant Dorsey, Kevin C Kain
BACKGROUND: Angiogenic processes in the placenta are critical regulators of fetal growth and impact birth outcomes, but there are limited data documenting these processes in HIV-infected women or women from low-resource settings. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether angiogenic factors are associated with adverse birth outcomes in HIV-infected pregnant women started on antiretroviral therapy. STUDY DESIGN: This is a secondary analysis of samples collected as part of a clinical trial randomizing pregnant women infected with HIV to lopinavir/ritonavir-based (n = 166) or efavirenz-based (n = 160) antiretroviral therapy in Tororo, Uganda...
October 12, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982364/utilization-of-dual-contraception-method-among-reproductive-age-women-on-antiretroviral-therapy-in-selected-public-hospitals-of-northern-ethiopia
#5
Solomon Weldemariam Gebrehiwot, Gedion Asnake Azeze, Carmen C Robles, Yohannes Mehretie Adinew
BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted infections are highly prevalent among pregnant women in Africa. Among the incidence of HIV infection in children, 90% of the infection is attributable to their mothers. Ethiopia is one of the countries with an increasing risky sexual behavior and the most affected by the HIV epidemic. If prevention of mother to child transmission focuses on increasing contraception, it will prevent more than 29% of HIV infection at birth. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess utilization of dual contraceptive  method and associated factors among reproductive age women on antiretroviral therapy in selected public hospitals of Mekelle town, Northern Ethiopia...
October 5, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969210/prevention-of-parent-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-single-centre-experience-of-14-years-at-tertiary-care-hospital-in-delhi-india
#6
A G Radhika, Sonia Chawla, Sruthi Bhaskaran
INTRODUCTION: Prevention of Parent To Child Transmission (PPTCT) of HIV/AIDS is an integral component of AIDS control programme. PPTCT is an ongoing programme since last 15 years. AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate the reduction in the burden of disease in newborn and infants by prevention of parents to child transmission of HIV/AIDS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted at Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in a tertiary care hospital of Delhi from May 2002 to May 2015...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960293/prevalence-risk-factors-and-pregnancy-outcomes-of-cervical-cell-abnormalities-in-the-puerperium-in-a-hyperendemic-hiv-setting
#7
Hopolang C Maise, Dhayendre Moodley, Motshedisi Sebitloane, Suzanne Maman, Benn Sartorius
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of cervical cell abnormalities detected in the puerperium in association with HIV-1 infection on pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: The present study was a secondary data analysis of pregnancy outcomes, Pap smear results, HIV results, and participant demography from a behavioral intervention randomized controlled trial of 1480 pregnant women aged 18 years or more conducted at a periurban primary health clinic in South Africa during 2008-2010...
September 28, 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931234/the-evva-cohort-study-anal-and-cervical-type-specific-human-papillomavirus-prevalence-persistence-and-cytologic-findings-in-women-living-with-hiv
#8
Alexandra de Pokomandy, Elaina Kaufman, Christina de Castro, Marie-Hélène Mayrand, Ann N Burchell, Marina Klein, Louise Charest, Manon Auger, Sophie Rodrigues-Coutlée, François Coutlée
Background: The risk of anal cancer due to high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is higher in women living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) than in the general population. We present findings of cervical and anal HPV and cytologic tests at baseline in the EVVA cohort study and HPV persistence data 6 months after baseline. Methods: Semiannual visits included questionnaires, chart reviews, cervical/anal cytologic and cervical/anal HPV testing for 2 years...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926397/time-to-first-positive-hiv-1-dna-pcr-may-differ-with-antiretroviral-regimen-in-infants-infected-with-non-b-subtype-hiv-1
#9
Raji Balasubramanian, Mary Glenn Fowler, Kenneth Dominguez, Shahin Lockman, Pat A Tookey, Nicole Ngo Giang Huong, Steven Nesheim, Michael D Hughes, Marc Lallemant, Jennifer Tosswill, Nathan Shaffer, Gayle Sherman, Paul Palumbo, David E Shapiro
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of type and timing of prophylactic maternal and infant antiretroviral regimen with time to first positive HIV-1 DNA PCR test, in nonbreastfed HIV-infected infants, from populations infected predominantly with HIV-1 non-B subtype virus. DESIGN: Analysis of combined data on nonbreastfed HIV-infected infants from prospective cohorts in Botswana, Thailand, and the United Kingdom (N = 405). METHODS: Parametric models appropriate for interval-censored outcomes estimated the time to first positive PCR according to maternal or infant antiretroviral regimen category and timing of maternal antiretroviral initiation, with adjustment for covariates...
November 28, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916888/hiv-testing-among-foreign-born-men-and-women-in-the-united-states-results-from-a-nationally-representative-cross-sectional-survey
#10
Eduardo Valverde, Elizabeth DiNenno, Emeka Oraka, Gregory Bautista, Pollyanna Chavez
HIV disproportionately affects the foreign-born population in the United States. This analysis describes the prevalence of ever-testing for HIV among foreign-born individuals residing in the United States. Data from a national health survey of the civilian, non-institutionalized population was used to describe prevalence of ever-testing for HIV among foreign-born individuals by birth place. Multivariate logistic-regression procedures were used to determine factors associated with ever-testing for HIV among foreign-born men and women...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915850/-love-me-parents-impact-evaluation-of-a-national-social-and-behavioral-change-communication-campaign-on-maternal-health-outcomes-in-tanzania
#11
Michelle R Kaufman, Jennifer J Harman, Marina Smelyanskaya, Jennifer Orkis, Robert Ainslie
BACKGROUND: Despite marked improvements over the last few decades, maternal mortality in Tanzania remains among the world's highest at 454 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. Many factors contribute to this disparity, such as a lack of attendance at antenatal care (ANC) services and low rates of delivery at a health facility with a skilled provider. The Wazazi Nipendeni (Love me, parents) social and behavioral change communication campaign was launched in Tanzania in 2012 to improve a range of maternal health outcomes, including individual birth planning, timely ANC attendance, and giving birth in a healthcare facility...
September 15, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899439/psychological-morbidity-and-parenting-stress-in-mothers-of-primary-school-children-by-timing-of-acquisition-of-hiv-infection-a-longitudinal-cohort-study-in-rural-south-africa
#12
T J Rochat, B Houle, A Stein, R M Pearson, M L Newell, R M Bland
Longitudinal maternal mental health data are needed from high HIV prevalence settings. The Siyakhula Cohort (SC) is a population-based cohort of HIV-positive and negative mothers (n=1506) with HIV-negative children (n=1536) from rural South Africa. SC includes 767 HIV-negative mothers; 465 HIV-positive in pregnancy; 272 HIV-positive since pregnancy (n=2 missing HIV status). A subgroup (n=890) participated in a non-randomized breastfeeding intervention [Vertical Transmission Study (VTS)]; the remaining (n=616) were resident in the same area and received antenatal care at the time of the VTS, but were not part of the VTS, instead receiving the standard of care Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT) Programme...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895659/implementation-strategies-for-health-systems-in-low-income-countries-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#13
REVIEW
Tomas Pantoja, Newton Opiyo, Simon Lewin, Elizabeth Paulsen, Agustín Ciapponi, Charles S Wiysonge, Cristian A Herrera, Gabriel Rada, Blanca Peñaloza, Lilian Dudley, Marie-Pierre Gagnon, Sebastian Garcia Marti, Andrew D Oxman
BACKGROUND: A key function of health systems is implementing interventions to improve health, but coverage of essential health interventions remains low in low-income countries. Implementing interventions can be challenging, particularly if it entails complex changes in clinical routines; in collaborative patterns among different healthcare providers and disciplines; in the behaviour of providers, patients or other stakeholders; or in the organisation of care. Decision-makers may use a range of strategies to implement health interventions, and these choices should be based on evidence of the strategies' effectiveness...
September 12, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886165/low-mother-to-child-hiv-transmission-rate-but-high-loss-to-follow-up-among-mothers-and-babies-in-mandalay-myanmar-a-cohort-study
#14
Khine Wut Yee Kyaw, Myo Minn Oo, Nang Thu Thu Kyaw, Khaing Hnin Phyo, Thet Ko Aung, Theingi Mya, Nilar Aung, Htun Nyunt Oo, Petros Isaakidis
INTRODUCTION: Loss-to-follow-up (LTFU) throughout the Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission (PMTCT) cascade remains one of the major threats to the success of PMTCT programs. In this study, we aimed to determine the mother-to-child transmission rate in a programmatic setting and to determine factors associated with LTFU among enrolled mothers and unfavorable outcomes among HIV-exposed babies which includes being HIV positive, death and LTFU. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study reviewing routinely collected data in an Integrated HIV care program, Mandalay, Myanmar in June 2016...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880995/vitamin-a-supplements-for-reducing-mother-to-child-hiv-transmission
#15
REVIEW
Charles S Wiysonge, Valantine N Ndze, Eugene J Kongnyuy, Muki S Shey
BACKGROUND: Strategies to reduce the risk of mother-to-child transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) include lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-positive women, exclusive breastfeeding from birth for six weeks plus nevirapine or replacement feeding plus nevirapine from birth for four to six weeks, elective Caesarean section delivery, and avoiding giving children chewed food. In some settings, these interventions may not be practical, feasible, or affordable. Simple, inexpensive, and effective interventions (that could potentially be implemented even in the absence of prenatal HIV testing programmes) would be valuable...
September 7, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875725/il-1%C3%AE-haplotype-influences-the-effect-of-nox-exposure-on-gestational-age-in-the-south-african-mace-birth-cohort
#16
P Nansook, R N Naidoo, P Ramkaran, A Phulukdaree, S Muttoo, K Asharam, A A Chuturgoon
OBJECTIVE: Cytokines, molecules within the immune system that affect either a pro- or anti-inflammatory response, have previously been shown to influence birth outcomes. The maternal cytokine gene-environment interactions are thought to alter their expression, potentially influencing susceptibility to adverse birth outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the association between the maternal interleukin-1β (IL-1β) haplotype and expression variation with oxides of nitrogen (NOx) levels, and thereafter investigate the IL-1β haplotype-specific effects of NOx exposure levels, IL-1β mRNA expression and other variables on gestational age...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872276/prevalence-and-outcomes-of-hiv-1-diagnostic-challenges-during-universal-birth-testing-an-urban-south-african-observational-cohort
#17
Karl-Günter Technau, Ahmad Haeri Mazanderani, Louise Kuhn, Lucia Hans, Renate Strehlau, Elaine J Abrams, Martie Conradie, Ashraf Coovadia, Ndileka Mbete, Pamela M Murnane, Faeezah Patel, Stephanie Shiau, Caroline T Tiemessen, Gayle G Sherman
INTRODUCTION: HIV-1 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing at birth aims to facilitate earlier initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-infected neonates. Data from two years of universal birth testing implementation in a high-burden South African urban setting are presented to demonstrate the prevalence and outcomes of diagnostic challenges in this context. METHODS: HIV-exposed neonates born at Rahima Moosa Mother and Child Hospital between 5 June 2014 and 31 August 2016 were routinely screened at birth for HIV-1 on whole blood samples using the COBAS® AmpliPrep/COBAS® TaqMan (CAP/CTM) HIV-1 Qualitative Test, version 2...
August 29, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832284/attendance-at-antenatal-clinics-in-inner-city-johannesburg-south-africa-and-its-associations-with-birth-outcomes-analysis-of-data-from-birth-registers-at-three-facilities
#18
Siphamandla Gumede, Vivian Black, Nicolette Naidoo, Matthew F Chersich
BACKGROUND: Antenatal care (ANC) clinics serve as key gateways to screening and treatment interventions that improve pregnancy outcomes, and are especially important for HIV-infected women. By disaggregating data on access to ANC, we aimed to identify variation in ANC attendance by level of care and across vulnerable groups in inner-city Johannesburg, and document the impact of non-attendance on birth outcomes. METHODS: This record review of routine health service data involved manual extraction of 2 years of data from birth registers at a primary-, secondary- and tertiary-level facility within inner-city Johannesburg...
July 4, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814388/impact-of-poxvirus-vector-priming-protein-coadministration-and-vaccine-intervals-on-hiv-gp120-vaccine-elicited-antibody-magnitude-and-function-in-infant-macaques
#19
Bonnie Phillips, Genevieve G Fouda, Josh Eudailey, Justin Pollara, Alan D Curtis, Erika Kunz, Maria Dennis, Xiaoying Shen, Camden Bay, Michael Hudgens, David Pickup, S Munir Alam, Amir Ardeshir, Pamela A Kozlowski, Koen K A Van Rompay, Guido Ferrari, M Anthony Moody, Sallie Permar, Kristina De Paris
Despite success in reducing vertical HIV transmission by maternal antiretroviral therapy, several obstacles limit its efficacy during breastfeeding, and breast-milk transmission is now the dominant mode of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV in infants. Thus, a pediatric vaccine is needed to eradicate oral HIV infections in newborns and infants. Utilizing the infant rhesus macaque model, we compared 3 different vaccine regimens: (i) HIV envelope (Env) protein only, (ii) poxvirus vector (modified vaccinia virus Ankara [MVA])-HIV Env prime and HIV Env boost, and (iii) coadministration of HIV Env and MVA-HIV Env at all time points...
October 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807190/socioeconomic-differences-in-mortality-in-the-antiretroviral-therapy-era-in-agincourt-rural-south-africa-2001-13-a-population-surveillance-analysis
#20
Chodziwadziwa W Kabudula, Brian Houle, Mark A Collinson, Kathleen Kahn, Francesc Xavier Gómez-Olivé, Stephen Tollman, Samuel J Clark
BACKGROUND: Understanding the effects of socioeconomic disparities in health outcomes is important to implement specific preventive actions. We assessed socioeconomic disparities in mortality indicators in a rural South African population over the period 2001-13. METHODS: We used data from 21 villages of the Agincourt Health and socio-Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS). We calculated the probabilities of death from birth to age 5 years and from age 15 to 60 years, life expectancy at birth, and cause-specific and age-specific mortality by sex (not in children <5 years), time period, and socioeconomic status (household wealth) quintile for HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis, other communicable diseases (excluding HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis) and maternal, perinatal, and nutritional causes, non-communicable diseases, and injury...
September 2017: Lancet Global Health
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