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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319246/estimated-perinatal-hiv-infection-among-infants-born-in-the-united-states-2002-2013
#1
Allan W Taylor, Steven R Nesheim, Xinjian Zhang, Ruiguang Song, Lauren F FitzHarris, Margaret A Lampe, Paul J Weidle, Patricia Sweeney
Importance: Perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can be reduced through services including antiretroviral treatment and prophylaxis. Data on the national incidence of perinatal HIV transmission and missed prevention opportunities are needed to monitor progress toward elimination of mother-to-child HIV transmission. Objective: To estimate the number of perinatal HIV cases among infants born in the United States. Design, Setting, and Participants: Data were obtained from the National HIV Surveillance System on infants with HIV born in the United States (including the District of Columbia) and their mothers between 2002 and 2013 (reported through December 31, 2015)...
March 20, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296802/the-effects-of-hiv-on-fertility-by-infection-duration-evidence-from-african-population-cohorts-before-antiretroviral-treatment-availability
#2
Milly Marston, Jessica Nakiyingi-Miiro, Sylvia Kusemererwa, Mark Urassa, Denna Michael, Constance Nyamukapa, Simon Gregson, Basia Zaba, Jeffrey W Eaton
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the relationship between HIV natural history and fertility by duration of infection in east and southern Africa before the availability of antiretroviral therapy and assess potential biases in estimates of age-specific subfertility when using retrospective birth histories in cross-sectional studies. DESIGN: Pooled analysis of prospective population-based HIV cohort studies in Masaka (Uganda), Kisesa (Tanzania) and Manicaland (Zimbabwe). METHODS: Women aged 15-49 years who had ever tested for HIV were included...
April 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292306/fertility-and-hiv-following-universal-access-to-art-in-rwanda-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-demographic-and-health-survey-data
#3
Eric Remera, Kimberly Boer, Stella M Umuhoza, Bethany L Hedt-Gauthier, Dana R Thomson, Patrick Ndimubanzi, Eugenie Kayirangwa, Salomon Mutsinzi, Alice Bayingana, Placidie Mugwaneza, Jean Baptiste T Koama
BACKGROUND: HIV infection is linked to decreased fertility and fertility desires in sub-Saharan Africa due to biological and social factors. We investigate the relationship between HIV infection and fertility or fertility desires in the context of universal access to antiretroviral therapy introduced in 2004 in Rwanda. METHODS: We used data from 3532 and 4527 women aged 20-49 from the 2005 and 2010 Rwandan Demographic and Health Surveys (RDHS), respectively. The RDHSs included blood-tests for HIV, as well as detailed interviews about fertility, demographic and behavioral outcomes...
March 14, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278406/multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-the-northern-territory-a-10-year-retrospective-case-series
#4
Daniel Judge, Vicki Krause
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical characteristics, risk factors, diagnostic modalities, treatments, subsequent outcomes and complications of Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases residing in the Northern Territory. METHODS: A retrospective case series was conducted of all patients treated for MDR-TB in the Northern Territory between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2013. This is the first study to analyse data relating to the subset of MDR-TB cases treated in the Northern Territory...
September 30, 2016: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266230/the-introduction-of-syphilis-point-of-care-tests-in-resource-limited-settings
#5
Michael Marks, David Cw Mabey
Syphilis remains an important and preventable cause of stillbirth and neonatal mortality. About 1 million women with active syphilis become pregnant each year. Without treatment, 25% of them will deliver a stillborn baby and 33% a low birth weight baby with an increased chance of dying in the first month of life. Adverse pregnancy outcomes due to syphilis can be prevented by screening pregnant women, and treating those who test positive with a single dose of penicillin before 28 weeks' gestation. Areas covered: This manuscript covers the impact of syphilis on pregnancy outcome, the diagnosis of syphilis, with a special focus on point of care (POC) tests, and challenges to the introduction of POC tests, and their potential impact on the control and prevention of syphilis in resource limited settings...
March 14, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264668/implementing-and-sustaining-a-mobile-medical-clinic-for-prenatal-care-and-sexually-transmitted-infection-prevention-in-rural-mysore-india
#6
Noah Kojima, Karl Krupp, Kavitha Ravi, Savitha Gowda, Poornima Jaykrishna, Caitlyn Leonardson-Placek, Anand Siddhaiah, Claire C Bristow, Anjali Arun, Jeffrey D Klausner, Purnima Madhivanan
BACKGROUND: In rural India, mobile medical clinics are useful models for delivering health promotion, education, and care. Mobile medical clinics use fewer providers for larger catchment areas compared to traditional clinic models in resource limited settings, which is especially useful in areas with shortages of healthcare providers and a wide geographical distribution of patients. METHODS: From 2008 to 2011, we built infrastructure to implement a mobile clinic system to educate rural communities about maternal child health, train community health workers in common safe birthing procedures, and provide comprehensive antenatal care, prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and testing for specific infections in a large rural catchment area of pregnant women in rural Mysore...
March 6, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239604/predictors-of-antenatal-care-skilled-birth-attendance-and-postnatal-care-utilization-among-the-remote-and-poorest-rural-communities-of-zambia-a-multilevel-analysis
#7
Choolwe Jacobs, Mosa Moshabela, Sitali Maswenyeho, Nildah Lambo, Charles Michelo
OBJECTIVE: Optimal utilization of maternal health-care services is associated with reduction of mortality and morbidity for both mothers and their neonates. However, deficiencies and disparity in the use of key maternal health services within most developing countries still persist. We examined patterns and predictors associated with the utilization of specific indicators for maternal health services among mothers living in the poorest and remote district populations of Zambia. METHODS: A cross-sectional baseline household survey was conducted in May 2012...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212307/antiretroviral-treatment-in-hiv-1-positive-mothers-neurological-implications-in-virus-free-children
#8
REVIEW
Antonio Victor Campos Coelho, Paola Maura Tricarico, Fulvio Celsi, Sergio Crovella
Since the worldwide introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in human immunodeficiency virus type 1, HIV-1-positive mothers, together with HIV-1 testing prior to pregnancy, caesarian birth and breastfeeding cessation with replacement feeding, a reduction of HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) has been observed in the last few years. As such, an increasing number of children are being exposed in utero to ART. Several questions have arisen concerning the neurological effects of ART exposure in utero, considering the potential effect of antiretroviral drugs on the central nervous system, a structure which is in continuous development in the fetus and characterized by great plasticity...
February 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107805/effectiveness-of-an-sms-based-maternal-mhealth-intervention-to-improve-clinical-outcomes-of-hiv-positive-pregnant-women
#9
Jesse Coleman, Kate C Bohlin, Anna Thorson, Vivian Black, Patricia Mechael, Josie Mangxaba, Jaran Eriksen
We conducted a retrospective study to investigate the effectiveness of an mHealth messaging intervention aiming to improve maternal health and HIV outcomes. Maternal health SMSs were sent to 235 HIV-infected pregnant women twice per week in pregnancy and continued until the infant's first birthday. The messages were timed to the stage of the pregnancy/infant age and covered maternal health and HIV-support information. Outcomes, measured as antenatal care (ANC) visits, birth outcomes and infant HIV testing, were compared to a control group of 586 HIV-infected pregnant women who received no SMS intervention...
January 20, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027284/antiretroviral-treatment-initiated-in-the-first-month-of-life
#10
Lisa Frigati, Elke Wynberg, Jean Maritz, Sandi Holgate, Mark F Cotton, Helena Rabie
BACKGROUND: Earlier diagnosis of HIV-infected infants facilitates earlier access to therapy and improved clinical outcomes. AIM: The aim of this study was describe the management of infants who started antiretroviral therapy in the first month of life. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed on HIV-infected neonates who started ART within the first month of life between January 2013 and March 2015. RESULTS: 997 neonates had one HIV PCR test...
December 23, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005477/correlates-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-the-targeted-testing-program-of-the-new-york-city-jail-system
#11
Matthew J Akiyama, Fatos Kaba, Zachary Rosner, Howard Alper, Aimee Kopolow, Alain H Litwin, Homer Venters, Ross MacDonald
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to understand predictors of hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody positivity in a large urban jail system in New York City. METHODS: We examined demographic characteristics, risk behaviors, and HCV antibody prevalence among 10 790 jail inmates aged 16 to 86 who were screened from June 13, 2013, to June 13, 2014, based on birth cohort or conventional high-risk criteria. We used logistic regression analysis to determine predictors of HCV antibody positivity...
January 2017: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981447/the-differential-effects-of-an-opt-out-hiv-testing-policy-for-pregnant-women-in-ethiopia-when-accounting-for-stigma-secondary-analysis-of-dhs-data
#12
Michelle R Kaufman, Alyssa Mooney, Lakew Abebe Gebretsadik, Morankar N Sudhakar, Rachel Rieder, Rupali J Limaye, Eshetu Girma, Rajiv N Rimal
Individual factors associated with HIV testing have been studied across multiple populations; however, testing is not just an individual-level phenomenon. This secondary analysis of 2005 and 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey data was conducted to determine the extent to which the 2007 institution of an opt-out policy of HIV testing during antenatal care increased testing among women, and whether effects differed by women's stigmatizing beliefs about HIV. A logit model with interaction between pre-/post-policy year and policy exposure (birth in the past year) was used to estimate the increased probability of past-year testing, which may be attributable to the policy...
February 2017: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965866/progesterone-supplementation-for-hiv-positive-pregnant-women-on-protease-inhibitor-based-antiretroviral-regimens-the-prospar-study-a-study-protocol-for-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Kaitlin Siou, Sharon L Walmsley, Kellie E Murphy, Janet Raboud, Mona Loutfy, Mark H Yudin, Michael Silverman, Noor N Ladhani, Lena Serghides
BACKGROUND: In Canada, the majority of HIV-positive pregnant women receive combination antiretroviral therapy that includes a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission. However, protease inhibitor-based combination antiretroviral therapy has been associated with increased rates of preterm, low birth weight, and small for gestational age births. Our previous experimental findings demonstrate that protease inhibitor use during pregnancy is associated with decreased progesterone levels that correlate with fetal growth, and that progesterone supplementation can improve protease inhibitor-induced fetal growth restriction...
2016: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941493/early-infant-diagnosis-of-hiv-review-of-current-and-innovative-practices
#14
Francesca Celletti, Gayle Sherman, Ahmad H Mazanderani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Only 51% of HIV-exposed infants receive an HIV test between 4 and 6 weeks of age, with even lower repeat testing rates at older ages, and only 49% of infants tested are initiated on antiretroviral therapy. The purpose of this article is to discuss potential solutions for increasing coverage of early infant diagnosis (EID), decreasing turnaround time for result return, improving linkages to care and treatment and fulfilling the objective of improving outcomes for HIV-infected children...
March 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933401/improvement-of-abnormal-vaginal-flora-in-ugandan-women-by-self-testing-and-short-use-of-intravaginal-antimicrobials
#15
G Donders, G Bellen, F Donders, J Pinget, I Vandevelde, T Michiels, J Byamughisa
The vaginal composition of African women is more often lactobacillus-deficient compared to that of women from other areas around the world. Lactobacillus-deficient microflora is a known risk factor for serious health problems, such as preterm birth, cervix cancer, and entrapment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The aim of this study was to assess the effect of local vaginal antibiotic or antiseptic treatment on abnormal vaginal flora (AVF), aerobic vaginitis (AV), and bacterial vaginosis (BV) among women in rural, semi-urban, and urban areas in Uganda, as compared to placebo...
December 8, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915483/factors-associated-with-sterilization-among-hiv-positive-us-women-in-an-urban-outpatient-clinic
#16
V T Raziano, A N Smoots, L B Haddad, K M Wall
This cross-sectional study sought to determine factors associated with sterilization among HIV-positive US women. HIV-positive women aged 18-45 completed an Audio Computer Assisted Self Interview (ACASI) questionnaire. Chi-square tests and multivariable logistic regression evaluated factors associated with sterilization. The median age of the 187 participants was 37, the majority had at least a high school education, and 88% were African American. Nearly a quarter (22%) of women had undergone sterilization at an average age of 25; of these women, 71% cited their HIV-positive status as an important factor in deciding to have a tubal ligation, 22% expressed desire for future children, 32% reported sterilization regret, and 20% reported feeling pressure to undergo sterilization...
May 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882759/-management-of-care-of-hiv-positive-pregnant-women-in-the-period-1996-2014
#17
M Mojhová, I Mikysková, M Halaška, M Staňková, H Rozsypal, J Šrámek, J Záhumenský, M Malý
OBJECTIVE: The evaluation of multidisplinary care about HIV positive pregnant women in the Czech Republic. DESIGN: Review. SETTINGS: Gynekologicko-porodnická klinika 1. LF UK a Nemocnice na Bulovce, Praha. METHODS: The vertical transmission of HIV infection from mother to fetus occurs most often during birth, still 1-2% of HIV-positive pregnant women will transfer the virus transplacenta. Due to careful screening for HIV during pregnancy, counselling, combination antiretroviral (cART) therapy, childbirth planning and its performance by C-section there appears a significant decrease of the virus transmission to the fetus, its occurrence is around 2%...
2016: Ceská Gynekologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880749/early-diagnosis-of-hiv-infection-in-infants-one-caribbean-and-six-sub-saharan-african-countries-2011-2015
#18
Karidia Diallo, Andrea A Kim, Shirley Lecher, Dennis Ellenberger, R Suzanne Beard, Helen Dale, Mackenzie Hurlston, Molly Rivadeneira, Peter N Fonjungo, Laura N Broyles, Guoqing Zhang, Katrina Sleeman, Shon Nguyen, Steve Jadczak, Nadine Abiola, Raimi Ewetola, Jérémie Muwonga, Franck Fwamba, Christina Mwangi, Mary Naluguza, Charles Kiyaga, Isaac Ssewanyana, Deyde Varough, Domercant Wysler, David Lowrance, Frantz Jean Louis, Olbeg Desinor, Josiane Buteau, Francois Kesner, Vanessa Rouzier, Nat Segaren, Tessa Lewis, Abdoulaye Sarr, Geoffrey Chipungu, Sundeep Gupta, Daniel Singer, Reuben Mwenda, Hilary Kapoteza, Zawadi Chipeta, Nancy Knight, Sergio Carmona, William MacLeod, Gayle Sherman, Yogan Pillay, Clement B Ndongmo, Bridget Mugisa, Annie Mwila, James McAuley, Peter J Chipimo, Wezi Kaonga, Dailess Nsofwa, Davy Nsama, Fales Zulu Mwamba, Crispin Moyo, Clement Phiri, Marie-Yolande Borget, Leonard Ya-Kouadio, Abo Kouame, Christiane A Adje-Toure, John Nkengasong
Pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains an important public health issue in resource-limited settings. In 2015, 1.4 million children aged <15 years were estimated to be living with HIV (including 170,000 infants born in 2015), with the vast majority living in sub-Saharan Africa (1). In 2014, 150,000 children died from HIV-related causes worldwide (2). Access to timely HIV diagnosis and treatment for HIV-infected infants reduces HIV-associated mortality, which is approximately 50% by age 2 years without treatment (3)...
November 25, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879980/theory-based-interventions-for-contraception
#19
REVIEW
Laureen M Lopez, Thomas W Grey, Mario Chen, Elizabeth E Tolley, Laurie L Stockton
BACKGROUND: The explicit use of theory in research helps expand the knowledge base. Theories and models have been used extensively in HIV-prevention research and in interventions for preventing sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The health behavior field uses many theories or models of change. However, many educational interventions addressing contraception have no explicit theoretical base. OBJECTIVES: To review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that tested a theoretical approach to inform contraceptive choice and encourage or improve contraceptive use...
November 23, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856821/determinants-of-early-life-lung-function-in-african-infants
#20
Diane Gray, Lauren Willemse, Ane Visagie, Dorottya Czövek, Polite Nduru, Aneesa Vanker, Dan J Stein, Nastassja Koen, Peter D Sly, Zoltán Hantos, Graham L Hall, Heather J Zar
BACKGROUND: Low lung function in early life is associated with later respiratory illness. There is limited data on lung function in African infants despite a high prevalence of respiratory disease. AIM: To assess the determinants of early lung function in African infants. METHOD: Infants enrolled in a South African birth cohort, the Drakenstein child health study, had lung function measured at 6-10 weeks of age. Measurements, made with the infant breathing via a facemask during natural sleep, included tidal breathing, sulfur hexafluoride multiple breath washout and the forced oscillation technique...
November 17, 2016: Thorax
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