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Birth HIV testing

Lola Madrid, Rosauro Varo, Sonia Maculuve, Tacilta Nhampossa, Carmen Muñoz-Almagro, Enrique J Calderón, Cristina Esteva, Carla Carrilho, Mamudo Ismail, Begoña Vieites, Vicente Friaza, María Del Carmen Lozano-Dominguez, Clara Menéndez, Quique Bassat
BACKGROUND: Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection is the most prevalent congenital infection acquired worldwide, with higher incidence in developing countries and among HIV-exposed children. Less is known regarding vertical transmission of parvovirus B19 (B19V) and enterovirus (EV). We aimed to assess the prevalence of CMV, B19V and EV vertical transmission and compare results of screening of congenital CMV obtained from two different specimens in a semirural Mozambican maternity...
2018: PloS One
Nikolaus Ackermann, Durdica Marosevic, Stefan Hörmansdorfer, Ute Eberle, Gabriele Rieder, Bianca Treis, Anja Berger, Heribert Bischoff, Katja Bengs, Regina Konrad, Wolfgang Hautmann, Katharina Schönberger, Anne Belting, Gisela Schlenk, Gabriele Margos, Martin Hoch, Friedrich Pürner, Volker Fingerle, Bernhard Liebl, Andreas Sing
Background and aimAs a consequence of socioeconomic and political crises in many parts of the world, many European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries have faced an increasing number of migrants. In the German federal state of Bavaria, a mandatory health screening approach is implemented, where individuals applying for asylum have to undergo a medical examination that includes serological testing for HIV and hepatitis B, screening for tuberculosis, and until September 2015, stool examination for Salmonella spp...
March 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Kristina Adachi, Jiahong Xu, Bonnie Ank, D Heather Watts, Margaret Camarca, Lynne M Mofenson, Jose Henrique Pilotto, Esau Joao, Glenda Gray, Gerhard Theron, Breno Santos, Rosana Fonseca, Regis Kreitchmann, Jorge Pinto, Marisa M Mussi-Pinhata, Daisy Maria Machado, Mariana Ceriotto, Mariza G Morgado, Yvonne J Bryson, Valdilea G Veloso, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Mark Mirochnick, Jack Moye, Karin Nielsen-Saines
BACKGROUND: Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection (cCMV) is an important cause of hearing loss and cognitive impairment. Prior studies suggest that HIV-exposed children are at higher risk of acquiring cCMV. We assessed the presence, magnitude, and risk factors associated with cCMV among infants born to HIV-infected women, who were not receiving antiretrovirals during pregnancy. METHODS: cCMV and urinary CMV load were determined in a cohort of infants born to HIV-infected women not receiving antiretrovirals during pregnancy...
March 9, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Martin Marufu Gazimbi, Monica Akinyi Magadi
This study contributes to the dialogue on the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) through the use of HIV and antenatal care (ANC) integrated services. The determinants of antenatal HIV testing in Zimbabwe were explored. Multilevel logistic regression models were applied to data for 8471 women from 406 clusters who gave birth in the 5 years preceding Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 2005/6 and 2010/11. The uptake of antenatal HIV testing was found to be determined by a wide range of individual-level factors relating to women's economic and demographic status, as well as HIV-related factors, including HIV awareness and stigma within the community...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Biosocial Science
Anicet Christel Maloupazoa Siawaya, Ofilia Mvoundza Ndjindji, Eliane Kuissi Kamgaing, Amandine Mveang-Nzoghe, Chérone Nancy Mbani Mpega, Marielle Leboueny, Roselyne Kengue Boussougou, Armel Mintsa Ndong, Paulin N Essone, Joel Fleury Djoba Siawaya
Pathogen sensing and recognition through pattern recognition receptors, and subsequent production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, is the cornerstone of the innate immune system. Despite the fact that HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants are prone to serious bacterial infections, no study has focused on the functionality of their bacteria recognition system. This is the first study to investigate baseline levels of three critically important immune response molecules in this population: complement component (C)-3, toll-like receptor (TLR)-4, and C-reactive protein (CRP)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Lauren F FitzHarris, Christopher H Johnson, Steven R Nesheim, Nadia L Oussayef, Allan W Taylor, Ayanna Harrison, Nan Ruffo, Kim Burley, Lawrence House, Emilia H Koumans
OBJECTIVE: To analyze prenatal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing rates over time and describe the impact of state HIV testing laws on prenatal testing. METHODS: During 2004-2011, self-reported prenatal HIV testing data for women with live births in 35 states and New York City were collected. Prevalence of testing was estimated overall and by state and year. An annual percent change was calculated in states with at least six years of data to analyze testing changes over time...
February 26, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Collin M Price, Remco P H Peters, Janré Steyn, Maanda Mudau, Dawie Olivier, Lindsey De Vos, Erika Morikawa, Marleen M Kock, Andrew Medina-Marino, Jeffrey D Klausner
BACKGROUND: Trichomonas vaginalis is a STI associated with increased transmission of HIV and significant adverse birth outcomes; culture and PCR are commonly used in diagnosis. METHODS: Consenting HIV-infected pregnant women were recruited from clinics in South Africa and screened for T. vaginalis using PCR. PCR-positive women provided an additional sample for culture. We compared T. vaginalis detection between PCR and culture, and investigated how PCR cycle threshold (Ct) values differ among culture results...
November 7, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Eric P F Chow, Ria Fortune, Sheranne Dobinson, Trish Wakefield, Tim R H Read, Marcus Y Chen, Catriona S Bradshaw, Glenda Fehler, Christopher K Fairley
BACKGROUND: In August 2015, a nurse-led express HIV/STI testing service "Test-And-Go" (TAG) for asymptomatic men who have sex with men (MSM) was implemented in a large public sexual health center in Melbourne. We aimed to compare the clients' characteristics between the TAG and routine walk-in consultation service. METHODS: This study was conducted at the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre (MSHC), Australia, between 5th August 2015 and 1st June 2016. General estimating equation logistic regression models were constructed to examine the association between the use of TAG service and demographic characteristics, sexual behaviors, and HIV/STI diagnoses...
December 15, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Denise Kühnert, Roger Kouyos, George Shirreff, Jūlija Pečerska, Alexandra U Scherrer, Jürg Böni, Sabine Yerly, Thomas Klimkait, Vincent Aubert, Huldrych F Günthard, Tanja Stadler, Sebastian Bonhoeffer
Drug resistant HIV is a major threat to the long-term efficacy of antiretroviral treatment. Around 10% of ART-naïve patients in Europe are infected with drug-resistant HIV type 1. Hence it is important to understand the dynamics of transmitted drug resistance evolution. Thanks to routinely performed drug resistance tests, HIV sequence data is increasingly available and can be used to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationship among viral lineages. In this study we employ a phylodynamic approach to quantify the fitness costs of major resistance mutations in the Swiss HIV cohort...
February 20, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Leonardo Martinez, David M le Roux, Whitney Barnett, Attie Stadler, Mark P Nicol, Heather J Zar
Background: Tuberculosis is a leading cause of global childhood mortality. However, the epidemiology and burden of tuberculosis in infancy is not well understood. We aimed to investigate tuberculin skin test conversion and tuberculosis in the Drakenstein Child Health study, a South African birth cohort in a community in which tuberculosis incidence is hyperendemic. Methods: In this prospective birth cohort study, we enrolled pregnant women older than 18 years who were between 20 and 28 weeks' gestation and who were attending antenatal care in a peri-urban, impoverished South African setting...
January 2018: Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
Rosa Maria Soares Madeira Domingues, Valeria Saraceni, Maria do Carmo Leal
AIMS: to estimate the mother to child transmission (MTCT) of HIV among infected pregnant women identified in the "Birth in Brazil" study and to evaluate care practices provided in order to identify missed opportunities at preventing the MTCT of HIV infection in the country. METHODS: Descriptive study using data obtained from the consultation of different databases: the "Birth in Brazil" study database and the Brazilian National Information Systems (NIS) databases...
2018: PloS One
P Nansook, R N Naidoo, S Muttoo, K Asharam, P Ramkaran, A Phulukdaree, A A Chuturgoon
Interleukin (IL-)17A, plays a role in pathogenic defence, but is implicated in chronic inflammatory diseases, and has recently been associated with variable pregnancy outcomes. We investigated the role of maternal IL-17-[G197A]-specific effects of third-trimester IL-17 mRNA expression, NOx exposure levels and other variables on gestational age, in the Mother and Child in the Environment (MACE) birth cohort in South Africa. A total of 327 participants were genotyped for IL-17-[G197A] by polymerase chain reaction restriction-fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP)...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Immunogenetics
Denton Callander, Hamish McManus, Rebecca Guy, Margaret Hellard, Catherine C O'Connor, Christopher K Fairley, Eric P F Chow, Anna McNulty, David A Lewis, Christopher Carmody, Heather-Marie A Schmidt, Jules Kim, Basil Donovan
BACKGROUND: Female sex workers in Australia have achieved some of the lowest documented prevalences of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmissible infections globally but rates overall are increasing in Australia and warrant closer investigation. METHODS: We constructed a retrospective cohort using repeat testing data extracted from a network of 42 sexual health clinics. Poisson and Cox regression were used to determined trends in incidence and risk factors for HIV, chlamydia, gonorrhoea, and infectious syphilis among female sex workers...
March 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Michelle M Gill, Lynne M Mofenson, Mamakhetha Phalatse, Vincent Tukei, Laura Guay, Matsepeli Nchephe
INTRODUCTION: Mortality associated with in-utero HIV infection rises rapidly within weeks after birth. Very early infant diagnosis of HIV (VEID)-testing within 2 weeks of birth-followed by immediate initiation of antiretroviral therapy has potential to avert mortality associated with in-utero transmission. However, our understanding of acceptability and feasibility of VEID is limited. METHODS: VEID was piloted in an observational prospective cohort of HIV-positive pregnant women and their infants in 13 Lesotho health facilities...
2018: PloS One
Maria Inês Couto de Oliveira, Katia Silveira da Silva, Daniela Marcondes Gomes
Rapid HIV tests are used in maternity hospitals to prevent mother-to-child transmission. This study aimed to analyze factors associated with submission to the rapid HIV test (outcome). This is a cross-sectional study conducted in 2009 in 15 hospitals from the Rio de Janeiro's Unified Health System (SUS) by interviewing a representative sample of 835 pregnant women hospitalized for birth and by verifying medical records. Adjusted prevalence ratios were obtained by Poisson regression according to a hierarchical model, and variables associated with the outcome (p ≤ 0...
February 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Cheryl L Amoroso, Marie Paul Nisingizwe, Dominique Rouleau, Dana R Thomson, Daniel M Kagabo, Tatien Bucyana, Peter Drobac, Fidele Ngabo
BACKGROUND: Sustained investments in Rwanda's health system have led to historic reductions in under five (U5) mortality. Although Rwanda achieved an estimated 68% decrease in the national under U5 mortality rate between 2002 and 2012, according to the national census, 5.8% of children still do not reach their fifth birthday, requiring the next wave of child mortality prevention strategies. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of 9002 births to 6328 women age 15-49 in the 2010 Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey...
February 5, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Meghna Desai, Jenny Hill, Silke Fernandes, Patrick Walker, Christopher Pell, Julie Gutman, Kassoum Kayentao, Raquel Gonzalez, Jayne Webster, Brian Greenwood, Michel Cot, Feiko O Ter Kuile
Malaria remains one of the most preventable causes of adverse birth outcomes. Intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine is used to prevent malaria, but resistance to this drug combination has decreased its efficacy and new alternatives are needed. In Africa, a meta-analysis showed three-course or monthly IPTp with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine to be safe and more effective than the original two-course sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine strategy, prompting WHO to update its policy in 2012...
January 30, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Michelle M Gill, Heather J Hoffman, Dieudonne Ndatimana, Placidie Mugwaneza, Laura Guay, Gilles F Ndayisaba, Emily A Bobrow, Anita Asiimwe, Lynne M Mofenson
Lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) provision to all pregnant HIV-positive women ("Option B+") has been recommended by the World Health Organization since 2013, but there remain limited data on the effects of Option B+ on long-term HIV-free survival in breastfeeding HIV-exposed infants. The Kigali Antiretroviral and Breastfeeding Assessment for the Elimination of HIV (Kabeho) study enrolled HIV-positive women from the third trimester of pregnancy to 2 weeks postpartum in 14 heath facilities implementing Option B+ in Kigali, Rwanda...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Farah Bokharaei-Salim, Saeed Kalantari, Zahra Gholamypour, AliReza Najafi, Hossein Keyvani, Maryam Esghaei, Seyed Hamidreza Monavari, Khadijeh Khanaliha, Mohammad-Navid Bastani, Atousa Fakhim, Saba Garshasbi
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is mostly spreading in developing countries. One of the most important pathways of HIV infection in these nations is the vertical route, from mother to infant. Therefore, this study evaluated the effectiveness of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) program for HIV among Iranian neonates born to HIV-positive mothers. A total of 54 neonates born to HIV-1 positive mothers, all of whom were in a PMTCT program for HIV, as per the Iranian guidelines, were enrolled in this descriptive cross sectional study from March 2014 to July 2017...
January 30, 2018: Archives of Virology
Nikki Mulligan, Brookie M Best, Jiajia Wang, Edmund V Capparelli, Alice Stek, Emily Barr, Shelley L Buschur, Edward P Acosta, Elizabeth Smith, Nahida Chakhtoura, Sandra Burchett, Mark Mirochnick
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate dolutegravir pharmacokinetics during pregnancy compared to postpartum and in infant washout samples after delivery. DESIGN: Ongoing, nonrandomized, open-label, parallel-group, multicenter phase-IV prospective study of antiretroviral pharmacokinetics in HIV-infected pregnant women and infants. METHODS: Intensive steady-state 24 h pharmacokinetic profiles after dolutegravir 50 mg once-daily were performed during the second trimester (2T), third trimester (3T) and postpartum (PP)...
January 23, 2018: AIDS
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