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Birth HIV testing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732085/point-of-care-screening-for-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-pregnant-women-at-an-antenatal-clinic-a-south-african-experience
#1
Nafiisah Chotun, Wolfgang Preiser, Christoffel Johannes van Rensburg, Pedro Fernandez, Gerhard Barnard Theron, Dieter Glebe, Monique Ingrid Andersson
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Elimination of HIV and syphilis mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) has received much attention but little consideration has been given to the possibility of elimination of HBV MTCT. In sub-Saharan Africa, HBV vertical transmission continues to be reported and it remains an important public health problem. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of screening pregnant women for HBV using a point-of-care (POC) test and implementing interventions to prevent HBV MTCT...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729911/vaginal-progesterone-to-reduce-preterm-birth-among-hiv-infected-pregnant-women-in-zambia-a-feasibility-study-protocol
#2
Joan T Price, Katie R Mollan, Nurain M Fuseini, Bethany L Freeman, Helen B Mulenga, Amanda H Corbett, Bellington Vwalika, Jeffrey S A Stringer
BACKGROUND: Women infected with HIV have a risk of preterm birth (PTB) that is twice that among uninfected women, and treatment with antiretroviral therapy (ART) may further increase this risk. Progesterone supplementation reduces the risk of preterm delivery in women who have a shortened cervix in the midtrimester. We propose to study the feasibility of a trial of vaginal progesterone (VP) to prevent PTB among HIV-infected women receiving ART in pregnancy. Given low adherence among women self-administering vaginal study product in recent microbicide trials, we plan to investigate whether adequate adherence to VP can be achieved prior to launching a full-scale efficacy trial...
2018: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711526/xpert-hiv-1-point-of-care-test-for-neonatal-diagnosis-of-hiv-in-the-birth-testing-programme-of-a-maternity-hospital-a-field-evaluation-study
#3
Karl-Günter Technau, Louise Kuhn, Ashraf Coovadia, Pamela M Murnane, Gayle Sherman
BACKGROUND: Point-of-care testing (POCT) among HIV-exposed infants might improve linkage to care relative to laboratory-based testing (LABT). We evaluated HIV-1 POCT at birth in the context of universal LABT in a maternity hospital and describe our implementation experience. METHODS: We did a field evaluation study between Oct 1, 2014, and April 30, 2016, at the urban Rahima Moosa Mother and Child Hospital (RMMCH), Johannesburg, South Africa. We aimed to sample consecutive neonates at birth with POCT (Cepheid Xpert HIV-1 Qualitative test) and compared results with those of LABT (Roche COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 Qualitative test) with respect to performance in terms of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and Cohen's κ coefficient, result return, antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation, and coverage...
July 12, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687531/informing-the-development-of-a-mobile-phone-hiv-testing-intervention-intentions-to-use-specific-hiv-testing-approaches-among-young-black-transgender-women-and-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#4
Beryl A Koblin, Vijay Nandi, Sabina Hirshfield, Mary Ann Chiasson, Donald R Hoover, Leo Wilton, DaShawn Usher, Victoria Frye
BACKGROUND: Regular human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing of persons at risk is critical to HIV prevention. Infrequent HIV testing and late diagnosis of HIV infection have been observed among young black men who have sex with men (MSM) and transwomen (transgender women)-two groups overrepresented in the HIV epidemic. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to inform the development of a brief mobile phone intervention to increase HIV testing among young black MSM and transwomen by providing a tailored recommendation of an optimal HIV testing approach...
July 7, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683790/very-low-sensitivity-of-wet-mount-microscopy-compared-to-pcr-against-culture-in-the-diagnosis-of-vaginal-trichomoniasis-in-uganda-a-cross-sectional-study
#5
Sheila Nabweyambo, Othman Kakaire, Stefanie Sowinski, Alfred Okeng, Henry Ojiambo, Joshua Kimeze, Irene Najjingo, Freddie Bwanga
BACKGROUND: Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) causes the Trichomoniasis Syndrome composed of vaginitis in women, urethritis in men and tube infection in both sexes. This infection is strongly associated with premature rupture of membranes, preterm delivery, low birth weight, promoting HIV sexual transmission and infertility. Prevention of these complications requires accurate early detection and effective treatment of infected individuals. In the resource limited settings, the wet mount microscopy (WMM) is often the only available test for laboratory detection of TV, but its accuracy and that of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tools in Uganda remain poorly studied...
July 6, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659343/the-host-cell-restriction-factor-serinc5-restricts-hiv-1-infectivity-without-altering-the-lipid-composition-and-organization-of-viral-particles
#6
Birthe Trautz, Hannah Wiedemann, Christian L Uumlchtenborg, Virginia Pierini, Jan Kranich, B Aumlrbel Glass, Hans-Georg Kr Aumlusslich, Thomas Brocker, Massimo Pizzato, Alessia Ruggieri, Britta Br Uumlgger, Oliver T Fackler
The host-cell restriction factor SERINC5 potently suppresses the infectivity of HIV-1 particles and is counteracted by the viral pathogenesis factor Nef. However, the molecular mechanism by which SERINC5 restricts HIV-1 particle infectivity is still unclear. Since SERINC proteins have been suggested to facilitate the incorporation of serine during the biosynthesis of membrane lipids and because lipid composition of HIV particles is a major determinant of the particles infectious potential, we tested whether SERINC5-mediated restriction of HIV particle infectivity involves alterations of membrane lipid composition...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645254/comparing-self-and-provider-collected-swabbing-for-hpv-dna-testing-in-female-to-male-transgender-adult-patients-a-mixed-methods-biobehavioral-study-protocol
#7
Sari L Reisner, Madeline B Deutsch, Sarah M Peitzmeier, Jaclyn M White Hughto, Timothy Cavanaugh, Dana J Pardee, Sarah McLean, Elliot J Marrow, Matthew J Mimiaga, Lori Panther, Marcy Gelman, Jamison Green, Jennifer Potter
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer, nearly all cases of which are caused by one of several high-risk strains of the human papillomavirus (hr-HPV), leads to significant morbidity and mortality in individuals with a cervix. Trans masculine (TM) individuals were born with female reproductive organs and identify as male, man, transgender man, or another diverse gender identity different from their female assigned sex at birth. Routine preventive sexual health screening of TM patients is recommended, including screening for cervical cancer and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs); however, as many as one in three TM patients are not up-to-date per recommended U...
June 23, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595298/lowered-rilpivirine-exposure-during-third-trimester-of-pregnancy-in-hiv-1-positive-women
#8
Stein Schalkwijk, Angela Colbers, Deborah Konopnicki, Andrea Gingelmaier, John Lambert, Marchina van der Ende, José Moltó, David Burger
Background: The use of antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy is important for control of maternal HIV disease and the prevention of perinatal HIV transmission. Physiological changes during pregnancy can reduce antiretroviral exposure. We studied the pharmacokinetics of rilpivirine 25 mg once daily (QD) in HIV-1-positive women during late pregnancy. Methods: We conducted a non-randomized, open-label, multi-centre, phase-IV study. HIV-positive pregnant women receiving rilpivirine 25 mg QD were included...
June 8, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590330/hiv-birth-testing-and-linkage-to-care-for-hiv-infected-infants-workshop-synopsis
#9
Patrick Jean-Philippe, Hans Spiegel, Devasena Gnanashanmugam, Joseph Fitzgibbon, Patricia DʼSouza, Keith W Crawford, Lakshmi Jayashankar, Melanie C Bacon, Shaffiq M Essajee, Grace M Aldrovandi, Mark Cotton, Elaine J Abrams
On May 5-6, 2016, the Division of AIDS of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases convened a workshop on "HIV Birth Testing and Linkage to Care for HIV Infected Infants". The goal of the workshop was to evaluate birth testing for early infant diagnosis (EID) of HIV, delineate technological resources for advancing a point of care (POC) HIV test implementable at birth and chart out the implementation hurdles for initiating early antiretroviral therapy (ART) to HIV-infected infants diagnosed at birth...
June 5, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540847/risk-factors-for-transmission-of-hiv-from-mother-to-child-in-bangui
#10
S C H Diemer, R N Ngbale, J D D Longo, O Bami Dienhot, C E Gaunefet
the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) in pregnant women in Central Africa is 4.5%. Although a program to prevent mother-child transmission of HIV has been implemented throughout the country, the number of infected infants continues to increase. In this context, our study sought to determine the rate of mother-child transmission of HIV and to identify the main risk factors. this prospective cross-sectional study took place from November 1, 2014, to November 1, 2015, in all 16 maternal and child health centers in Bangui...
May 24, 2017: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449111/migrant-women-living-with-hiv-in-europe-are-they-facing-inequalities-in-the-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-the-european-pregnancy-and-paediatric-hiv-cohort-collaboration-eppicc-study-group-in-eurocoord
#11
G Favarato, H Bailey, F Burns, L Prieto, A Soriano-Arandes, C Thorne
In pregnancy early interventions are recommended for prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) of HIV. We examined whether pregnant women who live with HIV in Europe and are migrants encounter barriers in accessing HIV testing and care. Four cohorts within the European Pregnancy and Paediatric HIV Cohort Collaboration provided data for pooled analysis of 11 795 pregnant women who delivered in 2002-12 across ten European countries. We defined a migrant as a woman delivering in a country different from her country of birth and grouped the countries into seven world regions...
April 25, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434689/early-childhood-transmission-of-hepatitis-b-prior-to-the-first-hepatitis-b-vaccine-dose-is-rare-among-babies-born-to-hiv-infected-and-non-hiv-infected-mothers-in-gulu-uganda
#12
E Seremba, J P Van Geertruyden, R Ssenyonga, C K Opio, J M Kaducu, J B Sempa, R Colebunders, P Ocama
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B (HBV) in sub-Saharan Africa is believed to be horizontally acquired. However, because of the high HBV prevalence in northern Uganda, no hepatitis B vaccination at birth and no access to HBV immunoglobulin, we hypothesize that vertical transmission also could also play an important role. We therefore investigated the incidence of HBV among babies presenting for their first HBV vaccine dose in Gulu, Uganda. METHODS: We recruited mothers and their babies (at least 6-week old) presenting for their postnatal care and first HBV vaccine dose respectively...
May 19, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420249/increasing-hiv-testing-among-pregnant-women-in-nigeria-evaluating-the-traditional-birth-attendant-and-primary-health-center-integration-tap-in-model
#13
Amara Frances Chizoba, Jennifer R Pharr, Gina Oodo, Edith Ezeobi, Jude Ilozumb, Johnbull Egharevba, Echezona E Ezeanolue, Anthea Nwandu
Engaging Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) may be critical to preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) in Nigeria. We integrated TBAs into Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and provided the TBAs with HIV counseling and testing (HCT) training for PMTCT (TAP-In). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of TAP-In on HCT uptake among pregnant women. A quasi-experimental design was used for this study. Twenty PHCs were assigned to the intervention group that integrated TAP-In and 20 were assigned to the control group...
April 18, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418986/performance-of-virological-testing-for-early-infant-diagnosis-a-systematic-review
#14
Divya Mallampati, Nathan Ford, Alisse Hanaford, Nandita Sugandhi, Martina Penazzato
BACKGROUND: Improved access to both maternal antiretroviral therapy and infant prophylaxis may have an impact on the performance of virological assays for diagnosis of HIV infection in infants. This systematic review was performed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of virological testing at birth as well as the performance of virological testing on dried blood spots at 6 weeks among HIV- and antiretroviral (ARV)-exposed infants. METHODS: A systematic review was performed for studies published between January 1, 2009 and January 30, 2015...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410276/hiv-transmission-to-premature-very-low-birth-weight-infants
#15
Candyce Levin, David Le Roux, Michael Harrison, Lloyd Tooke
There is sparse literature about HIV transmission in preterm infants. 82 HIV exposed preterm infants received birth PCRs. Five (6.1%) were HIV positive with all 5 mothers receiving inadequate antiretrovirals. Of the PCR negative infants, 9 died and 87% of the survivors received further PCR testing which remained negative. With correct care, intrapartum transmission of HIV can virtually be eliminated.
April 13, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406596/improving-early-identification-of-hiv-infected-neonates-with-birth-pcr-testing-in-a-large-urban-hospital-in-johannesburg-south-africa-successes-and-challenges
#16
Karl-Günter Technau, Louise Kuhn, Ashraf Coovadia, Sergio Carmona, Gayle Sherman
INTRODUCTION: Timely diagnosis is necessary to avert early death in HIV-infected neonates. Birth PCR testing may improve early identification and facilitate access to care. We implemented a birth HIV diagnosis programme in Johannesburg, South Africa and present successes and challenges of the first two and a half years of operation. METHODS: Between June 2014 and December 2016, we sought to identify all HIV-exposed births and offer newborn HIV PCR testing before discharge after delivery...
April 10, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404135/incidence-risk-factors-and-prevention-of-hepatitis-c-reinfection-a-population-based-cohort-study
#17
Nazrul Islam, Mel Krajden, Jean Shoveller, Paul Gustafson, Mark Gilbert, Jane A Buxton, Jason Wong, Mark W Tyndall, Naveed Zafar Janjua
BACKGROUND: People remain at risk of reinfection with hepatitis C virus (HCV), even after clearance of the primary infection. We identified factors associated with HCV reinfection risk in a large population-based cohort study in British Columbia, Canada, and examined the association of opioid substitution therapy and mental health counselling with reinfection. METHODS: We obtained data from the British Columbia Hepatitis Testers Cohort, which includes all individuals tested for HCV or HIV at the British Columbia Centre for Disease Control Public Health Laboratory during 1990-2013 (when data were available)...
March 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396556/pregnancy-outcomes-in-association-with-stds-including-genital-hsv-2-shedding-in-a-south-african-cohort-study
#18
Dhayendre Moodley, Benn Sartorius, Savithree Madurai, Vani Chetty, Suzanne Maman
OBJECTIVES: Genital herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) shedding in pregnant women in association with neonatal herpes infection has been widely studied but there is limited evidence of its association with pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: In this retrospective observational study, we included a subgroup of pregnant women who were enrolled in a randomized control behavioural intervention study that was conducted in South Africa in 2008-2010. In pregnancy, women had a HIV rapid test done and a genital swab taken to test for curable STIs and HSV-2 DNA...
April 10, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365331/on-the-duration-of-the-period-between-exposure-to-hiv-and-detectable-infection
#19
Bernhard P Konrad, Darlene Taylor, Jessica M Conway, Gina S Ogilvie, Daniel Coombs
HIV infection cannot be detected immediately after exposure because plasma viral loads are too small initially. The duration of this phase of infection (the "eclipse period") is difficult to estimate because precise dates of exposure are rarely known. Therefore, the reliability of clinical HIV testing during the first few weeks of infection is unknown, creating anxiety among HIV-exposed individuals and their physicians. We address this by fitting stochastic models of early HIV infection to detailed viral load records for 78 plasma donors, taken during the period of exposure and infection...
March 11, 2017: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350554/brief-report-high-sensitivity-and-specificity-of-the-cepheid-xpert-hiv-1-qualitative-point-of-care-test-among-newborns-in-botswana
#20
Maryanne Ibrahim, Sikhulile Moyo, Terence Mohammed, Lucy Mupfumi, Simani Gaseitsiwe, Kenneth Maswabi, Gbolahan Ajibola, Rebecca Gelman, Oganne Batlang, Maureen Sakoi, Chloe Auletta-Young, Joseph Makhema, Shahin Lockman, Roger L Shapiro
BACKGROUND: HIV point-of-care (POC) testing allows for early infant HIV diagnosis and treatment, but POC accuracy at birth and in the setting of antiretroviral prophylaxis for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission is unknown. METHODS: We evaluated the Cepheid Xpert HIV-1 Qual POC test against the Roche Taqman HIV-1 DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) platform using dried blood spots from 15 HIV-infected and 75 HIV-exposed uninfected newborns. These infants were screened for HIV at <96 hours of life at 5 hospital maternity wards in Botswana; all infants received postexposure antiretroviral prophylaxis with single-dose nevirapine and zidovudine, and most mothers received 3-drug antiretroviral therapy in pregnancy and at delivery...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
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