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Birth HIV testing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807190/socioeconomic-differences-in-mortality-in-the-antiretroviral-therapy-era-in-agincourt-rural-south-africa-2001-13-a-population-surveillance-analysis
#1
Chodziwadziwa W Kabudula, Brian Houle, Mark A Collinson, Kathleen Kahn, Francesc Xavier Gómez-Olivé, Stephen Tollman, Samuel J Clark
BACKGROUND: Understanding the effects of socioeconomic disparities in health outcomes is important to implement specific preventive actions. We assessed socioeconomic disparities in mortality indicators in a rural South African population over the period 2001-13. METHODS: We used data from 21 villages of the Agincourt Health and socio-Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS). We calculated the probabilities of death from birth to age 5 years and from age 15 to 60 years, life expectancy at birth, and cause-specific and age-specific mortality by sex (not in children <5 years), time period, and socioeconomic status (household wealth) quintile for HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis, other communicable diseases (excluding HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis) and maternal, perinatal, and nutritional causes, non-communicable diseases, and injury...
September 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798895/prevalence-and-identification-of-serum-markers-associated-with-vertical-transmission-of-hepatitis-b-in-pregnant-women-in-yaounde-cameroon
#2
Lucien Honoré Etame Sone, Roger Ahouga Voufo, Henriette Thérèse Dimodi, Michel Kengne, Cédric Gueguim, Nnanga Ngah, Julius Oben, Judith Laure Ngondi
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection in pregnant women and identify markers associated with vertical transmission of HBV. METHODS: Prospective and cross-sectional study over 10 months on 298 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in the Cité Verte and Efoulan District hospitals in Cameroon. A dry tube blood collection was performed on all pregnant women and babies born to HBsAg-positive mothers. Serum from the women was used to test for HBsAg through immunochromatography and then confirmed by ELISA...
2017: International Journal of MCH and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782502/society-for-maternal-fetal-medicine-smfm-consult-series-43-hepatitis-c-in-pregnancy-screening-treatment-and-management
#3
Brenna L Hughes, Charlotte M Page, Jeffrey A Kuller
In the United States, 1-2.5% of pregnant women are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), which carries an approximately 5% risk of transmission from mother to infant. HCV can be transmitted to the infant in utero or during the peripartum period, and infection during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of adverse fetal outcomes, including fetal growth restriction and low birth weight. The purpose of this document is to discuss the current evidence regarding HCV in pregnancy and to provide recommendations on screening, treatment, and management of this disease during pregnancy...
August 3, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777263/a-stepped-wedge-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial-to-promote-option-b-retention-in-central-mozambique
#4
James T Pfeiffer, Manuel Napúa, Bradley H Wagenaar, Falume Chale, Roxanne Hoek, Mark Micek, Joao Manuel, Cathy Michel, Jessica Greenberg Cowan, James F Cowan, Sarah Gimbel, Kenneth Sherr, Stephen Gloyd, Rachel R Chapman
BACKGROUND: This randomized trial studied performance of Option B+ in Mozambique, and evaluated an enhanced retention package in public clinics. SETTING: The study was conducted at 6 clinics in Manica and Sofala Provinces in central Mozambique. METHODS: 761 pregnant women tested HIV+, immediately initiated ART, and were followed to track retention at 6 clinics from May 2014 - May 2015. Clinics were randomly allocated within a stepped-wedge fashion to intervention and control periods...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771456/notes-from-the-field-preliminary-results-after-implementation-of-a-universal-treatment-program-test-and-start-for-persons-living-with-hiv-infection-lesotho-october-2015-february-2017
#5
Amee M Schwitters
Lesotho, a small, mountainous country completely surrounded by the Republic of South Africa, has a population of approximately 2 million persons with an estimated gross national income of $1,280 per capita; 73% of the population resides in rural areas (1). Lesotho has a generalized human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic (2). In 2014, the prevalence of HIV infection among persons aged 15-49 years was 24.6%, with an incidence of 1.9 new infections per 100 person-years of exposure (3). As the leading cause of premature death, HIV/AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) has contributed to Lesotho's reporting the shortest life expectancy at birth among 195 countries and territories (4)...
August 4, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767616/impact-of-birth-hiv-pcr-testing-on-the-uptake-at-follow-up-early-infant-diagnosis-services-in-cape-town-south-africa
#6
Lorna Dunning, Max Kroon, Lezanne Fourie, Andrea Ciaranello, Landon Myer
INTRODUCTION: PCR testing at birth ('birth-testing') is suggested by new World Health Organization guidelines for rapid diagnosis of infants infected with HIV in utero. However, there are few data on the implementation of this approach in sub-Saharan Africa and whether birth-testing affects uptake of subsequent routine early infant diagnosis (EID) testing at 6-10 weeks of age is unknown. METHODS: We reviewed 575 consecutive infants undergoing targeted high-risk birth-testing in Cape Town, South Africa, and matched those testing HIV-negative at birth (n=551) to HIV-exposed infants who did not receive birth-testing (n=551)...
July 27, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759772/maternal-hiv-infection-associated-with-reduced-transplacental-transfer-of-measles-antibodies-and-increased-susceptibility-to-disease
#7
Sabelle Jallow, Clare L Cutland, Alexis K Masbou, Peter Adrian, Shabir A Madhi
BACKGROUND: Transplacental transfer of measles antibodies from mother to fetus is important in protecting against measles during early infancy. Changes in population immunity against measles in adults, including waning of immunity among HIV-infected pregnant women, could affect passive immunity acquired in utero by newborns. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of maternal HIV infection on transplacental transfer of measles antibody in mother-newborn dyads in a setting of high maternal HIV prevalence...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758568/mother-to-child-hiv-transmission-prevention-programs-in-a-sub-saharan-african-setting-the-gabonese-experience
#8
Armel Mintsa-Ndong, Corneille Ndong-Ella, Roselyne K Boussougou, Léatitia M Busugu, Alexandre Mba, Franck A Agwambouet, Nicolas Barro, Joel F Djoba Siawaya
In many developing countries, mothers' awareness remains a challenge despite the scaling up of antenatal care and programs preventing mother-to-child (MTC) HIV transmission. The present study was done in Libreville, Gabon where all antenatal care (delivery included) is free of charge. Here we assessed the timing of antenatal antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis initiation, HIV-exposed infants' age at their first postnatal HIV check visit and investigated the association between mothers' awareness or knowledge on their ARV therapy and infants' HIV infection...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732085/point-of-care-screening-for-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-pregnant-women-at-an-antenatal-clinic-a-south-african-experience
#9
Nafiisah Chotun, Wolfgang Preiser, Christoffel Johannes van Rensburg, Pedro Fernandez, Gerhard Barnard Theron, Dieter Glebe, Monique Ingrid Andersson
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Elimination of HIV and syphilis mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) has received much attention but little consideration has been given to the possibility of elimination of HBV MTCT. In sub-Saharan Africa, HBV vertical transmission continues to be reported and it remains an important public health problem. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of screening pregnant women for HBV using a point-of-care (POC) test and implementing interventions to prevent HBV MTCT...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729911/vaginal-progesterone-to-reduce-preterm-birth-among-hiv-infected-pregnant-women-in-zambia-a-feasibility-study-protocol
#10
Joan T Price, Katie R Mollan, Nurain M Fuseini, Bethany L Freeman, Helen B Mulenga, Amanda H Corbett, Bellington Vwalika, Jeffrey S A Stringer
BACKGROUND: Women infected with HIV have a risk of preterm birth (PTB) that is twice that among uninfected women, and treatment with antiretroviral therapy (ART) may further increase this risk. Progesterone supplementation reduces the risk of preterm delivery in women who have a shortened cervix in the midtrimester. We propose to study the feasibility of a trial of vaginal progesterone (VP) to prevent PTB among HIV-infected women receiving ART in pregnancy. Given low adherence among women self-administering vaginal study product in recent microbicide trials, we plan to investigate whether adequate adherence to VP can be achieved prior to launching a full-scale efficacy trial...
2018: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711526/xpert-hiv-1-point-of-care-test-for-neonatal-diagnosis-of-hiv-in-the-birth-testing-programme-of-a-maternity-hospital-a-field-evaluation-study
#11
Karl-Günter Technau, Louise Kuhn, Ashraf Coovadia, Pamela M Murnane, Gayle Sherman
BACKGROUND: Point-of-care testing (POCT) among HIV-exposed infants might improve linkage to care relative to laboratory-based testing (LABT). We evaluated HIV-1 POCT at birth in the context of universal LABT in a maternity hospital and describe our implementation experience. METHODS: We did a field evaluation study between Oct 1, 2014, and April 30, 2016, at the urban Rahima Moosa Mother and Child Hospital (RMMCH), Johannesburg, South Africa. We aimed to sample consecutive neonates at birth with POCT (Cepheid Xpert HIV-1 Qualitative test) and compared results with those of LABT (Roche COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 Qualitative test) with respect to performance in terms of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and Cohen's κ coefficient, result return, antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation, and coverage...
July 12, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687531/informing-the-development-of-a-mobile-phone-hiv-testing-intervention-intentions-to-use-specific-hiv-testing-approaches-among-young-black-transgender-women-and-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#12
Beryl A Koblin, Vijay Nandi, Sabina Hirshfield, Mary Ann Chiasson, Donald R Hoover, Leo Wilton, DaShawn Usher, Victoria Frye
BACKGROUND: Regular human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing of persons at risk is critical to HIV prevention. Infrequent HIV testing and late diagnosis of HIV infection have been observed among young black men who have sex with men (MSM) and transwomen (transgender women)-two groups overrepresented in the HIV epidemic. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to inform the development of a brief mobile phone intervention to increase HIV testing among young black MSM and transwomen by providing a tailored recommendation of an optimal HIV testing approach...
July 7, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683790/very-low-sensitivity-of-wet-mount-microscopy-compared-to-pcr-against-culture-in-the-diagnosis-of-vaginal-trichomoniasis-in-uganda-a-cross-sectional-study
#13
Sheila Nabweyambo, Othman Kakaire, Stefanie Sowinski, Alfred Okeng, Henry Ojiambo, Joshua Kimeze, Irene Najjingo, Freddie Bwanga
BACKGROUND: Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) causes the Trichomoniasis Syndrome composed of vaginitis in women, urethritis in men and tube infection in both sexes. This infection is strongly associated with premature rupture of membranes, preterm delivery, low birth weight, promoting HIV sexual transmission and infertility. Prevention of these complications requires accurate early detection and effective treatment of infected individuals. In the resource limited settings, the wet mount microscopy (WMM) is often the only available test for laboratory detection of TV, but its accuracy and that of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tools in Uganda remain poorly studied...
July 6, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659343/the-host-cell-restriction-factor-serinc5-restricts-hiv-1-infectivity-without-altering-the-lipid-composition-and-organization-of-viral-particles
#14
Birthe Trautz, Hannah Wiedemann, Christian L Uumlchtenborg, Virginia Pierini, Jan Kranich, B Aumlrbel Glass, Hans-Georg Kr Aumlusslich, Thomas Brocker, Massimo Pizzato, Alessia Ruggieri, Britta Br Uumlgger, Oliver T Fackler
The host-cell restriction factor SERINC5 potently suppresses the infectivity of HIV-1 particles and is counteracted by the viral pathogenesis factor Nef. However, the molecular mechanism by which SERINC5 restricts HIV-1 particle infectivity is still unclear. Since SERINC proteins have been suggested to facilitate the incorporation of serine during the biosynthesis of membrane lipids and because lipid composition of HIV particles is a major determinant of the particles infectious potential, we tested whether SERINC5-mediated restriction of HIV particle infectivity involves alterations of membrane lipid composition...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645254/comparing-self-and-provider-collected-swabbing-for-hpv-dna-testing-in-female-to-male-transgender-adult-patients-a-mixed-methods-biobehavioral-study-protocol
#15
Sari L Reisner, Madeline B Deutsch, Sarah M Peitzmeier, Jaclyn M White Hughto, Timothy Cavanaugh, Dana J Pardee, Sarah McLean, Elliot J Marrow, Matthew J Mimiaga, Lori Panther, Marcy Gelman, Jamison Green, Jennifer Potter
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer, nearly all cases of which are caused by one of several high-risk strains of the human papillomavirus (hr-HPV), leads to significant morbidity and mortality in individuals with a cervix. Trans masculine (TM) individuals were born with female reproductive organs and identify as male, man, transgender man, or another diverse gender identity different from their female assigned sex at birth. Routine preventive sexual health screening of TM patients is recommended, including screening for cervical cancer and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs); however, as many as one in three TM patients are not up-to-date per recommended U...
June 23, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595298/lowered-rilpivirine-exposure-during-third-trimester-of-pregnancy-in-hiv-1-positive-women
#16
Stein Schalkwijk, Angela Colbers, Deborah Konopnicki, Andrea Gingelmaier, John Lambert, Marchina van der Ende, José Moltó, David Burger
Background: The use of antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy is important for control of maternal HIV disease and the prevention of perinatal HIV transmission. Physiological changes during pregnancy can reduce antiretroviral exposure. We studied the pharmacokinetics of rilpivirine 25 mg once daily (QD) in HIV-1-positive women during late pregnancy. Methods: We conducted a non-randomized, open-label, multi-centre, phase-IV study. HIV-positive pregnant women receiving rilpivirine 25 mg QD were included...
June 8, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590330/hiv-birth-testing-and-linkage-to-care-for-hiv-infected-infants
#17
Patrick Jean-Philippe, Hans Spiegel, Devasena Gnanashanmugam, Joseph Fitzgibbon, Patricia DʼSouza, Keith W Crawford, Lakshmi Jayashankar, Melanie C Bacon, Shaffiq M Essajee, Grace M Aldrovandi, Mark Cotton, Elaine J Abrams
: On 5-6 May 2016, the division of AIDS of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases convened a workshop on 'HIV Birth Testing and Linkage to Care for HIV Infected Infants.' The goal of the workshop was to evaluate birth testing for early infant diagnosis (EID) of HIV, delineate technological resources for advancing a point-of-care (POC) HIV test implementable at birth and chart out the implementation hurdles for initiating early antiretroviral therapy to HIV-infected infants diagnosed at birth...
August 24, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540847/risk-factors-for-transmission-of-hiv-from-mother-to-child-in-bangui
#18
S C H Diemer, R N Ngbale, J D D Longo, O Bami Dienhot, C E Gaunefet
the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) in pregnant women in Central Africa is 4.5%. Although a program to prevent mother-child transmission of HIV has been implemented throughout the country, the number of infected infants continues to increase. In this context, our study sought to determine the rate of mother-child transmission of HIV and to identify the main risk factors. this prospective cross-sectional study took place from November 1, 2014, to November 1, 2015, in all 16 maternal and child health centers in Bangui...
May 24, 2017: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449111/migrant-women-living-with-hiv-in-europe-are-they-facing-inequalities-in-the-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-the-european-pregnancy-and-paediatric-hiv-cohort-collaboration-eppicc-study-group-in-eurocoord
#19
G Favarato, H Bailey, F Burns, L Prieto, A Soriano-Arandes, C Thorne
In pregnancy early interventions are recommended for prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) of HIV. We examined whether pregnant women who live with HIV in Europe and are migrants encounter barriers in accessing HIV testing and care. Four cohorts within the European Pregnancy and Paediatric HIV Cohort Collaboration provided data for pooled analysis of 11 795 pregnant women who delivered in 2002-12 across ten European countries. We defined a migrant as a woman delivering in a country different from her country of birth and grouped the countries into seven world regions...
April 25, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434689/early-childhood-transmission-of-hepatitis-b-prior-to-the-first-hepatitis-b-vaccine-dose-is-rare-among-babies-born-to-hiv-infected-and-non-hiv-infected-mothers-in-gulu-uganda
#20
E Seremba, J P Van Geertruyden, R Ssenyonga, C K Opio, J M Kaducu, J B Sempa, R Colebunders, P Ocama
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B (HBV) in sub-Saharan Africa is believed to be horizontally acquired. However, because of the high HBV prevalence in northern Uganda, no hepatitis B vaccination at birth and no access to HBV immunoglobulin, we hypothesize that vertical transmission also could also play an important role. We therefore investigated the incidence of HBV among babies presenting for their first HBV vaccine dose in Gulu, Uganda. METHODS: We recruited mothers and their babies (at least 6-week old) presenting for their postnatal care and first HBV vaccine dose respectively...
May 19, 2017: Vaccine
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