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Shai Tejman-Yarden, Bruria Ben-Zeev, Yuval Goldshmit, Georgia Sarquella-Brugada, Assi Cicurel, Uriel Katz, David Mishali, Michael Glikson
BACKGROUND: Pacing can be a successful treatment for pallid breath-holding spells, primarily in individuals with severe bradycardia. PATIENT DESCRIPTION: We describe an 18-month-old girl experiencing severe pallid breath-holding spells in whom repeated electrocardiographic, Holter, and electroencephalographic monitoring tests were all normal. RESULTS: Using a subcutaneous insertable cardiac monitor, severe bradycardia was detected during one of this girl's episodes...
June 25, 2016: Pediatric Neurology
Jukka Kortelainen, Eero Väyrynen, Usko Huuskonen, Jouko Laurila, Juha Koskenkari, Janne T Backman, Seppo Alahuhta, Tapio Seppänen, Tero Ala-Kokko
BACKGROUND: Slow waves (less than 1 Hz) are the most important electroencephalogram signatures of nonrapid eye movement sleep. While considered to have a substantial importance in, for example, providing conditions for single-cell rest and preventing long-term neural damage, a disturbance in this neurophysiologic phenomenon is a potential indicator of brain dysfunction. METHODS: Since, in healthy individuals, slow waves can be induced with anesthetics, the authors tested the possible association between hypoxic brain injury and slow-wave activity in comatose postcardiac arrest patients (n = 10) using controlled propofol exposure...
October 5, 2016: Anesthesiology
Paul S Foster, Valeria Drago, Brad J Ferguson, Patti Kelly Harrison, David W Harrison
The most frequently used measures of executive functioning are either sensitive to left frontal lobe functioning or bilateral frontal functioning. Relatively little is known about right frontal lobe contributions to executive functioning given the paucity of measures sensitive to right frontal functioning. The present investigation reports the development and initial validation of a new measure designed to be sensitive to right frontal lobe functioning, the Figure Trail Making Test (FTMT). The FTMT, the classic Trial Making Test, and the Ruff Figural Fluency Test (RFFT) were administered to 42 right-handed men...
December 2015: Brain Informatics
Caroline C Meadows, Philip A Gable, Keith R Lohse, Matthew W Miller
The present study explored the relationship between motor-preparatory electroencephalographic (EEG) activity, motivation, and motor performance (specifically premotor reaction time [RT]). Participants performed a RT task by squeezing a hand dynamometer in response to an auditory "go" signal. We recorded EEG and electromyography to index beta-suppression and premotor RT, respectively. Participants' motivation on each trial was modulated by offering monetary incentives at different magnitudes. Mixed-effect linear regression models showed that monetary incentive predicted premotor RT when controlling for beta-suppression, and beta-suppression independently predicted premotor RT...
October 12, 2016: Neuroscience
Astrid Kibleur, Mircea Polosan, Pauline Favre, David Rudrauf, Thierry Bougerol, Stéphan Chabardès, Olivier David
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subgenual cingulate gyrus (area CG25) is beneficial in treatment resistant depression. Though the mechanisms of action of Cg25 DBS remain largely unknown, it is commonly believed that Cg25 DBS modulates limbic activity of large networks to achieve thymic regulation of patients. To investigate how emotional attention is influenced by Cg25 DBS, we assessed behavioral and electroencephalographic (EEG) responses to an emotional Stroop task in 5 patients during ON and OFF stimulation conditions...
October 12, 2016: NeuroImage
Á Fernández-Rodríguez, F Velasco-Álvarez, R Ron-Angevin
This paper presents a review of the state of the art regarding wheelchairs driven by a brain-computer interface. Using a brain-controlled wheelchair (BCW), disabled users could handle a wheelchair through their brain activity, granting autonomy to move through an experimental environment. A classification is established, based on the characteristics of the BCW, such as the type of electroencephalographic signal used, the navigation system employed by the wheelchair, the task for the participants, or the metrics used to evaluate the performance...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
Andrew Mccarthy, Sally Loomis, Brian Eastwood, Keith A Wafford, Raphaëlle Winsky-Sommerer, Gary Gilmour
While several methods have been used to restrict the sleep of experimental animals, it is often unclear whether these different forms of sleep restriction have comparable effects on sleep-wake architecture or functional capacity. The present study compared four models of sleep restriction, using enforced wakefulness by rotation of cylindrical home cages over 11 h in male Wistar rats. These included an electroencephalographic-driven 'Biofeedback' method and three non-invasive methods where rotation was triggered according to a 'Constant', 'Decreasing' or random protocol based upon the 'Weibull' distribution fit to an archival Biofeedback dataset...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Sleep Research
C Hoyer, P Eisele, A D Ebert, S Schneider, A Gass, M Fatar, K Szabo, A Alonso
BACKGROUND: The term "aseptic meningitis" encompasses cases of meningitis with negative bacterial CSF culture, which predominantly are of viral etiology. While the clinical course is usually benign, complications such as encephalitic involvement resulting in a more severe clinical course may occur. Dysfunction of the blood-brain-barrier (BBB), which is a prerequisite for viral entry into the brain parenchyma, can be approximated using the CSF/serum albumin ratio, readily obtainable in routine CSF analysis...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Micah Amd, Bryan Roche
According to the literature on emotional dissonance, information that is emotionally incongruous with self-concepts can produce feelings of unease. At a process level, this suggests that embedding such information in newly formed relational structures would have little effect on their a priori emotive properties. Alternatively, an instrumental account of symbolic relations (e.g., Dymond & Roche, 2013) highlights the importance of contextualized stimulus-stimulus relations, where the structure of a relational series is key in determining the function of its elements...
October 13, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Arcady A Putilov, Olga G Donskaya, Evgeniy G Verevkin
One of the critical barriers to reducing the threats of sleep loss to public health, safety, and productivity is a lack of practical tools for quick identification of objective level of sleepiness. We examined a novel sleepiness measure named "spectral drowsy component score" to provide evidence for generalizability of a frequency weighting curve required for calculation of this measure. Each spectral drowsy component score is a sum of 16 weighted ln-transformed single-Hz power densities (1-16 Hz) obtained by the fast Fourier transformation of an electroencephalographic signal recorded during the first minute after closing the eyes...
October 11, 2016: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
Matthieu Dubois, Cécile Chenivesse, Mathieu Raux, Adrian Morales-Robles, Marie-Cécile Nierat, Gilles Garcia, Xavier Navarro-Sune, Mario Chavez, Jacques Martinerie, Thomas Similowski
: Spontaneous ventilation in mammals is driven by automatic brainstem networks that generate the respiratory rhythm and increase ventilation in the presence of increased carbon dioxide production. Hypocapnia decreases the drive to breathe and induces apnea. In humans, this occurs during sleep but not during wakefulness. We hypothesized that hypocapnic breathing would be associated with respiratory-related cortical activity similar to that observed during volitional breathing, inspiratory constraints, or in patients with defective automatic breathing (preinspiratory potentials)...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Hanna Thuné, Marc Recasens, Peter J Uhlhaas
Importance: The neurobiological mechanisms underlying circuit dysfunctions in schizophrenia remain poorly understood. The 40-Hz auditory steady-state response (ASSR) has been suggested as a potential biomarker for schizophrenia. Objectives: To provide a meta-analytical insight into the presence of 40-Hz ASSR impairments in patients with schizophrenia and to examine the effects of the participant group, stimulus parameters, and analysis and recording techniques. Data Sources: Searches were conducted in PubMed and reference lists of appropriate publications to identify relevant studies published from November 1999 to March 2016...
October 12, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
Jamilah Abdur-Rahim, Yoichi Morales, Pankaj Gupta, Ichiro Umata, Atsushi Watanabe, Jani Even, Takayuki Suyama, Shin Ishii
This paper presents a study on multi-modal human emotional state detection while riding a powered wheelchair (PMV; Personal Mobility Vehicle) in an indoor labyrinth-like environment. The study reports findings on the habituation of human stress response during self-driving. In addition, the effects of "loss of controllability", change in the role of the driver to a passenger, are investigated via an autonomous driving modality. The multi-modal emotional state detector sensing framework consists of four sensing devices: electroencephalograph (EEG), heart inter-beat interval (IBI), galvanic skin response (GSR) and stressor level lever (in the case of autonomous riding)...
2016: PloS One
Zachary D Langford, Hanne Schevernels, C Nico Boehler
Motoric inhibition is ingrained in human cognition and implicated in pervasive neurological diseases and disorders. The present electroencephalographic (EEG) study investigated proactive motivational adjustments in attention during response inhibition. We compared go-trial data from a stop-signal task, in which infrequently presented stop-signals required response cancellation without extrinsic incentives ("standard-stop"), to data where a monetary reward was posted on some stop-signals ("rewarded-stop"). A novel EEG analysis was used to directly model the covariation between response time and the attention-related N1 component...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Sara de la Salle, Joelle Choueiry, Dhrasti Shah, Hayley Bowers, Judy McIntosh, Vadim Ilivitsky, Verner Knott
N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists administered to healthy humans results in schizophrenia-like symptoms, which preclinical research suggests are due to glutamatergically altered brain oscillations. Here, we examined resting-state electroencephalographic activity in 21 healthy volunteers assessed in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized study involving administration of either a saline infusion or a sub-anesthetic dose of ketamine, an NMDA receptor antagonist. Frequency-specific current source density (CSD) was assessed at sensor-level and source-level using eLORETA within regions of interest of a triple network model of schizophrenia (this model posits a dysfunctional switching between large-scale Default Mode and Central Executive networks by the monitor-controlling Salience Network)...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Claudio Del Percio, Wilhelmus Drinkenburg, Susanna Lopez, Francesco Infarinato, Jesper Frank Bastlund, Bettina Laursen, Jan T Pedersen, Ditte Zerlang Christensen, Gianluigi Forloni, Angelisa Frasca, Francesco M Noè, Marina Bentivoglio, Paolo Francesco Fabene, Giuseppe Bertini, Valeria Colavito, Jonathan Kelley, Sophie Dix, Jill C Richardson, Claudio Babiloni
Resting state electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms reflect the fluctuation of cortical arousal and vigilance in a typical clinical setting, namely the EEG recording for few minutes with eyes closed (i.e., passive condition) and eyes open (i.e., active condition). Can this procedure be back-translated to C57 (wild type) mice for aging studies? On-going EEG rhythms were recorded from a frontoparietal bipolar channel in 85 (19 females) C57 mice. Male mice were subdivided into 3 groups: 25 young (4.5-6 months), 18 middle-aged (12-15 months), and 23 old (20-24 months) mice to test the effect of aging...
September 15, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
Byung-Chul Son, Young Min Shon, Seong-Hoon Kim, Jin-Gyu Choi, Jiyeon Kim
OBJECTIVES: Interpreting the postoperative electroencephalographic (EEG) driving response (DR) as an indicator of electrode placement within the thalamic nucleus in deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus (ANT) for refractory epilepsy is controversial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively investigated the relationship between postoperative EEG DR and the location of 11 electrodes in 6 patients who underwent ANT DBS for refractory epilepsy...
October 11, 2016: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
Paige M Siper, Vance Zemon, James Gordon, Julia George-Jones, Stacey Lurie, Jessica Zweifach, Teresa Tavassoli, A Ting Wang, Jesslyn Jamison, Joseph D Buxbaum, Alexander Kolevzon
OBJECTIVE: There is a critical need to identify biomarkers and objective outcome measures that can be used to understand underlying neural mechanisms in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) offer a noninvasive technique to evaluate the functional integrity of neural mechanisms, specifically visual pathways, while probing for disease pathophysiology. METHODS: Transient VEPs (tVEPs) were obtained from 96 unmedicated children, including 37 children with ASD, 36 typically developing (TD) children, and 23 unaffected siblings (SIBS)...
2016: PloS One
Claudio Babiloni, Alfredo Pennica, Paolo Capotosto, Paolo Onorati, Chiara Muratori, Stefano Ferracuti, Paolo Roma, Valentina Correr, Elisa Piccinni, Giuseppe Noce, Claudio Del Percio, Susanna Cordone, Cristina Limatola, Andrea Soricelli, Francesco Di Campli, Laura Gianserra, Lorenzo Ciullini, Antonio Aceti, Magdalena Viscione, Elisabetta Teti, Loredana Sarmati, Massimo Andreoni
OBJECTIVE: Cortical sources of electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms were investigated in two sub-populations of naïve HIV subjects, grouped based on clinical criteria to receive different combination anti-retroviral therapies (cARTs). These EEG sources were hypothesized to reflect beneficial effects of both regimes. METHODS: Eyes-closed resting state EEG data were collected in 19 (Group A) and 39 (Group B) naïve HIV subjects at baseline (i.e. pre-treatment; T0) and after 5months of cART (T5)...
September 9, 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Patrick H Finan, Jessica M Richards, Charlene E Gamaldo, Dingfen Han, Jeannie Marie Leoutsakos, Rachel Salas, Michael R Irwin, Michael T Smith
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the validity of an ambulatory electroencephalographic (EEG) monitor for the estimation of sleep continuity and architecture in healthy adults. METHODS: Healthy, good sleeping participants (N = 14) were fit with both an ambulatory EEG monitor (Sleep Profiler) and a full polysomnography (PSG) montage. EEG recordings were gathered from both devices on the same night, during which sleep was permitted uninterrupted for eight hours. The study was set in an inpatient clinical research suite...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
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