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Vera Nenadovic, Robyn Whitney, Jason Boulet, Miguel A Cortez
PURPOSE: Hypsarrhythmia is an electroencephalographic pattern associated with epileptic spasms and West syndrome. West syndrome is a devastating epileptic encephalopathy, originating in infancy. Hypsarrhythmia has been deemed to be the interictal brain activity, while the electrodecremental event associated with the spasms is denoted as the ictal event. Though characterized as chaotic, asynchronous and disorganized based on visual inspection of the EEG, little is known of the dynamics of hypsarrhythmia and how it impacts the developmental arrest of these infants...
March 30, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Michael Owen Kinney, John J Craig, P W Kaplan
Non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) is an enigmatic condition with protean manifestations. It often goes unrecognised, leading to delays in its diagnosis and treatment. The principal reason for such delay is the failure to consider and request an electroencephalogram (EEG), although occasional presentations have no scalp or surface electroencephalographic correlate. In certain settings with limited EEG availability, particularly out-of-hours, clinicians should consider treating without an EEG. Patients need a careful risk-benefit analysis to assess the risks of neuronal damage and harm versus the risks of adverse effects from various intensities of therapeutic intervention...
April 12, 2018: Practical Neurology
Holger Joswig, David A Steven, Andrew G Parrent, Keith W MacDougall, Seyed M Mirsattari, Richard S McLachlan, David C Diosy, Jorge G Burneo
At the London Health Sciences Centre Epilepsy Program, stereotactically implanted depth electrodes have largely replaced subdural electrodes in the presurgical investigation of patients with drug-resistant epilepsy over the past 4 years. The rationale for this paradigm shift was more experience with, and improved surgical techniques for, stereoelectroencephalography, a possible lower-risk profile for depth electrodes, better patient tolerability, shorter operative time, as well as increased recognition of potential surgical targets that are not accessible to subdural electrodes...
April 12, 2018: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
Fleur M Howells, Hendrik S Temmingh, Jennifer H Hsieh, Andrea V van Dijen, David S Baldwin, Dan J Stein
Electroencephalography (EEG) has been proposed as a neurophysiological biomarker to delineate psychotic disorders. It is known that increased delta and decreased alpha, which are apparent in psychosis, are indicative of inappropriate arousal state, which leads to reduced ability to attend to relevant information. On this premise, we investigated delta/alpha frequency activity, as this ratio of frequency activity may serve as an effective neurophysiological biomarker. The current study investigated differences in delta/alpha frequency activity, in schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar I disorder with psychotic features and methamphetamine-induced psychosis...
April 12, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Maria de la Soledad Rodriguez-Ugarte, Eduardo Iáñez, Mario Ortiz-Garcia, José M Azorín
The purpose of this work is to strengthen the cortical excitability over the primary motor cortex (M1) and the cerebro-cerebellar pathway by means of a new transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) configuration to detect lower limb motor imagery (MI) in real time using two different cognitive neural states: relax and pedaling MI. The anode is located over the primary motor cortex in Cz, and the cathode over the right cerebro-cerebellum. The real-time brain-computer interface (BCI) designed is based on finding, for each electrode selected, the power at the particular frequency where the most difference between the two mental tasks is observed...
April 8, 2018: Sensors
Panteleimon Chriskos, Christos A Frantzidis, Polyxeni T Gkivogkli, Panagiotis D Bamidis, Chrysoula Kourtidou-Papadeli
Sleep staging, the process of assigning labels to epochs of sleep, depending on the stage of sleep they belong, is an arduous, time consuming and error prone process as the initial recordings are quite often polluted by noise from different sources. To properly analyze such data and extract clinical knowledge, noise components must be removed or alleviated. In this paper a pre-processing and subsequent sleep staging pipeline for the sleep analysis of electroencephalographic signals is described. Two novel methods of functional connectivity estimation (Synchronization Likelihood/SL and Relative Wavelet Entropy/RWE) are comparatively investigated for automatic sleep staging through manually pre-processed electroencephalographic recordings...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Judith Goris, Senne Braem, Annabel D Nijhof, Davide Rigoni, Eliane Deschrijver, Sander Van de Cruys, Jan R Wiersema, Marcel Brass
BACKGROUND: Recent predictive coding accounts of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) suggest that a key deficit in ASD concerns the inflexibility in modulating local prediction errors as a function of global top-down expectations. As a direct test of this central hypothesis, we used electroencephalography to investigate whether local prediction error processing was less modulated by global context (i.e., global stimulus frequency) in ASD. METHODS: A group of 18 adults with ASD was compared with a group of 24 typically developed adults on a well-validated hierarchical auditory oddball task in which participants listened to short sequences of either five identical sounds (local standard) or four identical sounds and a fifth deviant sound (local deviant)...
March 6, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
David B Stone, Gabriella Tamburro, Patrique Fiedler, Jens Haueisen, Silvia Comani
Data contamination due to physiological artifacts such as those generated by eyeblinks, eye movements, and muscle activity continues to be a central concern in the acquisition and analysis of electroencephalographic (EEG) data. This issue is further compounded in EEG sports science applications where the presence of artifacts is notoriously difficult to control because behaviors that generate these interferences are often the behaviors under investigation. Therefore, there is a need to develop effective and efficient methods to identify physiological artifacts in EEG recordings during sports applications so that they can be isolated from cerebral activity related to the activities of interest...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Fanny Barlaam, Carole Fortin, Marianne Vaugoyeau, Christina Schmitz, Christine Assaiante
Anticipatory postural Adjustments (APAs) cancel the destabilizing effects of movement on posture. Across development, the maturation of APAs is characterized by an accurate adjustment of the timing parameters of electromyographic (EMG) response. The study aimed at investigating the maturation of cortical oscillations involved in the improvement of APAs efficiency. Thirty-six healthy participants (8-16 years) performed the bimanual load-lifting task in which subjects are instructed to lift a load, placed on the left forearm, with the right hand...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Alexis Arzimanoglou, O'Neill D'Cruz, Douglas Nordli, Shlomo Shinnar, Gregory L Holmes
Most antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) receive regulatory approval for children years after the drug is available in adults, encouraging off-label use of the drug in children and hindering attempts to obtain quality pediatric data in controlled trials. Extrapolating adult efficacy data to pediatrics can reduce the time between approval in adults and that in children. To extrapolate efficacy from adults to children, several assumptions must be supported, such as (1) a similar disease progression and response to interventions in adults and children, and (2) similar exposure response in adults and children...
April 3, 2018: Paediatric Drugs
Javier Gomez-Pilar, Rodrigo de Luis-García, Alba Lubeiro, Henar de la Red, Jesús Poza, Pablo Núñez, Roberto Hornero, Vicente Molina
Our aim was to assess structural and functional networks in schizophrenia patients; and the possible prediction of the latter based on the former. The possible dependence of functional network properties on structural alterations has not been analyzed in schizophrenia. We applied averaged path-length (PL), clustering coefficient, and density (D) measurements to data from diffusion magnetic resonance and electroencephalography in 39 schizophrenia patients and 79 controls. Functional data were collected for the global and theta frequency bands during an odd-ball task, prior to stimulus delivery and at the corresponding processing window...
April 2, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Michael Murphy, Robert Stickgold, Mittie Elaine Parr, Cameron Callahan, Erin J Wamsley
Offline reactivation of task-related neural activity has been demonstrated in animals but is difficult to directly observe in humans. We sought to identify potential electroencephalographic (EEG) markers of offline memory processing in human subjects by identifying a set of characteristic EEG topographies ("microstates") that occurred as subjects learned to navigate a virtual maze. We hypothesized that these task-related microstates would appear during post-task periods of rest and sleep. In agreement with this hypothesis, we found that one task-related microstate was increased in post-training rest and sleep compared to baseline rest, selectively for subjects who actively learned the maze, and not in subjects performing a non-learning control task...
March 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
Lutz Jäncke, Simon Leipold, Anja Burkhard
Most studies examining the neural underpinnings of music listening have no specific instruction on how to process the presented musical pieces. In this study, we explicitly manipulated the participants' focus of attention while they listened to the musical pieces. We used an ecologically valid experimental setting by presenting the musical stimuli simultaneously with naturalistic film sequences. In one condition, the participants were instructed to focus their attention on the musical piece (attentive listening), whereas in the second condition, the participants directed their attention to the film sequence (passive listening)...
March 28, 2018: Neuroreport
Steven P Ellis, Charles Ákos Szabó
Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder associated with increased morbidity and mortality, including premature death from different causes. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy, or SUDEP, is one of the most common causes of death in people with epilepsy and originally brought to light by medical examiners. It accounts for 5% to 30% of all deaths in individuals with epilepsy and up to 50% in individuals with medically refractory epilepsy. It is commonly associated with a history of generalized tonic-clonic seizures and may be mitigated by other electroclinical risk factors, such as postictal electroencephalographic suppression, prone position, altered heart rate variability, conduction abnormalities, gender, or antiepileptic medications, to name a few...
March 28, 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
Chuanzuo Yang, Guoming Luan, Qian Wang, Zhao Liu, Feng Zhai, Qingyun Wang
Patients with focal drug-resistant epilepsy are potential candidates for surgery. Stereo-electroencephalograph (SEEG) is often considered as the "gold standard" to identify the epileptogenic zone (EZ) that accounts for the onset and propagation of epileptiform discharges. However, visual analysis of SEEG still prevails in clinical practice. In addition, epilepsy is increasingly understood to be the result of network disorder, but the specific organization of the epileptic network is still unclear...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Catherine Thompson, Elsie Li Chen Ong
It can be difficult to identify those at risk of suicide because suicidal thoughts are often internalized and not shared with others. Yet to prevent suicide attempts it is crucial to identify suicidal thoughts and actions at an early stage. Past studies have suggested that deficits in attentional control are associated with suicide, with the argument that individuals are unable to inhibit negative thoughts and direct resources away from negative information. The current study aimed to investigate the association of suicidal behavior with neurological and behavioral markers, measuring attentional bias and inhibition in two Stroop tasks...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Danny M W Hilkman, Walther N K A van Mook, Werner H Mess, Vivianne H J M van Kranen-Mastenbroek
BACKGROUND: Currently, continuous electroencephalographic monitoring (cEEG) is the only available diagnostic tool for continuous monitoring of brain function in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Yet, the exact relevance of routinely applied ICU cEEG remains unclear, and information on the implementation of cEEG, especially in Europe, is scarce. This study explores current practices of cEEG in adult Dutch ICU departments focusing on organizational and operational factors, development over time and factors perceived relevant for abstaining its use...
March 27, 2018: Neurocritical Care
Hany El-Naggar, Patrick Moloney, Peter Widdess-Walsh, Ronan Kilbride, Norman Delanty, Gerard Mullins
Epilepsy and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) can coexist and may present in two forms: sequential and simultaneous. In sequential presentations, epileptic seizures (ES) are treated and PNES emerge later. Simultaneous recording of ES and PNES by video-electroencephalogram (vEEG) is less well described. We retrospectively reviewed all patients diagnosed with PNES by vEEG following standard seizure induction practices over a 21-month period. Within this cohort, we established the prevalence of coexisting epilepsy using clinical and electrographic data acquired from our epilepsy-specific patient record...
December 2017: Epilepsia Open
Carla Bentes, Ana Rita Peralta, Hugo Martins, Carlos Casimiro, Carlos Morgado, Ana Catarina Franco, Pedro Viana, Ana Catarina Fonseca, Ruth Geraldes, Patrícia Canhão, Teresa Pinho E Melo, Teresa Paiva, José M Ferro
Objective: Seizures and electroencephalographic (EEG) abnormalities have been associated with unfavorable stroke functional outcome. However, this association may depend on clinical and imaging stroke severity. We set out to analyze whether epileptic seizures and early EEG abnormalities are predictors of stroke outcome after adjustment for age and clinical/imaging infarct severity. Methods: A prospective study was made on consecutive and previously independent acute stroke patients with a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score ≥ 4 on admission and an acute anterior circulation ischemic lesion on brain imaging...
December 2017: Epilepsia Open
Charles J Kind, Charles R J C Newton, Symon M Kariuki
Objective: To investigate the prevalence, risk factors, clinical features, and neurobehavioral comorbidities of epilepsy and acute symptomatic seizures in school-aged children in Kilifi, Kenya. Methods: Randomly selected children (N = 11,223) were screened for epilepsy and other neurodevelopmental disorders. Those who screened positive were invited for further clinical, electroencephalographic (EEG), and neuropsychological evaluations. Prevalence was measured by dividing cases by screened population, providing Agresti-Coull confidence intervals (CIs)...
December 2017: Epilepsia Open
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