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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222581/a-comparison-of-the-physiological-demands-imposed-by-competing-in-a-half-marathon-vs-a-marathon
#1
Juan Del Coso, Juan J Salinero, Beatriz Lara, Javier Abián-Vicén, César Gallo-Salazar, Francisco Areces
BACKGROUND: While there is widespread scientific information about the physiological challenges imposed on elite endurance runners during competitions, the information regarding the amateur population is scarce. The aim of this study was to compare the physical and physiological load imposed by competing in a real half-marathon vs a marathon race. METHODS: From a larger group of participants, we selected 22 experienced runners who were matched in pairs (11 marathoners and 11 half-marathoners) for age and anthropometric data...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221107/use-of-mass-participation-outdoor-events-to-assess-human-exposure-to-tickborne-pathogens
#2
Jessica L Hall, Kathrin Alpers, Kevin J Bown, Stephen J Martin, Richard J Birtles
Mapping the public health threat of tickborne pathogens requires quantification of not only the density of infected host-seeking ticks but also the rate of human exposure to these ticks. To efficiently sample a high number of persons in a short time, we used a mass-participation outdoor event. In June 2014, we sampled ≈500 persons competing in a 2-day mountain marathon run across predominantly tick-infested habitat in Scotland. From the number of tick bites recorded and prevalence of tick infection with Borrelia burgdoferi sensu lato and B...
March 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217424/joint-mobilization-in-the-management-of-persistent-insertional-achilles-tendinopathy-a-case-report
#3
Dhinu J Jayaseelan, Andrew A Post, John J Mischke, Josiah D Sault
BACKGROUND & PURPOSE: Insertional Achilles tendinopathy (IAT) can be a challenging condition to manage conservatively. Eccentric exercise is commonly used in the management of chronic tendinopathy; however, it may not be as helpful for insertional tendon problems as compared to mid-portion dysfunction. While current evidence describing the physical therapy management of IAT is developing, gaps still exist in descriptions of best practice. The purpose of this case report is to describe the management of a patient with persistent IAT utilizing impairment-based joint mobilization, self-mobilization, and exercise...
February 2017: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216570/an-electromagnetic-sensor-for-the-autonomous-running-of-visually-impaired-and-blind-athletes-part-i-the-fixed-infrastructure
#4
Marco Pieralisi, Valentina Di Mattia, Valerio Petrini, Alfredo De Leo, Giovanni Manfredi, Paola Russo, Lorenzo Scalise, Graziano Cerri
Sport is one of the best ways to promote the social integration of people affected by physical disability, because it helps them to increase their self-esteem by facing difficulties and overcoming their disabilities. Nowadays, a large number of sports can be easily played by visually impaired and blind athletes without any special supports, but, there are some disciplines that require the presence of a sighted guide. In this work, the attention will be focused on marathons, during which athletes with visual disorders have to be linked to the sighted guide by means of a non-stretchable elbow tether, with an evident reduction of their performance and autonomy...
February 14, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192675/sentinels-of-breach
#5
Andrew J Hampton, Valerie L Shalin
Objective This paper identifies general properties of language style in social media to help identify areas of need in disasters. Background In the search for metrics of need in social media data, much of the existing literature ignores processes of language usage. Psychological concepts, such as narrative breach, Gricean maxims, and lexical marking in cognition, may assist the recovery of disaster-relevant metrics from altered patterns of word prevalence. Method We analyzed several hundred thousand location-specific microblogs from Twitter for Hurricane Sandy, Oklahoma tornadoes, and the Boston Marathon bombing along with a fantasy football control corpus, examining the relative frequency of words in 36 antonym pairs...
February 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187185/declines-in-marathon-performance-sex-differences-in-elite-and-recreational-athletes
#6
Gerald S Zavorsky, Kelly A Tomko, James M Smoliga
The first aim of this study was to determine the age group at which marathon performance declines in top male and female runners and to compare that to the runners of average ability. Another aim of this of this study was to examine the age-related yearly decline in marathon performance between age group winners and the average marathon finisher. Data from the New York (NYC), Boston, and Chicago marathons from 2001-2016 were analyzed. Age, sex, and location were used in multiple linear regression models to determine the rate of decline in marathon times...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181836/volume-exercise-in-older-athletes-influences-inflammatory-and-redox-responses-to-acute-exercise
#7
Andre L Estrela, Aline Zaparte, Jefferson D da Silva, José C Moreira, James E Turner, Moisés E Bauer
To examine whether the volume of previous exercise training in older athletes influences inflammatory, redox and hormonal profiles, forty trained marathon runners were divided into higher-volume (HVG, ~480 min/week) and lower-volume groups (LVG, ~240 min/week). Plasma inflammatory proteins, redox biomarkers and salivary testosterone and cortisol, were assessed at rest and following two maximal acute exercise bouts. At rest, the LVG exhibited higher CRP, higher protein carbonyls and lower SOD activity compared to the HVG (p's<0...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177719/impact-of-polyphenols-on-physiological-stress-and-cardiac-burden-in-marathon-runners-results-from-a-substudy-of-the-bemagic-study
#8
Sebastian Clauss, Johannes Scherr, Alan Hanley, Jens Schneider, Ina Klier, Korbinian Lackermair, Eva Hoster, Michael Vogeser, David C Nieman, Martin Halle, Thomas Nickel
Introduction Both physiologic stress and chronic heart disease are associated with increased systemic levels of chromogranin A (CGA) and NT-proBNP. Marathon running causes physiological stress and imposes a significant cardiac burden. Polyphenol-rich Mediterranean and Asian diets have been demonstrated to exert beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. In this study we investigated whether pretreatment with a polyphenol beverage could attenuate the physiological and cardiac stress associated with a marathon...
January 16, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165768/minimal-muscle-damage-after-a-marathon-and-no-influence-of-beetroot-juice-on-inflammation-and-recovery
#9
Tom Clifford, Dean M Allerton, Meghan A Brown, Liam Harper, Steven Horsburgh, Karen M Keane, Emma J Stevenson, Glyn Howatson
This study examined whether beetroot juice (BTJ) would attenuate inflammation and muscle damage following a marathon. Using a double blind, independent group design, 34 runners (each having completed ca. ∼16 previous marathons) consumed either BTJ or an isocaloric placebo (PLA) for 3 days following a marathon. Maximal isometric voluntary contractions (MIVC), countermovement jumps (CMJ), muscle soreness, serum cytokines, leucocytosis, creatine kinase (CK), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured pre, post, and 2 days after the marathon...
November 9, 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154975/actn3-genotype-influences-exercise-induced-muscle-damage-during-a-marathon-competition
#10
Juan Del Coso, Marjorie Valero, Juan José Salinero, Beatriz Lara, Germán Díaz, César Gallo-Salazar, Diana Ruiz-Vicente, Francisco Areces, Carlos Puente, Juan Carlos Carril, Ramón Cacabelos
PURPOSE: Exercise-induced muscle damage has been identified as one of the main causes of the progressive decrease in running and muscular performance in marathoners. The aim of this investigation was to determine the influence of the ACTN3 genotype on exercise-induced muscle damage produced during a marathon. METHODS: Seventy-one experienced runners competed in a marathon race. Before and after the race, a sample of venous blood was obtained and maximal voluntary leg muscle power was measured during a countermovement jump...
February 2, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149523/differences-in-life-expectancy-between-olympic-high-jumpers-discus-throwers-marathon-and-100-meter-runners
#11
Jeffrey Lee-Heidenreich, David Lee-Heidenreich, Jonathan Myers
BACKGROUND: Several studies have demonstrated that body habitus is associated with survival (life expectancy) time. We sought to determine if survival differed between elite athletes with a range of body types. We hypothesized that the survival would differ between athlete types and that ectomorph athletes would have longer survival than heavier athletes. METHODS: For each Olympics between 1928 and 1948 we identified the top (up to 20) Olympic male and female finishers in the high jump (HJ), discus throw, marathon, and 100-m run...
2017: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139033/performance-trends-in-age-group-runners-from-100%C3%A2-m-to-marathon-the-world-championships-from-1975-to-2015
#12
P T Nikolaidis, M A Zingg, B Knechtle
This study examined changes in performance in age-group track runners across years from 1975 to 2015 for 100, 200, 400, 800, 1500, 5000, 10 000 m, and marathon and the corresponding sex differences. Athletes were ranked in 5-year age-group intervals from 35-39 to 95-99 years. For all races and all years, the eight female and male finalists for each age-group were included. Men were faster than women and this observation was more pronounced in the shorter distances. The younger age-groups were faster than the older age-groups and age exerted the largest effect on speed in 800 m and the smallest in marathon...
January 30, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28136131/is-marathon-running-toxic-an-observational-study-of-cardiovascular-disease-prevalence-and-longevity-in-54-male-marathon-runners
#13
Benjamin Rosin
OBJECTIVES: Recent literature suggests reduced benefits associated with high intensity (HIT) and or sustained intensity exercise training (SIT). While important, they tend to contrast with other studies of HIT and SIT and may not be representative of all individuals wishing to participate in activities such as marathon running. The purpose of this observational report is to describe a 45-year history of 54 long distance runners, their incidence of death from cardiovascular disease and their ages at death compared to the normal population...
January 30, 2017: Physician and Sportsmedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114817/the-age-of-the-best-ultramarathon-performance-the-case-of-the-comrades-marathon
#14
Beat Knechtle, Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis
The aim of the present study was to determine the age of the fastest running speed in 202,370 runners (34,090 women and 168,280 men) competing in the "Comrades Marathon" between 1994 and 2015 using non-linear regression analysis (second order polynomial function). When all runners were considered in 1-year age intervals, the fastest running speed (9.61 ± 1.65 km/h) was achieved at the age of 29.89 years in men, whereas women achieved it at the age of 35.96 years 8.60 ± 1.10 km/h. When the fastest runners were considered in 1-year intervals, the fastest running speed (16...
January 23, 2017: Research in Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105968/situs-inversus-totalis-in-twins-a-brief-review-and-a-life-history-twin-research-twin-studies-of-trisomy-21-monozygotic-twin-concordance-for-bilateral-coronoid-hyperplasia-prenatal-hormonal-effects-in-mixed-sex-non-human-primate-litters-insurance-mandates-and
#15
Nancy L Segal
The presence of situs inversus totalis (full reversal of internal organs) in twins is briefly reviewed. Information gathered from 35-year-old monozygotic (MZ) female twin pair discordant for this condition is presented. This is followed by summaries of research on the frequency of trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) in twins, the first case of MZ twin concordance for bilateral coronoid hyperplasia, prenatal hormonal effects in mixed-sex non-human primate litters, and links between insurance mandates and twinning following in vitro fertilization...
February 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099172/decrease-of-muscle-fiber-conduction-velocity-correlates-with-strength-loss-after-an-endurance-run
#16
Gennaro Boccia, Davide Dardanello, Cantor Tarperi, Valeria Rosso, Luca Festa, Antonio La Torre, Barbara Pellegrini, Federico Schena, Alberto Rainoldi
Monitoring surface electromyographic (EMG) signals can provide useful insights for characterizing muscle fatigue, which is defined as an exercise-induced strength loss. This experiment investigated the muscle fiber conduction velocity (CV) changes induced by an endurance run. The day before and immediately after a half-marathon run (21.097 km) 11 amateur runners performed maximum voluntary contractions (MVCs) of knee extensor muscles. During the MVC, multichannel EMG was recorded from the vastus lateralis and EMG amplitude and CV were calculated...
January 18, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098640/sepsis-quality-improvement-initiatives-prepare-for-the-marathon-not-the-sprint
#17
Abhishek Bhardwaj, Mark E Mikkelsen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095597/recollection-bias-and-its-underpinnings-lessons-from-terrorism-risk-assessments
#18
W Kip Viscusi, Richard J Zeckhauser
Recollection bias is the phenomenon whereby people who observe a highly unexpected event hold current risk beliefs about a similar event that are no higher than their recollection of their prior beliefs. This article replicates and extends the authors' previous study of recollection bias in relation to individuals' perceptions of the risks of terrorism attacks. Over 60% of respondents in a national U.S. sample of over 900 adults believe that the current risk of a future terrorist attack by either an airplane or in a public setting is no higher than they recall having believed, respectively, before the 9/11 attack and before the Boston Marathon bombing...
January 17, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052642/differences-in-age-of-peak-marathon-performance-between-mountain-and-city-marathon-running-the-%C3%A2-jungfrau-marathon%C3%A2-in-switzerland
#19
Beat Knechtle, Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis, Matthias Alexander Zingg, Thomas Rosemann, Christoph Alexander Rüst
The age of the best marathon performance has been well investigated for flat city marathon running, but not for mountain marathon running. The aim of this study was to determine the age of the best mountain marathon performance and to compare to results of a flat city marathon. Race times and ages of finishers of a mountain marathon with 1,830 m of altitude change (Jungfrau Marathon, Switzerland) and two flat city marathons (Lausanne Marathon and Zurich Marathon, Switzerland) were analysed using linear, non-linear and mixed-effects regression analyses...
28, 2017: Chinese Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028816/physiological-limits-to-endurance-exercise-performance-influence-of-sex
#20
Michael J Joyner
This brief review summarizes factors associated with elite endurance performance, trends in distance running training, and participation by men and more recently women. It is framed in the context of key ideas about the physiological determinants of endurance performance but also touches on some historical and sociological factors relevant to the overall topic. Historical trends that served to increase women's participation in elite endurance events are also discussed as is the role of increased volume and intensity of training...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Physiology
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