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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771321/associational-interactions-between-urban-trees-are-native-neighbors-better-than-non-natives
#1
Carl Scott Clem, David W Held
This project investigated associational interactions (associational resistance or susceptibility) between native and non-native trees commonly found in urban landscapes in the southeastern United States. Non-native plants offer limited ecological services because few native herbivore species are capable of feeding on them. In a 2-yr field study, abundance and species richness of caterpillars, plant damage, and herbivore natural enemies were evaluated in plots where a native red maple (Acer rubrum L. [Sapindales: Aceraceae]) was planted singly (no neighbors) or interplanted with either non-native non-congeneric crepe myrtles (Lagerstroemia indica L...
May 15, 2018: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749931/high-quality-ultrastructural-preservation-using-cryofixation-for-3d-electron-microscopy-of-genetically-labeled-tissues
#2
Tin Ki Tsang, Eric A Bushong, Daniela Boassa, Junru Hu, Benedetto Romoli, Sebastien Phan, Davide Dulcis, Chih-Ying Su, Mark H Ellisman
Electron microscopy (EM) offers unparalleled power to study cell substructures at the nanoscale. Cryofixation by high-pressure freezing offers optimal morphological preservation, as it captures cellular structures instantaneously in their near-native states. However, the applicability of cryofixation is limited by its incompatibilities with diaminobenzidine labeling using genetic EM tags and the high-contrast en bloc staining required for serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBEM). In addition, it is challenging to perform correlated light and electron microscopy (CLEM) with cryofixed samples...
May 11, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749585/does-implementation-matter-if-comprehension-is-lacking-a-qualitative-investigation-into-perceptions-of-advance-care-planning-in-people-with-cancer
#3
Anna Ugalde, Clare O'Callaghan, Clem Byard, Samantha Brean, Jenelle MacKay, Anna Boltong, Sondra Davoren, Deborah Lawson, Phillip Parente, Natasha Michael, Patricia Livingston
PURPOSE: While advance care planning holds promise, uptake is variable and it is unclear how well people engage with or comprehend advance care planning. The objective of this study was to explore how people with cancer comprehended advance care plans and examine how accurately advance care planning documentation represented patient wishes. METHODS: This study used a qualitative descriptive design. Data collection comprised interviews and an examination of participants' existing advance care planning documentation...
May 11, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707562/the-clinical-utility-of-lung-clearance-index-in-early-cystic-fibrosis-lung-disease-is-not-impacted-by-the-number-of-multiple-breath-washout-trials
#4
Rachel E Foong, Alana J Harper, Billy Skoric, Louise King, Lidija Turkovic, Miriam Davis, Charles C Clem, Tim Rosenow, Stephanie D Davis, Sarath Ranganathan, Graham L Hall, Kathryn A Ramsey
The lung clearance index (LCI) from the multiple-breath washout (MBW) test is a promising surveillance tool for pre-school children with cystic fibrosis (CF). Current guidelines for MBW testing recommend that three acceptable trials are required. However, success rates to achieve these criteria are low in children aged <7 years and feasibility may improve with modified pre-school criteria that accepts tests with two acceptable trials. This study aimed to determine if relationships between LCI and clinical outcomes of CF lung disease differ when only two acceptable MBW trials are assessed...
January 2018: ERJ Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702107/entry-and-disassembly-of-large-dna-viruses-electron-microscopy-leads-the-way
#5
REVIEW
Emmanuelle R Quemin, Simon Corroyer-Dulmont, Jacomine Krijnse-Locker
Nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs) are a steadily growing group of viruses that infect a wide range of hosts and are characterized by large particle dimensions and genome sizes. Understanding how they enter into the host cell and deliver their genome in the cytoplasm is therefore particularly intriguing. Here, we review the current knowledge on the entry of two of the best-characterized NCLDVs: the poxvirus Vaccinia virus (VACV) and the giant virus Mimivirus. While previous studies on VACV had proposed both direct fusion at the plasma membrane and endocytosis as entry routes, more recent biochemical and morphological data argue for macropinocytosis as well...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618293/deficiencies-of-magnesium-replacement-in-the-critically-ill
#6
Drayton A Hammond, Jelena Stojakovic, Niranjan Kathe, Julie Tran, Oktawia A Clem, Kristina Erbach, Jarrod King
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600824/prospective-open-label-trial-of-early-concomitant-vasopressin-and-norepinephrine-therapy-versus-initial-norepinephrine-monotherapy-in-septic-shock
#7
Drayton A Hammond, Oktawia A Ficek, Jacob T Painter, Kelsey McCain, Julia Cullen, Amy L Brotherton, Krishna Kakkera, Divyan Chopra, Nikhil Meena
PURPOSE: Delays in achieving target mean arterial pressure (MAP) are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients with septic shock. This trial was conducted to test the hypothesis that early concomitant treatment with vasopressin and norepinephrine reduces the time to achieve and maintain target MAP compared with initial norepinephrine monotherapy. METHODS: A single-center prospective open-label trial was conducted in patients with septic shock between November 2015 and June 2016 at a medical intensive care unit in an academic medical center...
March 30, 2018: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581545/microglia-remodel-synapses-by-presynaptic-trogocytosis-and-spine-head-filopodia-induction
#8
Laetitia Weinhard, Giulia di Bartolomei, Giulia Bolasco, Pedro Machado, Nicole L Schieber, Urte Neniskyte, Melanie Exiga, Auguste Vadisiute, Angelo Raggioli, Andreas Schertel, Yannick Schwab, Cornelius T Gross
Microglia are highly motile glial cells that are proposed to mediate synaptic pruning during neuronal circuit formation. Disruption of signaling between microglia and neurons leads to an excess of immature synaptic connections, thought to be the result of impaired phagocytosis of synapses by microglia. However, until now the direct phagocytosis of synapses by microglia has not been reported and fundamental questions remain about the precise synaptic structures and phagocytic mechanisms involved. Here we used light sheet fluorescence microscopy to follow microglia-synapse interactions in developing organotypic hippocampal cultures, complemented by a 3D ultrastructural characterization using correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM)...
March 26, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451726/single-organelle-dynamics-linked-to-3d-structure-by-correlative-live-cell-imaging-and-3d-electron-microscopy
#9
Job Fermie, Nalan Liv, Corlinda Ten Brink, Elly G van Donselaar, Wally H Müller, Nicole L Schieber, Yannick Schwab, Hans C Gerritsen, Judith Klumperman
Live-cell correlative light-electron microscopy (live-cell-CLEM) integrates live movies with the corresponding electron microscopy (EM) image, but a major challenge is to relate the dynamic characteristics of single organelles to their 3-dimensional (3D) ultrastructure. Here, we introduce focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) in a modular live-cell-CLEM pipeline for a single organelle CLEM. We transfected cells with lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1-green fluorescent protein (LAMP-1-GFP), analyzed the dynamics of individual GFP-positive spots, and correlated these to their corresponding fine-architecture and immediate cellular environment...
May 2018: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327239/a-small-protein-probe-for-correlated-microscopy-of-endogenous-proteins
#10
Marit A de Beer, Jeroen Kuipers, Paul M P van Bergen En Henegouwen, Ben N G Giepmans
Probes are essential to visualize proteins in their cellular environment, both using light microscopy as well as electron microscopy (EM). Correlated light microscopy and electron microscopy (CLEM) requires probes that can be imaged simultaneously by both optical and electron-dense signals. Existing combinatorial probes often have impaired efficiency, need ectopic expression as a fusion protein, or do not target endogenous proteins. Here, we present FLIPPER-bodies to label endogenous proteins for CLEM. Fluorescent Indicator and Peroxidase for Precipitation with EM Resolution (FLIPPER), the combination of a fluorescent protein and a peroxidase, is fused to a nanobody against a target of interest...
March 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315318/correlative-light-and-immuno-electron-microscopy-of-retinal-tissue-cryostat-sections
#11
Thomas Burgoyne, Amelia Lane, William E Laughlin, Michael E Cheetham, Clare E Futter
Correlative light-electron microscopy (CLEM) is a powerful technique allowing localisation of specific macromolecules within fluorescence microscopy (FM) images to be mapped onto corresponding high-resolution electron microscopy (EM) images. Existing methods are applicable to limited sample types and are technically challenging. Here we describe novel methods to perform CLEM and immuno-electron microscopy (iEM) on cryostat sections utilising the popular FM embedding solution, optimal cutting temperature (OCT) compound...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197563/gabaergic-interneurons-the-orchestra-or-the-conductor-in-fear-learning-and-memory
#12
REVIEW
Elizabeth K Lucas, Roger L Clem
Fear conditioning is a form of associative learning that is fundamental to survival and involves potentiation of activity in excitatory projection neurons (PNs). Current models stipulate that the mechanisms underlying this process involve plasticity of PN synapses, which exhibit strengthening in response to fear conditioning. However, excitatory PNs are extensively modulated by a diverse array of GABAergic interneurons whose contributions to acquisition, storage, and expression of fear memory remain poorly understood...
December 2, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190286/nucleolar-sub-compartments-in-motion-during-rrna-synthesis-inhibition-contraction-of-nucleolar-condensed-chromatin-and-gathering-of-fibrillar-centers-are-concomitant
#13
Pavel Tchelidze, Aassif Benassarou, Hervé Kaplan, Marie-Françoise O'Donohue, Laurent Lucas, Christine Terryn, Levan Rusishvili, Giorgi Mosidze, Nathalie Lalun, Dominique Ploton
The nucleolus produces the large polycistronic transcript (47S precursor) containing the 18S, 5.8S and 28S rRNA sequences and hosts most of the nuclear steps of pre-rRNA processing. Among numerous components it contains condensed chromatin and active rRNA genes which adopt a more accessible conformation. For this reason, it is a paradigm of chromosome territory organization. Active rRNA genes are clustered within several fibrillar centers (FCs), in which they are maintained in an open configuration by Upstream Binding Factor (UBF) molecules...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186480/gold-nanoparticle-printed-coverslips-to-facilitate-fluorescence-tem-correlative-microscopy
#14
Neeraj Prabhakar, Anni Määttänen, Jouko Peltonen, Pekka Hänninen, Markus Peurla, Jessica M Rosenholm
Correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) allows combining the advantages of fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy for cell imaging. Rare phenomenon expressing cells can be studied by specifically tagged fluorophores with fluorescence microscopy. Subsequently, cells can be fixed and ultra-structural details can be studied with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) at a higher resolution. However, precise landmarks are necessary to track the same cell throughout the CLEM process. In this technical report, we present a high contrast inkjet-printed gold nanoparticle patterns over commercial glass coverslip to facilitate cell tracking with correlative microscopy...
February 1, 2018: Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172582/nih-behavioral-and-social-sciences-research-support-1980-2016
#15
Robert M Kaplan, Suzanne Bennett Johnson, Patricia Clem Kobor
The history of behavioral and social science research funding at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) between 1980 and 2016 is reviewed. Noncommunicable diseases are now the primary cause of death worldwide and most are strongly linked to behavior. Developed under the prevailing zeitgeist of the biomedical model, behavioral and social science has often been underfunded at NIH. In 1990, the Senate Appropriations Committee, recognizing that behavior may contribute to about half of all premature deaths, recommended that funding for behavioral and social sciences research should be about 10% of the NIH budget...
November 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113848/high-vacuum-optical-platform-for-cryo-clem-hope-a-new-solution-for-non-integrated-multiscale-correlative-light-and-electron-microscopy
#16
Shuoguo Li, Gang Ji, Yang Shi, Lasse Hyldgaard Klausen, Tongxin Niu, Shengliu Wang, Xiaojun Huang, Wei Ding, Xiang Zhang, Mingdong Dong, Wei Xu, Fei Sun
Cryo-correlative light and electron microscopy (cryo-CLEM) offers a unique way to analyze the high-resolution structural information of cryo-vitrified specimen by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) with the guide of the search for unique events by cryo-fluorescence microscopy (cryo-FM). To achieve cryo-FM, a trade-off must be made between the temperature and performance of objective lens. The temperature of specimen should be kept below devitrification while the distance between the objective lens and specimen should be short enough for high resolution imaging...
January 2018: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093659/closed-loop-experiment-manager-clem-an-open-and-inexpensive-solution-for-multichannel-electrophysiological-recordings-and-closed-loop-experiments
#17
Hananel Hazan, Noam E Ziv
There is growing need for multichannel electrophysiological systems that record from and interact with neuronal systems in near real-time. Such systems are needed, for example, for closed loop, multichannel electrophysiological/optogenetic experimentation in vivo and in a variety of other neuronal preparations, or for developing and testing neuro-prosthetic devices, to name a few. Furthermore, there is a need for such systems to be inexpensive, reliable, user friendly, easy to set-up, open and expandable, and possess long life cycles in face of rapidly changing computing environments...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078993/distinguishing-signal-from-autofluorescence-in-cryogenic-correlated-light-and-electron-microscopy-of-mammalian-cells
#18
Stephen D Carter, Shrawan K Mageswaran, Zachary J Farino, João I Mamede, Catherine M Oikonomou, Thomas J Hope, Zachary Freyberg, Grant J Jensen
In cryogenic correlated light and electron microscopy (cryo-CLEM), frozen targets of interest are identified and located on EM grids by fluorescence microscopy and then imaged at higher resolution by cryo-EM. Whilst working with these methods, we discovered that a variety of mammalian cells exhibit strong punctate autofluorescence when imaged under cryogenic conditions (80 K). Autofluorescence originated from multilamellar bodies (MLBs) and secretory granules. Here we describe a method to distinguish fluorescent protein tags from these autofluorescent sources based on the narrower emission spectrum of the former...
January 2018: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038221/prazosin-during-threat-discrimination-boosts-memory-of-the-safe-stimulus
#19
Philipp Homan, Qi Lin, James W Murrough, Laili Soleimani, Dominik R Bach, Roger L Clem, Daniela Schiller
The α-1 adrenoreceptor antagonist prazosin has shown promise in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, but its mechanisms are not well understood. Here we administered prazosin or placebo prior to threat conditioning (day 1) and tested subsequent extinction (day 2) and reextinction (day 3) in healthy human participants. Prazosin did not affect threat conditioning but augmented stimulus discrimination during extinction and reextinction, via lower responding to the safe stimulus. These results suggest that prazosin during threat acquisition may have influenced encoding or consolidation of safety processing in particular, subsequently leading to enhanced discrimination between the safe and threatening stimuli...
November 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988512/consistency-of-traumatic-brain-injury-reporting-in-older-adults-with-and-without-cognitive-impairment
#20
Kristin Wilmoth, Christian LoBue, Matthew A Clem, Rajadhar Reddy, Linda S Hynan, Nyaz Didehbani, Kathleen Bell, Kyle B Womack, John Hart, Hunt Batjer, C Munro Cullum
OBJECTIVE: Medical history information regarding prior traumatic brain injury (TBI) usually relies on self-report, although little is known about the reliability of this information with regard to injuries sustained years or decades earlier. Even less is known about the reliability of self-reported medical history information in older individuals with cognitive impairment. To this end, we assessed the test-retest reliability of self-reported TBI history in a large, national sample. METHODS: Participants (n = 4309) were older adults with intact cognition, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center...
April 2018: Clinical Neuropsychologist
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