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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651246/development-of-a-perfusion-platform-for-dynamic-cultivation-of-in-vitro-skin-models
#1
Kay Strüver, Wolfgang Friess, Sarah Hedtrich
Reconstructed skin models are suitable test systems for toxicity testing and for basic investigations on (patho-)physiological aspects of human skin. Reconstructed human skin, however, has clear limitations such as the lack of immune cells and a significantly weaker skin barrier function compared to native human skin. Potential reasons for the latter might be the lack of mechanical forces during skin model cultivation which is performed classically in static well-plate setups. Mechanical forces and shear stress have a major impact on tissue formation and, hence, tissue engineering...
June 27, 2017: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650927/dexamethasone-prevents-lipopolysaccharide-induced-epithelial-barrier-dysfunction-in-rat-ileum
#2
Aline Barbosa Ribeiro, Humberto Giusti, Ana Paula Trevelin Souza, Celso Rodrigues Franci, Rafael Simone Saia
Inflammatory mediators have been postulated as elementary inducing factors to the disruption of the intestinal tight junctions (TJ) and consequently, gut permeability and bacterial translocation. Corticosteroids are considered the mainstay in the treatment of septic shock; however the impact of this therapy on the intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction during septic shock remains unknown. Our aims were to demonstrate the role of low dexamethasone (DEX) doses in modulation of the inflammatory response, as well as the expression and the arrangement of TJ proteins in endotoxemic rats...
June 23, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650689/time-and-dose-dependent-claudin-contribution-to-biological-functions-lessons-from-claudin-1-in-skin
#3
Reitaro Tokumasu, Atsushi Tamura, Sachiko Tsukita
There are many types of biologic compartments in the body. Tight junctions (TJs) function to create a dynamic paracellular barrier to separate these compartments and maintain homeostasis. The TJ component claudin-1 is the major transmembrane protein responsible for forming the paracellular barrier in the epidermis; other claudins in the epidermis include claudin-3, -4, -12, -23 and -25. Accumulating evidence points to a relationship between claudin-1 and skin diseases; for example, a decrease in claudin-1 is reported in human atopic dermatitis...
June 19, 2017: Tissue Barriers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649985/attenuation-of-rna-polymerase-ii-pausing-mitigates-brca1-associated-r-loop-accumulation-and-tumorigenesis
#4
Xiaowen Zhang, Huai-Chin Chiang, Yao Wang, Chi Zhang, Sabrina Smith, Xiayan Zhao, Sreejith J Nair, Joel Michalek, Ismail Jatoi, Meeghan Lautner, Boyce Oliver, Howard Wang, Anna Petit, Teresa Soler, Joan Brunet, Francesca Mateo, Miguel Angel Pujana, Elizabeth Poggi, Krysta Chaldekas, Claudine Isaacs, Beth N Peshkin, Oscar Ochoa, Frederic Chedin, Constantine Theoharis, Lu-Zhe Sun, Tyler J Curiel, Richard Elledge, Victor X Jin, Yanfen Hu, Rong Li
Most BRCA1-associated breast tumours are basal-like yet originate from luminal progenitors. BRCA1 is best known for its functions in double-strand break repair and resolution of DNA replication stress. However, it is unclear whether loss of these ubiquitously important functions fully explains the cell lineage-specific tumorigenesis. In vitro studies implicate BRCA1 in elimination of R-loops, DNA-RNA hybrid structures involved in transcription and genetic instability. Here we show that R-loops accumulate preferentially in breast luminal epithelial cells, not in basal epithelial or stromal cells, of BRCA1 mutation carriers...
June 26, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649649/patterns-of-cell-cycle-checkpoint-deregulation-associated-with-intrinsic-molecular-subtypes-of-human-breast-cancer-cells
#5
Jacquelyn J Bower, Leah D Vance, Matthew Psioda, Stephanie L Smith-Roe, Dennis A Simpson, Joseph G Ibrahim, Katherine A Hoadley, Charles M Perou, William K Kaufmann
Genomic instability is a hallmark of breast cancer, contributes to tumor heterogeneity, and influences chemotherapy resistance. Although Gap 2 and mitotic checkpoints are thought to prevent genomic instability, the role of these checkpoints in breast cancer is poorly understood. Here, we assess the Gap 2 and mitotic checkpoint functions of 24 breast cancer and immortalized mammary epithelial cell lines representing four of the six intrinsic molecular subtypes of breast cancer. We found that patterns of cell cycle checkpoint deregulation were associated with the intrinsic molecular subtype of breast cancer cell lines...
2017: NPJ Breast Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641790/ideal-cardiovascular-health-mortality-and%C3%A2-vascular-events-in-elderly-subjects-the%C3%A2-three-city%C3%A2-study
#6
Bamba Gaye, Marianne Canonico, Marie-Cécile Perier, Cecilia Samieri, Claudine Berr, Jean-François Dartigues, Christophe Tzourio, Alexis Elbaz, Jean-Philippe Empana
BACKGROUND: The benefit of ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) on health-related outcomes in middle-aged patients is firmly established. In the growing elderly population, the high prevalence of comorbidities and medications for chronic diseases may offset such benefit. OBJECTIVES: This study analyzed the association of ideal CVH with mortality, incident coronary heart disease, and stroke events in elderly individuals from the community. METHODS: Between 1999 and 2001, 9,294 men and women, noninstitutionalized and aged 65 years and over were examined, and thereafter followed up for the occurrence of vascular events and mortality within the Three-City Study...
June 27, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639789/anti-inflammatory-effect-of-anti-tnf-%C3%AE-cationic-phosphorous-dendrimers-nanocomplexes-administered-intranasally-in-a-murine-acute-lung-injury-model
#7
Adam Bohr, Nicolas Tsapis, Ilaria Andreana, Anais Chamarat, Camilla Foged, Claudine Delomenie, Magali Noiray, Nabil El Brahmi, Jean Pierre Majoral, Serge Mignani, Elias Fattal
Inflammation is an essential component of many lung diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or acute lung injury. Our purpose was to design efficient carriers for lung delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) in an acute lung injury model. To achieve this goal, two different types of phosphorus-based dendrimers with either pyrrolidinium or morpholinium as terminal protonated amino groups were selected for their better biocompatibility compared to other dendrimers...
June 22, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636801/water-channels-and-barriers-formed-by-claudins
#8
REVIEW
Rita Rosenthal, Dorothee Günzel, Dian Theune, Carolina Czichos, Jörg-Dieter Schulzke, Michael Fromm
Physiological studies in leaky epithelia, like kidney proximal tubules and the small intestine, have documented water transport via both transcellular and paracellular pathways. The discovery of aquaporin water channels provided a molecular basis for transcellular water movement. In contrast, the contribution, or even existence, of a specific paracellular water pathway has been disputed for a long time, until the cation channel-forming tight junction protein claudin-2 was shown to also permit the paracellular passage of water through its pore...
June 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636798/a-ccpe-based-xenon-biosensor-for-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-claudin-expressing-cells
#9
Anna Piontek, Christopher Witte, Honor May Rose, Miriam Eichner, Jonas Protze, Gerd Krause, Jörg Piontek, Leif Schröder
The majority of malignant tumors originate from epithelial cells, and many of them are characterized by an overexpression of claudins (Cldns) and their mislocalization out of tight junctions. We utilized the C-terminal claudin-binding domain of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (cCPE), with its high affinity to specific members of the claudin family, as the targeting unit for a claudin-sensitive cancer biosensor. To overcome the poor sensitivity of conventional relaxivity-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents, we utilized the superior sensitivity of xenon Hyper-CEST biosensors...
June 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633471/development-of-a-chicken-ileal-explant-culture-model-for-measurement-of-gut-inflammation-induced-by-lipopolysaccharide
#10
Qian Zhang, Susan D Eicher, Kolapo M Ajuwon, Todd J Applegate
Gut mucosa holds a single layer of epithelial cells and the largest mass of lymphoid tissue in the body. Although the epithelial cell culture model is widely used to assess intestinal barrier function, it has limitations for studying cellular interactions, in particular those of the immune system. In this study, a chicken ileal explant culture model was developed for investigating short-term gut inflammatory and secretory responses in an ex vivo environment. Initially, ileal explants from broilers at 21 d of age were cultured ex vivo up to 6 h...
June 16, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633196/tight-junction-strand-formation-by-claudin-10-isoforms-and-claudin-10a-10b-chimeras
#11
Susanne Milatz, Jörg Piontek, Caroline Hempel, Luca Meoli, Christoph Grohe, Anja Fromm, In-Fah M Lee, Rukeia El-Athman, Dorothee Günzel
Claudins are integral components of tight junctions (TJs) in epithelia and endothelia. When expressed in cell lines devoid of TJs, claudins are able to form TJ-like strands at contacts between adjacent cells. According to a current model of TJ strand formation, claudin protomers assemble in an antiparallel double row within the plasma membrane of each cell (cis-interaction) while binding to corresponding double rows from the neighboring cells (trans-interaction). Cis-interaction was proposed to involve two interfaces of the protomers' first extracellular segment (extracellular loop (ECL)1)...
June 20, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633193/trictide-a-tricellulin-derived-peptide-to-overcome-cellular-barriers
#12
Jimmi Cording, Basak Arslan, Christian Staat, Sophie Dithmer, Susanne M Krug, Anneliese Krüger, Philipp Berndt, Ramona Günther, Lars Winkler, Ingolf E Blasig, Reiner F Haseloff
The majority of tight junction (TJ) proteins restrict the paracellular permeation of solutes via their extracellular loops (ECLs). Tricellulin tightens tricellular TJs (tTJs) and regulates bicellular TJ (bTJ) proteins. We demonstrate that the addition of recombinantly produced extracellular loop 2 (ECL2) of tricellulin opens cellular barriers. The peptidomimetic trictide, a synthetic peptide derived from tricellulin ECL2, increases the passage of ions, as well as of small and larger molecules up to 10 kDa, between 16 and 30 h after application to human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line 2...
June 20, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631384/nmr-study-of-the-reductive-decomposition-of-bmim-ntf2-at-gold-electrodes-and-indirect-electrochemical-conversion-of-co2
#13
Roman Michez, Thomas Doneux, Claudine Buess-Herman, Michel Luhmer
Potential controlled electrolyses of [BMIm][NTf2 ] ionic liquid were performed at a gold cathode under nitrogen atmosphere. The structures of the major conversion products of the BMIm(+) cation were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses and gas chromatography (GC) analysis of the volatile compounds. Recombination of the imidazol-2-yl radicals, generated at the electrode by single electron transfer, leads to neutral diastereomeric dimers in equal proportions, with a faradaic efficiency of 80 %, while disproportionation of these radicals and/or reaction with hydrogen atoms adsorbed at the electrode generates a neutral monomer with 20 % faradaic efficiency...
June 20, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628216/a-fast-easy-and-customizable-eight-color-flow-cytometric-method-for-analysis-of-the-cellular-content-of-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid-in-the-mouse
#14
François Daubeuf, Julien Becker, Juan Antonio Aguilar-Pimentel, Claudine Ebel, Martin Hrabě de Angelis, Yann Hérault, Nelly Frossard
The cell composition of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) is an important indicator of airway inflammation. It is commonly determined by cytocentrifuging leukocytes on slides, then staining, identifying, and counting them as eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, or lymphocytes according to morphological criteria under light microscopy, where it is not always easy to distinguish macrophages from lymphocytes. We describe here a one-step, easy-to-use, and easy-to-customize 8-color flow cytometric method for performing differential cell count and comparing it to morphological counts on stained cytospins...
June 19, 2017: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625872/decreased-enteritis-resistance-ability-by-dietary-low-or-excess-levels-of%C3%A2-lipids-through-impairing-the-intestinal-physical-and-immune-barriers-function-of-young-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella
#15
Lin Feng, Pei-Jun Ni, Wei-Dan Jiang, Pei Wu, Yang Liu, Jun Jiang, Sheng-Yao Kuang, Ling Tang, Wu-Neng Tang, Yong-An Zhang, Xu Tang, He-Qun Shi, Xiao-Qiu Zhou
The current study explores the hypothesis that low or excess levels of lipids decrease the enteritis resistance ability through impairing the intestinal physical and immune barrier function of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 540 young grass carp with an average initial weight of 261.41 ± 0.53 g were fed diets containing six graded levels of lipids at 5.9, 21.4, 36.0, 50.2, 66.6 and 80.1 g/kg for 8 weeks. After that, a challenge trial was conducted by injection of Aeromonas hydrophila over 2 weeks...
June 16, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625129/triamcinolone-acetonide-suppresses-inflammation-and-facilitates-vascular-barrier-function-in-human-retinal-microvascular-endothelial-cells
#16
Shunsuke Imai, Tomohiro Otsuka, Akira Naito, Masamitsu Shimazawa, Hideaki Hara
BACKGROUND: Diabetic macular edema (DME) is resulted from the retinal microvascular leakage that accompanies the breakdown of blood-retinal barrier. Triamcinolone acetonide (TA) is a therapeutic agent for DME, but since the detailed mechanism of action of TA is not known, part of its action was examined. METHODS: In vitro model to enhance the permeability of human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs) was constructed by using DME-related cytokines such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β)...
June 18, 2017: Current Neurovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624624/claudin-18-coupled-with-egfr-erk-signaling-contributes-to-the-malignant-potentials-of-bile-duct-cancer
#17
Kumi Takasawa, Akira Takasawa, Makoto Osanai, Tomoyuki Aoyama, Yusuke Ono, Tsuyoshi Kono, Yoshihiko Hirohashi, Masaki Murata, Norimasa Sawada
Our recent work revealed that elevated expression of claudin-18 is involved in bile duct neoplasia. In the present study, we found that wound generation of a cell sheet de novo induced claudin-18 expression in its leading edge, coincident with high mitotic activity. We also found that the suppression of claudin-18 expression significantly reduced cell growth and invasiveness of bile duct cancer cell lines and tumorigenicity in vivo. In addition, an antibody specific to an extracellular loop of claudin-18 showed similar effects on the cells such as cell proliferation...
June 15, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623232/the-ring-finger-and-pdz-domain-containing-protein-pdzrn3-controls-localization-of-the-mg-2-regulator-claudin-16-in-renal-tube-epithelial-cells
#18
Kana Marunaka, Chisa Furukawa, Naoko Fujii, Toru Kimura, Takumi Furuta, Toshiyuki Matsunaga, Satoshi Endo, Hajime Hasegawa, Naohiko Anzai, Yasuhiro Yamazaki, Masahiko Yamaguchi, Akira Ikari
Ion exchange in the renal tubules is fundamental to the maintenance of physiological ion levels. Claudin-16 (CLDN16) regulates the paracellular reabsorption of Mg(2+) in the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop in the kidney, with dephosphorylation of CLDN16 increasing its intracellular distribution and decreasing paracellular Mg(2+) permeability. CLDN16 is located in the tight junctions, but the mechanism regulating its localization is unclear. Using yeast two-hybrid systems, we found that CLDN16 binds to PDZRN3, a protein containing both RING-finger and PDZ-domains...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619410/an-international-collaboration-for-the-training-of-medical-chief-residents-in-rwanda
#19
Tim Walker, Vincent Dusabejambo, Janet J Ho, Claudine Karigire, Bradley Richards, Andre N Sofair
BACKGROUND: The year-long position of chief medical resident is a time-honored tradition in the United States that serves to provide the trainee with an opportunity to gain further skills as a clinician, leader, teacher, liaison, and administrator. However, in most training programs in the developing world, this role does not exist. OBJECTIVES: We sought to develop a collaborative program to train the first medical chief residents for the University of Rwanda and to assess the impact of the new chief residency on residency training, using questionnaires and qualitative interviews with Rwandan faculty, chief residents, and residents...
March 2017: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618266/il-22%C3%A2-upregulates-epithelial-claudin-2-to-drive-diarrhea-and-enteric-pathogen-clearance
#20
Pei-Yun Tsai, Bingkun Zhang, Wei-Qi He, Juan-Min Zha, Matthew A Odenwald, Gurminder Singh, Atsushi Tamura, Le Shen, Anne Sailer, Sunil Yeruva, Wei-Ting Kuo, Yang-Xin Fu, Sachiko Tsukita, Jerrold R Turner
Diarrhea is a host response to enteric pathogens, but its impact on pathogenesis remains poorly defined. By infecting mice with the attaching and effacing bacteria Citrobacter rodentium, we defined the mechanisms and contributions of diarrhea and intestinal barrier loss to host defense. Increased permeability occurred within 2 days of infection and coincided with IL-22-dependent upregulation of the epithelial tight junction protein claudin-2. Permeability increases were limited to small molecules, as expected for the paracellular water and Na(+) channel formed by claudin-2...
June 14, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
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