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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034530/gene-expression-and-morphological-changes-in-the-intestinal-mucosa-associated-with-increased-permeability-induced-by-short-term-fasting-in-chickens
#1
S Gilani, G S Howarth, G Nattrass, S M Kitessa, R Barekatain, R E A Forder, C D Tran, R J Hughes
Short-term fasting for 4.5 and 9 hr has been demonstrated to increase intestinal permeability (IP) in chickens. This study aimed to investigate the effects of 0, 4.5, 9 and 19.5 hr fasting on intestinal gene expression and villus-crypt architecture of enterocytes in jejunal and ileal samples. On day 38, Ross-308 male birds were fasted according to their group and then euthanised. Two separate intestinal sections (each 2 cm long, jejunum and ileum) were collected. One section was utilised for villus height and crypt depth measurements...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033827/excessive-sleepiness-and-longer-nighttime-in-bed-increase-the-risk-of-cognitive-decline-in-frail-elderly-subjects-the-mapt-sleep-study
#2
Audrey Gabelle, Laure-Anne Gutierrez, Isabelle Jaussent, Sophie Navucet, Caroline Grasselli, Karim Bennys, Cécilia Marelli, Renaud David, Sandrine Andrieu, Claudine Berr, Bruno Vellas, Yves Dauvilliers
Objective: To identify self-reported sleep-wake disturbances that increase the risk of cognitive decline over 1-year follow-up in frail participants. Background: Risk factors for cognitive impairment need to be better identified especially at earliest stages of the pathogenesis. Sleep-wake disturbances may be critical factors to consider and were thus being assessed in this at-risk population for cognitive decline. Methods: Frail elderly participants aged ≥70 years were selected from a subsample of the Multi-domain Alzheimer Preventive Trial (MAPT) for a sleep assessment (MAPT-sleep study) at 18-month follow-up (M18)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032661/a-prospective-study-of-eosinophilic-esophagitis-and-the-expression-of-tight-junction-proteins-in-patients-with-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-symptoms
#3
Kenichiro Okimoto, Makoto Arai, Hideaki Ishigami, Keiko Saito, Shoko Minemura, Daisuke Maruoka, Tomoaki Matsumura, Tomoo Nakagawa, Tatsuro Katsuno, Masaki Suzuki, Yukio Nakatani, Osamu Yokosuka
Background/Aims: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is often erroneously diagnosed as gastroesophageal reflex disease (GERD). The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of EoE and the expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins in patients with GERD symptoms. Methods: One hundred patients with GERD symptoms and 10 healthy controls were prospectively studied. Sixty-two patients had symptoms refractory to proton pump inhibitors (PPI). All patients underwent esophageal biopsy...
October 17, 2017: Gut and Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032079/omega-6-fatty-acid-biomarkers-and-incident-type-2-diabetes-pooled-analysis-of-individual-level-data-for-39%C3%A2-740-adults-from-20-prospective-cohort-studies
#4
Jason H Y Wu, Matti Marklund, Fumiaki Imamura, Nathan Tintle, Andres V Ardisson Korat, Janette de Goede, Xia Zhou, Wei-Sin Yang, Marcia C de Oliveira Otto, Janine Kröger, Waqas Qureshi, Jyrki K Virtanen, Julie K Bassett, Alexis C Frazier-Wood, Maria Lankinen, Rachel A Murphy, Kalina Rajaobelina, Liana C Del Gobbo, Nita G Forouhi, Robert Luben, Kay-Tee Khaw, Nick Wareham, Anya Kalsbeek, Jenna Veenstra, Juhua Luo, Frank B Hu, Hung-Ju Lin, David S Siscovick, Heiner Boeing, Tzu-An Chen, Brian Steffen, Lyn M Steffen, Allison Hodge, Gudny Eriksdottir, Albert V Smith, Vilmunder Gudnason, Tamara B Harris, Ingeborg A Brouwer, Claudine Berr, Catherine Helmer, Cecilia Samieri, Markku Laakso, Michael Y Tsai, Graham G Giles, Tarja Nurmi, Lynne Wagenknecht, Matthias B Schulze, Rozenn N Lemaitre, Kuo-Liong Chien, Sabita S Soedamah-Muthu, Johanna M Geleijnse, Qi Sun, William S Harris, Lars Lind, Johan Ärnlöv, Ulf Riserus, Renata Micha, Dariush Mozaffarian
BACKGROUND: The metabolic effects of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) remain contentious, and little evidence is available regarding their potential role in primary prevention of type 2 diabetes. We aimed to assess the associations of linoleic acid and arachidonic acid biomarkers with incident type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We did a pooled analysis of new, harmonised, individual-level analyses for the biomarkers linoleic acid and its metabolite arachidonic acid and incident type 2 diabetes...
October 11, 2017: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031632/separate-transcriptionally-regulated-pathways-specify-distinct-classes-of-sister-dendrites-in-a-nociceptive-neuron
#5
Barbara M J O'Brien, Sierra D Palumbos, Michaela Novakovic, Xueying Shang, Lakshmi Sundararajan, David M Miller
The dendritic processes of nociceptive neurons transduce external signals into neurochemical cues that alert the organism to potentially damaging stimuli. The receptive field for each sensory neuron is defined by its dendritic arbor, but the mechanisms that shape dendritic architecture are incompletely understood. Using the model nociceptor, the PVD neuron in C. elegans, we determined that two types of PVD lateral branches project along the dorsal/ventral axis to generate the PVD dendritic arbor: (1) Pioneer dendrites that adhere to the epidermis, and (2) Commissural dendrites that fasciculate with circumferential motor neuron processes...
October 12, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031421/tlr2-activation-induced-by-h-pylori-lps-promotes-the-differential-expression-of-claudin-4-6-7-and-9-via-either-stat3-and-erk1-2-in-ags-cells
#6
Christian O Chavarría-Velázquez, Ana C Torres-Martínez, Luis F Montaño, Erika P Rendón-Huerta
Gastric carcinogenesis has been associated to H. pylori virulence factors that induce a chronic inflammation process. Lipopolysaccharides play a role in chronic inflammatory responses via TLR2- and TLR4-dependent signaling pathways. Similarly, cellular invasiveness, metastatic potential and prognosis are usually associated to claudin-4, -6, -7 and -9 expression in gastric carcinogenesis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine if H. pylori LPS exerts an influence on carcinogenesis-related claudin expression and if it was directly regulated through the TLR2 pathway...
October 6, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030815/detecting-hematopoietic-stem-cell-proliferation-using-brdu-incorporation
#7
Katie A Matatall, Claudine S Kadmon, Katherine Y King
Cellular quiescence is a key component of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) homeostasis; therefore, a reliable method to measure HSC cell division is critical in many studies. However, measuring the proliferation rate of largely quiescent and rare populations of cells can be challenging. Bromo-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation into replicating DNA is a commonly used and highly reproducible method to detect cell division history. Here, we describe a protocol for BrdU incorporation analysis in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells that can provide a sensitive measure of cell division even in rare cell populations...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030448/prevalence-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-enterococci-isolated-from-retail-meats-in-the-united-states-2002-2014
#8
Gregory H Tyson, Epiphanie Nyirabahizi, Emily Crarey, Claudine Kabera, Claudia Lam, Crystal Rice-Trujillo, Patrick F McDermott, Heather Tate
Bacteria of the genus Enterococcus are important human pathogens that are frequently resistant to a number of clinically important antibiotics. They are also used as a marker of animal fecal contamination of human foods, and are employed as sentinel organisms for tracking trends in resistance to antimicrobials with gram-positive activity. As part of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS), we evaluated several retail meat commodities for the presence of enterococci from 2002-2014, finding 92...
October 13, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027723/the-diagnostic-yield-of-chromosomal-microarray-analysis-in-fetuses-with-increased-nuchal-translucency-a-french-multicentre-retrospective-study
#9
Matthieu Egloff, Bérénice Hervé, Thibaud Quibel, Sylvie Jaillard, Gwenaelle Le Bouar, Kevin Uguen, Anne-Hélène Saliou, Mylène Valduga, Estelle Perdriolle, Charles Coutton, Anne-Laure Coston, Aurélie Coussement, Olivia Anselem, Chantal Missirian, Florence Bretelle, Fabienne Prieur, Cécile Fanget, Christine Muti, Marie-Christine Jacquemot, Claire Beneteau, Claudine Le Vaillant, Michel Vekemans, Laurant J Salomon, François Vialard, Valerie Malan
OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to determine the frequency and nature of Copy Number Variants (CNVs) identified by chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) in a large cohort of fetuses with a strictly isolated, increased nuchal translucency (NT) above or equal to 3.5 mm. METHODS: This is a retrospective, multicentre study including eleven French hospitals over a period between April 2012 and December 2015 in which 720 fetuses were analysed by rapid aneuploidy test and CMA...
October 13, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027376/adenosine-a2a-receptor-agonist-ameliorates-eae-and-correlates-with-th1-cytokine-induced-blood-brain-barrier-dysfunction-via-suppression-of-mlck-signaling-pathway
#10
Ying Liu, Marwan Alahiri, Bianca Ulloa, Boxun Xie, Saud A Sadiq
INTRODUCTION: Multiple sclerosis (MS) disease activity is associated with blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, which is mediated by inflammatory cytokines released by CD4+ lymphocytes. To assess the effects of adenosine A2A receptors on BBB permeability in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: A2A receptor expression was detected by immunostaining in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) C57BL/6 mice immunized with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)35-55 , and human MS brain...
October 12, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024645/helicobacter-pylori-employs-a-unique-basolateral-type-iv-secretion-mechanism-for-caga-delivery
#11
Nicole Tegtmeyer, Silja Wessler, Vittorio Necchi, Manfred Rohde, Aileen Harrer, Tilman T Rau, Carmen Isabell Asche, Manja Boehm, Holger Loessner, Ceu Figueiredo, Michael Naumann, Ralf Palmisano, Enrico Solcia, Vittorio Ricci, Steffen Backert
The Helicobacter pylori (Hp) type IV secretion system (T4SS) forms needle-like pili, whose binding to the integrin-β1 receptor results in injection of the CagA oncoprotein. However, the apical surface of epithelial cells is exposed to Hp, whereas integrins are basolateral receptors. Hence, the mechanism of CagA delivery into polarized gastric epithelial cells remains enigmatic. Here, we demonstrate that T4SS pilus formation during infection of polarized cells occurs predominantly at basolateral membranes, and not at apical sites...
October 11, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023914/melanocytic-naevi-with-perineurial-differentiation-a-distinctive-variant-of-neurotised-naevi-and-a-diagnostic-pitfall-with-desmoplastic-melanoma
#12
Ingrid Ferreira, Peter Kind, Ivo Van Den Berghe, Lucy Melly, Felix Offner, Jason L Hornick, Thomas Brenn
AIMS: Spindle cell differentiation is not an uncommon finding in common acquired naevi and may represent a form of neurotisation with Schwannian differentiation of melanocytes. Perineurial differentiation in this context appears to be distinctly rare and is only poorly documented in the literature. METHODS AND RESULTS: We have identified six melanocytic tumours showing spindle cell morphology and perineurial differentiation from routine and referral material. Clinical data and follow-up were obtained, and the histological and immunohistochemical features were analysed...
October 11, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023813/dual-catenin-loss-in-murine-liver-causes-tight-junctional-deregulation-and-progressive-intrahepatic-cholestasis
#13
Tirthadipa Pradhan-Sundd, Lili Zhou, Ravi Vats, An Jiang, Laura Molina, Sucha Singh, Minakshi Poddar, Jacquelyn M Russell, Donna B Stolz, Michael Oertel, Udayan Apte, Simon Watkins, Sarangarajan Ranganathan, Kari N Nejak-Bowen, Prithu Sundd, Satdarshan Pal Monga
β-Catenin, the downstream effector of the Wnt signaling, plays important roles in hepatic development, regeneration and tumorigenesis. However, its role at hepatocyte adherens junctions (AJ) is relatively poorly understood, chiefly due to spontaneous compensation by γ-catenin. Here, we simultaneously ablate β- and γ-catenin expression in mouse liver by interbreeding β-catenin-γ-catenin double-floxed mice and albumin-cre transgenic mice. Double knockout mice (DKO) show failure to thrive, impaired hepatocyte differentiation, cholemia, ductular reaction, progressive cholestasis, inflammation, fibrosis and tumorigenesis, which was associated with deregulation of tight junctions (TJ) and bile acid transporters, leading to early morbidity and mortality, a phenotype reminiscent of Progressive Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis (PFIC)...
October 10, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022894/adiponectin-controls-the-apoptosis-and-the-expression-of-tight-junction-proteins-in-brain-endothelial-cells-through-adipor1-under-beta-amyloid-toxicity
#14
Juhyun Song, Seong-Min Choi, Daniel J Whitcomb, Byeong C Kim
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease, characterized by excessive beta amyloid (Aβ) deposition in brain, leading to blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption. The mechanisms of BBB disruption in AD are still unclear, despite considerable research. The adipokine adiponectin is known to regulate various metabolic functions and reduce inflammation. Though adiponectin receptors have been reported in the brain, its role in the central nervous system has not been fully characterized. In the present study, we investigate whether adiponectin contributes to the tight junction integrity and cell death of brain endothelial cells under Aβ-induced toxicity conditions...
October 12, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021306/characterization-of-a-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocyte-model-for-the-study-of-variant-pathogenicity-validation-of-a-kcnj2-mutation
#15
Roselle Gélinas, Nabil El Khoury, Marie-A Chaix, Claudine Beauchamp, Azadeh Alikashani, Nathalie Ethier, Gabrielle Boucher, Louis Villeneuve, Laura Robb, Frédéric Latour, Blandine Mondesert, Lena Rivard, Philippe Goyette, Mario Talajic, Céline Fiset, John David Rioux
BACKGROUND: Long-QT syndrome is a potentially fatal condition for which 30% of patients are without a genetically confirmed diagnosis. Rapid identification of causal mutations is thus a priority to avoid at-risk situations that can lead to fatal cardiac events. Massively parallel sequencing technologies are useful for the identification of sequence variants; however, electrophysiological testing of newly identified variants is crucial to demonstrate causality. Long-QT syndrome could, therefore, benefit from having a standardized platform for functional characterization of candidate variants in the physiological context of human cardiomyocytes...
October 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021293/ppar%C3%AE-ligand-induced-annexin-a1-expression-determines-chemotherapy-response-via-deubiquitination-of-death-domain-kinase-rip-in-triple-negative-breast-cancers
#16
Luxi Chen, Yi Yuan, Shreya Kar, Madhu M Kanchi, Suruchi Arora, Ji E Kim, Pei F Koh, Einas Yousef, Ramar P Samy, Muthu K Shanmugam, Tuan Z Tan, Sung W Shin, Frank Arfuso, Han M Shen, Henry Yang, Boon C Goh, Joo I Park, Louis Gaboury, Peter E Lobie, Gautam Sethi, Lina H K Lim, Alan P Kumar
Metastatic breast cancer is still incurable so far; new specifically targeted and more effective therapies for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) are required in the clinic. In this study, our clinical data have established that basal and claudin-low subtypes of breast cancer (TNBC types) express significantly higher levels of Annexin A1 (ANXA1) with poor survival outcomes. Using human cancer cell lines that model the TNBC subtype, we observed a strong positive correlation between expression of ANXA1 and PPARγ...
August 15, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020323/corticosteroids-in-patients-hospitalized-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-systematic-review-and-individual-patient-data-meta-analysis
#17
Matthias Briel, Simone M C Spoorenberg, Dominic Snijders, Antoni Torres, Silvia Fernandez-Serrano, G Umberto Meduri, Albert Gabarrús, Claudine A Blum, Marco Confalonieri, Benjamin Kasenda, Reed A C Siemieniuk, Wim Boersma, Willem Jan W Bos, Mirjam Christ-Crain
Background: We aimed to evaluate the benefits and harms of adjunctive corticosteroids in adults hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) using individual patients' data of randomized placebo-controlled trials and to explore subgroup differences. Methods: We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and trial registers (all until July 2017) for eligible trials. Data from 1,506 individual patients in six trials were analyzed using uniform outcome definitions...
September 9, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018492/air-and-bone-conduction-frequency-specific-auditory-brainstem-response-in-children-with-agenesis-of-the-external-auditory-canal
#18
Pricila Sleifer, Dayane Domeneghini Didoné, Ísis Bicca Keppeler, Claudine Devicari Bueno, Rudimar Dos Santos Riesgo
Introduction  The tone-evoked auditory brainstem responses (tone-ABR) enable the differential diagnosis in the evaluation of children until 12 months of age, including those with external and/or middle ear malformations. The use of auditory stimuli with frequency specificity by air and bone conduction allows characterization of hearing profile. Objective  The objective of our study was to compare the results obtained in tone-ABR by air and bone conduction in children until 12 months, with agenesis of the external auditory canal...
October 2017: International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017935/physiological-implications-of-dheas-induced-non-classical-steroid-hormone-signaling
#19
Dimitrios Papadopoulos, Mazen Shihan, Georgios Scheiner-Bobis
In the spermatogenic cell line GC-2, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), activates the Src/Ras/c-Raf/Erk1/2/CREB(ATF-1) signaling cascade. Since DHEAS is present in the gonads, and since spermatogenesis and maturation of spermatogonia to haploid spermatozoa requires activation of Erk1/2, the triggering of these signaling events by DHEAS might have physiological relevance. In the Sertoli cell line TM4, DHEAS-induces activation of Erk1/2, CREB, and ATF-1, stimulates expression of claudin-3 and claudin-5 and augments transepithelial resistance, indicating the formation of tight junctions between adjacent Sertoli cells...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994773/improved-method-for-the-establishment-of-an-in-vitro-blood-brain-barrier-model-based-on-porcine-brain-endothelial-cells
#20
Simone S E Nielsen, Piotr Siupka, Ana Georgian, Jane E Preston, Andrea E Tóth, Siti R Yusof, N Joan Abbott, Morten S Nielsen
The aim of this protocol presents an optimized procedure for the purification and cultivation of pBECs and to establish in vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) models based on pBECs in mono-culture (MC), MC with astrocyte-conditioned medium (ACM), and non-contact co-culture (NCC) with astrocytes of porcine or rat origin. pBECs were isolated and cultured from fragments of capillaries from the brain cortices of domestic pigs 5-6 months old. These fragments were purified by careful removal of meninges, isolation and homogenization of grey matter, filtration, enzymatic digestion, and centrifugation...
September 24, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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