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meditation; mindfulness; gray matter

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917121/neurochemical-and-neuroanatomical-plasticity-following-memory-training-and-yoga-interventions-in-older-adults-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#1
Hongyu Yang, Amber M Leaver, Prabha Siddarth, Pattharee Paholpak, Linda Ercoli, Natalie M St Cyr, Harris A Eyre, Katherine L Narr, Dharma S Khalsa, Helen Lavretsky
Behavioral interventions are becoming increasingly popular approaches to ameliorate age-related cognitive decline, but their underlying neurobiological mechanisms and clinical efficiency have not been fully elucidated. The present study explored brain plasticity associated with two behavioral interventions, memory enhancement training (MET) and a mind-body practice (yogic meditation), in healthy seniors with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using structural magnetic resonance imaging (s-MRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS)...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27445799/the-effects-of-mindfulness-on-persons-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-protocol-for-a-mixed-methods-longitudinal-study
#2
Wee Ping Wong, Craig Hassed, Richard Chambers, Jan Coles
INTRODUCTION: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) not only negatively impacts upon a person's life, but it is also seen as an intermediate stage on the progression to Alzheimer's Disease (AD), and therefore warrants early intervention. However, there is currently no effective pharmacological treatment approved for MCI. There is a paucity of evidence that non-pharmacological interventions such as cognitive training could result in improvements in the daily activities functioning of persons with MCI...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27187107/searching-for-the-philosopher-s-stone-promising-links-between-meditation-and-brain-preservation
#3
Eileen Luders, Nicolas Cherbuin
In the context of an aging population and increased prevalence of dementia and other neurodegenerative diseases, developing strategies to decrease the negative effects of aging is imperative. The scientific study of meditation as a potential tool to downregulate processes implicated in brain aging is an emerging field, and a growing body of research suggests that mindfulness practices are beneficial for cerebral resilience. Adding further evidence to this notion, an increasing number of imaging studies report effects of meditation on brain structure that are consistent with our understanding of neuroprotection...
June 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25632405/brain-gray-matter-changes-associated-with-mindfulness-meditation-in-older-adults-an-exploratory-pilot-study-using-voxel-based-morphometry
#4
Florian Kurth, Eileen Luders, Brian Wu, David S Black
BACKGROUND: Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have previously been associated with structural gray matter changes in normal healthy adults. However, it remains unknown if standardized MBIs can induce similar changes in older adults and those with health complaints as well. The objective of this investigation was to examine the effect of a standardized MBI on the gray matter tissue of older adults with sleep disturbances. METHODS: This exploratory single-group pilot longitudinal study examined local gray matter changes over a six-week MBI period...
2014: Neuro: Open Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25365830/beyond-borderline-personality-disorder-the-mindful-brain
#5
REVIEW
Vanessa H Chafos, Peter Economou
Numerous studies have showed an improvement in symptoms characteristic of borderline personality disorder (BPD) when mindfulness-based interventions were integrated into the daily lives of individuals with BPD. Although these studies have examined the etiology and diagnostic prognosis of BPD, and have discussed the use of mindfulness-based treatments, few researchers have attempted to interpret the neuroscientific findings, which have showed an increase in gray matter in key areas of the brain in clients with BPD who engaged in mindfulness practice...
October 2014: Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24797333/the-brain-structure-correlates-of-individual-differences-in-trait-mindfulness-a-voxel-based-morphometry-study
#6
H Lu, Y Song, M Xu, X Wang, X Li, J Liu
Mindfulness is the state of being attentive to and aware of what is taking place in the present, which is beneficial for reducing stress-related symptoms and improving mental and physical health. Previous studies have demonstrated that meditation practice can improve individuals' mindfulness through modifying functions and structures of multiple brain regions, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), insula, fronto-limbic network, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and temporal-parietal junction. However, little is known about the neuroanatomical correlates of trait mindfulness...
July 11, 2014: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24600370/change-in-brainstem-gray-matter-concentration-following-a-mindfulness-based-intervention-is-correlated-with-improvement-in-psychological-well-being
#7
Omar Singleton, Britta K Hölzel, Mark Vangel, Narayan Brach, James Carmody, Sara W Lazar
Individuals can improve their levels of psychological well-being (PWB) through utilization of psychological interventions, including the practice of mindfulness meditation, which is defined as the non-judgmental awareness of experiences in the present moment. We recently reported that an 8-week-mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) course lead to increases in gray matter concentration in several brain areas, as detected with voxel-based morphometry of magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo MRI scans, including the pons/raphe/locus coeruleus area of the brainstem...
2014: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24382194/mind-over-matter-what-do-we-know-about-neuroplasticity-in-adults
#8
REVIEW
Vyara Valkanova, Rocio Eguia Rodriguez, Klaus P Ebmeier
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of studies have examined the effects of training of cognitive and other tasks on brain structure, using magnetic resonance imaging. METHODS: Studies combining cognitive and other tasks training with longitudinal imaging designs were reviewed, with a view to identify paradigms potentially applicable to treatment of cognitive impairment. RESULTS: We identified 36 studies, employing training as variable as juggling, working memory, meditation, learning abstract information, and aerobic exercise...
June 2014: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24184066/mindfulness-based-intervention-in-parkinson-s-disease-leads-to-structural-brain-changes-on-mri-a-randomized-controlled-longitudinal-trial
#9
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Barbara A Pickut, Wim Van Hecke, Eric Kerckhofs, Peter Mariën, Sven Vanneste, Patrick Cras, Paul M Parizel
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study is to investigate structural changes on brain MRI using voxel based morphometry (VBM) related to an eight-week mindfulness based intervention (MBI) in Parkinson's Disease (PD). METHODS: A total of 27 out of 30 PD patients completed a randomized controlled longitudinal trial. Fourteen patients participated in a structured eight-week program of MBI. Thirteen patients received usual care (UC) alone. MRI data sets of the brain were obtained at baseline and after eight weeks follow-up...
December 2013: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23304217/yoga-meditation-practitioners-exhibit-greater-gray-matter-volume-and-fewer-reported-cognitive-failures-results-of-a-preliminary-voxel-based-morphometric-analysis
#10
Brett Froeliger, Eric L Garland, F Joseph McClernon
Hatha yoga techniques, including physical postures (asanas), breathing exercises (pranayama), and meditation, involve the practice of mindfulness. In turn, yoga meditation practices may induce the state of mindfulness, which, when evoked recurrently through repeated practice, may accrue into trait or dispositional mindfulness. Putatively, these changes may be mediated by experience-dependent neuroplastic changes. Though prior studies have identified differences in gray matter volume (GMV) between long-term mindfulness practitioners and controls, no studies to date have reported on whether yoga meditation is associated with GMV differences...
2012: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23029500/the-structure-of-mindful-brain
#11
Hiroki Murakami, Takashi Nakao, Masahiro Matsunaga, Yukinori Kasuya, Jun Shinoda, Jitsuhiro Yamada, Hideki Ohira
Mindfulness is currently attracting a great deal of attention as a psychotherapy technique. It is defined as bringing one's complete attention to the experiences occurring in the present moment in a nonjudgmental or accepting way. The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) was developed to assess individual differences in mindfulness states. The FFMQ is composed of five facets representing elements of mindfulness: non-reactivity to inner experience, non-judging, acting with awareness, describing, and observing...
2012: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22814662/increased-gray-matter-volume-in-the-right-angular-and-posterior-parahippocampal-gyri-in-loving-kindness-meditators
#12
Mei-Kei Leung, Chetwyn C H Chan, Jing Yin, Chack-Fan Lee, Kwok-Fai So, Tatia M C Lee
Previous voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies have revealed that meditation is associated with structural brain changes in regions underlying cognitive processes that are required for attention or mindfulness during meditation. This VBM study examined brain changes related to the practice of an emotion-oriented meditation: loving-kindness meditation (LKM). A 3 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner captured images of the brain structures of 25 men, 10 of whom had practiced LKM in the Theravada tradition for at least 5 years...
January 2013: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22393318/the-unique-brain-anatomy-of-meditation-practitioners-alterations-in-cortical-gyrification
#13
Eileen Luders, Florian Kurth, Emeran A Mayer, Arthur W Toga, Katherine L Narr, Christian Gaser
Several cortical regions are reported to vary in meditation practitioners. However, prior analyses have focused primarily on examining gray matter or cortical thickness. Thus, additional effects with respect to other cortical features might have remained undetected. Gyrification (the pattern and degree of cortical folding) is an important cerebral characteristic related to the geometry of the brain's surface. Thus, exploring cortical gyrification in long-term meditators may provide additional clues with respect to the underlying anatomical correlates of meditation...
2012: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21071182/mindfulness-practice-leads-to-increases-in-regional-brain-gray-matter-density
#14
Britta K Hölzel, James Carmody, Mark Vangel, Christina Congleton, Sita M Yerramsetti, Tim Gard, Sara W Lazar
Therapeutic interventions that incorporate training in mindfulness meditation have become increasingly popular, but to date little is known about neural mechanisms associated with these interventions. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), one of the most widely used mindfulness training programs, has been reported to produce positive effects on psychological well-being and to ameliorate symptoms of a number of disorders. Here, we report a controlled longitudinal study to investigate pre-post changes in brain gray matter concentration attributable to participation in an MBSR program...
January 30, 2011: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20055558/vipassana-meditation-systematic-review-of-current-evidence
#15
REVIEW
Alberto Chiesa
OBJECTIVES: Vipassana meditation (VM) is one of the most ancient and diffused types of meditative practices belonging to the pole of mindfulness. Despite the growing interest toward the neurobiological and clinical correlates of many meditative practices, no review has specifically focused on current evidence on neuro-imaging and clinical evidence about VM. METHODS: A literature search was undertaken using MEDLINE,((R)) ISI web of knowledge, the Cochrane database, and references of retrieved articles...
January 2010: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19776221/stress-reduction-correlates-with-structural-changes-in-the-amygdala
#16
Britta K Hölzel, James Carmody, Karleyton C Evans, Elizabeth A Hoge, Jeffery A Dusek, Lucas Morgan, Roger K Pitman, Sara W Lazar
Stress has significant adverse effects on health and is a risk factor for many illnesses. Neurobiological studies have implicated the amygdala as a brain structure crucial in stress responses. Whereas hyperactive amygdala function is often observed during stress conditions, cross-sectional reports of differences in gray matter structure have been less consistent. We conducted a longitudinal MRI study to investigate the relationship between changes in perceived stress with changes in amygdala gray matter density following a stress-reduction intervention...
March 2010: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19280691/the-underlying-anatomical-correlates-of-long-term-meditation-larger-hippocampal-and-frontal-volumes-of-gray-matter
#17
Eileen Luders, Arthur W Toga, Natasha Lepore, Christian Gaser
Although the systematic study of meditation is still in its infancy, research has provided evidence for meditation-induced improvements in psychological and physiological well-being. Moreover, meditation practice has been shown not only to benefit higher-order cognitive functions but also to alter brain activity. Nevertheless, little is known about possible links to brain structure. Using high-resolution MRI data of 44 subjects, we set out to examine the underlying anatomical correlates of long-term meditation with different regional specificity (i...
April 15, 2009: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19015095/investigation-of-mindfulness-meditation-practitioners-with-voxel-based-morphometry
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Britta K Hölzel, Ulrich Ott, Tim Gard, Hannes Hempel, Martin Weygandt, Katrin Morgen, Dieter Vaitl
Mindfulness meditators practice the non-judgmental observation of the ongoing stream of internal experiences as they arise. Using voxel-based morphometry, this study investigated MRI brain images of 20 mindfulness (Vipassana) meditators (mean practice 8.6 years; 2 h daily) and compared the regional gray matter concentration to that of non-meditators matched for sex, age, education and handedness. Meditators were predicted to show greater gray matter concentration in regions that are typically activated during meditation...
March 2008: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
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