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Syringe exchange

Shirae K Leslie, Ramsey C Kinney, Zvi Schwartz, Barbara D Boyan
An increasing demand to regenerate tissues from patient-derived sources has led to the development of cell-based therapies using autologous stem cells, thereby decreasing immune rejection of scaffolds coupled with allogeneic stem cells or allografts. Adult stem cells are multipotent and are readily available in tissues such as fat and bone marrow. They possess the ability to repair and regenerate tissue through the production of therapeutic factors, particularly vasculogenic proteins. A major challenge in cell-based therapies is localizing the delivered stem cells to the target site...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Carla Treloar, Luke McCredie, Andrew R Lloyd
AIM: A formal Needle and Syringe Program (NSP) is not provided in Australian prisons. Injecting equipment circulates in prisons as part of an informal and illegal economy. This paper examined how this economy generates blood-borne virus (BBV) risk and risk mitigation opportunities for inmates. METHOD: The HITS-p cohort recruited New South Wales inmates who had reported ever injecting drugs and who had a negative HCV serological test within 12 months prior to enrolment...
2016: PloS One
Jim McVeigh, Evelyn Hearne, Geoff Bates, Marie Claire Van Hout
BACKGROUND: Community pharmacists are increasingly acknowledged as under-utilized, important and accessible health providers in providing harm reduction support to drug users via needle and syringe programmes (NSP), provision of advice, HIV/Hepatitis testing and as referral mechanism to social, medical and treatment services. We report here on qualitative findings as part of the evaluation of the pilot Pharmacy Needle Exchange (PNEX) programme in Ireland. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to understand and illustrate pharmacist experiences of providing NSP...
August 3, 2016: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
Ratree Sawangjit, Tahir Mehmood Khan, Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk
AIMS: To critically appraise the evidence for effectiveness of pharmacy-based needle/syringe exchange programs (Pharmacy-based NSPs) on risk behaviors (RBs), HIV/HCV prevalence, and economic outcomes among people who inject drugs (PWID). DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis SETTING: PRIMARY CARE SETTING: PARTICIPANTS: Of 1,568 studies screened, 14 studies with N = 7035 PWID were included. MEASURES: PubMed, Embase, Web of Sciences, CENTRAL, and Cochrane review databases were searched without language restriction from their inception through January 27, 2016...
August 27, 2016: Addiction
Thawatchai Phaechamud, Nuttapong Chanyaboonsub, Orn Setthajindalert
Bleached shellac (BS) is a water-insoluble polyester resin made up of sesquiterpenoid acids esterified with hydroxy aliphatic acids. In this study, BS dissolved in N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and 2-pyrrolidone was used as the internal phase of oil in oil emulsion using olive oil emulsified with glyceryl monostearate (GMS) as the external phase of in situ forming microparticles (ISM). Doxycycline hyclate (DH)-loaded BS ISMs were tested for emulsion stability, viscosity, rheology, transformation into microparticles, syringeability, drug release, surface topography, in vitro degradation and antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis...
October 10, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Elodie Lefrançois, Pierre Esseiva, Jean-Pierre Gervasoni, Sonia Lucia, Frank Zobel, Marc Augsburger
BACKGROUND: For the first time in Switzerland, an analysis of residual contents from used syringes collected from low threshold facilities was performed. This preliminary study is part of a wider project aiming to understand patterns of injecting drug use over time. METHODS: Among the 100,000 syringes exchanged annually by the ABS foundation (Accueil Bas Seuil), 113 were collected following a purposive sampling method and analysed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
September 2016: Forensic Science International
Siyan Yi, Sovannary Tuot, Pheak Chhoun, Khuondyla Pal, Sok Chamreun Choub, Gitau Mburu
BACKGROUND: Compared to the general population, drug users are at increased risk of both poor mental health and HIV infection. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of high psychological distress among drug users in Cambodia. METHODS: In April 2014, a two-stage cluster sampling method was used to randomly select 169 drug users from hotspots in Phnom Penh. Psychological distress was measured using General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12)...
October 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Sarah Brothers
BACKGROUND: Secondary syringe exchangers (SSEs) are a vital component of harm reduction efforts among persons who inject drugs (PWIDs). However, little research has explored how secondary exchange occurs, nor why SSEs do their work. This study looks at secondary exchange as an act of resilience within the PWID risk environment. It asks how secondary syringe exchangers utilize syringes to improve their mental and material well-being. METHODS: This article draws on findings from semi-structured in-depth interviews of 30 SSEs...
June 9, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Jamee Newland, Christy Newman, Carla Treloar
BACKGROUND: In Australia, sterile needles and syringes are distributed to people who inject drugs (PWID) through formal services for the purposes of preventing blood borne viruses (BBV). Peer distribution involves people acquiring needles from formal services and redistributing them to others. This paper investigates the dynamics of the distribution of sterile injecting equipment among networks of people who inject drugs in four sites in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. METHODS: Qualitative data exploring the practice of peer distribution were collected through in-depth, semi-structured interviews and participatory social network mapping...
August 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Monita R Patel, Brittany Combs, Patti Hall, Jill Hough, Erika Chapman, Andrea Perez, John T Brooks, Philip J Peters, Dita Broz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Michael S Piepenbrink, Memorie Samuel, Bo Zheng, Brittany Carter, Christopher Fucile, Catherine Bunce, Michelle Kiebala, Atif A Khan, Juilee Thakar, Sanjay B Maggirwar, Diane Morse, Alexander F Rosenberg, Norman J Haughey, William Valenti, Michael C Keefer, James J Kobie
BACKGROUND: Injection drug use is a growing major public health concern. Injection drug users (IDUs) have a higher incidence of co-morbidities including HIV, Hepatitis, and other infections. An effective humoral response is critical for optimal homeostasis and protection from infection; however, the impact of injection heroin use on humoral immunity is poorly understood. We hypothesized that IDUs have altered B cell and antibody profiles. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A comprehensive systems biology-based cross-sectional assessment of 130 peripheral blood B cell flow cytometry- and plasma- based features was performed on HIV-/Hepatitis C-, active heroin IDUs who participated in a syringe exchange program (n = 19) and healthy control subjects (n = 19)...
2016: PloS One
Ting Lin, Chang-Hsun Chen, Pesus Chou
BACKGROUND: In 2003, a major epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus emerged among injection drug users in Taiwan. In response to the twin epidemics of HIV and intravenous drug addiction, the government implemented comprehensive harm reduction programs beginning in 2005. Collected data from relevant agencies were used to explore the impact of the harm reduction programs on HIV and illicit drug use. METHODS: This study divided 2002-2015 into three intervention phases and used the surveillance data and statistics on the HIV epidemic, drug abuse, and the intervention from relevant agencies to explore the correlations between different variables in different intervention periods and the combination effects of interventions on the HIV epidemic...
2016: Harm Reduction Journal
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: AIDS Policy & Law
Stefanie Funke, Julia Matilainen, Heiko Nalenz, Karoline Bechtold-Peters, Hanns-Christian Mahler, Florian Vetter, Christoph Müller, Franz Bracher, Wolfgang Friess
Combination products have become popular formats for the delivery of parenteral medications. Bake-on siliconization of glass syringes or cartridges allows good piston break-loose and gliding during injection at low silicone levels. Although widely implemented in industry, still little is known and published on the effect of the bake-on process on the silicone level, layer thickness and chemical composition. In this study, cartridges were bake-on siliconized in a heat-tunnel by varying both temperature from 200 to 350°C for 12min and time from 5min to 3h at 316°C...
August 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Shalini Gupta, Ashwani K Gupta, Kamaljit Singh, Minni Verma
OBJECTIVES: The present study was conducted with the aim to compare the sodium (Na) and  potassium (K) results on arterial blood gas (ABG) and electrolyte analyzers both of which use direct ion selective electrode technology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study in which data were collected for simultaneous ABG and serum electrolyte samples of a patient received in Biochemistry Laboratory during February to May 2015. The ABG samples received in heparinized syringes were processed on Radiometer ABL80 analyzer immediately...
April 2016: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 26, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Joshua A Barocas, Benjamin P Linas, Arthur Y Kim, John Fangman, Ryan P Westergaard
People who inject drugs may benefit from point-of-care hepatitis C virus (HCV) testing offered at syringe exchanges. We sought to understand whether this population would be willing to undergo rapid HCV testing. We found that there was broad support for rapid HCV testing, especially among younger people who inject drugs with high perceived risk.
March 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Senad Handanagic, Ivana Bozicevic, Marta Civljak, Zoran Dominkovic, Sandra Sevic, Jelena Barbaric, Tatjana Nemeth Blazic, Oktavija Dakovic Rode, Josip Begovac
BACKGROUND: There are limited data on HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemiology among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Croatia. This study aims to provide data on HIV and HCV prevalence and sexual and injecting risk behaviours among PWID in Zagreb, Split, and Rijeka. METHODS: Using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) we recruited from November 2014 to February 2015 a total of 176 PWID in Zagreb, 255 in Rijeka and 399 in Split. Participants provided biological specimens for HIV and HCV testing and completed a behavioural questionnaire...
April 14, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Tessie Castillo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: North Carolina Medical Journal
Daniel Ciccarone, Philippe Bourgois
This commentary revisits the political turmoil and scientific controversy over epidemiological study findings linking high HIV seroincidence to syringe exchange attendance in Vancouver in the mid-1990s. The association was mobilized polemically by US politicians and hard-line drug warriors to attack needle exchange policies and funding. In turn, program restrictions limiting access to syringes at the Vancouver exchange may have interfaced with a complex conjunction of historical, geographic, political economic and cultural forces and physiological vulnerabilities to create an extraordinary HIV risk environment: (1) ghettoization of services for indigent populations in a rapidly gentrifying, post-industrial city; (2) rural-urban migration of vulnerable populations subject to historical colonization and current patterns of racism; and (3) the flooding of North America with inexpensive powder cocaine and heroin, and the popularity of crack...
July 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
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