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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088084/correlates-of-anti-hepatitis-c-positivity-and-use-of-harm-reduction-services-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-two-cities-in-croatia
#1
Senad Handanagic, Sandra Sevic, Jelena Barbaric, Zoran Dominkovic, Oktavija Dakovic Rode, Josip Begovac, Ivana Bozicevic
BACKGROUND: We assessed correlates of anti-hepatitis C (anti-HCV) positivity and utilization of needle and syringe exchange programs (NSEP) and opioid agonist treatment (OAT) among people who inject drugs (PWID) in two Croatian cities. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study using respondent-driven (RDS) sampling among PWID in Rijeka (N=255) and Split (N=399). We used RDS-weighted population estimates and multivariable logistic regression to explore correlates of anti-HCV positivity and NSEP and OAT utilization...
December 7, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984762/hcv-prevalence-and-risk-behaviours-among-injectors-of-new-psychoactive-substances-in-a-risk-environment-in-hungary-an-expanding-public-health-burden
#2
Anna Tarján, Mária Dudás, Lucas Wiessing, Gergely Horváth, Erzsébet Rusvai, Bálint Tresó, Ágnes Csohán
BACKGROUND: In Hungary a large increase in injecting new psychoactive substances (NPS) coincided with decreasing harm reduction efforts and rising HCV infection. We describe these, and assess changes in HCV prevalence and risk behaviours, 2011-2014, among NPS injectors, using 2011-2015 syringe exchange programme (SEP) data as a key contextual ('risk environment') variable. METHODS: We conducted repeated national sero-behavioural surveys in people who inject drugs (PWID) injecting in the last month and attending SEPs or drug treatment centres (n=399, 2011; 384, 2014), using face-to-face interviews and dried blood-spot samples...
December 13, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27937534/patterns-of-hiv-risks-and-related-factors-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-kermanshah-iran-a-latent-class-analysis
#3
Hamid Sharifi, Ali Mirzazadeh, Alireza Noroozi, Brandon D L Marshall, Ali Farhoudian, Peter Higgs, Meroe Vameghi, Farahnaz Mohhamadi Shahboulaghi, Mostafa Qorbani, Omid Massah, Bahram Armoon, Mehdi Noroozi
The objective of this study was to explore patterns of drug use and sexual risk behaviors among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Iran. We surveyed 500 PWID in Kermanshah concerning demographic characteristics, sexual risk behaviors, and drug-related risk behaviors in the month prior to study. We used latent class analysis (LCA) to establish a baseline model of risk profiles and to identify the optimal number of latent classes, and we used ordinal regression to identify factors associated with class membership...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925864/intravenous-use-of-intranasal-naloxone-a-case-of-overdose-reversal
#4
Smita Das, Nina Shah, Murtuza Ghadiali
BACKGROUND: Opioid overdose is a growing concern in the United States and internationally. Prehospital or pre-medical personnel (layperson) administration of naloxone, an opioid antagonist, to reverse overdose, is an expanding mode of harm reduction. Recently, community clinics, methadone clinics, needle exchanges, some pharmacies, and other health care facilities have made naloxone available to the community. CASE: This case describes heroin overdose reversal of a 28-year-old male who had been using about a gram of heroin intravenously for 3 years but recently reduced frequency of use in an attempt to stop...
December 7, 2016: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917016/the-portapotty-experiment-neoliberal-approaches-to-the-intertwined-epidemics-of-opioid-related-overdose-and-hiv-hcv-and-why-we-need-cultural-anthropologists-in-the-south-bronx
#5
Brett Wolfson-Stofko, Ric Curtis, Faustino Fuentes, Ed Manchess, Alexis Del Rio-Cumba, Alex S Bennett
The following report from the field focuses on the authors' collective efforts to operate an ad hoc safer injection facility (SIF) out of portapotties (portable toilets) in an area of the South Bronx that has consistently experienced some of the highest overdose morbidity and mortality rates in New York City over the past decade (New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, 2011, 2015, 2016). Safer injection facilities (also known as supervised injection facilities, drug consumption rooms, etc.) operating outside the US provide a legal, hygienic, and supervised environment for individuals to use drugs in order to minimize the likelihood of fatal overdose and the spread of blood-borne infections while reducing public injection...
December 2016: Dialectical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898549/hypertensive-crisis-during-norepinephrine-syringe-exchange
#6
Roland A Snijder, Johannes T A Knape, Toine C G Egberts, Annemoon M D E Timmerman
A 67-year critically ill patient suffered from a hypertensive crisis (200 mm Hg) because of a norepinephrine overdose. The overdose occurred when the clinician exchanged an almost-empty syringe and the syringe pump repeatedly reported an error. We hypothesized that an object between the plunger and the syringe driver may have caused the exertion of too much force on the syringe. Testing this hypothesis in vitro showed significant peak dosing errors (up to +572%) but moderate overdose (0.07 mL, +225%) if a clamp was used on the intravenous infusion line and a large overdose (0...
November 28, 2016: A & A Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897966/behavioral-characteristics-and-injection-practices-associated-with-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-among-people-who-inject-drugs-a-community-based-observational-study
#7
Disa Dahlman, Anders Håkansson, Alex H Kral, Lynn Wenger, Elizabeth L Ball, Scott P Novak
BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID) are at increased risk for bacterial skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). Although SSTIs pose significant health risks, little is known about their prevalence and characteristics in the population of PWID in the United States. This study investigates whether behavioral factors related to skin and equipment hygiene and tissue-damaging injection practices are associated with recent SSTIs among PWID. METHODS: Active PWID were recruited using targeted sampling in San Francisco in 2011-2013...
November 29, 2016: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893601/reducing-missed-opportunities-pairing-sexually-transmitted-infection-screening-with-syringe-exchange-services
#8
Alexis M Roth, Jesse L Goldshear, Ana P Martinez-Donate, Seth Welles, Martha Chavis, Barbara Van Der Pol
About 17.5% of sexually active injection drug users recruited from a syringe exchange in Camden, NJ (n = 120) screened positive for chlamydia/gonorrhea. Among these cases, 40% were detected via extragenital screening. This pilot demonstrates that colocating sexually transmitted infection control with syringe exchange leads to sexually transmitted infection case finding.
November 2016: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886001/strategy-for-the-hemocompatibility-testing-of-microparticles
#9
S Braune, S Basu, K Kratz, J Bäckemo Johansson, M Reinthaler, A Lendlein, F Jung
Polymer-based microparticles are applied as non-thrombogenic or thrombogenic materials in a wide variety of intra- or extra-corporeal medical devices. As demanded by the regulatory agencies, the hemocompatibility of these blood contacting biomaterials has to be evaluated in vitro to ensure that the particle systems appropriately fulfill the envisioned function without causing undesired events such as thrombosis or inflammation. Currently described in vitro assays for hemocompatibility testing of particles comprise tests with different single cell types (e...
November 23, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876594/successful-control-of-a-large-outbreak-of-hiv-infection-associated-with-injection-of-cathinone-derivatives-in-tel-aviv-israel
#10
Eugene Katchman, Ronen Ben-Ami, Michal Savyon, Daniel Chemtob, Boaz Avidor, Asaf Wasserman, Irena Zeldis, Shirley Girshengorn, Ziva Amitai, Rivka Sheffer, Dan Turner
OBJECTIVES: Outbreaks of HIV infection have been linked to injectable drug abuse, but specific triggers often remain obscure. We report on an outbreak of primary HIV infection among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tel Aviv, associated with a local shift in drug-use practices. METHODS: A cluster of primary HIV infection cases in PWID was detected in May 2012. Retrospective and prospective multi-hospital case finding was initiated. PWID were interviewed and risk factors for primary HIV infection were identified...
November 19, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855325/-not-human-dead-already-perceptions-and-experiences-of-drug-related-stigma-among-opioid-using-young-adults-from-the-former-soviet-union-living-in-the-u-s
#11
Alana Gunn, Honoria Guarino
BACKGROUND: Young people from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in the U.S. are engaging in opioid and injection drug use (IDU) in substantial numbers, paralleling nationwide trends. Yet opioid-using FSU immigrants face distinctive acculturation challenges, including perceived stigmatisation as drug users within their immigrant communities, which may exacerbate the negative health and psychosocial consequences of such use. METHODS: This qualitative study draws on semi-structured interviews with 26 FSU immigrant young adults (ages 18-29) living in New York City who reported opioid use in the past month and/or were currently in treatment for opioid use disorder...
December 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842543/design-of-the-indian-nca-study-indian-national-collaboration-on-aids-a-cluster-randomized-trial-to-evaluate-the-effectiveness-of-integrated-care-centers-to-improve-hiv-outcomes-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-and-persons-who-inject-drugs-in-india
#12
Sunil S Solomon, Gregory M Lucas, David D Celentano, Allison M McFall, Elizabeth Ogburn, Lawrence H Moulton, Aylur K Srikrishnan, M Suresh Kumar, Santhanam Anand, Suniti Solomon, Shruti H Mehta
BACKGROUND: Globally, men who have sex with men and people who inject drugs remain disproportionately affected by HIV, but they have not been the focus of prevention and treatment interventions in many resource-limited settings. METHODS/DESIGN: This cluster-randomized trial (conducted from June 2012 to June 2017), evaluates whether single-venue, integrated delivery of core HIV services to vulnerable high-risk populations improves service utilization and consequently, HIV testing and other outcomes along the HIV care continuum...
November 14, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756475/a-rapid-and-simple-pretreatment-method-for-benzoylurea-insecticides-in-honey-samples-using-in-syringe-dispersive-liquid-liquid-microextraction-based-on-the-direct-solidification-of-ionic-liquids
#13
Huazi Wang, Lu Hu, Wanzhen Li, Runhua Lu, Sanbing Zhang, Wenfeng Zhou, Haixiang Gao
A pretreatment method using in-syringe dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on the direct solidification of ionic liquids before high performance liquid chromatography analysis was developed for the determination of benzoylurea insecticides (BUs) in honey samples. The hydrophobic ionic liquid [N4444][PF6], formed in situ by the hydrophilic ionic liquid [N4444]Cl and the ion exchange reagent KPF6, was used to extract the target analytes. The entire extraction procedure was performed in a syringe. The extractant was solidified at room temperature and collected using a nylon membrane filter...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738942/microencapsulation-of-stem-cells-for-therapy
#14
Shirae K Leslie, Ramsey C Kinney, Zvi Schwartz, Barbara D Boyan
An increasing demand to regenerate tissues from patient-derived sources has led to the development of cell-based therapies using autologous stem cells, thereby decreasing immune rejection of scaffolds coupled with allogeneic stem cells or allografts. Adult stem cells are multipotent and are readily available in tissues such as fat and bone marrow. They possess the ability to repair and regenerate tissue through the production of therapeutic factors, particularly vasculogenic proteins. A major challenge in cell-based therapies is localizing the delivered stem cells to the target site...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611849/the-prison-economy-of-needles-and-syringes-what-opportunities-exist-for-blood-borne-virus-risk-reduction-when-prices-are-so-high
#15
Carla Treloar, Luke McCredie, Andrew R Lloyd
AIM: A formal Needle and Syringe Program (NSP) is not provided in Australian prisons. Injecting equipment circulates in prisons as part of an informal and illegal economy. This paper examined how this economy generates blood-borne virus (BBV) risk and risk mitigation opportunities for inmates. METHOD: The HITS-p cohort recruited New South Wales inmates who had reported ever injecting drugs and who had a negative HCV serological test within 12 months prior to enrolment...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27568822/community-pharmacist-experiences-of-providing-needle%C3%A2-and-syringe-programmes-in-ireland
#16
Jim McVeigh, Evelyn Hearne, Geoff Bates, Marie Claire Van Hout
BACKGROUND: Community pharmacists are increasingly acknowledged as under-utilized, important and accessible health providers in providing harm reduction support to drug users via needle and syringe programmes (NSP), provision of advice, HIV/Hepatitis testing and as referral mechanism to social, medical and treatment services. We report here on qualitative findings as part of the evaluation of the pilot Pharmacy Needle Exchange (PNEX) programme in Ireland. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to understand and illustrate pharmacist experiences of providing NSP...
August 3, 2016: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566970/effectiveness-of-pharmacy-based-needle-syringe-exchange-programme-for-people-who-inject-drugs-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Ratree Sawangjit, Tahir Mehmood Khan, Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk
AIMS: To appraise the evidence critically for effectiveness of pharmacy-based needle/syringe exchange programmes (pharmacy-based NSPs) on risk behaviours (RBs), HIV/HCV prevalence and economic outcomes among people who inject drugs (PWID). DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. SETTING: Primary care setting. PARTICIPANTS: Of 1568 studies screened, 14 studies with 7035 PWID were included. MEASURES: PubMed, Embase, Web of Sciences, CENTRAL and Cochrane review databases were searched without language restriction from their inception to 27 January 2016...
August 27, 2016: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27552903/doxycycline-hyclate-loaded-bleached-shellac-in-situ-forming-microparticle-for-intraperiodontal-pocket-local-delivery
#18
Thawatchai Phaechamud, Nuttapong Chanyaboonsub, Orn Setthajindalert
Bleached shellac (BS) is a water-insoluble polyester resin made up of sesquiterpenoid acids esterified with hydroxy aliphatic acids. In this study, BS dissolved in N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and 2-pyrrolidone was used as the internal phase of oil in oil emulsion using olive oil emulsified with glyceryl monostearate (GMS) as the external phase of in situ forming microparticles (ISM). Doxycycline hyclate (DH)-loaded BS ISMs were tested for emulsion stability, viscosity, rheology, transformation into microparticles, syringeability, drug release, surface topography, in vitro degradation and antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis...
October 10, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27514014/analysis-of-residual-content-of-used-syringes-collected-from-low-threshold-facilities-in-lausanne-switzerland
#19
Elodie Lefrançois, Pierre Esseiva, Jean-Pierre Gervasoni, Sonia Lucia, Frank Zobel, Marc Augsburger
BACKGROUND: For the first time in Switzerland, an analysis of residual contents from used syringes collected from low threshold facilities was performed. This preliminary study is part of a wider project aiming to understand patterns of injecting drug use over time. METHODS: Among the 100,000 syringes exchanged annually by the ABS foundation (Accueil Bas Seuil), 113 were collected following a purposive sampling method and analysed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
September 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27450717/prevalence-and-correlates-of-psychological-distress-among-drug-users-in-phnom-penh-cambodia
#20
Siyan Yi, Sovannary Tuot, Pheak Chhoun, Khuondyla Pal, Sok Chamreun Choub, Gitau Mburu
BACKGROUND: Compared to the general population, drug users are at increased risk of both poor mental health and HIV infection. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of high psychological distress among drug users in Cambodia. METHODS: In April 2014, a two-stage cluster sampling method was used to randomly select 169 drug users from hotspots in Phnom Penh. Psychological distress was measured using General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12)...
October 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
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