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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403015/pore-forming-activity-of-the-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-type-iii-secretion-system-translocon-alters-the-host-epigenome
#1
Laurent Dortet, Charlotte Lombardi, François Cretin, Andréa Dessen, Alain Filloux
Recent studies highlight that bacterial pathogens can reprogram target cells by influencing epigenetic factors. The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a bacterial nanomachine that resembles a syringe on the bacterial surface. The T3SS 'needle' delivers translocon proteins into eukaryotic cell membranes, subsequently allowing injection of bacterial effectors into the cytosol. Here we show that Pseudomonas aeruginosa induces early T3SS-dependent dephosphorylation and deacetylation of histone H3 in eukaryotic cells...
February 5, 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370808/pharmacists-role-in-harm-reduction-a-survey-assessment-of-kentucky-community-pharmacists-willingness-to-participate-in-syringe-needle-exchange
#2
Amie Goodin, Amanda Fallin-Bennett, Traci Green, Patricia R Freeman
BACKGROUND: Pharmacists' role in harm reduction is expanding in many states, yet there are limited data on pharmacists' willingness to participate in harm reduction activities. This study assessed community pharmacists' willingness to participate in one harm reduction initiative: syringe/needle exchange. METHODS: In 2015, all Kentucky pharmacists with active licenses were emailed a survey that examined attitudes towards participation in syringe/needle exchange. Response frequencies were calculated for community pharmacist respondents...
January 25, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357235/mobility-of-water-and-polymer-species-and-rheological-properties-of-supramolecular-polypseudorotaxane-gels-suitable-for-bone-regeneration
#3
Elisabet Segredo-Morales, Manuel Martin-Pastor, Ana Salas, Carmen Evora, Angel Concheiro, Carmen Alvarez-Lorenzo, Araceli Delgado
The aim of this work was to prepare polypseudorotaxane-based supramolecular gels combining αCD with two temperature-responsive copolymers of different architecture (i.e., linear poloxamer P and X-shaped poloxamine T), at the lowest concentration as possible to form syringeable depots, and to shed light on the self-diffusion and spatial closeness of all components (including water) which in turn may determine the cooperative self-assembly phenomena and the performance of the gels at the macroscopic level. The exchange rate between bound water and bulk water was measured with a novel NMR experiment Water Diffusion Exchange-Diffusion Optimized Spectroscopy (WDE-DOSY)...
January 22, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288913/the-association-between-neighborhood-socioeconomic-disadvantage-and-high-risk-injection-behavior-among-people-who-inject-drugs
#4
Jennifer DeCuir, Gina S Lovasi, Abdulrahman El-Sayed, Crystal Fuller Lewis
BACKGROUND: Although much research has been conducted on the determinants of HIV risk behavior among people who inject drugs (PWID), the influence of the neighborhood context on high-risk injection behavior remains understudied. To address this gap in the literature, we measured associations between neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and high-risk injection behavior, and determined whether these associations were modified by drug-related police activity and syringe exchange program (SEP) accessibility...
December 8, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247350/development-of-pumping-emulsification-device-with-glass-membrane-to-form-ideal-lipiodol-emulsion-in-transarterial-chemoembolization
#5
Toshihiro Tanaka, Tetsuya Masada, Hideyuki Nishiofuku, Yasushi Fukuoka, Takeshi Sato, Shota Tatsumoto, Nagaaki Marugami, Shushi Higashi, Kimihiko Kichikawa
PURPOSE: To evaluate a pumping emulsification device that can improve the physiochemical properties and stability of lipiodol emulsion for conventional transarterial chemoembolization. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A pumping emulsification device constructed of a glass membrane with a hydrophobic surface with pore size of 50 μm in diameter was placed between two syringe adaptors. Epirubicin solutions were mixed with lipiodol with pumping exchanges using the emulsification device or a three-way cock...
December 15, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241143/perceptions-about-supervised-injection-facilities-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-philadelphia
#6
Robert E Harris, Jessica Richardson, Rosemary Frasso, Evan D Anderson
BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID) are at high risk for infectious diseases, skin and soft tissue infections, and overdose. However, these harms are all avoidable when sterile injection equipment, hygienic places to inject, and medical care are accessible. Unfortunately, many PWID in the U.S lack these resources. The most vulnerable are forced to inject in public spaces, where individual risks are high and communal harms are sometimes many. Supervised Injection Facilities (SIFs) are an established intervention for reducing these harms...
December 10, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206116/new-pharmaceutical-salts-containing-pyridoxine
#7
Aleksandar Cvetkovski, Valeria Ferretti, Valerio Bertolasi
Two mixed crystals were obtained by crystallizing the active pharmaceutical ingredient pyridoxine [systematic name: 4,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)-2-methylpyridin-3-ol, PN] with (E)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-enoic acid (ferulic acid) and 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoic acid (syringic acid). PN and the coformers crystallize in the form of pharmaceutical salts in a 1:1 stoichiometric ratio, namely 3-hydroxy-4,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)-2-methylpyridin-1-ium (E)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-enoate, C8H12NO3+·C9H9O5-, and 3-hydroxy-4,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)-2-methylpyridin-1-ium 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoate monohydrate, C8H12NO3+·C10H11O5-·H2O, the proton exchange between PN and the acidic partner being supported by the differences of the pKa values of the two components and by the C-O bond lengths of the carboxylate groups...
December 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section C, Structural Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198222/epinephrine-syringe-exchange-events-in-a-paediatric-cardiovascular-icu-analysing-the-storm
#8
Barbara-Jo Achuff, Jameson C Achuff, Hwan H Park, Brady Moffett, Sebastian Acosta, Craig G Rusin, Paul A Checchia
Introduction Haemodynamically unstable patients can experience potentially hazardous changes in vital signs related to the exchange of depleted syringes of epinephrine to full syringes. The purpose was to determine the measured effects of epinephrine syringe exchanges on the magnitude, duration, and frequency of haemodynamic disturbances in the hour after an exchange event (study) relative to the hours before (control). Materials and methods Beat-to-beat vital signs recorded every 2 seconds from bedside monitors for patients admitted to the paediatric cardiovascular ICU of Texas Children's Hospital were collected between 1 January, 2013 and 30 June, 2015...
December 4, 2017: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190252/air-fluid-dropping-technique-for-intracapsular-distilled-water-application-a-vitrectomy-approach-for-selective-targeting-of-lens-epithelial-cells
#9
Qi Zhang, Liuhui Huang, Haiying Jin, Jing Li, Peiquan Zhao
PURPOSE: We describe a simplified technique of intracapsular distilled water application for targeting lens epithelial cells using vitrectomy approach of fluid-air exchange and to evaluate the reliability and safety of this technique. METHODS: Consecutive patients with cataract were randomly assigned to treatment group and control group. After the nucleus removal and cortical aspiration, the space of anterior chamber and capsular bag were maintained with continuous infusion of sterile air by using fluid-air exchange technique through side-port incision...
November 22, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186992/evaluation-of-the-southern-harm-reduction-coalition-for-hiv-prevention-advocacy-accomplishments
#10
Chandra R Story, Wei-Kang Kao, Joe Currin, Colton Brown, Vignetta Charles
BACKGROUND: HIV/AIDS rates are higher in the Southern United States compared to other regions of the country. Reasons for disparities include poverty, health care access, and racism. People who inject drugs (PWID) account for 8% of HIV/AIDS incidence rates. Harm reduction can connect PWID to needed resources. AIDS United Southern REACH grantees developed the Southern Harm Reduction Coalition (SHRC) as a means to decrease HIV/AIDS and viral hepatitis rates, criminalization of drug users and sex workers, and drug overdose...
November 1, 2017: Health Promotion Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181853/towards-the-elimination-of-hepatitis-c-in-the-united-states
#11
Sammy Saab, Long Le, Satvir Saggi, Vinay Sundaram, Myron Tong
The emergence of effective direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents has reignited discussion over hepatitis C elimination potential in the United States. Eliminating hepatitis C will require a critical examination regarding technical feasibility, economic considerations, and social/political attention. Tremendous advancement has been made in recent years with the availability of sensitive diagnostic tests and highly effective DAAs capable of achieving sustained viral response (SVR) in more than 95% of patients...
November 27, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175463/increasing-methamphetamine-injection-among-non-msm-who-inject-drugs-in-king-county-washington
#12
Sara Nelson Glick, Richard Burt, Kim Kummer, Joe Tinsley, Caleb J Banta-Green, Matthew R Golden
BACKGROUND: In King County, Washington, the HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) who inject methamphetamine is high, while it is low among other people who inject drugs (PWID). Local drug problem indicators suggest that methamphetamine use is increasing. The extent to which this increase affects MSM and non-MSM, and whether MSM and non-MSM networks are connected through injection equipment sharing, is unknown. METHODS: We used data from two serial cross-sectional surveys of PWID including five biannual surveys of Public Health-Seattle and King County Needle and Syringe Exchange Program clients (NSEP, N=2135, 2009-2017) and three National HIV Behavioral Surveillance IDU surveys (NHBS, N=1709, 2009-2015)...
November 16, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165071/minocycline-loaded-in-situ-hydrogel-for-periodontitis-treatment
#13
Xiaoqing Wang, Jianli Ma, Xiaoming Zhu, Fang Wang, Liang Zhou
In situ hydrogel based on phase separation by solvent exchange has emerged as an attractive alternative for periodontal pocket injection. In this study, an minocycline (MCL)-loaded in situ hydrogel was prepared composed of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) to enhance the topical treatment of periodontitis. A series of reasonable and applicable formulations were optimized by investigating their syringeability, viscosity and in vitro drug release. The rheological profiles, antimicrobial activities and pharmacodynamics were further studied to evaluate its effect on periodontitis treatment...
November 20, 2017: Current Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143888/-the-art-of-insulin-treatment-diabetes-insulin-and-the-1920s
#14
Kirsten E Gardner
Soon after the discovery of insulin in the early 1920s, the popular press celebrated the miraculous discovery. Although insulin had no curative effect on the chronic state of diabetes, it was frequently heralded as a "cure." This paper examines how the discovery of insulin intersected with the rise of diabetic technology and the transfer of medical technology to the home setting. By analyzing diabetic manuals written for patients and physicians, letters exchanged between patient and physician, medical journals, magazines and newspapers, I trace how patients learned about insulin and more significantly how patients adopted measurement technologies designed to allow better home administration of insulin...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137859/dynamics-and-control-of-infections-on-social-networks-of-population-types
#15
Brian G Williams, Christopher Dye
Random mixing in host populations has been a convenient simplifying assumption in the study of epidemics, but neglects important differences in contact rates within and between population groups. For HIV/AIDS, the assumption of random mixing is inappropriate for epidemics that are concentrated in groups of people at high risk, including female sex workers (FSW) and their male clients (MCF), injecting drug users (IDU) and men who have sex with men (MSM). To find out who transmits infection to whom and how that affects the spread and containment of infection remains a major empirical challenge in the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS...
October 26, 2017: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111686/centrifugation-controlled-thermal-convection-and-its-application-to-rapid-microfluidic-polymerase-chain-reaction-devices
#16
Masato Saito, Kazuya Takahashi, Yuichiro Kiriyama, Wilfred Villariza Espulgar, Hiroshi Aso, Tadanobu Sekiya, Yoshikazu Tanaka, Tsuneo Sawazumi, Satoshi Furui, Eiichi Tamiya
Here, we report the developed cyclo olefin polymer (COP) microfluidic chip on a fabricated rotating heater stage that utilizes centrifugation-assisted thermal cycle in a ring-structured microchannel for polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The PCR solution could be driven by thermal convection and continuously exchanged high/low temperatures in a ring structured microchannel without the use of typical syringe pump. More importantly, the flow rate was controlled by the relative gravitational acceleration only. The platform enables amplification within 10 min at 5G and has a detection limit of 70...
December 5, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111580/drug-residues-in-used-syringes-in-switzerland-a-comparative-study
#17
Elodie Lefrançois, Marc Augsburger, Pierre Esseiva
Harm reduction services, including needle exchange programs, have been implemented in Switzerland for over twenty years. Their main aim is to lessen the negative social and/or physical consequences associated with illicit drug consumption and, therefore, improve prevention messages. To this end, knowledge about illicit drug consumption practices is necessary. Periodic self-report surveys are the primary source of data for monitoring drug users' behaviour. Analysis of residual content of used syringes can bring further and objective knowledge about consumed products through analytically confirmed data...
November 7, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067855/barriers-and-facilitators-of-access-to-hiv-harm-reduction-and-sexual-and-reproductive-health-services-by-women-who-inject-drugs-role-of-community-based-outreach-and-drop-in-centers
#18
Sylvia Ayon, James Ndimbii, Fatma Jeneby, Taib Abdulrahman, Onesmus Mlewa, Bangyuan Wang, Allan Ragi, Gitau Mburu
There is limited data regarding women who inject drugs, and how harm-reduction services can be made more women-centered. This study explored experiences of Kenyan women who inject drugs, with regard to access to HIV, harm reduction and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services. A total of 45 women who inject drugs and 5 key stakeholders participated in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Thematic analysis of the data revealed that stigma, long distances, lack of confidentiality, user fees, multiple appointments, drug users' unfamiliarity with health facilities, disconnect in communication with healthcare providers, and healthcare providers' lack of understanding of women's needs were factors that impede women's access to health services...
October 25, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065896/harm-reduction-principles-for-healthcare-settings
#19
Mary Hawk, Robert W S Coulter, James E Egan, Stuart Fisk, M Reuel Friedman, Monique Tula, Suzanne Kinsky
BACKGROUND: Harm reduction refers to interventions aimed at reducing the negative effects of health behaviors without necessarily extinguishing the problematic health behaviors completely. The vast majority of the harm reduction literature focuses on the harms of drug use and on specific harm reduction strategies, such as syringe exchange, rather than on the harm reduction philosophy as a whole. Given that a harm reduction approach can address other risk behaviors that often occur alongside drug use and that harm reduction principles have been applied to harms such as sex work, eating disorders, and tobacco use, a natural evolution of the harm reduction philosophy is to extend it to other health risk behaviors and to a broader healthcare audience...
October 24, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017610/hiv-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-hungary
#20
András Ortutay, V Anna Gyarmathy, Zsuzsa Marjanek, Károly Nagy, József Rácz, István Barcs
BACKGROUND: Before 2014 (the year of closure of the two largest needle exchange programs in Hungary, which halved the number of available syringes in the country despite increased injecting risk practices) no HIV was reportedly acquired in Hungary among people who inject drugs (PWIDs) who were not also men who had sex with other men (MSM). In 2014, one and in 2015 two non-MSM PWIDs were newly diagnosed with HIV who supposedly became infected in Hungary, and both incident HIV cases in 2015 were diagnosed in the AIDS stage...
October 11, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
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