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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143888/-the-art-of-insulin-treatment-diabetes-insulin-and-the-1920s
#1
Kirsten E Gardner
Soon after the discovery of insulin in the early 1920s, the popular press celebrated the miraculous discovery. Although insulin had no curative effect on the chronic state of diabetes, it was frequently heralded as a "cure." This paper examines how the discovery of insulin intersected with the rise of diabetic technology and the transfer of medical technology to the home setting. By analyzing diabetic manuals written for patients and physicians, letters exchanged between patient and physician, medical journals, magazines and newspapers, I trace how patients learned about insulin and more significantly how patients adopted measurement technologies designed to allow better home administration of insulin...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137859/dynamics-and-control-of-infections-on-social-networks-of-population-types
#2
Brian G Williams, Christopher Dye
Random mixing in host populations has been a convenient simplifying assumption in the study of epidemics, but neglects important differences in contact rates within and between population groups. For HIV/AIDS, the assumption of random mixing is inappropriate for epidemics that are concentrated in groups of people at high risk, including female sex workers (FSW) and their male clients (MCF), injecting drug users (IDU) and men who have sex with men (MSM). To find out who transmits infection to whom and how that affects the spread and containment of infection remains a major empirical challenge in the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS...
October 26, 2017: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111686/centrifugation-controlled-thermal-convection-and-its-application-to-rapid-microfluidic-polymerase-chain-reaction-devices
#3
Masato Saito, Kazuya Takahashi, Yuichiro Kiriyama, Wilfred Villariza Espulgar, Hiroshi Aso, Tadanobu Sekiya, Yoshikazu Tanaka, Tsuneo Sawazumi, Satoshi Furui, Eiichi Tamiya
Here, we report the developed cyclo olefin polymer (COP) microfluidic chip on a fabricated rotating heater stage that utilizes centrifugation-assisted thermal cycle in a ring-structured microchannel for polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The PCR solution could be driven by thermal convection and continuously exchanged high/low temperatures in a ring structured microchannel without the use of typical syringe pump. More importantly, the flow rate was controlled by the relative gravitational acceleration only. The platform enables amplification within 10 min at 5G and has a detection limit of 70...
November 17, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111580/drug-residues-in-used-syringes-in-switzerland-a-comparative-study
#4
Elodie Lefrançois, Marc Augsburger, Pierre Esseiva
Harm reduction services, including needle exchange programs, have been implemented in Switzerland for over twenty years. Their main aim is to lessen the negative social and/or physical consequences associated with illicit drug consumption and, therefore, improve prevention messages. To this end, knowledge about illicit drug consumption practices is necessary. Periodic self-report surveys are the primary source of data for monitoring drug users' behaviour. Analysis of residual content of used syringes can bring further and objective knowledge about consumed products through analytically confirmed data...
November 7, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067855/barriers-and-facilitators-of-access-to-hiv-harm-reduction-and-sexual-and-reproductive-health-services-by-women-who-inject-drugs-role-of-community-based-outreach-and-drop-in-centers
#5
Sylvia Ayon, James Ndimbii, Fatma Jeneby, Taib Abdulrahman, Onesmus Mlewa, Bangyuan Wang, Allan Ragi, Gitau Mburu
There is limited data regarding women who inject drugs, and how harm-reduction services can be made more women-centered. This study explored experiences of Kenyan women who inject drugs, with regard to access to HIV, harm reduction and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services. A total of 45 women who inject drugs and 5 key stakeholders participated in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Thematic analysis of the data revealed that stigma, long distances, lack of confidentiality, user fees, multiple appointments, drug users' unfamiliarity with health facilities, disconnect in communication with healthcare providers, and healthcare providers' lack of understanding of women's needs were factors that impede women's access to health services...
October 25, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065896/harm-reduction-principles-for-healthcare-settings
#6
Mary Hawk, Robert W S Coulter, James E Egan, Stuart Fisk, M Reuel Friedman, Monique Tula, Suzanne Kinsky
BACKGROUND: Harm reduction refers to interventions aimed at reducing the negative effects of health behaviors without necessarily extinguishing the problematic health behaviors completely. The vast majority of the harm reduction literature focuses on the harms of drug use and on specific harm reduction strategies, such as syringe exchange, rather than on the harm reduction philosophy as a whole. Given that a harm reduction approach can address other risk behaviors that often occur alongside drug use and that harm reduction principles have been applied to harms such as sex work, eating disorders, and tobacco use, a natural evolution of the harm reduction philosophy is to extend it to other health risk behaviors and to a broader healthcare audience...
October 24, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017610/hiv-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-hungary
#7
András Ortutay, V Anna Gyarmathy, Zsuzsa Marjanek, Károly Nagy, József Rácz, István Barcs
BACKGROUND: Before 2014 (the year of closure of the two largest needle exchange programs in Hungary, which halved the number of available syringes in the country despite increased injecting risk practices) no HIV was reportedly acquired in Hungary among people who inject drugs (PWIDs) who were not also men who had sex with other men (MSM). In 2014, one and in 2015 two non-MSM PWIDs were newly diagnosed with HIV who supposedly became infected in Hungary, and both incident HIV cases in 2015 were diagnosed in the AIDS stage...
October 11, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984772/comparison-of-2-modified-methods-for-the-active-removal-of-silicone-oil-with-a-23-gauge-transconjunctival-vitrectomy-system
#8
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Chengqun Ju, Jianqiao Li, Fang Zhou, Qi Song, Xinyi Wu, Chao Huang, Shanshan Li, Helei Wang
To report and compare 2 modified approaches for the active removal of silicone oil (ROSO) with a 23-gauge transconjunctival vitrectomy system.This prospective single blinded study was conducted from January 2015 to December 2016. Eighty-nine eyes of 86 patients who underwent silicone oil removal were enrolled. Patients were randomly divided into either group A or B. In group A, the fluid-air exchange tube was connected to a 1 mL syringe with the plunger removed and the tip was dilated with a hemostat so that it fit into the cap of the 23-gauge cannula to form a seal for oil drainage...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912734/malm%C3%A3-treatment-referral-and-intervention-study-high-12-month-retention-rates-in-patients-referred-from-syringe-exchange-to-methadone-or-buprenorphine-naloxone-treatment
#9
Martin Bråbäck, Lars Ekström, Katja Troberg, Suzan Nilsson, Pernilla Isendahl, Louise Brådvik, Anders Håkansson
BACKGROUND: Heroin dependence is associated with high mortality. Opioid agonist treatment (OAT) with methadone or buprenorphine has strong evidence for treatment of this relapsing condition. In our setting, OAT has been associated with strict and demanding intake procedures, often with requirements of social stability, but also high, approximately 80 percent 12-month retention rates. In a recent randomized controlled trial, we demonstrated high rates of successful rapid referral from a syringe exchange programme (SEP) to treatment with methadone or buprenorphine, including actual treatment initiation...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882143/characteristics-of-persons-who-inject-drugs-and-who-witness-opioid-overdoses-in-vietnam-a-cross-sectional-analysis-to-inform-future-overdose-prevention-programs
#10
N A Blackburn, K E Lancaster, T V Ha, C A Latkin, W C Miller, C Frangakis, V A Chu, T Sripaipan, V M Quan, N L Minh, P T Vu, V F Go
BACKGROUND: Persons who use opioids have a high risk of overdose and associated mortality. In Vietnam, little is known about the characteristics of this population and the persons who are witness to those overdoses. One approach to combatting fatal overdose has been the use of peer interventions in which a friend or injecting partner administers overdose reversal medication, but availability in Vietnam of these medications is limited to pilot programs with aims to expand in the future (Le Minh and V...
September 7, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879174/mobile-technology-to-increase-hiv-hcv-testing-and-overdose-prevention-response-among-people-who-inject-drugs
#11
Ian David Aronson, Alexander Bennett, Lisa A Marsch, Theodore C Bania
The United States faces dramatically increasing rates of opioid overdose deaths, as well as persistent ongoing problems of undiagnosed HIV and HCV infection. These problems commonly occur together in substance using populations that have limited, if any, access to primary care and other routine health services. To collectively address all three issues, we developed the Mobile Intervention Kit (MIK), a tablet computer-based intervention designed to provide overdose prevention and response training and to facilitate HIV/HCV testing in community settings...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819049/a-comparison-of-protein-stability-in-prefillable-syringes-made-of-glass-and-plastic
#12
Lloyd Waxman, Vinod D Vilivalam
The development of protein therapeutics requires stabilization of these labile molecules during shipment and storage. Biologics, particularly monoclonal antibodies, are frequently packaged at high concentration in prefillable syringes traditionally made of glass. However, some biologics are unstable in glass due to sensitivity to silicone oil, tungsten, glue or metal ions. Syringes made from the plastic cyclic olefin polymer, Daikyo Crystal Zenith® (CZ), with a Flurotec-laminated piston have none of these issues...
August 17, 2017: PDA Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772172/naloxone-use-among-overdose-prevention-trainees-in-new-york-city-a-longitudinal-cohort-study
#13
Anne Siegler, Zina Huxley-Reicher, Lara Maldjian, Robyn Jordan, Chloe Oliver, Andrea Jakubowski, Hillary V Kunins
BACKGROUND: Providing naloxone to laypersons who are likely to witness an opioid overdose is now a widespread public health response to the national opioid overdose epidemic. Estimating the proportion of individuals who use naloxone can define its potential impact to reduce overdose deaths at a population level. We determined the proportion of study participants who used naloxone within 12 months following training and factors associated with witnessing overdose and naloxone use. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, observational study of individuals completing overdose prevention training (OPT) between June and September 2013...
July 24, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662716/awareness-of-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-among-women-who-inject-drugs-in-nyc-the-importance-of-networks-and-syringe-exchange-programs-for-hiv-prevention
#14
Suzan M Walters, Kathleen H Reilly, Alan Neaigus, Sarah Braunstein
BACKGROUND: Women who inject drugs (WWID) are at heightened risk for HIV due to biological, behavioral, and structural factors. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) could aid in HIV prevention for WWID. However, little is known about WWID awareness of PrEP, which is a necessary step that must occur before PrEP uptake. We report factors associated with greater awareness among WWID to identify efficient means of awareness dissemination. METHODS: Data from the 2015 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) system cycle on injection drug use collected in New York City (NYC) were used...
June 29, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644276/an-innovative-syringe-exchange-program
#15
Carol Potera
Nevada's pilot vending machine program encourages users to enter treatment programs.
July 2017: American Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604435/exchange-sex-and-hiv-infection-among-women-who-inject-drugs-20-us-cities-2009
#16
MULTICENTER STUDY
Lina M Nerlander, Kristen L Hess, Charles E Rose, Catlainn Sionean, Anna Thorson, Dita Broz, Gabriela Paz-Bailey
BACKGROUND: Women who inject drugs and who also exchange sex are at increased risk for HIV infection, but data on this population in the United States remain sparse. METHODS: This study assessed the prevalence of exchanging sex for money or drugs among women who inject drugs using data from the 2009 US National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) system. Prevalence of being HIV-positive (testing positive in NHBS), HIV-positive-unaware (reporting being HIV-negative or unknown status but testing positive in NHBS), and risk behaviors and use of services were compared between women who did and did not exchange sex...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604434/trends-in-hiv-and-hcv-risk-behaviors-and-prevalent-infection-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-new-york-city-2005-2012
#17
Alan Neaigus, Kathleen H Reilly, Samuel M Jenness, Holly Hagan, Travis Wendel, Camila Gelpi-Acosta, David M Marshall
BACKGROUND: We assess trends in HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) risk behaviors and prevalent infection among people who inject drugs (PWID) in New York City (NYC). METHODS: PWID in NYC were sampled using respondent-driven sampling in 2005, 2009, and 2012 (serial cross sections) for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-sponsored National HIV Behavioral Surveillance study. Participants were interviewed about their current (≤12 months) risk behaviors and tested for HIV and HCV...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574295/prevalence-of-hepatitis-c-and-pre-testing-awareness-of-hepatitis-c-status-in-1500-consecutive-pwid-participants-at-the-stockholm-needle-exchange-program
#18
Martin Kåberg, Anders Hammarberg, Christer Lidman, Ola Weiland
BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID) are the driving force of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemic. Still, treatment is scarcely offered and the awareness of HCV status in PWID is poor. Prevention includes clean needles, syringes and other paraphernalia. HCV awareness was investigated in 1500 PWID in a needle exchange program (NEP) in Stockholm, Sweden, together with HCV prevalence, and time to HCV infection after start of injection drug use. METHODS: 1500 PWID in the Stockholm NEP were consecutively enrolled...
June 2, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557553/decreased-odds-of-injection-risk-behavior-associated-with-direct-versus-indirect-use-of-syringe-exchange-evidence-from-two-california-cities
#19
Czarina N Behrends, Chin-Shang Li, David R Gibson
BACKGROUND: While there is substantial evidence that syringe exchange programs (SEPs) are effective in preventing HIV among people who inject drugs (PWID), nearly all the evidence comes from PWID who obtain syringes from an SEP directly. Much less is known about the benefits of secondary exchange to PWID who get syringes indirectly from friends or acquaintances who visit an SEP for them. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the effectiveness of direct versus indirect syringe exchange in reducing HIV-related high-risk injecting behavior among PWID in two separate studies conducted in Sacramento and San Jose, California, cities with quite different syringe exchange models...
July 29, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521814/access-to-healthcare-insurance-and-healthcare-services-among-syringe-exchange-program-clients-in-massachusetts-qualitative-findings-from-health-navigators-with-the-idu-i-do-care-collaborative
#20
Thomas J Stopka, Marguerite Hutcheson, Ashley Donahue
BACKGROUND: Little is known about access to health insurance among people who inject drugs (PWID) who attend syringe exchange programs (SEPs). The goal of the current study was to assess perceptions of SEP staff, including health navigators and program managers, on access to health insurance and healthcare access among SEP clients following implementation of state and federal policies to enhance universal healthcare access in Massachusetts. METHODS: Between December 2014 and January 2015, we conducted in-depth interviews (n = 14) with SEP staff, including both program managers and health navigators, to assess knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs related to health insurance enrollment and access to enhanced referrals among SEP clients...
May 18, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
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