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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328019/dopant-assisted-direct-analysis-in-real-time-mass-spectrometry-with-argon-gas
#1
Robert B Cody, A John Dane
RATIONALE: Dopants used with Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization (APPI) were examined with the Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART(®) ) ion source operated with argon gas. Charge-exchange and proton transfer reactions were observed by adding toluene, anisole, chlorobenzene and acetone to the DART gas stream, complementing the information obtained by helium DART. METHODS: Mass spectra were acquired with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer equipped with a DART ion source operated with argon gas...
May 30, 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306386/perceived-discrimination-among-racial-and-ethnic-minority-drug-users-and-the-association-with-health-care-utilization
#2
Courtney McKnight, Martha Shumway, Carmen L Masson, Enrique R Pouget, Ashly E Jordan, Don C Des Jarlais, James L Sorensen, David C Perlman
People who use drugs (PWUDs) are at increased risk for several medical conditions, yet they delay seeking medical care and utilize emergency departments (EDs) as their primary source of care. Limited research regarding perceived discrimination and PWUDs' use of health care services exists. This study explores the association between interpersonal and institutional racial/ethnic and drug use discrimination in health care settings and health care utilization among respondents (N = 192) recruited from methadone maintenance treatment programs (36%), HIV primary care clinics (35%), and syringe exchange programs (29%) in New York City (n = 88) and San Francisco (n = 104)...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303199/hiv-aids-in-the-south-east-asia-region-progress-and-challenges
#3
EDITORIAL
Razia Pendse, Somya Gupta, Dongbao Yu, Swarup Sarkar
The South-East Asia region, with 11 member states, has an estimated 3.5 million people living with HIV (PLHIV). More than 99% of PLHIV live in five countries where HIV prevalence among the population aged 15-49 remains low but is between 2% and 29% among key populations. Since 2010, the region has made progress to combat the epidemic. Mature condom programmes exist in most countries but opioid substitution therapy, and needle and syringe exchange programmes need to be scaled up. HIV testing is recommended nationwide in four countries and is prioritised in high prevalence areas or for key populations in the rest...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160735/differential-access-to-syringe-exchange-and-other-prevention-activities-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-rural-and-urban-areas-of-puerto-rico
#4
Melissa Welch-Lazoritz, Patrick Habecker, Kirk Dombrowski, Angelica Rivera Villegas, Carmen Ana Davila, Yadira Rolón Colón, Sandra Miranda De León
BACKGROUND: Injection drug use and its associated blood-borne infections has become a rapidly increasing problem in rural areas of the US recently. Syringe exchange programs have been shown to be effective for reducing transmission of blood borne infections, however access to these prevention efforts may be limited in rural areas. METHODS: This paper utilizes two separate community samples of people who inject drugs (PWID) in Puerto Rico to achieve the following research objectives: (1) compare rural and urban access to syringe exchange programs, free sterile syringes and other HIV/HCV prevention activities, and (2) examine whether utilization of prevention activities is associated with lower injection risk behaviors...
February 1, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130629/pence-putin-mbeki-and-their-hiv-aids-related-crimes-against-humanity-call-for-social-justice-and-behavioral-science-advocacy
#5
EDITORIAL
Seth C Kalichman
Indiana, a large rural state in the Midwestern United States, suffered the worst North American HIV outbreak among injection drug users in years. The Indiana state government under former Governor and current US Vice President Mike Pence fueled the HIV outbreak by prohibiting needle/syringe exchange and failed to take substantive action once the outbreak was identified. This failure in public health policy parallels the HIV epidemics driven by oppressive drug laws in current day Russia and is reminiscent of the anti-science AIDS denialism of 1999-2007 South Africa...
January 27, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126684/using-database-linkages-to-monitor-the-continuum-of-care-for-hepatitis-c-virus-among-syringe-exchange-clients-experience-from-a-pilot-intervention
#6
Karli R Hochstatter, Shawnika J Hull, Lauren J Stockman, Laura K Stephens, Heidi K Olson-Streed, William J Ehlenbach, Michael D Repplinger, Elizabeth A Jacobs, Ryan P Westergaard
BACKGROUND: Because many people who inject drugs (PWID) are at high risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and have poor access to medical care, many HCV-infected PWID remain undiagnosed and unaccounted for in surveillance systems. Syringe exchange programs (SEPs) are an under-utilized resource for collecting information missing from surveillance systems. Partnerships with public health agencies represent a potentially innovative approach to studying the HCV epidemic for PWID. The goal of this study was to characterize the HCV care continuum for a cohort of PWID using database linkages...
January 23, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111996/inhibition-behaviours-of-some-phenolic-acids-on-rat-kidney-aldose-reductase-enzyme-an-in-vitro-study
#7
Zuhal Alim, Namik Kilinç, Bülent Şengül, Şükrü Beydemir
Aldose reductase (AR) inhibitors have vital importance in the treatment and prevention of diabetic complications. In this study, rat kidney AR was purified 19.34-fold with a yield of 3.49% and a specific activity of 0.88 U/mg using DE-52 Cellulose anion exchange chromatography, gel filtration chromatography and 2'5' ADP Sepharose-4B affinity chromatography, respectively. After purification, the in vitro inhibition effects of some phenolic acids (tannic acid, chlorogenic acid, sinapic acid, protocatechuic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, α-resorcylic acid, 3-hydroxybenzoic acid and gallic acid) were investigated on purified enzyme...
December 2017: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108875/against-the-odds-syringe-exchange-policy-implementation-in-indiana
#8
Beth E Meyerson, Carrie A Lawrence, Laura Miller, Anthony Gillespie, Daniel Raymond, Kristen Kelley, D J Shannon
Indiana recently passed legislation allowing local governments to establish syringe exchanges. While the effectiveness of syringe exchange programming is established, there is a dearth of studies about associated policy adoption and implementation. This study documents the experiences of 24 Indiana counties engaged in the process of establishing syringe exchange programming under new state law. A mixed method, qualitative, exploratory case study was conducted from May 2015 to April 2016. We observed rapid and widespread policy adoption interest, and yet counties reported significant policy ambiguity, epidemiologic and resource capacity issues...
January 20, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105586/occupational-safety-in-the-age-of-the-opioid-crisis-needle-stick-injury-among-baltimore-police
#9
Javier A Cepeda, Leo Beletsky, Anne Sawyer, Chris Serio-Chapman, Marina Smelyanskaya, Jennifer Han, Natanya Robinowitz, Susan G Sherman
At a time of resurgence in injection drug use and injection-attributable infections, needle stick injury (NSI) risk and its correlates among police remain understudied. In the context of occupational safety training, a convenience sample of 771 Baltimore city police officers responded to a self-administered survey. Domains included NSI experience, protective behaviors, and attitudes towards syringe exchange programs. Sixty officers (8%) reported lifetime NSI. Officers identifying as Latino or other race were almost three times more likely (aOR 2...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088084/correlates-of-anti-hepatitis-c-positivity-and-use-of-harm-reduction-services-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-two-cities-in-croatia
#10
Senad Handanagic, Sandra Sevic, Jelena Barbaric, Zoran Dominkovic, Oktavija Dakovic Rode, Josip Begovac, Ivana Bozicevic
BACKGROUND: We assessed correlates of anti-hepatitis C (anti-HCV) positivity and utilization of needle and syringe exchange programs (NSEP) and opioid agonist treatment (OAT) among people who inject drugs (PWID) in two Croatian cities. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study using respondent-driven (RDS) sampling among PWID in Rijeka (N=255) and Split (N=399). We used RDS-weighted population estimates and multivariable logistic regression to explore correlates of anti-HCV positivity and NSEP and OAT utilization...
December 7, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984762/hcv-prevalence-and-risk-behaviours-among-injectors-of-new-psychoactive-substances-in-a-risk-environment-in-hungary-an-expanding-public-health-burden
#11
Anna Tarján, Mária Dudás, Lucas Wiessing, Gergely Horváth, Erzsébet Rusvai, Bálint Tresó, Ágnes Csohán
BACKGROUND: In Hungary a large increase in injecting new psychoactive substances (NPS) coincided with decreasing harm reduction efforts and rising HCV infection. We describe these, and assess changes in HCV prevalence and risk behaviours, 2011-2014, among NPS injectors, using 2011-2015 syringe exchange programme (SEP) data as a key contextual ('risk environment') variable. METHODS: We conducted repeated national sero-behavioural surveys in people who inject drugs (PWID) injecting in the last month and attending SEPs or drug treatment centres (n=399, 2011; 384, 2014), using face-to-face interviews and dried blood-spot samples...
December 13, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27937534/patterns-of-hiv-risks-and-related-factors-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-kermanshah-iran-a-latent-class-analysis
#12
Hamid Sharifi, Ali Mirzazadeh, Alireza Noroozi, Brandon D L Marshall, Ali Farhoudian, Peter Higgs, Meroe Vameghi, Farahnaz Mohhamadi Shahboulaghi, Mostafa Qorbani, Omid Massah, Bahram Armoon, Mehdi Noroozi
The objective of this study was to explore patterns of drug use and sexual risk behaviors among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Iran. We surveyed 500 PWID in Kermanshah concerning demographic characteristics, sexual risk behaviors, and drug-related risk behaviors in the month prior to study. We used latent class analysis (LCA) to establish a baseline model of risk profiles and to identify the optimal number of latent classes, and we used ordinal regression to identify factors associated with class membership...
January 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925864/intravenous-use-of-intranasal-naloxone-a-case-of-overdose-reversal
#13
Smita Das, Nina Shah, Murtuza Ghadiali
BACKGROUND: Opioid overdose is a growing concern in the United States and internationally. Prehospital or pre-medical personnel (layperson) administration of naloxone, an opioid antagonist, to reverse overdose, is an expanding mode of harm reduction. Recently, community clinics, methadone clinics, needle exchanges, some pharmacies, and other health care facilities have made naloxone available to the community. CASE: This case describes heroin overdose reversal of a 28-year-old male who had been using about a gram of heroin intravenously for 3 years but recently reduced frequency of use in an attempt to stop...
January 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917016/the-portapotty-experiment-neoliberal-approaches-to-the-intertwined-epidemics-of-opioid-related-overdose-and-hiv-hcv-and-why-we-need-cultural-anthropologists-in-the-south-bronx
#14
Brett Wolfson-Stofko, Ric Curtis, Faustino Fuentes, Ed Manchess, Alexis Del Rio-Cumba, Alex S Bennett
The following report from the field focuses on the authors' collective efforts to operate an ad hoc safer injection facility (SIF) out of portapotties (portable toilets) in an area of the South Bronx that has consistently experienced some of the highest overdose morbidity and mortality rates in New York City over the past decade (New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, 2011, 2015, 2016). Safer injection facilities (also known as supervised injection facilities, drug consumption rooms, etc.) operating outside the US provide a legal, hygienic, and supervised environment for individuals to use drugs in order to minimize the likelihood of fatal overdose and the spread of blood-borne infections while reducing public injection...
December 2016: Dialectical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898549/hypertensive-crisis-during-norepinephrine-syringe-exchange
#15
Roland A Snijder, Johannes T A Knape, Toine C G Egberts, Annemoon M D E Timmerman
A 67-year critically ill patient suffered from a hypertensive crisis (200 mm Hg) because of a norepinephrine overdose. The overdose occurred when the clinician exchanged an almost-empty syringe and the syringe pump repeatedly reported an error. We hypothesized that an object between the plunger and the syringe driver may have caused the exertion of too much force on the syringe. Testing this hypothesis in vitro showed significant peak dosing errors (up to +572%) but moderate overdose (0.07 mL, +225%) if a clamp was used on the intravenous infusion line and a large overdose (0...
November 28, 2016: A & A Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897966/behavioral-characteristics-and-injection-practices-associated-with-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-among-people-who-inject-drugs-a-community-based-observational-study
#16
Disa Dahlman, Anders Håkansson, Alex H Kral, Lynn Wenger, Elizabeth L Ball, Scott P Novak
BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID) are at increased risk for bacterial skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). Although SSTIs pose significant health risks, little is known about their prevalence and characteristics in the population of PWID in the United States. This study investigates whether behavioral factors related to skin and equipment hygiene and tissue-damaging injection practices are associated with recent SSTIs among PWID. METHODS: Active PWID were recruited using targeted sampling in San Francisco in 2011-2013...
January 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893601/reducing-missed-opportunities-pairing-sexually-transmitted-infection-screening-with-syringe-exchange-services
#17
Alexis M Roth, Jesse L Goldshear, Ana P Martinez-Donate, Seth Welles, Martha Chavis, Barbara Van Der Pol
About 17.5% of sexually active injection drug users recruited from a syringe exchange in Camden, NJ (n = 120) screened positive for chlamydia/gonorrhea. Among these cases, 40% were detected via extragenital screening. This pilot demonstrates that colocating sexually transmitted infection control with syringe exchange leads to sexually transmitted infection case finding.
November 2016: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886001/strategy-for-the-hemocompatibility-testing-of-microparticles
#18
S Braune, S Basu, K Kratz, J Bäckemo Johansson, M Reinthaler, A Lendlein, F Jung
Polymer-based microparticles are applied as non-thrombogenic or thrombogenic materials in a wide variety of intra- or extra-corporeal medical devices. As demanded by the regulatory agencies, the hemocompatibility of these blood contacting biomaterials has to be evaluated in vitro to ensure that the particle systems appropriately fulfill the envisioned function without causing undesired events such as thrombosis or inflammation. Currently described in vitro assays for hemocompatibility testing of particles comprise tests with different single cell types (e...
2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876594/successful-control-of-a-large-outbreak-of-hiv-infection-associated-with-injection-of-cathinone-derivatives-in-tel-aviv-israel
#19
Eugene Katchman, Ronen Ben-Ami, Michal Savyon, Daniel Chemtob, Boaz Avidor, Asaf Wasserman, Irena Zeldis, Shirley Girshengorn, Ziva Amitai, Rivka Sheffer, Dan Turner
OBJECTIVES: Outbreaks of HIV infection have been linked to injectable drug abuse, but specific triggers often remain obscure. We report on an outbreak of primary HIV infection among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tel Aviv, associated with a local shift in drug-use practices. METHODS: A cluster of primary HIV infection cases in PWID was detected in May 2012. Retrospective and prospective multi-hospital case finding was initiated. PWID were interviewed and risk factors for primary HIV infection were identified...
November 19, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855325/-not-human-dead-already-perceptions-and-experiences-of-drug-related-stigma-among-opioid-using-young-adults-from-the-former-soviet-union-living-in-the-u-s
#20
Alana Gunn, Honoria Guarino
BACKGROUND: Young people from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in the U.S. are engaging in opioid and injection drug use (IDU) in substantial numbers, paralleling nationwide trends. Yet opioid-using FSU immigrants face distinctive acculturation challenges, including perceived stigmatisation as drug users within their immigrant communities, which may exacerbate the negative health and psychosocial consequences of such use. METHODS: This qualitative study draws on semi-structured interviews with 26 FSU immigrant young adults (ages 18-29) living in New York City who reported opioid use in the past month and/or were currently in treatment for opioid use disorder...
December 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
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