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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652339/miniaturized-single-fiber-based-needle-probe-for-combined-imaging-and-sensing-in-deep-tissue
#1
Jiawen Li, Erik Schartner, Stefan Musolino, Bryden C Quirk, Rodney W Kirk, Heike Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Robert A McLaughlin
The ability to visualize structure while simultaneously measuring chemical or physical properties of a biological tissue has the potential to improve our understanding of complex biological processes. We report the first miniaturized single-fiber-based imaging+sensing probe capable of simultaneous optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging and temperature sensing. An OCT lens is fabricated at the distal end of a double-clad fiber, including a thin layer of rare-earth-doped tellurite glass to enable temperature measurements...
April 15, 2018: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559070/anova-health-institute
#2
Johannes M Hugo, Kevin B Rebe, Evan Tsouroulis, Anthony Manion, Glenn de Swart, Helen Struthers, James A McIntyre
Chemsex is the colloquial term used for a specific pattern of drug use that is increasingly common among men who have sex with men (MSM) globally. The recreational substances employed are used specifically in a sexualized context. The reasons for chemsex among MSM are complex. The Anova Health Institute (Anova) provided harm-reduction services in Cape Town, South Africa in 2013 and 2014. This project, known as Tikking the Boxes had two objectives: first to provide direct harm-reduction services to drug-using MSM in Cape Town, South Africa, and second, to reduce HIV and hepatitis B and C transmission among this population...
March 21, 2018: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553354/decreasing-hiv-syphilis-and-hepatitis-c-infection-after-a-decade-of-harm-reduction-implementation-among-drug-users-in-southwestern-areas-of-china
#3
Yi Chen, Zhenzhu Tang, Shuai Tang, Zhiyong Shen, Qiuying Zhu, Rongjian Li, Wenbo Huang, Yuman Huang, Fuxiong Liang, Lu Wang, Huanhuan Chen, Yuhua Ruan, Yiming Shao, Sian Hsiang-Te Tsuei, Guanghua Lan
OBJECTIVE: Since 2003, the Chinese central government has implemented several harm reduction and preventive measures to control HIV. We aim to describe epidemiological trends of HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV), and syphilis in Guangxi drug users after the policy implementation. METHOD: A total of 12,161-15,870 drug users in Guangxi, China, were recruited annually from 2009 to 2015 through community outreach or snowball sampling. The participants' demographics, behavior, and infection status were used to characterize rates of protective behaviors and disease prevalence (HIV, syphilis, and HCV)...
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460225/the-syndemic-of-opioid-misuse-overdose-hcv-and-hiv-structural-level-causes-and-interventions
#4
REVIEW
David C Perlman, Ashly E Jordan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the case for recognizing (1) the epidemics of opioid misuse, overdose, hepatitis C virus, and HIV as a syndemic and (2) the importance of examining and addressing structural factors in responses to this syndemic. We focus on the current syndemic in the US, but also consider data from other locations to highlight the issues existing and arising in various contexts. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in multi-level theory and statistical methods allow sound ecologic and multi-level analyses of the impact of structural factors on the syndemic...
February 19, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415660/transmission-dynamics-for-methicilin-resistant-staphalococous-areus-with-injection-drug-user
#5
Rebekah Wagner, Folashade B Agusto
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a bacterial pathogen resistance to antibiotics including methicillin. The resistance first emerged in 1960 in a healthcare setting only after two years of using methicillin as a viable treatment for methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus. MRSA leads to infections in different parts of the body including the skin, bloodstream, lungs, or the urinary tract. METHODS: A deterministic model for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with injection drug users is designed...
February 7, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403015/pore-forming-activity-of-the-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-type-iii-secretion-system-translocon-alters-the-host-epigenome
#6
Laurent Dortet, Charlotte Lombardi, François Cretin, Andréa Dessen, Alain Filloux
Recent studies highlight that bacterial pathogens can reprogram target cells by influencing epigenetic factors. The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a bacterial nanomachine that resembles a syringe on the bacterial surface. The T3SS 'needle' delivers translocon proteins into eukaryotic cell membranes, subsequently allowing injection of bacterial effectors into the cytosol. Here we show that Pseudomonas aeruginosa induces early T3SS-dependent dephosphorylation and deacetylation of histone H3 in eukaryotic cells...
February 5, 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377190/review-human-placental-oxygenation-in-late-gestation-experimental-and-theoretical-approaches
#7
Gareth A Nye, Emma Ingram, Edward D Johnstone, Oliver E Jensen, Henning Schneider, Rohan M Lewis, Igor L Chernyavsky, Paul Brownbill
The placenta is crucial for life. It is an ephemeral but complex organ acting as the barrier interface between maternal and fetal circulations, providing exchange of gases, nutrients, hormones, waste products and immunoglobulins. Many gaps exist in our understanding of the detailed placental structure and function, particularly in relation to oxygen handling and transfer in healthy and pathological states in utero. Measurements to understand oxygen transfer in vivo in the human are limited, with no general agreement on the most appropriate methods...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370808/pharmacists-role-in-harm-reduction-a-survey-assessment-of-kentucky-community-pharmacists-willingness-to-participate-in-syringe-needle-exchange
#8
Amie Goodin, Amanda Fallin-Bennett, Traci Green, Patricia R Freeman
BACKGROUND: Pharmacists' role in harm reduction is expanding in many states, yet there are limited data on pharmacists' willingness to participate in harm reduction activities. This study assessed community pharmacists' willingness to participate in one harm reduction initiative: syringe/needle exchange. METHODS: In 2015, all Kentucky pharmacists with active licenses were emailed a survey that examined attitudes towards participation in syringe/needle exchange. Response frequencies were calculated for community pharmacist respondents...
January 25, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321928/lung-cancer-development-in-the-patient-with-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-during-long-term-treatment-with-cyclophosphamide-first-documented-case
#9
Midori Toriyama, Etsuko Tagaya, Tomoko Yamamoto, Mitsuko Kondo, Yoji Nagashima, Jun Tamaoki
A 65-year-old man was diagnosed with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) at the age of 47, when cytoplasmic anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (C-ANCA) serology was positive, and he had multiple nodular shadows in both lungs. He had been treated with prednisolone, cyclophosphamide (CPA) and plasma exchange. At the age of 64, a nodular shadow was newly detected in the right lower lung field and serum tumour marker increased. Subsequent positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan demonstrated accumulations of fluorodexyglucose (FDG) in the same area, mediastinum lymph nodes, thoracic wall, right iliac bone, and right retroperitoneum...
February 2018: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321039/strategies-to-control-hiv-and-hcv-in-methadone-maintenance-treatment-in-guangdong-province-china-a-system-dynamic-modeling-study
#10
Xia Zou, Yong Xu, Wen Chen, Yinghua Xia, Yin Liu, Cheng Gong, Li Ling
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) participants remain high. Optimized HIV and HCV prevention strategies for MMT clinics in resource-limited regions are urgently needed. This study aims to develop an MMT system dynamic model (SDM) to compare and optimize HIV and HCV control strategies in the MMT system. METHODS: We developed an MMT-SDM structure based on literature reviews...
January 10, 2018: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231842/smell-of-cells-volatile-profiling-of-stem-and-non-stem-cell-proliferation
#11
Ann-Christin Bischoff, Peter Oertel, Pritam Sukul, Christian Rimmbach, Robert David, Jochen Schubert, Wolfram Miekisch
Bacterial and cell cultures are known to emit a large number of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Conventional biochemical methods are often destructive, time-consuming and expensive. In contrast, VOC analysis of headspace over cultures may offer a non-destructive alternative for the monitoring of cell proliferation and metabolism. VOC profiles from cultures of murine pluripotent stem cells and fibroblasts were assessed every 24 h for 3 days. Pure cell media were measured as parallel controls. VOC analysis was highly standardized with respect to time of measurement and phases of cell growth...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208190/preventing-blood-borne-virus-infection-in-people-who-inject-drugs-in-the-uk-systematic-review-stakeholder-interviews-psychosocial-intervention-development-and-feasibility-randomised-controlled-trial
#12
Gail Gilchrist, Davina Swan, April Shaw, Ada Keding, Sarah Towers, Noel Craine, Alison Munro, Elizabeth Hughes, Steve Parrott, Noreen Mdege, John Strang, Avril Taylor, Judith Watson
BACKGROUND: Opioid substitution therapy and needle exchanges have reduced blood-borne viruses (BBVs) among people who inject drugs (PWID). Some PWID continue to share injecting equipment. OBJECTIVES: To develop an evidence-based psychosocial intervention to reduce BBV risk behaviours and increase transmission knowledge among PWID, and conduct a feasibility trial among PWID comparing the intervention with a control. DESIGN: A pragmatic, two-armed randomised controlled, open feasibility trial...
November 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181853/towards-the-elimination-of-hepatitis-c-in-the-united-states
#13
Sammy Saab, Long Le, Satvir Saggi, Vinay Sundaram, Myron Tong
The emergence of effective direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents has reignited discussion over hepatitis C elimination potential in the United States. Eliminating hepatitis C will require a critical examination regarding technical feasibility, economic considerations, and social/political attention. Tremendous advancement has been made in recent years with the availability of sensitive diagnostic tests and highly effective DAAs capable of achieving sustained viral response (SVR) in more than 95% of patients...
November 27, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175463/increasing-methamphetamine-injection-among-non-msm-who-inject-drugs-in-king-county-washington
#14
Sara Nelson Glick, Richard Burt, Kim Kummer, Joe Tinsley, Caleb J Banta-Green, Matthew R Golden
BACKGROUND: In King County, Washington, the HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) who inject methamphetamine is high, while it is low among other people who inject drugs (PWID). Local drug problem indicators suggest that methamphetamine use is increasing. The extent to which this increase affects MSM and non-MSM, and whether MSM and non-MSM networks are connected through injection equipment sharing, is unknown. METHODS: We used data from two serial cross-sectional surveys of PWID including five biannual surveys of Public Health-Seattle and King County Needle and Syringe Exchange Program clients (NSEP, N=2135, 2009-2017) and three National HIV Behavioral Surveillance IDU surveys (NHBS, N=1709, 2009-2015)...
January 1, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154769/extracellular-lipids-accumulate-in-human-carotid-arteries-as-distinct-three-dimensional-structures-and-have-proinflammatory-properties
#15
Satu Lehti, Su D Nguyen, Ilya Belevich, Helena Vihinen, Hanna M Heikkilä, Rabah Soliymani, Reijo Käkelä, Jani Saksi, Matti Jauhiainen, Gregory A Grabowski, Outi Kummu, Sohvi Hörkkö, Marc Baumann, Perttu J Lindsberg, Eija Jokitalo, Petri T Kovanen, Katariina Öörni
Lipid accumulation is a key characteristic of advancing atherosclerotic lesions. Herein, we analyzed the ultrastructure of the accumulated lipids in endarterectomized human carotid atherosclerotic plaques using three-dimensional (3D) electron microscopy, a method never used in this context before. 3D electron microscopy revealed intracellular lipid droplets and extracellular lipoprotein particles. Most of the particles were aggregated, and some connected to needle-shaped or sheet-like cholesterol crystals. Proteomic analysis of isolated extracellular lipoprotein particles revealed that apolipoprotein B is their main protein component, indicating their origin from low-density lipoprotein, intermediate-density lipoprotein, very-low-density lipoprotein, lipoprotein (a), or chylomicron remnants...
February 2018: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143888/-the-art-of-insulin-treatment-diabetes-insulin-and-the-1920s
#16
Kirsten E Gardner
Soon after the discovery of insulin in the early 1920s, the popular press celebrated the miraculous discovery. Although insulin had no curative effect on the chronic state of diabetes, it was frequently heralded as a "cure." This paper examines how the discovery of insulin intersected with the rise of diabetic technology and the transfer of medical technology to the home setting. By analyzing diabetic manuals written for patients and physicians, letters exchanged between patient and physician, medical journals, magazines and newspapers, I trace how patients learned about insulin and more significantly how patients adopted measurement technologies designed to allow better home administration of insulin...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142200/potassium-fertilisation-reduces-radiocesium-uptake-by-japanese-cypress-seedlings-grown-in-a-stand-contaminated-by-the-fukushima-daiichi-nuclear-accident
#17
Masabumi Komatsu, Keizo Hirai, Junko Nagakura, Kyotaro Noguchi
We analysed suppressive effects of potassium (K) fertilisation on radiocesium (137 Cs) uptake by hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) seedlings from soils contaminated after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Three-year-old seedlings were planted in a clear-cut forest (ca. 4 ha) during June-July 2014, and potassium chloride fertiliser (83 kg K ha-1 ) was applied twice (August 2014 and April 2015).137 Cs concentrations in the needles in the fertilised plots were one-eighth of those in the control (unfertilised) plots at the end of the second growing season (October 2015)...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137859/dynamics-and-control-of-infections-on-social-networks-of-population-types
#18
Brian G Williams, Christopher Dye
Random mixing in host populations has been a convenient simplifying assumption in the study of epidemics, but neglects important differences in contact rates within and between population groups. For HIV/AIDS, the assumption of random mixing is inappropriate for epidemics that are concentrated in groups of people at high risk, including female sex workers (FSW) and their male clients (MCF), injecting drug users (IDU) and men who have sex with men (MSM). To find out who transmits infection to whom and how that affects the spread and containment of infection remains a major empirical challenge in the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS...
October 26, 2017: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111580/drug-residues-in-used-syringes-in-switzerland-a-comparative-study
#19
Elodie Lefrançois, Marc Augsburger, Pierre Esseiva
Harm reduction services, including needle-exchange programmes, have been implemented in Switzerland for over 20 years. Their main aim is to lessen the negative social and/or physical consequences associated with illicit drug consumption and, therefore, improve prevention messages. To this end, knowledge of illicit drug consumption practices is necessary. Periodic self-report surveys are the primary source of data for monitoring drug users' behaviour. Analysis of residual content of used syringes can bring further and objective knowledge about consumed products through analytically confirmed data...
November 7, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067855/barriers-and-facilitators-of-access-to-hiv-harm-reduction-and-sexual-and-reproductive-health-services-by-women-who-inject-drugs-role-of-community-based-outreach-and-drop-in-centers
#20
Sylvia Ayon, James Ndimbii, Fatma Jeneby, Taib Abdulrahman, Onesmus Mlewa, Bangyuan Wang, Allan Ragi, Gitau Mburu
There is limited data regarding women who inject drugs, and how harm-reduction services can be made more women-centered. This study explored experiences of Kenyan women who inject drugs, with regard to access to HIV, harm reduction and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services. A total of 45 women who inject drugs and 5 key stakeholders participated in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Thematic analysis of the data revealed that stigma, long distances, lack of confidentiality, user fees, multiple appointments, drug users' unfamiliarity with health facilities, disconnect in communication with healthcare providers, and healthcare providers' lack of understanding of women's needs were factors that impede women's access to health services...
October 25, 2017: AIDS Care
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