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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897966/behavioral-characteristics-and-injection-practices-associated-with-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-among-people-who-inject-drugs-a-community-based-observational-study
#1
Disa Dahlman, Anders Håkansson, Alex H Kral, Lynn Wenger, Elizabeth K Ball, Scott P Novak
BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID) are at increased risk for bacterial skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). While SSTIs pose significant health risks, little is known about their prevalence and characteristics in the population of PWID in the United States. This study investigates whether behavioral factors related to skin and equipment hygiene and tissue-damaging injection practices are associated with recent SSTIs among PWID. METHODS: Active PWID were recruited using targeted sampling in San Francisco in 2011-2013...
November 29, 2016: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896481/high-perineal-and-overall-frequency-of-staphylococcus-aureus-in-people-who-inject-drugs-compared-to-non-injectors
#2
Disa Dahlman, Farnaz Jalalvand, Marianne Alanko Blomé, Anders Håkansson, Håkan Janson, Susanne Quick, Anna C Nilsson
To investigate the prevalence, distribution, and colonization burden of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and MRSA in different body sites among people who inject drugs (PWID) and compare it to a control group consisting of non-injectors. In this cross-sectional survey, 49 active PWID from the needle exchange program (NEP) in Malmö, Sweden, and 60 non-injecting controls from an emergency psychiatric inpatient ward at Malmö Addiction Centre were tested for S. aureus (including MRSA) by culture, PCR, and MALDI-TOF...
November 28, 2016: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894721/vaccination-against-hepatitis-b-virus-among-people-who-inject-drugs-a-20year-experience-from-a-swedish-needle-exchange-program
#3
M Alanko Blomé, P Björkman, L Flamholc, H Jacobsson, A Widell
BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID) are at particular risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) acquisition, but often have poor access or adherence to HBV vaccination. Vaccination against HBV has been offered at a major Swedish needle exchange program (NEP) since 1994. The aim of this study was to evaluate vaccine completion and response rates, and the effect of sequential booster doses to non-responders to the standard vaccination schedule. METHODS: PWID enrolled in the NEP 1994-2013, without serological markers for HBV at baseline (negative for HBsAg/anti-HBc/anti-HBs), were offered a three-dose standard intramuscular vaccination schedule (Engerix®-B, GSK, 20μg/mL, intended to be received at months 0, 1 and 6)...
November 25, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879582/carbon-dioxide-based-versus-saline-tissue-expansion-for-breast-reconstruction-results-of-the-xpand-prospective-randomized-clinical-trial
#4
Jeffrey A Ascherman, Kamakshi Zeidler, Kerry A Morrison, James Z Appel, R L Berkowitz, John Castle, Amy Colwell, Yoon Chun, Debra Johnson, Khashayar Mohebali
BACKGROUND: AeroForm is a new type of remote-controlled, needle-free, carbon dioxide-based expander involving a potentially faster method of tissue expansion. Results are presented here from the AirXpanders Patient Activated Controlled Tissue Expander pivotal trial comparing AeroForm to saline tissue expanders. METHODS: Women undergoing two-stage breast reconstruction were randomized at 17 U.S. sites in this U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved investigational device exemption trial...
December 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842543/design-of-the-indian-nca-study-indian-national-collaboration-on-aids-a-cluster-randomized-trial-to-evaluate-the-effectiveness-of-integrated-care-centers-to-improve-hiv-outcomes-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-and-persons-who-inject-drugs-in-india
#5
Sunil S Solomon, Gregory M Lucas, David D Celentano, Allison M McFall, Elizabeth Ogburn, Lawrence H Moulton, Aylur K Srikrishnan, M Suresh Kumar, Santhanam Anand, Suniti Solomon, Shruti H Mehta
BACKGROUND: Globally, men who have sex with men and people who inject drugs remain disproportionately affected by HIV, but they have not been the focus of prevention and treatment interventions in many resource-limited settings. METHODS/DESIGN: This cluster-randomized trial (conducted from June 2012 to June 2017), evaluates whether single-venue, integrated delivery of core HIV services to vulnerable high-risk populations improves service utilization and consequently, HIV testing and other outcomes along the HIV care continuum...
November 14, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801915/health-equity-social-justice-and-hiv-in-rhode-island-a-contemporary-challenge
#6
Thomas Bertrand, Philip A Chan, Katharine Howe, Jaime Comella, Theodore Marak, Utpala Bandy
From its beginning, HIV has primarily affected marginalized populations, such as injection drug users, gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM), and minority racial and ethnic groups. HIV is a disease that, from the start, has been strongly influenced by issues related to social justice and health equity due to its intersection with behaviors among at-risk populations. While some of the risks associated with HIV have been successfully mitigated through social justice initiatives related to needle exchange programs and routine HIV testing of pregnant women, Rhode Island remains confronted with the health equity challenges of preventing HIV transmission and ensuring access to HIV care/treatment, especially for Black/African Americans, Hispanics, and GBMSM...
November 1, 2016: Rhode Island Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793213/a-panel-of-four-genes-accurately-differentiates-benign-from-malignant-thyroid-nodules
#7
Qing-Xuan Wang, En-Dong Chen, Ye-Feng Cai, Quan Li, Yi-Xiang Jin, Wen-Xu Jin, Ying-Hao Wang, Zhou-Ci Zheng, Lu Xue, Ou-Chen Wang, Xiao-Hua Zhang
BACKGROUND: Clinicians are confronted with an increasing number of patients with thyroid nodules. Reliable preoperative diagnosis of thyroid nodules remains a challenge because of inconclusive cytological examination of fine-needle aspiration biopsies. Although molecular analysis of thyroid tissue has shown promise as a diagnostic tool in recent years, it has not been successfully applied in routine clinical use, particularly in Chinese patients. METHODS: Whole-transcriptome sequencing of 19 primary papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) samples and matched adjacent normal thyroid tissue (NT) samples were performed...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790132/sutureless-25-gauge-pars-plana-vitrectomy-combined-with-retropupillary-fixation-of-an-iris-claw-intraocular-lens
#8
Spyridon E Chalkiadakis, Efstratios A Parikakis, Simon R J Taylor
BACKGROUND: The surgical case of a dropped intraocular lens inside the vitreous cavity constitutes a real challenge for the operating surgeon. Herein, we describe a case series where an alternative optical rehabilitation technique for late intraocular lens-bag complex dislocation has been used. METHODS: A modern vitrectomy device was used to remove the capsule with the dropped intraocular lens using sutureless 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy. To ensure a better aesthetic result, with faster patient recovery and a reduced number of operations, the whole procedure was performed during the same operating session; an iris-claw intraocular lens for aphakia was selected for implantation...
September 2016: Case Reports in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729443/the-politics-of-prevention-lessons-from-the-neglected-history-of-us-hiv-aids-policy
#9
Tasleem J Padamsee
The history of government action on HIV/AIDS has much to teach us about the dynamics and possibilities of US public health policy, but it has been insufficiently studied by social scientists of the epidemic. This article draws on a large set of original interviews with policy makers, thousands of news articles, and extensive documentation to reconstruct the history of three areas of debate and decision making about HIV prevention since 1990: needle exchange, HIV testing, and sex education for at-risk groups...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611849/the-prison-economy-of-needles-and-syringes-what-opportunities-exist-for-blood-borne-virus-risk-reduction-when-prices-are-so-high
#10
Carla Treloar, Luke McCredie, Andrew R Lloyd
AIM: A formal Needle and Syringe Program (NSP) is not provided in Australian prisons. Injecting equipment circulates in prisons as part of an informal and illegal economy. This paper examined how this economy generates blood-borne virus (BBV) risk and risk mitigation opportunities for inmates. METHOD: The HITS-p cohort recruited New South Wales inmates who had reported ever injecting drugs and who had a negative HCV serological test within 12 months prior to enrolment...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27580189/the-story-of-developing-needle-exchange-services-in-iceland
#11
Helga Sif Fridjonsdottir
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Journal of Addictions Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27568822/community-pharmacist-experiences-of-providing-needle%C3%A2-and-syringe-programmes-in-ireland
#12
Jim McVeigh, Evelyn Hearne, Geoff Bates, Marie Claire Van Hout
BACKGROUND: Community pharmacists are increasingly acknowledged as under-utilized, important and accessible health providers in providing harm reduction support to drug users via needle and syringe programmes (NSP), provision of advice, HIV/Hepatitis testing and as referral mechanism to social, medical and treatment services. We report here on qualitative findings as part of the evaluation of the pilot Pharmacy Needle Exchange (PNEX) programme in Ireland. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to understand and illustrate pharmacist experiences of providing NSP...
August 3, 2016: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566970/effectiveness-of-pharmacy-based-needle-syringe-exchange-program-for-people-who-inject-drugs-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Ratree Sawangjit, Tahir Mehmood Khan, Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk
AIMS: To critically appraise the evidence for effectiveness of pharmacy-based needle/syringe exchange programs (Pharmacy-based NSPs) on risk behaviors (RBs), HIV/HCV prevalence, and economic outcomes among people who inject drugs (PWID). DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis SETTING: PRIMARY CARE SETTING: PARTICIPANTS: Of 1,568 studies screened, 14 studies with N = 7035 PWID were included. MEASURES: PubMed, Embase, Web of Sciences, CENTRAL, and Cochrane review databases were searched without language restriction from their inception through January 27, 2016...
August 27, 2016: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27468858/eus-guided-intrahepatic-portosystemic-shunt-with-direct-portal-pressure-measurements-a-novel-alternative-to-transjugular-intrahepatic-portosystemic-shunting
#14
Allison R Schulman, Marvin Ryou, Hiro Aihara, Wasif Abidi, Austin Chiang, Pichamol Jirapinyo, Ayman Sakr, Eduarda Ajeje, Michele B Ryan, Christopher C Thompson
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting involves the creation of a low-resistance channel between the portal vein (PV) and the hepatic vein (HV), and is routinely performed under angiography. The aims were to evaluate (1) safety and technical feasibility; (2) procedural duration; and (3) subjective workload assessment of EUS-guided intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (EIPS). METHODS: Five Yorkshire pigs were used in the study. The HV or inferior vena cava (IVC) was identified using a linear-array echoendoscope and accessed with a 19-G FNA needle preloaded with a digital pressure wire...
July 26, 2016: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27450717/prevalence-and-correlates-of-psychological-distress-among-drug-users-in-phnom-penh-cambodia
#15
Siyan Yi, Sovannary Tuot, Pheak Chhoun, Khuondyla Pal, Sok Chamreun Choub, Gitau Mburu
BACKGROUND: Compared to the general population, drug users are at increased risk of both poor mental health and HIV infection. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of high psychological distress among drug users in Cambodia. METHODS: In April 2014, a two-stage cluster sampling method was used to randomly select 169 drug users from hotspots in Phnom Penh. Psychological distress was measured using General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12)...
October 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27449331/-we-get-by-with-a-little-help-from-our-friends-small-scale-informal-and-large-scale-formal-peer-distribution-networks-of-sterile-injecting-equipment-in-australia
#16
Jamee Newland, Christy Newman, Carla Treloar
BACKGROUND: In Australia, sterile needles and syringes are distributed to people who inject drugs (PWID) through formal services for the purposes of preventing blood borne viruses (BBV). Peer distribution involves people acquiring needles from formal services and redistributing them to others. This paper investigates the dynamics of the distribution of sterile injecting equipment among networks of people who inject drugs in four sites in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. METHODS: Qualitative data exploring the practice of peer distribution were collected through in-depth, semi-structured interviews and participatory social network mapping...
August 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27427457/hiv-prisoners-and-human-rights
#17
REVIEW
Leonard S Rubenstein, Joseph J Amon, Megan McLemore, Patrick Eba, Kate Dolan, Rick Lines, Chris Beyrer
Worldwide, a disproportionate burden of HIV, tuberculosis, and hepatitis is present among current and former prisoners. This problem results from laws, policies, and policing practices that unjustly and discriminatorily detain individuals and fail to ensure continuity of prevention, care, and treatment upon detention, throughout imprisonment, and upon release. These government actions, and the failure to ensure humane prison conditions, constitute violations of human rights to be free of discrimination and cruel and inhuman treatment, to due process of law, and to health...
September 17, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27377896/effects-of-combination-approach-on-harm-reduction-programs-the-taiwan-experience
#18
Ting Lin, Chang-Hsun Chen, Pesus Chou
BACKGROUND: In 2003, a major epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus emerged among injection drug users in Taiwan. In response to the twin epidemics of HIV and intravenous drug addiction, the government implemented comprehensive harm reduction programs beginning in 2005. Collected data from relevant agencies were used to explore the impact of the harm reduction programs on HIV and illicit drug use. METHODS: This study divided 2002-2015 into three intervention phases and used the surveillance data and statistics on the HIV epidemic, drug abuse, and the intervention from relevant agencies to explore the correlations between different variables in different intervention periods and the combination effects of interventions on the HIV epidemic...
2016: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27372979/needle-exchange-un-report-encourages-syringe-exchanges-to-reduce-hiv
#19
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: AIDS Policy & Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27367178/investigation-of-spatial-distributions-and-sources-of-persistent-organic-pollutants-pops-in-a-heavily-polluted-industrial-region-using-tree-components
#20
Mustafa Odabasi, Yetkin Dumanoglu, Ezgi Ozgunerge Falay, Gizem Tuna, Hasan Altiok, Melik Kara, Abdurrahman Bayram, Doganay Tolunay, Tolga Elbir
Spatial distributions of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were investigated in Iskenderun industrial region in Turkey. POP concentrations were measured in different tree components (i.e., pine needle, branch, bark, and stem) collected at several industrial and background sites (n = 27). Also, air, litter, and soil samples were analyzed to determine the relationship of atmospheric pollutants with tree components, litter, and soil. Spatial variation of measured concentrations and factor analysis showed that the iron-steel plants are the most important POP sources in Iskenderun area...
October 2016: Chemosphere
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