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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208190/preventing-blood-borne-virus-infection-in-people-who-inject-drugs-in-the-uk-systematic-review-stakeholder-interviews-psychosocial-intervention-development-and-feasibility-randomised-controlled-trial
#1
Gail Gilchrist, Davina Swan, April Shaw, Ada Keding, Sarah Towers, Noel Craine, Alison Munro, Elizabeth Hughes, Steve Parrott, Noreen Mdege, John Strang, Avril Taylor, Judith Watson
BACKGROUND: Opioid substitution therapy and needle exchanges have reduced blood-borne viruses (BBVs) among people who inject drugs (PWID). Some PWID continue to share injecting equipment. OBJECTIVES: To develop an evidence-based psychosocial intervention to reduce BBV risk behaviours and increase transmission knowledge among PWID, and conduct a feasibility trial among PWID comparing the intervention with a control. DESIGN: A pragmatic, two-armed randomised controlled, open feasibility trial...
November 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181853/towards-the-elimination-of-hepatitis-c-in-the-united-states
#2
Sammy Saab, Long Le, Satvir Saggi, Vinay Sundaram, Myron Tong
The emergence of effective direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents has reignited discussion over hepatitis C elimination potential in the United States. Eliminating hepatitis C will require a critical examination regarding technical feasibility, economic considerations, and social/political attention. Tremendous advancement has been made in recent years with the availability of sensitive diagnostic tests and highly effective DAAs capable of achieving sustained viral response (SVR) in more than 95% of patients...
November 27, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175463/increasing-methamphetamine-injection-among-non-msm-who-inject-drugs-in-king-county-washington
#3
Sara Nelson Glick, Richard Burt, Kim Kummer, Joe Tinsley, Caleb J Banta-Green, Matthew R Golden
BACKGROUND: In King County, Washington, the HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) who inject methamphetamine is high, while it is low among other people who inject drugs (PWID). Local drug problem indicators suggest that methamphetamine use is increasing. The extent to which this increase affects MSM and non-MSM, and whether MSM and non-MSM networks are connected through injection equipment sharing, is unknown. METHODS: We used data from two serial cross-sectional surveys of PWID including five biannual surveys of Public Health-Seattle and King County Needle and Syringe Exchange Program clients (NSEP, N=2135, 2009-2017) and three National HIV Behavioral Surveillance IDU surveys (NHBS, N=1709, 2009-2015)...
November 16, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154769/extracellular-lipids-accumulate-in-human-carotid-arteries-as-distinct-three-dimensional-structures-and-have-proinflammatory-properties
#4
Satu Lehti, Su D Nguyen, Ilya Belevich, Helena Vihinen, Hanna M Heikkilä, Rabah Soliymani, Reijo Käkelä, Jani Saksi, Matti Jauhiainen, Gregory A Grabowski, Outi Kummu, Sohvi Hörkkö, Marc Baumann, Perttu J Lindsberg, Eija Jokitalo, Petri T Kovanen, Katariina Öörni
Lipid accumulation is a key characteristic of advancing atherosclerotic lesions. Here we analyzed the ultrastructure of the accumulated lipids in endarterectomized human carotid atherosclerotic plaques using three-dimensional (3D) electron microscopy, a method never used in this context before. 3D-electron microscopy revealed intracellular lipid droplets and extracellular lipoprotein particles. The majority of the particles were aggregated and some connected to needle-shaped or sheet-like cholesterol crystals...
November 14, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143888/-the-art-of-insulin-treatment-diabetes-insulin-and-the-1920s
#5
Kirsten E Gardner
Soon after the discovery of insulin in the early 1920s, the popular press celebrated the miraculous discovery. Although insulin had no curative effect on the chronic state of diabetes, it was frequently heralded as a "cure." This paper examines how the discovery of insulin intersected with the rise of diabetic technology and the transfer of medical technology to the home setting. By analyzing diabetic manuals written for patients and physicians, letters exchanged between patient and physician, medical journals, magazines and newspapers, I trace how patients learned about insulin and more significantly how patients adopted measurement technologies designed to allow better home administration of insulin...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142200/potassium-fertilisation-reduces-radiocesium-uptake-by-japanese-cypress-seedlings-grown-in-a-stand-contaminated-by-the-fukushima-daiichi-nuclear-accident
#6
Masabumi Komatsu, Keizo Hirai, Junko Nagakura, Kyotaro Noguchi
We analysed suppressive effects of potassium (K) fertilisation on radiocesium ((137)Cs) uptake by hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) seedlings from soils contaminated after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Three-year-old seedlings were planted in a clear-cut forest (ca. 4 ha) during June-July 2014, and potassium chloride fertiliser (83 kg K ha(-1)) was applied twice (August 2014 and April 2015). (137)Cs concentrations in the needles in the fertilised plots were one-eighth of those in the control (unfertilised) plots at the end of the second growing season (October 2015)...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137859/dynamics-and-control-of-infections-on-social-networks-of-population-types
#7
Brian G Williams, Christopher Dye
Random mixing in host populations has been a convenient simplifying assumption in the study of epidemics, but neglects important differences in contact rates within and between population groups. For HIV/AIDS, the assumption of random mixing is inappropriate for epidemics that are concentrated in groups of people at high risk, including female sex workers (FSW) and their male clients (MCF), injecting drug users (IDU) and men who have sex with men (MSM). To find out who transmits infection to whom and how that affects the spread and containment of infection remains a major empirical challenge in the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS...
October 26, 2017: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111580/drug-residues-in-used-syringes-in-switzerland-a-comparative-study
#8
Elodie Lefrançois, Marc Augsburger, Pierre Esseiva
Harm reduction services, including needle exchange programs, have been implemented in Switzerland for over twenty years. Their main aim is to lessen the negative social and/or physical consequences associated with illicit drug consumption and, therefore, improve prevention messages. To this end, knowledge about illicit drug consumption practices is necessary. Periodic self-report surveys are the primary source of data for monitoring drug users' behaviour. Analysis of residual content of used syringes can bring further and objective knowledge about consumed products through analytically confirmed data...
November 7, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067855/barriers-and-facilitators-of-access-to-hiv-harm-reduction-and-sexual-and-reproductive-health-services-by-women-who-inject-drugs-role-of-community-based-outreach-and-drop-in-centers
#9
Sylvia Ayon, James Ndimbii, Fatma Jeneby, Taib Abdulrahman, Onesmus Mlewa, Bangyuan Wang, Allan Ragi, Gitau Mburu
There is limited data regarding women who inject drugs, and how harm-reduction services can be made more women-centered. This study explored experiences of Kenyan women who inject drugs, with regard to access to HIV, harm reduction and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services. A total of 45 women who inject drugs and 5 key stakeholders participated in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Thematic analysis of the data revealed that stigma, long distances, lack of confidentiality, user fees, multiple appointments, drug users' unfamiliarity with health facilities, disconnect in communication with healthcare providers, and healthcare providers' lack of understanding of women's needs were factors that impede women's access to health services...
October 25, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040841/-caught-with-a-body-yet-protected-by-law-calling-911-for-opioid-overdose-in-the-context-of-the-good-samaritan-law
#10
Amanda D Latimore, Rachel S Bergstein
BACKGROUND: To address soaring opioid overdose fatality rates, 41U.S. states have passed Good Samaritan Laws (GSLs) extending legal immunity to overdose bystanders who call for emergency assistance. This study, conducted during the period that followed implementation of a GSL, aimed to characterize current factors determining the decision to call for emergency medical help (911) at the scene of an overdose with specific attention to exploring the role of the GSL as one such factor in decision-making...
October 14, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017610/hiv-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-hungary
#11
András Ortutay, V Anna Gyarmathy, Zsuzsa Marjanek, Károly Nagy, József Rácz, István Barcs
BACKGROUND: Before 2014 (the year of closure of the two largest needle exchange programs in Hungary, which halved the number of available syringes in the country despite increased injecting risk practices) no HIV was reportedly acquired in Hungary among people who inject drugs (PWIDs) who were not also men who had sex with other men (MSM). In 2014, one and in 2015 two non-MSM PWIDs were newly diagnosed with HIV who supposedly became infected in Hungary, and both incident HIV cases in 2015 were diagnosed in the AIDS stage...
October 11, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985499/measurement-of-backbone-hydrogen-deuterium-exchange-in-the-type-iii-secretion-system-needle-protein-prgi-by-solid-state-nmr
#12
Veniamin Chevelkov, Karin Giller, Stefan Becker, Adam Lange
In this report we present site-specific measurements of amide hydrogen-deuterium exchange rates in a protein in the solid state phase by MAS NMR. Employing perdeuteration, proton detection and a high external magnetic field we could adopt the highly efficient Relax-EXSY protocol previously developed for liquid state NMR. According to this method, we measured the contribution of hydrogen exchange on apparent (15)N longitudinal relaxation rates in samples with differing D2O buffer content. Differences in the apparent T1 times allowed us to derive exchange rates for multiple residues in the type III secretion system needle protein...
October 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967320/communication-strategies-to-counter-stigma-and-improve-mental-illness-and-substance-use-disorder-policy
#13
Emma McGinty, Bernice Pescosolido, Alene Kennedy-Hendricks, Colleen L Barry
Despite the high burden and poor rates of treatment associated with mental illness and substance use disorders, public support for allocating resources to improving treatment for these disorders is low. A growing body of research suggests that effective policy communication strategies can increase public support for policies benefiting people with these conditions. In October 2015, the Center for Mental Health and Addiction Policy Research at Johns Hopkins University convened an expert forum to identify what is currently known about the effectiveness of such policy communication strategies and produce recommendations for future research...
October 2, 2017: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963860/evaluation-of-the-in-vitro-behavior-of-nanostructured-hydroxyapatite-and-zinc-doped-hydroxyapatite-coatings-obtained-using-solution-precursor-plasma-spraying
#14
Rolando T Candidato, Camille Thouzellier, Lech Pawłowski
The in-vitro behavior of hydroxyapatite (HA) and zinc (Zn) doped HA coatings obtained using solution precursor plasma spraying is evaluated in this work. The modifications of the surface morphology and phase composition of the coatings after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) were analyzed. In particular, apatite layer was formed on the pure HA coating's surface and inside their micropores. The layer exhibited needle-like nanostructures where needles had diameter of 7-10 nm. The formation of apatite was explained by the surface charge mechanism...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882143/characteristics-of-persons-who-inject-drugs-and-who-witness-opioid-overdoses-in-vietnam-a-cross-sectional-analysis-to-inform-future-overdose-prevention-programs
#15
N A Blackburn, K E Lancaster, T V Ha, C A Latkin, W C Miller, C Frangakis, V A Chu, T Sripaipan, V M Quan, N L Minh, P T Vu, V F Go
BACKGROUND: Persons who use opioids have a high risk of overdose and associated mortality. In Vietnam, little is known about the characteristics of this population and the persons who are witness to those overdoses. One approach to combatting fatal overdose has been the use of peer interventions in which a friend or injecting partner administers overdose reversal medication, but availability in Vietnam of these medications is limited to pilot programs with aims to expand in the future (Le Minh and V...
September 7, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879520/transnasal-snare-technique-for-retrograde-primary-jejunostomy-placement-after-surgical-gastrojejunostomy
#16
Rajiv N Srinivasa, Jeffrey Forris Beecham Chick, Anthony N Hage, James J Shields, Wael E Saad, Bill S Majdalany, Ravi N Srinivasa
PURPOSE: To report a transnasal snare technique for retrograde primary jejunostomy placement after surgical gastrojejunostomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two patients underwent the transnasal snare technique for retrograde primary jejunostomy placement. Patients included two females, age 58 and 62. In both patients, a gooseneck snare was inserted in a transnasal fashion. After insertion of the snare into the jejunum, the location was confirmed with ultrasound. The snare was then targeted using a Chiba needle through which a 0...
December 2017: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862424/injectable-macroporous-ferrogel-microbeads-with-a-high-structural-stability-for-magnetically-actuated-drug-delivery
#17
Bom Yi Shin, Bong Geun Cha, Ji Hoon Jeong, Jaeyun Kim
Macroporous hydrogels are an attractive material platform that can provide shortened interfacial diffusion pathways and high biomacromolecule loading. Recently, macroporous ferrogels have shown high potential for use in the on-demand delivery of bioactive molecules, resulting from their reversible and large volumetric deformation upon magnetic stimulation. However, these macroporous ferrogels require surgical placement in the body due to their large size; an injectable form of macroporous ferrogels has not yet been reported...
September 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799847/the-willingness-of-people-who-inject-drugs-in-boston-to-use-a-supervised-injection-facility
#18
Casey León, Lena Cardoso, Sarah Mackin, Barry Bock, Jessie M Gaeta
BACKGROUND: In Massachusetts, the number of opioid-related deaths has increased 350% since 2000. In the setting of increasing overdose deaths, one potential intervention is supervised injection facilities (SIFs). This study explores willingness of people who inject drugs in Boston to use a SIF and examines factors associated with willingness. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of 237 people who inject drugs and utilize Boston's needle exchange program (NEP)...
August 11, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762584/drug-related-stigma-and-access-to-care-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-vietnam
#19
Chiao-Wen Lan, Chunqing Lin, Duong Cong Thanh, Li Li
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: There are considerable challenges faced by people with a history of injecting drug use (PWID) in Vietnam, including drug-related stigma and lack of access to healthcare. Seeking and utilising healthcare, as well as harm reduction programs for PWID, are often hampered by drug-related stigma. This study aimed to examine the impacts of drug-related stigma on access to care and utilisation of harm reduction programs among PWID in Vietnam. DESIGN AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in two provinces in Vietnam, Phú Thọ and Vinh Phúc...
August 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691051/peroral-endoscopic-myotomy-using-flushknife-bt-a-single-center-series
#20
Shinwa Tanaka, Takashi Toyonaga, Fumiaki Kawara, Ian S Grimm, Namiko Hoshi, Hirofumi Abe, Yoshiko Ohara, Yoshinori Morita, Eiji Umegaki, Takeshi Azuma
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS : Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is an evolving new treatment strategy for achalasia. Although several kinds of electrosurgical knives have been used in performing POEM, the best device has yet to be determined. The FlushKnife BT is a waterjet-emitting short needle-knife with a small ball tip (BT) that offers the potential to perform all aspects of POEM with a single device. In this study, we evaluated the safety and efficiency of the FlushKnife BT for POEM...
July 2017: Endoscopy International Open
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