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Needle exchange

Tasleem J Padamsee
The history of government action on HIV/AIDS has much to teach us about the dynamics and possibilities of US public health policy, but it has been insufficiently studied by social scientists of the epidemic. This article draws on a large set of original interviews with policy makers, thousands of news articles, and extensive documentation to reconstruct the history of three areas of debate and decision making about HIV prevention since 1990: needle exchange, HIV testing, and sex education for at-risk groups...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law
Carla Treloar, Luke McCredie, Andrew R Lloyd
AIM: A formal Needle and Syringe Program (NSP) is not provided in Australian prisons. Injecting equipment circulates in prisons as part of an informal and illegal economy. This paper examined how this economy generates blood-borne virus (BBV) risk and risk mitigation opportunities for inmates. METHOD: The HITS-p cohort recruited New South Wales inmates who had reported ever injecting drugs and who had a negative HCV serological test within 12 months prior to enrolment...
2016: PloS One
Helga Sif Fridjonsdottir
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Journal of Addictions Nursing
Jim McVeigh, Evelyn Hearne, Geoff Bates, Marie Claire Van Hout
BACKGROUND: Community pharmacists are increasingly acknowledged as under-utilized, important and accessible health providers in providing harm reduction support to drug users via needle and syringe programmes (NSP), provision of advice, HIV/Hepatitis testing and as referral mechanism to social, medical and treatment services. We report here on qualitative findings as part of the evaluation of the pilot Pharmacy Needle Exchange (PNEX) programme in Ireland. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to understand and illustrate pharmacist experiences of providing NSP...
August 3, 2016: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
Ratree Sawangjit, Tahir Mehmood Khan, Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk
AIMS: To critically appraise the evidence for effectiveness of pharmacy-based needle/syringe exchange programs (Pharmacy-based NSPs) on risk behaviors (RBs), HIV/HCV prevalence, and economic outcomes among people who inject drugs (PWID). DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis SETTING: PRIMARY CARE SETTING: PARTICIPANTS: Of 1,568 studies screened, 14 studies with N = 7035 PWID were included. MEASURES: PubMed, Embase, Web of Sciences, CENTRAL, and Cochrane review databases were searched without language restriction from their inception through January 27, 2016...
August 27, 2016: Addiction
Allison R Schulman, Marvin Ryou, Hiro Aihara, Wasif Abidi, Austin Chiang, Pichamol Jirapinyo, Ayman Sakr, Eduarda Ajeje, Michele B Ryan, Christopher C Thompson
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting involves the creation of a low-resistance channel between the portal vein (PV) and the hepatic vein (HV), and is routinely performed under angiography. The aims were to evaluate (1) safety and technical feasibility; (2) procedural duration; and (3) subjective workload assessment of EUS-guided intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (EIPS). METHODS: Five Yorkshire pigs were used in the study. The HV or inferior vena cava (IVC) was identified using a linear-array echoendoscope and accessed with a 19-G FNA needle preloaded with a digital pressure wire...
July 26, 2016: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Siyan Yi, Sovannary Tuot, Pheak Chhoun, Khuondyla Pal, Sok Chamreun Choub, Gitau Mburu
BACKGROUND: Compared to the general population, drug users are at increased risk of both poor mental health and HIV infection. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of high psychological distress among drug users in Cambodia. METHODS: In April 2014, a two-stage cluster sampling method was used to randomly select 169 drug users from hotspots in Phnom Penh. Psychological distress was measured using General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12)...
October 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Jamee Newland, Christy Newman, Carla Treloar
BACKGROUND: In Australia, sterile needles and syringes are distributed to people who inject drugs (PWID) through formal services for the purposes of preventing blood borne viruses (BBV). Peer distribution involves people acquiring needles from formal services and redistributing them to others. This paper investigates the dynamics of the distribution of sterile injecting equipment among networks of people who inject drugs in four sites in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. METHODS: Qualitative data exploring the practice of peer distribution were collected through in-depth, semi-structured interviews and participatory social network mapping...
August 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Leonard S Rubenstein, Joseph J Amon, Megan McLemore, Patrick Eba, Kate Dolan, Rick Lines, Chris Beyrer
Worldwide, a disproportionate burden of HIV, tuberculosis, and hepatitis is present among current and former prisoners. This problem results from laws, policies, and policing practices that unjustly and discriminatorily detain individuals and fail to ensure continuity of prevention, care, and treatment upon detention, throughout imprisonment, and upon release. These government actions, and the failure to ensure humane prison conditions, constitute violations of human rights to be free of discrimination and cruel and inhuman treatment, to due process of law, and to health...
September 17, 2016: Lancet
Ting Lin, Chang-Hsun Chen, Pesus Chou
BACKGROUND: In 2003, a major epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus emerged among injection drug users in Taiwan. In response to the twin epidemics of HIV and intravenous drug addiction, the government implemented comprehensive harm reduction programs beginning in 2005. Collected data from relevant agencies were used to explore the impact of the harm reduction programs on HIV and illicit drug use. METHODS: This study divided 2002-2015 into three intervention phases and used the surveillance data and statistics on the HIV epidemic, drug abuse, and the intervention from relevant agencies to explore the correlations between different variables in different intervention periods and the combination effects of interventions on the HIV epidemic...
2016: Harm Reduction Journal
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: AIDS Policy & Law
Mustafa Odabasi, Yetkin Dumanoglu, Ezgi Ozgunerge Falay, Gizem Tuna, Hasan Altiok, Melik Kara, Abdurrahman Bayram, Doganay Tolunay, Tolga Elbir
Spatial distributions of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were investigated in Iskenderun industrial region in Turkey. POP concentrations were measured in different tree components (i.e., pine needle, branch, bark, and stem) collected at several industrial and background sites (n = 27). Also, air, litter, and soil samples were analyzed to determine the relationship of atmospheric pollutants with tree components, litter, and soil. Spatial variation of measured concentrations and factor analysis showed that the iron-steel plants are the most important POP sources in Iskenderun area...
October 2016: Chemosphere
Taylor Perry
Traditional histories of AIDS have used a few major American urban centres as proxies for the North American epidemic more broadly and have tended to frame the epidemic as a quintessentially gay and American experience. A careful examination of how the epidemic unfolded in Vancouver, British Columbia, however, reveals considerable differences, including the relative absence of local gay activist traditions prior to HIV/AIDS and the relative prominence of interventions such as Insite, North America's first sanctioned needle exchange program and safe injection site...
2016: Canadian Bulletin of Medical History, Bulletin Canadien D'histoire de la Médecine
Gabriel Loewinger, Bishnu Sharma, Deepak Kumar Karki, Prasana Khatiwoda, Sher Kainee, Krishna C Poudel
BACKGROUND: In Nepal, prevalence of Hepatitis C (HCV) among injecting drug users (IDUs) has been measured at 50% and knowledge of the virus is low. Rehabilitation and harm reduction attendees constitute populations to whom health care providers can deliver services. As such, characterizing their drug use and risk profiles is important for developing targeted service delivery. We measured drug use and risk patterns of IDUs participating in residential rehabilitation as well as those contacted through needle exchanges to identify correlates of drug use frequency, risky injection practices as well as HCV testing, knowledge and perceived risk...
July 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Erin E Bonar, Amy S B Bohnert
BACKGROUND: Overdose is relatively common among injection drug users (IDUs) yet little is known about how overdose-related health beliefs influence overdose experiences or risk reduction. OBJECTIVES: This study examines the association of perceived susceptibility to and perceived severity of nonfatal overdose with overdose history among IDUs attending needle exchange programs (NEPs) to inform prevention efforts. METHODS: In 2009-2010, IDUs (N = 91) attending NEPs completed self-report surveys...
August 23, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Anna Jerkeman, Anders Håkansson, Rebecca Rylance, Philippe Wagner, Marianne Alanko Blomé, Per Björkman
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Injecting opioid users are at elevated risk of death. Although liver disease (especially hepatitis C) is common, its impact on mortality is low in active injectors. Because opioid substitution therapy (OST) reduces the risk of death from directly drug related causes, we hypothesised that the proportion of liver-related deaths would increase in subjects receiving OST. We investigated liver-related mortality in a cohort of injecting opioid users attending a needle exchange program (NEP) in a Swedish city in relation to OST exposure...
May 30, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Review
Jeffrey Gilligan, Jennifer C Shih, Viet L Cai, Joshua A Hirsch, Christopher Rodrigues, Zubin D Irani
UNLABELLED: Radiofrequency (RF) ablation of the lateral sacral plexus has been used for the treatment of sacroiliac joint pain including as an adjunct to other palliative therapies for the treatment of painful osseous metastasis. The treatment goal is targeted ablation of the dorsal lateral branches of S1-S4. Though several techniques have been described, the Simplicity III (Neurotherm, Middleton, MA) system allows for ablation to be achieved with a single RF probe by utilizing a multi-electrode curved RF probe to create a continuous ablation line across all sacral nerves...
May 2016: Pain Physician
Kris Clarke, Debra Harris, John A Zweifler, Marc Lasher, Roger B Mortimer, Susan Hughes
Infectious disease remains a significant social and health concern in the United States. Preventing more people from contracting HIV/AIDS or Hepatitis C (HCV), requires a complex understanding of the interconnection between the biomedical and social dimensions of infectious disease. Opiate addiction in the US has skyrocketed in recent years. Preventing more cases of HIV/AIDS and HCV will require dealing with the social determinants of health. Needle exchange programs (NEPs) are based on a harm reduction approach that seeks to minimize the risk of infection and damage to the user and community...
August 2016: Social Work in Public Health
Senad Handanagic, Ivana Bozicevic, Marta Civljak, Zoran Dominkovic, Sandra Sevic, Jelena Barbaric, Tatjana Nemeth Blazic, Oktavija Dakovic Rode, Josip Begovac
BACKGROUND: There are limited data on HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemiology among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Croatia. This study aims to provide data on HIV and HCV prevalence and sexual and injecting risk behaviours among PWID in Zagreb, Split, and Rijeka. METHODS: Using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) we recruited from November 2014 to February 2015 a total of 176 PWID in Zagreb, 255 in Rijeka and 399 in Split. Participants provided biological specimens for HIV and HCV testing and completed a behavioural questionnaire...
April 14, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Jukka Pumpanen, Mizue Ohashi, Izuki Endo, Pertti Hari, Jaana Bäck, Markku Kulmala, Nobuhito Ohte
The nuclear accidents at Chernobyl and Fukushima released large amounts of (137)Cs radionuclides into the atmosphere which spread over large forest areas. We compared the (137)Cs concentration distribution in different parts of two coniferous forest ecosystems (needle litter, stems and at different depths in the soil) over short and long term periods in Finland and Japan. We also estimated the change in (137)Cs activity concentrations in needle and soil between 1995 and 2013 in Southern Finland based on the back-calculated (137)Cs activity concentrations...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
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