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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514954/needle-exchange-programs-for-the-prevention-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-people-who-inject-drugs-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis
#1
Stephen M Davis, Shay Daily, Alfgeir L Kristjansson, George A Kelley, Keith Zullig, Adam Baus, Danielle Davidov, Melanie Fisher
BACKGROUND: Previous research on the effectiveness of needle exchange programs (NEP) in preventing hepatitis C virus (HCV) in people who inject drugs (PWID) has shown mixed findings. The purpose of this study was to use the meta-analytic approach to examine the association between NEP use and HCV prevention in PWIDs. METHODS: Study inclusion criteria were (1) observational studies, (2) PWIDs, (3) NEP use, (4) HCV status ascertained by serological testing, (5) studies published in any language since January 1, 1989, and (6) data available for measures of association...
May 17, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490711/purification-crystallization-and-x-ray-diffraction-study-of-the-c-terminal-domain-of-human-herpesvirus-6a-immediate-early-protein-2
#2
Junjie Wang, Mitsuhiro Nishimura, Aika Wakata, Yasuko Mori
Human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) starts its replication cycle following the action of immediate early proteins that transactivate viral promoters. Immediate early protein 2 (IE2) of HHV-6A is a 1500 amino acid polypeptide with a C-terminal region that is conserved among beta-herpesvirus subfamily members. In this study, a structural domain in the homologous C-terminal region was subjected to secondary structure prediction, and residues 1324-1500 were subsequently designated as the C-terminal domain of IE2 (IE2-CTD)...
April 7, 2017: Kobe Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415500/sustained-release-of-simvastatin-from-hollow-carbonated-hydroxyapatite-microspheres-prepared-by-aspartic-acid-and-sodium-dodecyl-sulfate
#3
Ke Wang, Yinjing Wang, Xu Zhao, Yi Li, Tao Yang, Xue Zhang, Xiaoguang Wu
Hollow carbonated hydroxyapatite (HCHAp) microspheres as simvastatin (SV) sustained-release vehicles were fabricated through a novel and simple one-step biomimetic strategy. Firstly, hollow CaCO3 microspheres were precipitated through the reaction of CaCl2 with Na2CO3 in the presence of aspartic acid and sodium dodecyl sulfate. Then, the as-prepared hollow CaCO3 microspheres were transformed into HCHAp microspheres with a controlled anion-exchange method. The HCHAp microspheres were 3-5μm with a shell thickness of 0...
June 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397450/bethesda-system-in-the-evaluation-of-thyroid-nodules-review
#4
REVIEW
Marta Wesoła, Michał Jeleń
Fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy is an important and widely accepted method used in the diagnosis of patients with thyroid nodules.The lack of consistency in reporting FNA taken from the thyroid gland has led to divergences in the calculation of the sensitivity and specificity of the method. Discrepancies depend on what was considered to be true or false negative/positive. This resulted in confusion among doctors, who had to decide how to manage the patient with constantly changing positive or negative results of the FNA...
January 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394056/putting-a-face-to-opiate-addiction-for-students-at-a-needle-exchange-programme
#5
Rolando Tringale, Jo Marie Reilly
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365913/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-psychosocial-interventions-to-reduce-drug-and-sexual-blood-borne-virus-risk-behaviours-among-people-who-inject-drugs
#6
REVIEW
Gail Gilchrist, Davina Swan, Kideshini Widyaratna, Julia Elena Marquez-Arrico, Elizabeth Hughes, Noreen Dadirai Mdege, Marrissa Martyn-St James, Judit Tirado-Munoz
Opiate substitution treatment and needle exchanges have reduced blood borne virus (BBV) transmission among people who inject drugs (PWID). Psychosocial interventions could further prevent BBV. A systematic review and meta-analysis examined whether psychosocial interventions (e.g. CBT, skills training) compared to control interventions reduced BBV risk behaviours among PWID. 32 and 24 randomized control trials (2000-May 2015 in MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Cochrane Collaboration and Clinical trials, with an update in MEDLINE to December 2016) were included in the review and meta-analysis respectively...
April 1, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353446/decline-and-changing-profile-of-hepatitis-delta-among-injection-drug-users-in-spain
#7
Antonio Aguilera, Rocio Trastoy, Pablo Barreiro, José Javier Costa, Carmen de Mendoza, Jose M Peña, Vicente Soriano
BACKGROUND: Roughly 15 million people worldwide have hepatitis delta, the most severe form of chronic viral hepatitis that often leads to cirrhosis and liver cancer. Injection drug users (IDUs) are the largest HDV reservoir. Their resurgence in North America and Europe may represent a new opportunity for HDV widespread. METHODS: We examined all consecutive active IDUs seen for the first time and enrolled in detoxification programs at two clinics in Spain during two periods (1993-1996 and 2011-2014, respectively)...
March 29, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338959/increase-in-leaf-temperature-opens-stomata-and-decouples-net-photosynthesis-from-stomatal-conductance-in-pinus-taeda-and-populus-deltoides-x-nigra
#8
Josef Urban, Miles W Ingwers, Mary Anne McGuire, Robert O Teskey
The effect of temperature on stomatal conductance (gs) and corresponding gas exchange parameters was studied in two tree species with contrasting leaf anatomy and ecophysiology-a broadleaf angiosperm, Populus deltoides x nigra (poplar), and a needle-leaf gymnosperm, Pinus taeda (loblolly pine). Experiments were conducted in growth chambers across a leaf temperature range of 19-48°C. Manipulations of temperature were done in well-watered and drought soil conditions and under ambient (400 ppm) and elevated (800 ppm) air CO2 concentrations...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321352/an-office-based-fluid-to-fluid-exchange-technique-for-the-treatment-of-postvitrectomy-vitreous-cavity-hemorrhage-and-secondary-glaucoma
#9
Sergio E Hernandez-Da Mota
A case of postvitrectomy hemorrhage with secondary glaucoma successfully treated with an office-based fluid to fluid exchange is described. A 25 Ga trocar was placed 3 mm from the sclerocorneal limbus at the 2 o'clock position and connected to a 250 cc elevated bottle of balanced salt solution (BSS) through an intravenous (IV) line and an infusion cannula. Afterward, a 25 Ga needle was inserted 3 mm from the limbus at the 5 o'clock position approximately. The BSS fluid entered the eye through the 25 Ga trocar lavaging the vitreous cavity and the anterior chamber...
2017: Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303199/hiv-aids-in-the-south-east-asia-region-progress-and-challenges
#10
EDITORIAL
Razia Pendse, Somya Gupta, Dongbao Yu, Swarup Sarkar
The South-East Asia region, with 11 member states, has an estimated 3.5 million people living with HIV (PLHIV). More than 99% of PLHIV live in five countries where HIV prevalence among the population aged 15-49 remains low but is between 2% and 29% among key populations. Since 2010, the region has made progress to combat the epidemic. Mature condom programmes exist in most countries but opioid substitution therapy, and needle and syringe exchange programmes need to be scaled up. HIV testing is recommended nationwide in four countries and is prioritised in high prevalence areas or for key populations in the rest...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302153/students-as-effective-harm-reductionists-and-needle-exchange-organizers
#11
EDITORIAL
Kyle Barbour, Miriam McQuade, Brandon Brown
BACKGROUND: Needle exchange programs are safe, highly effective programs for promoting health among people who inject drugs. However, they remain poorly funded, and often illegal, in many places worldwide due to fear and stigma surrounding drug use. Continued advocacy, education, and implementation of new needle exchanges are thus essential to improve public health and reduce structural inequality. COMMENTARY: We argue that students, and especially professional and graduate students, have the potential to play an important role in advancing harm reduction...
March 17, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231439/the-rights-of-drug-treatment-patients-experience-of-addiction-treatment-in-poland-from-a-human-rights-perspective
#12
Justyna Klingemann
BACKGROUND: Drug dependence is a recognized medical condition and therefore, right to health applies in the same way to drug dependence as it does to any other health condition. The human rights in patient care framework - which refers to the application of basic human rights principles in the delivery of health care services - was used to explore the experiences of equality in the dignity and rights protected by Polish law within four different specialist drug treatment settings in Poland...
May 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193023/electrodialytic-capillary-suppressor-for-open-tubular-ion-chromatography
#13
Weixiong Huang, Purnendu K Dasgupta
We describe an electrodialytic capillary suppressor for suppressed conductometric open tubular ion chromatography (SC-OTIC). For practical eluent concentrations, suppressor active lengths less than ∼1 mm are adequate. In its preferred embodiment, the suppressor consists of a solid polymer ion exchanger block. Two 0.45-mm-diameter parallel cylindrical passages are provided: these provide for passage of regenerant water and placement of platinum wire electrodes. The suppression channel is made by making a crack in the soft polymer block, using a needle 0...
December 20, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186470/image-guidance-based-on-mri-for-spinal-interstitial-laser-thermotherapy-technical-aspects-and-accuracy
#14
Claudio E Tatsui, Clarissa N G Nascimento, Dima Suki, Behrang Amini, Jing Li, Amol J Ghia, Jonathan G Thomas, R Jason Stafford, Laurence D Rhines, Juan P Cata, Ashok J Kumar, Ganesh Rao
OBJECTIVE Image guidance for spinal procedures is based on 3D-fluoroscopy or CT, which provide poor visualization of soft tissues, including the spinal cord. To overcome this limitation, the authors developed a method to register intraoperative MRI (iMRI) of the spine into a neuronavigation system, allowing excellent visualization of the spinal cord. This novel technique improved the accuracy in the deployment of laser interstitial thermal therapy probes for the treatment of metastatic spinal cord compression...
May 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160735/differential-access-to-syringe-exchange-and-other-prevention-activities-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-rural-and-urban-areas-of-puerto-rico
#15
Melissa Welch-Lazoritz, Patrick Habecker, Kirk Dombrowski, Angelica Rivera Villegas, Carmen Ana Davila, Yadira Rolón Colón, Sandra Miranda De León
BACKGROUND: Injection drug use and its associated blood-borne infections has become a rapidly increasing problem in rural areas of the US recently. Syringe exchange programs have been shown to be effective for reducing transmission of blood borne infections, however access to these prevention efforts may be limited in rural areas. METHODS: This paper utilizes two separate community samples of people who inject drugs (PWID) in Puerto Rico to achieve the following research objectives: (1) compare rural and urban access to syringe exchange programs, free sterile syringes and other HIV/HCV prevention activities, and (2) examine whether utilization of prevention activities is associated with lower injection risk behaviors...
May 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130629/pence-putin-mbeki-and-their-hiv-aids-related-crimes-against-humanity-call-for-social-justice-and-behavioral-science-advocacy
#16
EDITORIAL
Seth C Kalichman
Indiana, a large rural state in the Midwestern United States, suffered the worst North American HIV outbreak among injection drug users in years. The Indiana state government under former Governor and current US Vice President Mike Pence fueled the HIV outbreak by prohibiting needle/syringe exchange and failed to take substantive action once the outbreak was identified. This failure in public health policy parallels the HIV epidemics driven by oppressive drug laws in current day Russia and is reminiscent of the anti-science AIDS denialism of 1999-2007 South Africa...
January 27, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118437/cdc-says-more-needle-exchange-programs-needed-to-prevent-hiv
#17
Jennifer Abbasi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 24, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105586/occupational-safety-in-the-age-of-the-opioid-crisis-needle-stick-injury-among-baltimore-police
#18
Javier A Cepeda, Leo Beletsky, Anne Sawyer, Chris Serio-Chapman, Marina Smelyanskaya, Jennifer Han, Natanya Robinowitz, Susan G Sherman
At a time of resurgence in injection drug use and injection-attributable infections, needle stick injury (NSI) risk and its correlates among police remain understudied. In the context of occupational safety training, a convenience sample of 771 Baltimore city police officers responded to a self-administered survey. Domains included NSI experience, protective behaviors, and attitudes towards syringe exchange programs. Sixty officers (8%) reported lifetime NSI. Officers identifying as Latino or other race were almost three times more likely (aOR 2...
February 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088084/correlates-of-anti-hepatitis-c-positivity-and-use-of-harm-reduction-services-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-two-cities-in-croatia
#19
Senad Handanagic, Sandra Sevic, Jelena Barbaric, Zoran Dominkovic, Oktavija Dakovic Rode, Josip Begovac, Ivana Bozicevic
BACKGROUND: We assessed correlates of anti-hepatitis C (anti-HCV) positivity and utilization of needle and syringe exchange programs (NSEP) and opioid agonist treatment (OAT) among people who inject drugs (PWID) in two Croatian cities. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study using respondent-driven (RDS) sampling among PWID in Rijeka (N=255) and Split (N=399). We used RDS-weighted population estimates and multivariable logistic regression to explore correlates of anti-HCV positivity and NSEP and OAT utilization...
December 7, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048248/su-f-t-44-a-comparison-of-the-pre-plan-intra-operative-plan-and-post-implant-dosimetry-for-a-prostate-implant-case-using-prefabricated-linear-polymer-encapsulated-pd-103
#20
R Sheu, A Powers, H McGee, R Stock, Y Lo
PURPOSE: To investigate the reproducibility and limitations of Pd-103 prostate brachytherapy using fixed length linear sources (CivaString). METHODS: An LDR prostate brachytherapy case which was preplanned on MR images with prefabricated linear polymer-encapsulated Pd-103 sources (CivaString) was studied and compared with ultrasound based intra-operative planning and CT based post-implant dosimetry. We evaluated the following parameters among the three studies: prostate geometry (volume and cross sectional area), needle position and alignment deviations, and dosimetry parameters (D90)...
June 2016: Medical Physics
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