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Herpes encephalitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435023/the-clinical-significance-of-neutrophilic-pleocytosis-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-in-patients-with-viral-central-nervous-system-infections
#1
Siraya Jaijakul, Lucrecia Salazar, Susan H Wootton, Elizabeth Aguilera, Rodrigo Hasbun
BACKGROUND: Viral central nervous system infections are typically characterized by a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lymphocytic pleocytosis. A CSF neutrophilic pleocytosis presentation has been described but its prognostic and clinical significance is unknown. The objectives of our study were to 1) compare the clinical and laboratory characteristics of viral CNS infections with CSF neutrophilic pleocytosis to those with a lymphocytic pleocytosis and 2) evaluate factors associated with an adverse clinical outcome...
April 20, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419350/epidemiology-of-meningitis-and-encephalitis-in-the-united-states-from-2011-2014
#2
Rodrigo Hasbun, Ning Rosenthal, J M Balada-Llasat, Jessica Chung, Steve Duff, Samuel Bozzette, Louise Zimmer, Christine C Ginocchio
Background: Large epidemiological studies evaluating the etiologies, management decisions and outcomes of adults with meningitis and encephalitis in the United States (US) are lacking. Methods: Adult patients (≥18 years) with meningitis or encephalitis by ICD-9 codes available in the Premier Healthcare Database during 2011-2014 were analyzed. Results: A total of 26,429 patients with meningitis or encephalitis were identified. The median age was 43 years; 53% were female...
April 17, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417936/oncolytic-alphaviruses-in-cancer-immunotherapy
#3
REVIEW
Kenneth Lundstrom
Oncolytic viruses show specific targeting and killing of tumor cells and therefore provide attractive assets for cancer immunotherapy. In parallel to oncolytic viral vectors based on adenoviruses and herpes simplex viruses, oncolytic RNA viruses and particularly alphaviruses have been evaluated as delivery vehicles. Immunization studies in experimental rodent models for various cancers including glioblastoma, hematologic, hepatocellular, colon, cervix, and lung cancer as well as melanoma have been conducted with naturally occurring oncolytic alphavirus strains such as M1 and Sindbis AR339...
April 12, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417331/use-of-high-dose-oral-valacyclovir-during-an-intravenous-acyclovir-shortage-a-retrospective-analysis-of-tolerability-and-drug-shortage-management
#4
Milena M McLaughlin, Sarah H Sutton, Ashley O Jensen, John S Esterly
INTRODUCTION: In late 2011, a shortage of IV acyclovir led to the need to empirically substitute high-dose oral valacyclovir (HDVA) to conserve IV acyclovir for patients with confirmed herpes simplex virus (HSV) meningitis or encephalitis. This report describes the management of the most recent national IV acyclovir shortage by the Antimicrobial Stewardship Program (ASP) at Northwestern Memorial Hospital (NMH), Chicago, IL, USA, and the use of HDVA. Secondarily, we assessed the safety and tolerability of HDVA as an alternate to IV acyclovir during this shortage...
April 17, 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401625/fatal-case-of-cutaneous-sparing-oro-laryngeal-zoster-in-a-renal-transplant-recipient
#5
Elie Helou, Matthew Grant, Marie Landry, Xinyu Wu, Jon S Morrow, Maricar F Malinis
Herpesvirus infections in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. We report a case of herpes zoster (HZ) in a kidney transplant recipient while receiving belatacept, a CTLA-4 inhibitor that prevents acute rejection. The patient presented with oropharyngolaryngeal mucosal lesions that subsequently disseminated resulting in pneumonitis and meningo-encephalitis. Very late-onset HZ can occur and can present atypically in SOT recipients. Delayed recognition and treatment may result in poor outcomes, as illustrated by this case...
April 12, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386807/acute-human-herpes-virus-7-hhv-7-encephalitis-in-an-immunocompetent-adult-patient-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#6
Nicoletta Riva, Iacopo Franconi, Marianna Meschiari, Erica Franceschini, Cinzia Puzzolante, Gianluca Cuomo, Alessandro Bianchi, Francesca Cavalleri, Maurilio Genovese, Cristina Mussini
We report a case of an acute HHV-7 encephalitis involving the nucleus of the VI cranial nerve in an immunocompetent host. The patient was an adult male admitted to our Clinic with headache, diplopia, fever, nausea, vertigo, asthenia and general malaise. PCR for viral and bacterial genomes was run on both serum and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) after performing lumbar puncture, resulting positive only for HHV-7 DNA on CSF. MRI showed hyperintensity in FLAIR signal in the dorsal pons, in the area of the VI cranial nerve nucleus...
April 6, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378566/immune-response-of-t-cells-during-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-hsv-1-infection
#7
Jie Zhang, Huan Liu, Bin Wei
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), a neurotropic member of the alphaherpes virus family, is among the most prevalent and successful human pathogens. HSV-1 can cause serious diseases at every stage of life including fatal disseminated disease in newborns, cold sores, eye disease, and fatal encephalitis in adults. HSV-1 infection can trigger rapid immune responses, and efficient inhibition and clearance of HSV-1 infection rely on both the innate and adaptive immune responses of the host. Multiple strategies have been used to restrict host innate immune responses by HSV-1 to facilitate its infection in host cells...
2017: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374243/development-of-recombinant-hsv-based-vaccine-vectors
#8
Richard Voellmy, David C Bloom, Nuria Vilaboa, Joyce Feller
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) causes significant morbidity on the human population through such clinical syndromes as cold sores, genital herpes, herpes stromal keratitis, and encephalitis. Attempts to generate efficacious vaccines to date have failed. We have recently described the use of a conditionally replication-competent HSV-1 vector to immunize mice against a lethal challenge of HSV-1. The unique feature of this vaccine vector is that its replication is tightly controlled and can only occur in the presence of local heat and the presence of a small molecule inducer (an antiprogestin)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368532/tlr3-mutations-in-adult-patients-with-herpes-simplex-virus-and-varicella-zoster-virus-encephalitis
#9
Manuela Sironi, Anna Maria Peri, Rachele Cagliani, Diego Forni, Stefania Riva, Mara Biasin, Mario Clerici, Andrea Gori
Defects in genes of the TLR3 pathway are associated with susceptibility to HSV-1 encephalitis (HSE). We analyzed a cohort of 11 adult Italian patients who developed viral encephalitis. We detected two rare missense mutations in TLR3: one in a HSE patient (p.Leu297Val ) and the other in an individual with VZV encephalitis (p.Leu199Phe). Both mutations are extremely rare in human populations and have pathogenicity scores highly suggestive of a functional effect. Data herein expand the phenotypic spectrum of TLR3 mutations to VZV encephalitis and support the role of TLR3 genetic defects as risk factors for herpesvirus encephalitis in adults...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364664/contribution-of-neuroinflammation-to-changes-in-11-c-flumazenil-binding-in-the-rat-brain-evaluation-of-the-inflamed-pons-as-reference-tissue
#10
Andrea Parente, David Vállez García, Alexandre Shoji, Isadora Lopes Alves, Bram Maas, Rolf Zijlma, Rudi Ajo Dierckx, Carlos A Buchpiguel, Erik Fj de Vries, Janine Doorduin
INTRODUCTION: [(11)C]Flumazenil is a well-known PET tracer for GABAA receptors and is mainly used as an imaging biomarker for neuronal loss. Recently, GABAA receptors on immune cells have been investigated as target for modulation of inflammation. Since neuronal loss is often accompanied by neuroinflammation, PET imaging with [(11)C]flumazenil is potentially affected by infiltrating immune cells. This may also compromise the validity of using the pons as reference tissue in quantitative pharmacokinetic analysis...
March 18, 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363090/a-case-of-urinary-retention-in-the-early-stages-of-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-encephalitis
#11
Takuya Fukuoka, Yoshihiko Nakazato, Akifumi Miyake, Naotoshi Tamura, Nobuo Araki, Toshimasa Yamamoto
A 70-year-old man developed urinary retention in the early stages of herpes simplex virus (HSV) type-1 encephalitis. A nerve conduction study suggested latent myeloradiculitis. This is the first report of human herpes simplex virus-1 encephalitis followed by urinary retention at early stage from the onset like the Elsberg syndrome. Although relatively few similar cases have been reported, we consider that urinary retention is common in HSV-1 encephalitis, in which disturbances of consciousness usually require bladder catheterization from the onset...
March 18, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361829/genetic-characterization-of-human-herpesvirus-type-1-full-length-genome-sequence-of-strain-obtained-from-an-encephalitis-case-from-india
#12
Vijay P Bondre, Vasudha Sankararaman, Vijaysinh Andhare, Manisha Tupekar, Gajanan N Sapkal
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Human herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is the most common cause of sporadic encephalitis in humans that contributes to >10 per cent of the encephalitis cases occurring worldwide. Availability of limited full genome sequences from a small number of isolates resulted in poor understanding of host and viral factors responsible for variable clinical outcome. In this study genetic relationship, extent and source of recombination using full-length genome sequence derived from a newly isolated HSV-1 isolate was studied in comparison with those sampled from patients with varied clinical outcome...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359234/identification-of-novel-5-6-dimethoxyindan-1-one-derivatives-as-antiviral-agents
#13
Siddappa A Patil, Vikrant Patil, Renukadevi Patil, Kenneth Beaman, Shivaputra A Patil
BACKGROUND: Discovery of novel antiviral agents is essential because viral infection continues to threaten human life globally. Various heterocyclic small molecules have been developed as antiviral agents. The 5,6-dimethoxy indan-1-one nucleus is of considerable interest as this ring is the key constituent in a range of bioactive compounds, both naturally occurring and synthetic, and often of considerable complexity. OBJECTIVE: The main purpose of this research was to discover and develop small molecule heterocycles as broad-spectrum of antiviral agents...
March 29, 2017: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358704/prevalence-of-neurotropic-viruses-in-malignant-glioma-and-their-onco-modulatory-potential
#14
Tadej Strojnik, Darja Duh, Tamara T Lah
BACKGROUND: the association between infectious agents and tumour aetiology is relevant in about 20% of cases. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We tested high-grade glioma tissues from 45 patients for the presence of viral nucleic acids of six herpes viruses, human adenoviruses (A-G), and two neurotropic human viruses (enteroviruses, tick-borne encephalitis virus). Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used with immunolabelling. RESULTS: Three species of herpes viruses were detected: HSV-2, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), HHV-6, and one human enterovirus...
March 2017: In Vivo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342892/comparison-of-three-cell-based-drug-screening-platforms-for-hsv-1-infection
#15
Leonardo D'Aiuto, Kelly Williamson, Peter Dimitrion, James McNulty, Carla E Brown, Chanti Babu Dokuburra, Alexander J Nielsen, Wen Jing Lin, Paolo Piazza, Mark E Schurdak, Joel Wood, Robert H Yolken, Paul R Kinchington, David C Bloom, Vishwajit L Nimgaonkar
Acyclovir (ACV) and its derivatives have been highly effective for treating recurrent, lytic infections with Herpes Simplex Virus, type 1 (HSV-1), but searches for additional antiviral drugs are motivated by recent reports of resistance to ACV, particularly among immunocompromised patients. In addition, the relative neurotoxicity of ACV and its inability to prevent neurological sequelae among HSV-1 encephalitis survivors compel searches for new drugs to treat HSV-1 infections of the central nervous system (CNS)...
June 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341533/epidemiology-of-infectious-encephalitis-causes-in-2016
#16
REVIEW
A Boucher, J L Herrmann, P Morand, R Buzelé, Y Crabol, J P Stahl, A Mailles
We performed a literature search in the Medline database, using the PubMed website. The incidence of presumably infectious encephalitis is estimated at 1.5-7 cases/100,000 inhabitants/year, excluding epidemics. Infectious encephalitis and immune-mediated encephalitis share similar clinical signs and symptoms. The latter accounts for a significant proportion of presumably infectious encephalitis cases without any established etiological diagnosis; as shown from a prospective cohort study where 21% of cases were due to an immune cause...
March 22, 2017: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336304/management-of-adult-infectious-encephalitis-in-metropolitan-france
#17
REVIEW
T Goulenok, R Buzelé, X Duval, F Bruneel, J P Stahl, B Fantin
Infectious encephalitis is a severe disease leading to a high mortality and morbidity. The most frequent causes include Herpes simplex virus, Varicella Zoster virus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Urgent treatment is required (anti-infective therapy and nonspecific supportive care). The aim of this study was to define treatment strategy, empirical and after microbiological documentation at 48hours, through a systematic literature review.
March 20, 2017: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329667/serious-infections-are-on-the-rise-in-us-inpatients-with-psoriasis
#18
Derek Y Hsu
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder associated with immune dysregulation and use of systemic immunosuppressive treatments that may predispose toward serious infections. We sought to determine the rates of serious infections in hospitalized patients with psoriasis. We analyzed data from the 2002-2012 Nationwide Inpatient Sample, containing a 20% sample of all US hospitalizations. Psoriasis was determined by a validated algorithm using ICD-9-CM codes. In multivariate logistic regression models adjusting for socio-demographics, psoriasis was associated with multiple serious infections, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (odds ratio [95% confidence intervals] 1...
September 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320320/antiviral-activity-of-pha767491-against-human-herpes-simplex-virus-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#19
Jue Hou, Zili Zhang, Qiang Huang, Jun Yan, Xiaohu Zhang, Xiaoliang Yu, Guihua Tan, Chunfu Zheng, Feng Xu, Sudan He
BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a common human pathogen that causes a variety of diseases, including oral-labial, genital lesions and life-threatening encephalitis. The antiviral nucleoside analogues such as acyclovir are currently used in anti-HSV therapies; however, clinical overuse of these drugs has led to the emergence of drug-resistant viral strains. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop new anti-HSV agents. METHODS: To identify novel anti-HSV-1 compounds, we screened the LOPAC small scale library of 1280 bioactive compounds to identify inhibitors of HSV-1-induced necroptosis...
March 20, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302316/defining-nervous-system-susceptibility-during-acute-and-latent-herpes-simplex-virus-1-infection
#20
REVIEW
Chandra M Menendez, Daniel J J Carr
Herpes simplex viruses are neurotropic human pathogens that infect and establish latency in peripheral sensory neurons of the host. Herpes Simplex Virus-1 (HSV-1) readily infects the facial mucosa that can result in the establishment of a latent infection in the sensory neurons of the trigeminal ganglia (TG). From latency, HSV-1 can reactivate and cause peripheral pathology following anterograde trafficking from sensory neurons. Under rare circumstances, HSV-1 can migrate into the central nervous system (CNS) and cause Herpes Simplex Encephalitis (HSE), a devastating disease of the CNS...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
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