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Herpes encephalitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430235/herpes-encephalitis-a-mortal-complication-in-a-patient-treated-with-immunosuppressive-drugs-because-of-immune-related-adverse-events-after-ipilimumab-treatment
#1
Lieke van Montfort, Caroline M Loos, Monique Anten, Rob L H Jansen
Until a few years ago, metastatic melanoma had a poor prognosis with limited treatment options. These therapeutics options and thereby median survival have increased obviously over 5 years with the arrival of immunotherapeutic drugs like ipilimumab, nivolumab, and pembrolizumab. Nowadays, ipilimumab is often used in patients with metastatic melanoma. In this paper, we report a case of a 68-year-old man who developed, and eventually died of, herpes encephalitis after introducing ipilimumab as treatment for metastatic melanoma...
September 2017: Case Reports in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424413/-acute-polyradiculoneuropathy-associated-with-human-herpes-virus-7-in-an-immunocompetent-patient-case-report
#2
Paula Jara, José Manuel Matamala, Renato Verdugo, Luis Thompson
Human herpes virus 7 (HHV-7) is a cause of encephalitis, meningitis and myeloradiculoneuropathy in adults who are immunocompetent or with immunosuppression. The involvement of the peripheral nervous system is always associated with myelitis. We report a case of acute polyradiculoneuropathy due to HHV-7, without involvement of central nervous system, in an immunocompetent patient. A 35-years-old man complained of lumbar pain radiating to both buttocks. On examination muscle strength and tendon reflexes were normal...
September 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409994/infectious-meningitis-and-encephalitis-in-adults-in-denmark-a-prospective-nationwide-observational-cohort-study-dasgib
#3
Jacob Bodilsen, Merete Storgaard, Lykke Larsen, Lothar Wiese, Jannik Helweg-Larsen, Anne-Mette Lebech, Christian Brandt, Christian Østergaard, Henrik Nielsen
OBJECTIVES: To monitor epidemiological trends of infectious meningitis (bacterial and viral) and encephalitis in Denmark. METHODS: Nation-wide prospective observational study of all cases with proven community-acquired infectious meningitis and encephalitis in adults treated in all departments of infectious diseases in Denmark from 1st of January 2015 to 30th of June 2016. We included data on symptoms, aetiology, treatment and outcome assessed by the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) 30-days after discharge...
January 30, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405145/aetiological-study-of-viruses-causing-acute-encephalitis-syndrome-in-north-west-india
#4
Jitendra Kumar Tiwari, Bharti Malhotra, Aradhana Chauhan, Hemant Malhotra, Pratibha Sharma, Farah Deeba, Khushbu Trivedi, Anjenya M Swamy
CONTEXT: Acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) is a serious public health problem, caused mainly by viruses. However, the profile of viruses causing AES in Rajasthan is not well characterised. AIMS: The present study was undertaken to identify the viruses causing AES and develop diagnostic algorithm so as to help in improved diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: The present study is a hospital-based descriptive, observational study...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401338/a-tertiary-care-center-s-experience-with-novel-molecular-meningitis-encephalitis-diagnostics-and-implementation-with-antimicrobial-stewardship
#5
David Chang, Jason F Okulicz, Lindsey E Nielsen, Brian K White
Background: Novel molecular techniques, such as the Biofire FilmArray Meningitis/Encephalitis (ME) panel, are increasingly used to improve pathogen detection and time to detection (TtD). The Brooke Army Medical Center antibiotic stewardship program evaluated the impact of the ME panel on empiric antimicrobial usage. Methods: Negative ME panels were analyzed for days of therapy (DOT). The ME panel became available at Brooke Army Medical Center on January 1, 2016 and a retrospective chart review was performed on all hospitalized patients tested by ME panel through April 30, 2016...
January 1, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396172/severe-gabaa-receptor-encephalitis-without-seizures-a-paediatric-case-successfully-treated-with-early-immunomodulation
#6
Marc Nikolaus, Ellen Knierim, Christian Meisel, Jakob Kreye, Harald Prüss, Dirk Schnabel, Tilmann Kallinich
BACKGROUND: Autoimmune-mediated processes are the driving force behind many neurological diseases. Autoimmune encephalitis, a group of syndromes, mediated by or at least associated with autoantibodies against neuronal tissue, have gained increasing importance especially in paediatric neurology. Since the first NMDAR encephalitis was described a growing number of patients with encephalopathy, seizures and psychiatric symptoms were found to suffer from treatable autoimmune disorders. Recently a severe form of encephalitis associated with GABAAR antibodies was described showing extensive MRI abnormalities and refractory seizures...
January 9, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387135/vaccines-for-the-elderly-current-use-and-future-challenges
#7
REVIEW
Birgit Weinberger
Age-related changes of the immune system contribute to increased incidence and severity of infections in the elderly. Vaccination is the most effective measure to prevent infections and vaccination recommendations in most countries include specific guidelines for the elderly. Vaccination against influenza and Streptococcus pneumoniae is usually recommended for persons with underlying diseases and for the elderly with heterogeneous age limits between ≥ 50 years and ≥ 65 years. Some countries also recommend vaccination against herpes zoster...
2018: Immunity & Ageing: I & A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382621/a-case-of-primary-central-nervous-system-lymphoma-arising-at-the-site-of-remote-herpes-encephalitis
#8
Victor Li, Adrian B Levine, Peter A Gooderham, Stephen Yip, Jason Chew
BACKGROUND: Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare malignancy that usually arises in the context of severe immunosuppression, but has incompletely understood etiology, limiting effective treatments. CASE DESCRIPTION: We present the case of an 81-year-old immuno-competent man who developed a PCNSL in the right temporal lobe, at the site of a remote episode of herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis 8 years prior. There are numerous viruses with known oncogenic associations, however, to our knowledge, this is the first reported case of PCNSL with an antecedent HSV infection...
January 27, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380794/real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction-in-acute-retinal-necrosis-following-encephalitis
#9
Vinita Rao, Jyotirmay Biswas, Gopal Lingam
Acute retinal necrosis (ARN) following herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) in an immunocompetent patient is a rare condition. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) has made it possible to identify and quantify viral genome. We report a case of ARN following HSE managed with the help of qPCR. A 45-year-old man developed ARN following HSE and was treated with intravenous acyclovir and intravitreal foscarnet. The retinitis did not respond initially and the qPCR demonstrated a rise in the number of copies of the HSV-1 viral genome...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356973/pitfalls-in-clinical-diagnosis-of-anti-nmda-receptor-encephalitis
#10
Atsushi Kaneko, Juntaro Kaneko, Naomi Tominaga, Naomi Kanazawa, Kasumi Hattori, Yoshikazu Ugawa, Arata Moriya, Daisuke Kuzume, Daisuke Ishima, Eiji Kitamura, Kazutoshi Nishiyama, Takahiro Iizuka
OBJECTIVES: To report pitfalls in the clinical diagnosis of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical information of 221 patients with clinically suspected autoimmune neurological disorders who underwent testing for autoantibodies against neuronal cell-surface antigens between January 1, 2007 and September 10, 2017. Forty-one patients met the diagnostic criteria for probable anti-NMDAR encephalitis (probable criteria), but one was excluded because neither serum nor CSF was examined at the active stage...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351689/microvascular-decompression-for-patients-with-hemifacial-spasm-associated-with-common-trunk-anomaly-of-the-cerebellar-arteries-case-study-and-review-of-literature
#11
Ehab El Refaee, Christian Rosenstengel, Joerg Baldauf, Dirk T Pillich, Marc Matthes, Henry W S Schroeder
BACKGROUND: Few previous studies have described the origin of both anterior and posterior inferior cerebellar arteries from one vessel as a common trunk anomaly. No previous studies have clearly described the aforementioned anomaly depending on intraoperative endoscopic visualization. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of a common trunk anomaly with hemifacial spasm, which makes microvascular decompression more challenging. METHODS: All patients with common trunk anomaly associated with hemifacial spasm who received surgical treatment between 2006 and 2015 in our institution were identified in our prospectively collected database...
February 1, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350572/semantic-language-deficit-developing-following-herpes-simplex-encephalitis-reorganization-cannibalising-language-centers
#12
Simone Mangelsdorf, Wendy Kelso, Dennis Velakoulis, Mark Walterfang
Herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSVE) commonly presents with severe amnesia due to virus-mediated destruction of key regions in the temporal lobes, although language and executive impairment has been described. Little is known however of the long-term cognitive changes in these patients, including changes that may happen with cortical reorganization. We describe a patient with HSVE who presented with a highly unusual late-onset language syndrome, which may reflect distal cortical changes after her original injury...
January 19, 2018: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343258/mass-spectrometric-profiling-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-reveals-metabolite-biomarkers-for-cns-involvement-in-varicella-zoster-virus-reactivation
#13
Maike Kuhn, Kurt-Wolfram Sühs, Manas K Akmatov, Frank Klawonn, Junxi Wang, Thomas Skripuletz, Volkhard Kaever, Martin Stangel, Frank Pessler
BACKGROUND: Varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation spans the spectrum from uncomplicated segmental herpes zoster to life-threatening disseminated CNS infection. Moreover, in the absence of a small animal model for this human pathogen, studies of pathogenesis at the organismal level depend on analysis of human biosamples. Changes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) metabolites may reflect critical aspects of host responses and end-organ damage in neuroinfection and neuroinflammation. We therefore applied a targeted metabolomics screen of CSF to three clinically distinct forms of VZV reactivation and infectious and non-infectious disease controls in order to identify biomarkers for CNS involvement in VZV reactivation...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305044/functional-failure-of-tlr3-and-its-signaling-components-contribute-to-herpes-simplex-encephalitis
#14
REVIEW
Matylda Barbara Mielcarska, Magdalena Bossowska-Nowicka, Felix Ngosa Toka
Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a severe neurological disease in children and adults caused by herpes simplex virus. This review discusses recent findings on the role of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) deficiencies in the HSE development. Critical checkpoints in the TLR3 signaling that contribute to innate response are discussed, including the importance of TLR3 ligand recognition site and transportation in the cell. We also indicate unresolved issues in the TLR3 functioning that might lead to thorough understanding of immunity during HSE...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277332/cytokine-chemokine-elevation-during-the-transition-phase-from-hsv-encephalitis-to-autoimmune-anti-nmda-receptor-encephalitis
#15
Takanori Omae, Yoshiaki Saito, Hirokazu Tsuchie, Koyo Ohno, Yoshihiro Maegaki, Hiroshi Sakuma
A 3-year-old girl suffered from anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (anti-NMDA) receptor encephalitis after resolution of herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSE). Methylprednisolone pulse and immunoglobulin therapies showed little effect, but the patient completely recovered after six courses of monthly cyclophosphamide pulse therapy and successive maintenance on mycophenolate mofetil for one year. Anti-NMDA receptor antibody in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was minimally detected during the prodromal febrile period and then was seen to be markedly elevated at the onset of second encephalopathy phase...
December 22, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238759/neuropsychological-evidence-for-the-temporal-dynamics-of-category-specific-naming
#16
Sven Panis, Katrien Torfs, Celine R Gillebert, Johan Wagemans, Glyn W Humphreys
Multiple accounts have been proposed to explain category-specific recognition impairments. Some suggest that category-specific deficits may be caused by a deficit in recurrent processing between the levels of a hierarchically organized visual object recognition system. Here, we tested predictions of interactive processing theories on the emergence of category-selective naming deficits in neurologically intact observers and in patient GA, a single case showing a category-specific impairment for natural objects after a herpes simplex encephalitis infection...
2017: Visual Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232422/atypical-disseminated-herpes-zoster-management-guidelines-in-immunocompromised-patients
#17
Daniel J Lewis, Megan J Schlichte, Harry Dao
Reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes dermatomal herpes zoster (HZ) and more rarely severe disseminated HZ including diffuse rash, encephalitis, hepatitis, and pneumonitis. An atypical form of VZV infection, disseminated HZ has been described primarily in immunocompromised hosts. We report 2 cases of atypical disseminated HZ in immunocompromised patients presenting with diffuse, nondermatomal, vesicular eruptions. We also provide a review of the literature and summarize the current guidelines for the treatment and prophylaxis of HZ in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, solid organ transplantation (SOT), and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT)...
November 2017: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217828/frequently-used-bioinformatics-tools-overestimate-the-damaging-effect-of-allelic-variants
#18
Line Lykke Andersen, Ewa Terczyńska-Dyla, Nanna Mørk, Carsten Scavenius, Jan J Enghild, Klara Höning, Veit Hornung, Mette Christiansen, Trine H Mogensen, Rune Hartmann
We selected two sets of naturally occurring human missense allelic variants within innate immune genes. The first set represented eleven non-synonymous variants in six different genes involved in interferon (IFN) induction, present in a cohort of patients suffering from herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) and the second set represented sixteen allelic variants of the IFNLR1 gene. We recreated the variants in vitro and tested their effect on protein function in a HEK293T cell based assay. We then used an array of 14 available bioinformatics tools to predict the effect of these variants upon protein function...
December 4, 2017: Genes and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183618/encephalitis-associated-with-antibodies-against-the-nmda-receptor
#19
REVIEW
Mar Guasp, Josep Dalmau
The encephalitis associated with antibodies against the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is characterized by the presence of antibodies against the GluN1 subunit of this receptor, resulting in symptoms that are similar to those observed in models of genetic or pharmacologic reduction of NMDARs. Patients are usually young adults, predominantly women, and children who develop, in a sequential manner, rapidly progressive symptoms including psychosis, abnormal movements, autonomic dysfunction, and coma. Epileptic seizures are variable and can occur throughout the course of the disease...
November 25, 2017: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181879/high-human-herpesvirus-6-viral-load-in-pediatric-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-patients-is-associated-with-detection-in-end-organs-and-high-mortality
#20
Lena E Winestone, Rajesh Punn, John S Tamaresis, Julia Buckingham, Benjamin A Pinsky, Jesse J Waggoner, Sandhya Kharbanda
Human Herpes Virus 6 (HHV-6) reactivation occurs in approximately half of patients following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). While encephalitis and delayed engraftment are well-documented complications of HHV-6 following HSCT, the extent to which HHV-6 viremia causes disease in children is controversial. We performed a retrospective review of HHV-6 reactivation and possible manifestations in pediatric allogeneic HSCT patients at a single institution. Of 89 children and young adults who underwent allogeneic HSCT over a three-and-a-half-year period, 34 patients reactivated HHV-6 early post-transplant...
November 27, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
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