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Herpes encephalitis

Christian Fisahn, Lara Tkachenko, Marc Moisi, Steven Rostad, Randle Umeh, Michael E Zwillman, R Shane Tubbs, Jeni Page, David W Newell, Johnny B Delashaw
A 69-year-old female with a history of breast cancer and hypertension presented with a rare case of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) isolated to her left parietal lobe. The patient's first biopsy was negative for herpes simplex virus (HSV) I/II antigens, but less than two weeks later, the patient tested positive on repeat biopsy. This initial failure to detect the virus and the similarities between HSE and symptoms of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) suggests repeat testing for HSV in the presence of ICH. Due to the frequency of patients with extra temporal HSE, a diagnosis of HSE should be more readily considered, particularly when a patient may not be improving and a concrete diagnosis has not been solidified...
September 16, 2016: Curēus
Melanie Ott, Débora Marques, Christina Funk, Susanne M Bailer
BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1), a member of the alphaherpesvirinae, can cause recurrent facial lesions and encephalitis. Two membrane envelopment processes, one at the inner nuclear membrane and a second at cytoplasmic membranes are crucial for a productive viral infection. Depending on the subfamily, herpesviruses encode more than 11 different transmembrane proteins including members of the tail-anchored protein family. HSV1 encodes three tail-anchored proteins pUL34, pUL56 and pUS9 characterized by a single hydrophobic region positioned at their C-terminal end that needs to be released from the ribosome prior to posttranslational membrane insertion...
October 20, 2016: Virology Journal
Geoffrey C Halling, Charles Grose
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Maia Dorsett, Stephen Y Liang
Central nervous system (CNS) infections, including meningitis, encephalitis, and brain abscess, are rare but time-sensitive emergency department (ED) diagnoses. Patients with CNS infection can present to the ED with nonspecific signs and symptoms, including headache, fever, altered mental status, and behavioral changes. Neuroimaging and CSF fluid analysis can appear benign early in the course of disease. Delaying therapy negatively impacts outcomes, particularly with bacterial meningitis and herpes simplex virus encephalitis...
November 2016: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
Laura Krogh Jørgensen, Lars Skov Dalgaard, Lars Jørgen Østergaard, Mette Nørgaard, Trine Hyrup Mogensen
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the incidence and mortality of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) in a nationwide cohort. METHODS: From the Danish National Patient Registry, we identified all adults hospitalised with a first-time diagnosis of HSE in Denmark during 2004-2014. The HSE diagnoses were verified using medical records and microbiological data. Patients were followed for mortality through the Danish Civil Registry System. We estimated age-standardised incidence rates of HSE and 30-day, 60-day, and 1-year cumulative mortality...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Infection
Lynn M Hassman, David A DiLoreto
Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a nearly ubiquitous human pathogen, remaining dormant in its human host the majority of the time. The interaction between HSV-1 and the immune system represents a complicated balance of power that allows the virus to persist in the host for a lifetime. However, disruptions in the immune system can activate the virus with the potential to cause devastating infections in the central nervous system (CNS). We present a patient who suffered three consecutive yearly HSV-1 CNS episodes (encephalitis, seizure, and retinitis), each within days of his influenza vaccination...
2016: IDCases
Chunkui Zhou, Lijun Zhu, Shaokuan Fang
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is the most common cause of acute viral encephalitis. Acute retinal necrosis (ARN) is a rapidly progressing and potentially blinding eye disease that may be induced by HSV. The present case study reports the very rare case of a patient with herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) combined with acute retinal necrosis (ARN). A 47-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with persistent high fever and somnolence for 5 days. Magnetic resonance imaging showed abnormal signals in the right medial temporal lobes, and HSV-1 was identified in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid...
October 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Raffaella Greco, Lara Crucitti, Maddalena Noviello, Sara Racca, Daniele Mannina, Alessandra Forcina, Francesca Lorentino, Veronica Valtolina, Serena Rolla, Roee Dvir, Mara Morelli, Fabio Giglio, Maria Chiara Barbanti, Maria Teresa Lupo Stanghellini, Chiara Oltolini, Luca Vago, Paolo Scarpellini, Andrea Assanelli, Matteo G Carrabba, Sarah Marktel, Massimo Bernardi, Consuelo Corti, Massimo Clementi, Jacopo Peccatori, Chiara Bonini, Fabio Ciceri
Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is increasingly recognized as a potentially life-threatening pathogen in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT). We retrospectively evaluated 54 adult patients who developed positivity to HHV-6 after alloSCT. The median time from alloSCT to HHV-6 reactivation was 34 days. HHV-6 was present in plasma samples from 31 patients, in bone marrow (BM) of 9 patients, in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and liver or gut biopsy specimens from 33 patients, and in cerebrospinal fluid of 7 patients...
September 30, 2016: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Hussein Algahtani, Bader Shirah, Mohammed Hmoud, Ahmad Subahi
Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a rare disease, but it is the most common form of sporadic encephalitis. HSE is transmitted through direct contact and developing nosocomial HSE is rarely reported in the literature. Nosocomial HSE is difficult to diagnose due to its non-specific clinical features. In this article, we present a case of nosocomial HSE that was responsible for grave consequence. We also explore its causes, outcome, and give recommendations to avoid such fatal occurrence. We stress on strict adherence to the standard precautions and preventive control measures...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Zachary M Parker, Tracy Jo Pasieka, George A Parker, David A Leib
: The interferon (IFN) response to viral pathogens is critical for host survival. In humans and mouse models, defects in IFN responses can result in lethal herpes simplex type-1 (HSV-1) infections, usually from encephalitis. Although rare, HSV-1 can also cause fulminant hepatic failure which is often fatal. While herpes simplex encephalitis has been extensively studied, HSV-1 generalized infections and subsequent acute liver failure are less well understood. We previously demonstrated that IFNαβγR(-/-) mice are exquisitely susceptible to liver infection following corneal infection with HSV-1...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Virology
William J Muller
Viral infections in the fetus or newborn often involve the central nervous system (CNS) and can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Substantial progress has been made in identifying interventions decreasing adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in this population. This review highlights progress in treatment of important viruses affecting the CNS in these susceptible hosts, focusing on herpes simplex (HSV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and enteroviruses. The observation that high-dose acyclovir improves mortality in neonatal HSV disease culminated decades of antiviral research for this disease...
September 27, 2016: Pediatric Research
Shannon Schultz, Lori Grafton, David R Gater
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Pasquale Pagliano, Tiziana Ascione, Maria Aurora Carleo, Giovanni Boccia, Francesco De Caro, Fabio Tortora
Incidence of brain infections in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive patients is reduced after the availability of current high active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 (HSV-2) is an infrequent cause of encephalitis in HIV patients despite it is frequently involved in sexual transmitted infections. Here, we report a case of HSV-2 encephalitis occurring in a patient without full suppression of HIV replication within the brain. A 38 year-old HIV infected man was admitted to our department because of recurrent generalized seizure and fever during the previous 24 hours...
September 1, 2016: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Shigemi Nagayama, Keiko Tanaka
Recently, the search for diagnostic antibody markers has drawn considerable attention in relation to autoimmune encephalitis. Among the antibody markers, the most frequently detected is the anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)antibody. Patients with this antibody develop characteristic clinical features. This disease tends to affect young women, and starts with psychiatric symptoms followed by seizures, involuntary movements, autonomic failure, and respiratory failure. Nearly half of these female patients have ovarian teratoma...
September 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Jan Olsson, Hugo Lövheim, Emma Honkala, Pekka J Karhunen, Fredrik Elgh, Eloise H Kok
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 affects a majority of the population and recent evidence suggests involvement in Alzheimer's disease aetiology.We investigated HSV (1 and 2) prevalence in the Tampere Autopsy Study (TASTY) brain samples using PCR and sero-positivity in plasma, and associations with Alzheimer's disease neuropathology.HSV was shown to be present in human brain tissue in 11/584 (1.9%) of samples in the TASTY cohort, and 6 of those samples had Alzheimer's disease neuropathological amyloid beta (Aβ) aggregations...
September 23, 2016: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Larissa Fonseca da Cunha Sousa, Milene Alvarenga Rachid, Graciela Kunrath Lima, Aline Silva de Miranda, Márcia de Carvalho Vilela, Norinne Lacerda Queiroz, David Henrique Rodrigues, Marco Antonio Campos, Erna Geessien Kroon, Fabiana Simão Machado, Antônio Lúcio Teixeira
The most severe manifestation of Herpes Simplex Type 1 virus (HSV-1) infection is encephalitis characterized by arousal impairment and seizures that can evolve to coma and death. Previous studies reported the involvement of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins, specifically SOCS1 and SOCS3, in HSV-1 infection, suggesting that other members of this family could be involved in the immune response against HSV-1. No previous study has reported the role of SOCS2 in HSV-1 infection. In the current study, C57BL/6 wild-type mice (WT) and mice deficient in SOCS2 gene (SOCS2(-/-)) were subjected to intracranial inoculation with 10(2) plaque forming units (PFU) of HSV-1...
September 16, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
Iwona Bukowska-Ośko, Karol Perlejewski, Shota Nakamura, Daisuke Motooka, Tomasz Stokowy, Joanna Kosińska, Marta Popiel, Rafał Płoski, Andrzej Horban, Dariusz Lipowski, Kamila Caraballo Cortés, Agnieszka Pawełczyk, Urszula Demkow, Adam Stępień, Marek Radkowski, Tomasz Laskus
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) followed by metagenomic enables the detection and identification of known as well as novel pathogens. It could be potentially useful in the diagnosis of encephalitis, caused by a variety of microorganisms. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the sensitivity of isothermal RNA amplification (Ribo-SPIA) followed by NGS metagenomic analysis in the detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Moreover, we analyzed the contamination background...
September 20, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Xin Wang, Tanmay Majumdar, Patricia Kessler, Evgeny Ozhegov, Ying Zhang, Saurabh Chattopadhyay, Sailen Barik, Ganes C Sen
The intracellular microbial nucleic acid sensors, TLR3 and STING, recognize pathogen molecules and signal to activate the interferon pathway. The TIR-domain containing protein TRIF is the sole adaptor of TLR3. Here, we report an essential role for TRIF in STING signaling: various activators of STING could not induce genes in the absence of TRIF. TRIF and STING interacted directly, through their carboxy-terminal domains, to promote STING dimerization, intermembrane translocation, and signaling. Herpes simplex virus (HSV), which triggers the STING signaling pathway and is controlled by it, replicated more efficiently in the absence of TRIF, and HSV-infected TRIF(-/-) mice displayed pronounced pathology...
September 14, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
Kazuki Miyaji, Jun-Ichi Furukawa, Youichi Suzuki, Naoki Yamamoto, Yasuro Shinohara, Nobuhiro Yuki
There is a case report of a patient with overlapping Guillain-Barré syndrome and Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis after infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), who carried high titers of serum anti-GQ1b IgG antibodies. Several studies have linked viral infection to the modulation of ganglioside expression such as human T-lymphotropic virus to GD2 and simian virus 40 to GM3. Also, enhancement of the expression of GM2 on the cell membrane after cytomegalovirus infection has been reported. The objective of this study was to unveil the relationship between HSV-1 infection and the alteration of cellular ganglioside expression in neuronal and glial cell lines...
August 18, 2016: Carbohydrate Research
Sanjeet K Shahi
Acute retinal necrosis (ARN), secondary to herpes simplex encephalitis, is a rare syndrome that can present in healthy individuals, as well as immuno-compromised patients. Most cases are caused by a secondary infection from the herpes virus family, with varicella zoster virus being the leading cause of this syndrome. Potential symptoms include blurry vision, floaters, ocular pain and photophobia. Ocular findings may consist of severe uveitis, retinal vasculitis, retinal necrosis, papillitis and retinal detachment...
August 31, 2016: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
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