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Herpes encephalitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930721/both-cerebral-and-hematopoietic-deficiencies-in-ccr2-result-in-uncontrolled-herpes-simplex-virus-infection-of-the-central-nervous-system-in-mice
#1
Rafik Menasria, Coraline Canivet, Jocelyne Piret, Jean Gosselin, Guy Boivin
CCR2 is a chemokine receptor expressed on the surface of blood leukocytes, particularly «Ly6Chi» inflammatory monocytes and microglia. Signaling through this receptor is thought to influence the immune activity of microglia as well as monocytes egress from the bone marrow (BM) and their trafficking into the central nervous system (CNS) in several neurological diseases. During experimental herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE), CCR2 deficiency has been reported to exacerbate the outcome of the disease...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924792/a-cost-effective-approach-to-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-acute-infectious-encephalitis
#2
Usha Kant Misra, Vinita Elizabeth Mani, Jayantee Kalita
SETTING: A tertiary care teaching hospital in India. OBJECTIVE: To report a syndromic approach to acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) and propose a cost-effective model. STUDY DESIGN: AES patients were categorized by the presence or absence of myalgia/rash into systemic and neurological AES. The patients with systemic AES were investigated for dengue, scrub typhus, leptospira, chikungunya, and malaria, and those with neurological AES were investigated for herpes and Japanese encephalitis (JE)...
December 8, 2016: European Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919480/extratemporal-herpes-encephalitis-during-natalizumab-treatment-a-case-report
#3
Shalom Haggiag, Luca Prosperini, Simonetta Galgani, Carlo Pozzilli, Carmela Pinnetti
Herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSE) is a rare but often fatal disease if left untreated. MRI typically shows the characteristic findings of medial temporal lobe and insular involvement, while diagnosis in confirmed by CSF PCR. In immunocompromised state, HSE may have atypical clinical and radiological features. We report a MS patient under natalizumab treatment with HSE, who presented with MRI lesions exclusively in the right parietal lobe. The patient was timely started on acyclovir resulting in marked improvement...
November 2016: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913959/reaction-of-complement-factors-and-proteasomes-in-experimental-encephalitis
#4
Stefan Lange, Tomas Bergström, Ewa Johansson, Merna Oshalim, Ivar Lönnroth
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis causes a deleterious inflammation and elevated intracranial pressure. As a step towards examining the origin of the inflammation, we here report the response of circulating proteasomes and complement factors in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in rats infected with HSV-1. Infection was via the nasal route, with 1.1 × 10(4) plaque-forming units of HSV-1 strain 2762 given in one or both nostrils. A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to study the level of 26S proteasomes and their complex formation with complement factors 3 and 4...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902351/protective-role-of-cx3cr1-signaling-in-resident-cells-of-the-central-nervous-system-during-experimental-herpes-simplex-virus-encephalitis
#5
Rafik Menasria, Coraline Canivet, Jocelyne Piret, Jean Gosselin, Guy Boivin
CX3CR1 is an important chemokine receptor expressed on the surface of microglia and blood leukocytes including monocytes. Signaling through this receptor influences the immune activity of microglia and monocytes trafficking into the central nervous system (CNS) in several neurological diseases. During experimental herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE), CX3CR1 deficiency has been reported to exacerbate the outcome of the disease. However, the precise contribution of CX3CR1 expressed in resident cells of the CNS or peripheral monocytes in protection against HSE remains unclear...
November 30, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888402/infectious-encephalitis-utility-of-a-rational-approach-to-aetiological-diagnosis-in-daily-clinical-practice
#6
C López-Sánchez, E Sulleiro, C Bocanegra, S Romero, G Codina, I Sanz, J Esperalba, J Serra, C Pigrau, J Burgos, B Almirante, V Falcó
In this study we attempt to assess the utility of a simplified step-wise diagnostic algorithm to determinate the aetiology of encephalitis in daily clinical practice and to describe the main causes in our setting. This was a prospective cohort study of all consecutive cases of encephalitis in adult patients diagnosed between January 2010 and March 2015 at the University Hospital Vall d'Hebron in Barcelona, Spain. The aetiological study was carried out following the proposed step-wise algorithm. The proportion of aetiological diagnoses achieved in each step was analysed...
November 25, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879484/herpes-simplex-type-2-encephalitis-and-methotrexate-medication-a-fortuitous-or-causative-association-in-a-patient-with-spondyloarthritis
#7
Julien Lupo, Ophélie Dos Santos, Raphaele Germi, Monique Baccard-Longère, Jean-Paul Stahl, Olivier Epaulard, Patrice Morand
It is unclear whether immunosuppression is a risk factor for herpes encephalitis. Herein, we describe a rare case of herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2 encephalitis in a patient treated with low-dose methotrexate for HLA-B27-associated spondyloarthritis. The patient was successfully treated with acyclovir but presented sequelae of encephalitis. Here we discuss the possible role of low-dose MTX therapy as a risk factor of neurological herpes reactivation and severe disease. The host-related and viral risk factors are also addressed...
November 23, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851459/1824-herpes-simplex-virus-encephalitis-presenting-as-left-middle-cerebral-artery-stroke
#8
Avinash Honasoge, Temitope Shodunke, Michael Plisco, David Rempe, Jan Kasal, Anup Katyal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830700/sensing-of-hsv-1-by-the-cgas-sting-pathway-in-microglia-orchestrates-antiviral-defence-in-the-cns
#9
Line S Reinert, Katarína Lopušná, Henriette Winther, Chenglong Sun, Martin K Thomsen, Ramya Nandakumar, Trine H Mogensen, Morten Meyer, Christian Vægter, Jens R Nyengaard, Katherine A Fitzgerald, Søren R Paludan
Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is the most common form of acute viral encephalitis in industrialized countries. Type I interferon (IFN) is important for control of herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) in the central nervous system (CNS). Here we show that microglia are the main source of HSV-induced type I IFN expression in CNS cells and these cytokines are induced in a cGAS-STING-dependent manner. Consistently, mice defective in cGAS or STING are highly susceptible to acute HSE. Although STING is redundant for cell-autonomous antiviral resistance in astrocytes and neurons, viral replication is strongly increased in neurons in STING-deficient mice...
November 10, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826891/sensitivity-of-next-generation-sequencing-metagenomic-analysis-for-detection-of-rna-and-dna-viruses-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-the-confounding-effect-of-background-contamination
#10
Iwona Bukowska-Ośko, Karol Perlejewski, Shota Nakamura, Daisuke Motooka, Tomasz Stokowy, Joanna Kosińska, Marta Popiel, Rafał Płoski, Andrzej Horban, Dariusz Lipowski, Kamila Caraballo Cortés, Agnieszka Pawełczyk, Urszula Demkow, Adam Stępień, Marek Radkowski, Tomasz Laskus
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) followed by metagenomic analysis enables the detection and identification of known as well as novel pathogens. It could be potentially useful in the diagnosis of encephalitis, caused by a variety of microorganisms. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the sensitivity of isothermal RNA amplification (Ribo-SPIA) followed by NGS metagenomic analysis in the detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Moreover, we analyzed the contamination background...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826871/anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-after-herpes-simplex-virus-associated-encephalitis-an-emerging-disease-with-diagnosis-and-therapeutic-challenges
#11
Flora Schein, Amandine Gagneux-Brunon, Jean-Christophe Antoine, Sylvie Lavernhe, Sylvie Pillet, Stéphane Paul, Anne Frésard, Claire Boutet, Rémi Grange, Céline Cazorla, Frédéric Lucht, Elisabeth Botelho-Nevers
INTRODUCTION: Morbidity and mortality of Herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSE) remain high. Relapses of neurological signs may occur after initial clinical improvement under acyclovir treatment. METHODS: We report here a case of post-HSE anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor-mediated encephalitis in an adult and perform a systematic search on PubMed to identify other cases in adults. RESULTS: We identified 11 previously published cases, to discuss diagnostic and therapeutic management...
November 8, 2016: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817117/differences-in-t-cell-cytotoxicity-and-cell-death-mechanisms-between-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-herpes-simplex-virus-encephalitis-and-cytomegalovirus-encephalitis
#12
Susanne Laukoter, Helmut Rauschka, Anna R Tröscher, Ulrike Köck, Etsuji Saji, Kurt Jellinger, Hans Lassmann, Jan Bauer
During the appearance of human immunodeficiency virus infection in the 1980 and the 1990s, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a viral encephalitis induced by the JC virus, was the leading opportunistic brain infection. As a result of the use of modern immunomodulatory compounds such as Natalizumab and Rituximab, the number of patients with PML is once again increasing. Despite the presence of PML over decades, little is known regarding the mechanisms leading to death of infected cells and the role the immune system plays in this process...
November 5, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813118/microrna-649-promotes-hsv-1-replication-by-directly-targeting-malt1
#13
Yi Zhang, Jun Dai, Jinfeng Tang, Li Zhou, Mengzhou Zhou
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), a member of the Herpes viridae, is associated with a wide variety of nervous system diseases including meningitis and encephalitis. The data presented here demonstrate that miR-649 promotes the replication of HSV-1 without affecting cell viability. Further mechanistic studies revealed that MALT1 (mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation gene 1) is directly targeted by miR-649. We then found that MALT1 and the downstream NF-κB signaling pathway, are involved in miR-649-induced HSV-1 replication...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787806/acyclovir-resistance-in-herpes-simplex-virus-type-i-encephalitis-a-case-report
#14
M Bergmann, R Beer, M Kofler, R Helbok, B Pfausler, E Schmutzhard
Acyclovir resistance is rarely seen in herpes simplex virus (HSV) type I encephalitis. Prevalence rates vary between 0.5 % in immunocompetent patients (Christophers et al. 1998; Fife et al. 1994) and 3.5-10 % in immunocompromised patients (Stranska et al. 2005). We report a 45-year-old, immunocompetent (negative HIV antigen/antibody testing), female patient, without previous illness who developed-after a febrile prodromal stage-aphasia and psychomotor slowing. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI) showed right temporal and insular T2-hyperintense lesions with spreading to the contralateral temporal lobe...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774355/herpes-simplex-encephalitis-of-the-parietal-lobe-a-rare-presentation
#15
Christian Fisahn, Lara Tkachenko, Marc Moisi, Steven Rostad, Randle Umeh, Michael E Zwillman, R Shane Tubbs, Jeni Page, David W Newell, Johnny B Delashaw
A 69-year-old female with a history of breast cancer and hypertension presented with a rare case of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) isolated to her left parietal lobe. The patient's first biopsy was negative for herpes simplex virus (HSV) I/II antigens, but less than two weeks later, the patient tested positive on repeat biopsy. This initial failure to detect the virus and the similarities between HSE and symptoms of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) suggests repeat testing for HSV in the presence of ICH. Due to the frequency of patients with extra temporal HSE, a diagnosis of HSE should be more readily considered, particularly when a patient may not be improving and a concrete diagnosis has not been solidified...
September 16, 2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765046/asna1-trc40-that-mediates-membrane-insertion-of-tail-anchored-proteins-is-required-for-efficient-release-of-herpes-simplex-virus-1-virions
#16
Melanie Ott, Débora Marques, Christina Funk, Susanne M Bailer
BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1), a member of the alphaherpesvirinae, can cause recurrent facial lesions and encephalitis. Two membrane envelopment processes, one at the inner nuclear membrane and a second at cytoplasmic membranes are crucial for a productive viral infection. Depending on the subfamily, herpesviruses encode more than 11 different transmembrane proteins including members of the tail-anchored protein family. HSV1 encodes three tail-anchored proteins pUL34, pUL56 and pUS9 characterized by a single hydrophobic region positioned at their C-terminal end that needs to be released from the ribosome prior to posttranslational membrane insertion...
October 20, 2016: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748148/focal-herpes-zoster-encephalitis-without-a-rash-diagnostic-confusion-between-astrogliosis-and-low-grade-glioma
#17
Geoffrey C Halling, Charles Grose
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741995/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-central-nervous-system-infections-in-the-emergency-department
#18
REVIEW
Maia Dorsett, Stephen Y Liang
Central nervous system (CNS) infections, including meningitis, encephalitis, and brain abscess, are rare but time-sensitive emergency department (ED) diagnoses. Patients with CNS infection can present to the ED with nonspecific signs and symptoms, including headache, fever, altered mental status, and behavioral changes. Neuroimaging and CSF fluid analysis can appear benign early in the course of disease. Delaying therapy negatively impacts outcomes, particularly with bacterial meningitis and herpes simplex virus encephalitis...
November 2016: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717782/incidence-and-mortality-of-herpes-simplex-encephalitis-in-denmark-a-nationwide-registry-based-cohort-study
#19
Laura Krogh Jørgensen, Lars Skov Dalgaard, Lars Jørgen Østergaard, Mette Nørgaard, Trine Hyrup Mogensen
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the incidence and mortality of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) in a nationwide cohort. METHODS: From the Danish National Patient Registry, we identified all adults hospitalised with a first-time diagnosis of HSE in Denmark during 2004-2014. The HSE diagnoses were verified using medical records and microbiological data. Patients were followed for mortality through the Danish Civil Registry System. We estimated age-standardised incidence rates of HSE and 30-day, 60-day, and 1-year cumulative mortality...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699152/immunologic-factors-may-play-a-role-in-herpes-simplex-virus-1-reactivation-in-the-brain-and-retina-after-influenza-vaccination
#20
Lynn M Hassman, David A DiLoreto
Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a nearly ubiquitous human pathogen, remaining dormant in its human host the majority of the time. The interaction between HSV-1 and the immune system represents a complicated balance of power that allows the virus to persist in the host for a lifetime. However, disruptions in the immune system can activate the virus with the potential to cause devastating infections in the central nervous system (CNS). We present a patient who suffered three consecutive yearly HSV-1 CNS episodes (encephalitis, seizure, and retinitis), each within days of his influenza vaccination...
2016: IDCases
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