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Herpes encephalitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033632/review-of-viral-encephalitis-cases-seen-at-a-tertiary-care-center-in-turkey-focus-on-herpes-simplex-type-1
#1
Beyza Çiftçi Kavaklioğlu, Eda Çoban, Aysu Şen, Elif Söylemezoğlu, Mehmet Ali Aldan, Dilek Atakli, Aysun Soysal
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE), known as the most common, potentially mortal, and treatable cause of sporadic encephalitis, in a sample Turkish population. METHODS: The demographic, clinical, laboratory, imaging, electrophysiology, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) DNA results of patients examined with a pre-diagnosis of encephalitis were retrospectively examined. RESULTS: A total of 68 patients were included in the study...
September 2017: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979799/network-analysis-of-the-hominin-origin-of-herpes-simplex-virus-2-from-fossil-data
#2
Simon J Underdown, Krishna Kumar, Charlotte Houldcroft
Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV2) is a human herpesvirus found worldwide that causes genital lesions and more rarely causes encephalitis. This pathogen is most common in Africa, and particularly in central and east Africa, an area of particular significance for the evolution of modern humans. Unlike HSV1, HSV2 has not simply co-speciated with humans from their last common ancestor with primates. HSV2 jumped the species barrier between 1.4 and 3 MYA, most likely through intermediate but unknown hominin species. In this article, we use probability-based network analysis to determine the most probable transmission path between intermediate hosts of HSV2, from the ancestors of chimpanzees to the ancestors of modern humans, using paleo-environmental data on the distribution of African tropical rainforest over the last 3 million years and data on the age and distribution of fossil species of hominin present in Africa between 1...
July 2017: Virus Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976562/seroprevalence-of-lymphocytic-choriomeningitis-virus-and-ljungan-virus-in-finnish-patients-with-suspected-neurological-infections
#3
Cristina Fevola, Suvi Kuivanen, Teemu Smura, Antti Vaheri, Hannimari Kallio-Kokko, Heidi C Hauffe, Olli Vapalahti, Anne J Jääskeläinen
BACKGROUND: Directly-transmitted rodent-borne zoonotic viruses, such as lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) can cause nervous system infections. Rodent-borne Ljungan virus (LV) is considered potentially zoonotic possibly causing neurological symptoms. Our objective was to understand the role of these two viruses compared to other pathogens in causing neurological infections in Finnish patients. METHODS: Routine screening data were available for 400 patients aged 5-50 years, collected from December 2013-December 2014 with suspected neurological infection...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966468/fetal-ventriculomegaly-and-herpes-encephalitis-following-primary-maternal-herpes-simplex-infection
#4
Jenna K Sloan, Chase R Cawyer, Nathan S Drever
Uteroplacental transmission of a primary herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in pregnancy has been reported; however, HSV ventriculomegaly of the neonate has not been well documented in utero. We present a case of a 19-year-old woman who developed a primary HSV outbreak at 17 weeks of gestation and was treated with acyclovir. A congenital malformation scan at 18 weeks of gestation demonstrated no fetal abnormalities; however, an ultrasound at 33 weeks showed a new finding of ventriculomegaly. Additionally, hydrocephalus was confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging...
October 2017: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962808/herpes-virus-encephalitis-in-adults-current-knowledge-and-old-myths
#5
REVIEW
Alejandro A Rabinstein
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis is uncommon in clinical practice, but is frequently suspected in patients with acute alterations of consciousness. Symptoms and physical signs are nonspecific, and diagnostic confirmation typically hinges on demonstration of viral DNA in cerebrospinal fluid. Brain MRI is helpful in diagnosis and provides prognostic information. Early initiation of intravenous acyclovir is essential to optimize the patient's chances of favorable recovery. HSV encephalitis can trigger an autoimmune reaction with the possible appearance of antibodies to neuronal surface antigens...
November 2017: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956768/differentiated-sh-sy5y-human-cells-provide-a-reductionist-model-of-hsv-1-neurotropism
#6
Mackenzie M Shipley, Colleen A Mangold, Chad V Kuny, Moriah L Szpara
Neuron-virus interactions that occur during herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection are not fully understood. Neurons are the site of lifelong latency and are a crucial target for long-term suppressive therapy or viral clearance. A reproducible neuronal model of human origin would facilitate studies of HSV and other neurotropic viruses. Current neuronal models in the herpesvirus field vary widely and have caveats including incomplete differentiation, non-human origins, or the use of dividing cells that have neuropotential, but lack neuronal morphology...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956417/potential-risk-of-developing-herpes-simplex-encephalitis-in-patients-treated-with-sildenafil-following-primary-exposure-to-genital-herpes
#7
A Goren, J Mccoy, M Kovacevic, M Situm, N Lonky
Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is associated with significant mortality and morbidity. As a consequence of HSE, up to 75% of infected individuals die or experience irreversible neurological damage. While the pathogenesis of the disease is unknown, it is traditionally hypothesized that the viral infection occurs by neuronal transmission directly from peripheral sites. Non-neuronal modes of infection have generally been overlooked as the brain is protected by the blood-brain-barrier (BBB). The BBB poses an effective barrier to pathogens as well as to drugs such as chemotherapies...
July 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954265/differential-detection-of-enterovirus-and-herpes-simplex-virus-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-by-real-time-rt-pcr
#8
Brenda Sarquiz-Martínez, César R González-Bonilla, Clara Esperanza Santacruz-Tinoco, José E Muñoz-Medina, Héctor D Pardavé-Alejandre, Elizabeth Barbosa-Cabrera, José Ernesto Ramírez-González, José Alberto Díaz-Quiñonez
BACKGROUND: Enterovirus (EV) and herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV1 and HSV2) are the main etiologic agents of central nervous system infections. Early laboratory confirmation of these infections is performed by viral culture of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), or the detection of specific antibodies in serum (e.g., HSV). The sensitivity of viral culture ranges from 65 to 75%, with a recovery time varying from 3 to 10 days. Serological tests are faster and easy to carry out, but they exhibit cross-reactivity between HSV1 and HSV2...
September 28, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947510/reply-to-galen-screening-cerebrospinal-fluid-prior-to-herpes-simplex-virus-pcr-testing-might-miss-cases-of-herpes-simplex-encephalitis
#9
Ronald G Hauser, Sheldon M Campbell, Cynthia A Brandt, Shiyi Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936074/syndromes-of-rapidly-progressive-cognitive-decline-our-experience
#10
Sadanandavalli Retnaswami Chandra, Lakshminarayanapuram Gopal Viswanathan, Anupama Ramakanth Pai, Rahul Wahatule, Suvarna Alladi
BACKGROUND: Dementias are fairly slowly progressive degenerative diseases of brain for which treatment options are very less and carry a lot of burden on family and society. A small percentage of them are rapidly progressive and mostly carry a different course outcome. However, there are no definite criteria other than the time line for these patients. AIMS: The aim of this was to identify and categorize the causes and course of rapidly progressive dementias seen in our center...
August 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929964/-investigation-of-bacterial-and-viral-etiology-in-community-acquired-central-nervous-system-infections-with-molecular-methods
#11
Hasip Kahraman, Alper Tünger, Şebnem Şenol, Hörü Gazi, Meltem Avcı, Bahar Örmen, Nesrin Türker, Sabri Atalay, Şükran Köse, Sercan Ulusoy, Meltem Işıkgöz Taşbakan, Oğuz Reşat Sipahi, Tansu Yamazhan, Zeynep Gülay, Sema Alp Çavuş, Hüsnü Pullukçu
In this multicenter prospective cohort study, it was aimed to evaluate the bacterial and viral etiology in community-acquired central nervous system infections by standart bacteriological culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. Patients hospitalized with central nervous system infections between April 2012 and February 2014 were enrolled in the study. Demographic and clinical information of the patients were collected prospectively. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of the patients were examined by standart bacteriological culture methods, bacterial multiplex PCR (Seeplex meningitis-B ACE Detection (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Listeria monocytogenes, Group B streptococci) and viral multiplex PCR (Seeplex meningitis-V1 ACE Detection kits herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV1), herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV2), varicella zoster virus (VZV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein Barr virus (EBV) and human herpes virus 6 (HHV6)) (Seeplex meningitis-V2 ACE Detection kit (enteroviruses))...
July 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923026/dementia-and-cognitive-disorder-identified-at-a-forensic-psychiatric-examination-a-study-from-sweden
#12
Anette Ekström, Marianne Kristiansson, Karin Sparring Björkstén
BACKGROUND: Few studies have addressed the relationship between dementia and crime. We conducted a study of persons who got a primary or secondary diagnosis of dementia or cognitive disorder in a forensic psychiatric examination. METHODS: In Sweden, annually about 500 forensic psychiatric examinations are carried out. All cases from 2008 to 2010 with the diagnoses dementia or cognitive disorder were selected from the database of the Swedish National Board of Forensic Medicine...
September 18, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916998/emergency-neurologic-life-support-meningitis-and-encephalitis
#13
David F Gaieski, Nicole F O'Brien, Ricardo Hernandez
Bacterial meningitis and viral encephalitis, particularly herpes simplex encephalitis, are severe neurological infections that, if not treated promptly and effectively, lead to poor neurological outcome or death. Because of the value of early recognition and treatment, meningitis and encephalitis was chosen as an Emergency Neurological Life Support protocol. This protocol provides a practical approach to recognition and urgent treatment of bacterial meningitis and encephalitis. Appropriate imaging, spinal fluid analysis, and early empiric treatment are discussed...
September 15, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900443/hsv-1-encephalitis-high-index-of-clinical-suspicion-prompt-diagnosis-and-early-therapeutic-intervention-are-the-triptych-of-success-report-of-two-cases-and-comprehensive-review-of-the-literature
#14
Dimitrios Patoulias, Georgios Gavriiloglou, Konstantinos Kontotasios, Mairi Tzakri, Petros Keryttopoulos, Christos Koutras
Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) encephalitis is an acute infectious disease of the Central Nervous System (CNS), usually affecting the limbic structures, the median temporal cortex, and the orbitofrontal regions. Its annual incidence has significantly increased over the last 20 years and the mortality rate is 7%, if early diagnosed and treated, and 70%, if left untreated, while it is associated with high rates of morbidity. It should be noted that even when Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis seems normal, imaging studies are not specific and HSV Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) test is negative; the clinician should be more aggressive, if clinical presentation is indicative for HSV encephalitis, by administrating acyclovir early after patient's admission...
2017: Case Reports in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899392/care-beyond-the-hospital-ward-understanding-the-socio-medical-trajectory-of-herpes-simplex-virus-encephalitis
#15
Jessie Cooper, Ciara Kierans, Sylviane Defres, Ava Easton, Rachel Kneen, Tom Solomon
BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis is a life-threatening infection of the brain, which has significant physical, cognitive and social consequences for survivors. Despite increasing recognition of the long-term effects of encephalitis, research and policy remains largely focused on its acute management, meaning there is little understanding of the difficulties people face after discharge from acute care. This paper aims to chart the problems and challenges which people encounter when they return home after treatment for HSV encephalitis...
September 12, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891812/herpes-simplex-virus-1-evasion-of-cd8-t-cell-accumulation-contributes-to-viral-encephalitis
#16
Naoto Koyanagi, Takahiko Imai, Keiko Shindo, Ayuko Sato, Wataru Fujii, Takeshi Ichinohe, Naoki Takemura, Shigeru Kakuta, Satoshi Uematsu, Hiroshi Kiyono, Yuhei Maruzuru, Jun Arii, Akihisa Kato, Yasushi Kawaguchi
Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) is the most common cause of sporadic viral encephalitis, which can be lethal or result in severe neurological defects even with antiviral therapy. While HSV-1 causes encephalitis in spite of HSV-1-specific humoral and cellular immunity, the mechanism by which HSV-1 evades the immune system in the central nervous system (CNS) remains unknown. Here we describe a strategy by which HSV-1 avoids immune targeting in the CNS. The HSV-1 UL13 kinase promotes evasion of HSV-1-specific CD8+ T cell accumulation in infection sites by downregulating expression of the CD8+ T cell attractant chemokine CXCL9 in the CNS of infected mice, leading to increased HSV-1 mortality due to encephalitis...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890393/the-antiviral-activity-of-arbidol-hydrochloride-against-herpes-simplex-virus-type-i-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#17
Min-Ke Li, Yuan-Yuan Liu, Fei Wei, Meng-Xin Shen, Yan Zhong, Shan Li, Liang-Jun Chen, Nian Ma, Bing-Yu Liu, Yi-Dong Mao, Ning Li, Wei Hou, Hai-Rong Xiong, Zhan-Qiu Yang
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) causes significant human diseases from skin lesions to encephalitis, especially in neonates and immunocompromised hosts. The discovery of novel anti-HSV-1 drugs with low toxicity is in demand for public health. Arbidol Hydrochloride (ARB) is an indole-derivative molecule with broad-spectrum antiviral activity. In this study, we evaluated the antiviral effects of ARB against HSV-1 infection using in vitro and in vivo models. The results showed that ARB presents significant inhibitory effect on HSV-1 plaque formation and generation of progeny virus with EC50 value of 5...
September 7, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853520/-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-nmda-encephalitis-the-israeli-pediatric-multi-center-experience
#18
Keren Politi, Dafna Marom, Shay Ashkenazi, Gilat Livni, Hadassa Goldberg, Avinoam Shuper, Tami Steinberg, Eli Lahat, Eli Haiman, Rachel Shtrausberg
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) encephalitis is a disorder characterized by acute neuro-psychiatric symptoms, appearing mostly after a recent febrile disease, with a gradual progressive course, associated with laboratory or radiologic evidence of active inflammation. Many of the patients will present with a continuous neuro-cognitive disorder which could lead to major morbidity and even mortality. It was recently reported that this disorder can present at childhood as a primary disease or as a secondary complication of herpes simplex infection...
August 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843301/50-years-ago-in-the-journal-of-pediatrics-brain-scan-in-a-patient-with-herpes-simplex-encephalitis
#19
Dawn Duane
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838686/use-of-high-b-value-diffusion-weighted-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-acute-encephalopathy-encephalitis-during-childhood
#20
Yoshiko Tsubouchi, Shinji Itamura, Yoshiaki Saito, Eijiro Yamashita, Yuki Shinohara, Tetsuya Okazaki, Koyo Ohno, Yoko Nishimura, Masayoshi Oguri, Yoshihiro Maegaki
AIM: To determine the use of high b value diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the diagnosis and assessment of acute febrile encephalopathy/encephalitis in childhood. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We enrolled 22 children, for whom we examined DWI with b=1000s/mm(2), DWI with b=3000s/mm(2), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map with b=1000 during the acute phase of febrile encephalopathy/encephalitis. Clinical diagnoses included acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD; n=6), clinically mild encephalopathy/encephalitis with a reversible splenial lesion (MERS; n=6), and herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSE; n=3), unclassified acute encephalopathy/acute encephalitis (n=2); acute encephalitis with refractory, repetitive partial seizures (AERRPS; n=1); other encephalopathy (n=1); infarction (n=1); head injury (n=1); or mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (n=1)...
August 21, 2017: Brain & Development
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