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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944687/heavy-drinking-among-individuals-with-hiv-who-drinks-despite-knowledge-of-the-risk
#1
Jennifer C Elliott, Malka Stohl, Deborah S Hasin
Heavy drinking can cause medical problems for individuals with HIV, and drinking despite medical contraindications indicates problem use. However, little is known about which individuals with HIV drink despite knowledge of health problems. This study utilizes two subsamples of individuals with HIV from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III): those reporting at least one drink (a) in their lifetime (n = 205) or (b) in the past year (n = 166). Participants reported on drinking despite health problems and psychopathology in the past year and in their lifetime, and family history of alcohol problems...
September 25, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944517/biomechanical-comparison-of-xenogeneic-bone-material-treated-with-different-methods
#2
Wei Feng, Dongsong Li, Junting Zang, Li Fu
Bone xenografting is considered one of the most effective ways to address the shortage of bone autografts and allografts. Various methods have been employed to minimize the immune rejection issues associated with bone xenografts. However, the side effects of such methods on bone biomechanical properties remain unclear. As such, the objective of this study was to compare the influence of different treatments on the biomechanical properties of porcine bones. Fresh pig ribs were cut into 1.5 × 0.5 × 0.4 cm specimens, which were randomly divided into four groups and subjected to different modification regimes: group A by degreasing and partial deproteinization, group B by cryopreservation, group C by cryopreservation and enzyme digestion, and group D was a control group using fresh bone...
September 24, 2017: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944483/morbidity-and-mortality-associated-with-preclinical-tracheostomy-models
#3
Gregory R Dion, Peter A Benedict, Milan R Amin, Ryan C Branski
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: A secure airway is critical to study obstructive disorders of the larynx and trachea in preclinical models. Tracheostomy has been described in rabbits, swine, canines, and other mammals using tracheostomy tubes or permanent stomas. No studies specifically evaluated morbidity and mortality associated with these models, and existing studies using tracheostomy make little mention of tracheostomy-related complications. We assessed the management, complications, and mortality associated with tracheostomy in a rabbit model that has recently gained significant attention...
September 25, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944436/correlation-between-production-performance-and-feeding-behavior-of-steers-on-pasture-during-the-rainy-dry-transition-period
#4
Rita K C Brandão, Gleidson G P de Carvalho, Robério R Silva, Daniel L S Dias, Fabrício B L Mendes, Túlio O J D'A Lins, Maria M S Pereira, Joanderson O Guimarães, Manuela S L Tosto, Luana M de A Rufino, Maria L G M L de Araujo
The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between production performance and feeding behavior of steers reared on pasture during the rainy-dry transition period. Twenty-two ½ Holstein-Zebu crossbred steers at an average age of 10 months and with an average initial body weight of 234.5 ± 16.0 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with two types of supplementation and eleven replications. Pearson's linear correlation analysis was performed between behavioral variables and weight gain and feed conversion...
September 24, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944102/sex-differences-in-suicide-related-symptoms-in-a-large-military-sample
#5
Megan L Rogers, Fallon B Ringer, Matthew S Michaels, Bruno Chiurliza, Christopher R Hagan, Carol Chu, Matthew E Schneider, Ingrid C Lim, Thomas E Joiner
Little research has focused on suicide-related symptoms in female servicemembers, despite high rates of suicidal behaviors. This study examined sex differences in suicide-related risk factors in 3,374 U.S. Army Recruiters (91.9% male). Female servicemembers had a greater number of past major depressive and suicidal ideation episodes than males; there were no differences in suicide attempt histories or mental health visits. Females reported significantly fewer symptoms of current suicidal ideation, perceived burdensomeness, and acquired capability...
2017: Military Behavioral Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943865/the-effects-of-nutrient-imbalances-and-temperature-on-the-biomass-stoichiometry-of-freshwater-bacteria
#6
Katherine N Phillips, Casey M Godwin, James B Cotner
Two contemporary effects of humans on aquatic ecosystems are increasing temperatures and increasing nutrient concentrations from fertilizers. The response of organisms to these perturbations has important implications for ecosystem processes. We examined the effects of phosphorus (P) supply and temperature on organismal carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus (C, N, and P) content, cell size and allocation into internal P pools in three strains of recently isolated bacteria (Agrobacterium sp., Flavobacterium sp., and Arthrobacter sp...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943676/bidirectional-pathways-between-relational-aggression-and-temperament-from-late-childhood-to-adolescence
#7
Olivia E Atherton, Jennifer L Tackett, Emilio Ferrer, Richard W Robins
Relational aggression is linked to numerous adverse consequences. However, we know little about how temperament leads individuals to become perpetrators/victims of relational aggression, or how being a perpetrator/victim influences the development of temperament. We used longitudinal data from 674 Mexican-origin youth to examine relations between relational aggression and mother- and child-reported temperament from 5(th) grade (Mage=10.8; SD=0.60) through 11(th) grade (Mage=16.8; SD=0.50). Results show that: (a) high Negative Emotionality and low Effortful Control predicted increases in victimization; (b) low Effortful Control predicted increases in perpetration; (c) victims increased in Negative Emotionality and decreased in Effortful Control; and (d) perpetrators increased in Negative Emotionality and Surgency...
April 2017: Journal of Research in Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943340/decoupling-brain-from-nerve-cord-development-in-the-annelid-capitella-teleta-insights-into-the-evolution-of-nervous-systems
#8
Allan M Carrillo-Baltodano, Néva P Meyer
In the deuterostomes and ecdysozoans that have been studied (e.g. chordates and insects), neural fate specification relies on signaling from surrounding cells. However, very little is known about mechanisms of neural specification in the third major bilaterian clade, spiralians. Using blastomere isolation in the annelid Capitella teleta, a spiralian, we studied to what extent extrinsic versus intrinsic signals are involved in early neural specification of the brain and ventral nerve cord. For the first time in any bilaterian, we found that brain neural ectoderm is autonomously specified...
September 21, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943234/association-between-antidepressants-and-fall-related-injuries-among-long-term-care-residents
#9
Jennifer C Macri, Andrea Iaboni, Julia G Kirkham, Colleen Maxwell, Sudeep S Gill, Akshya Vasudev, Marlo Whitehead, Dallas P Seitz
OBJECTIVES: Antidepressants are associated with an increased risk of falls although little is known of the comparative risks of different types of antidepressants or individuals who are at greatest risk for falls. We examined the association between new use of antidepressants and fall-related injuries among older adults in long-term care (LTC). DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: This was a matched, retrospective cohort study involving LTC residents in Ontario, Canada, from 2008 to 2014...
September 1, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943232/daily-opioid-use-fluctuates-as-a-function-of-pain-catastrophizing-and-affect-in-patients-with-sickle-cell-disease-an-electronic-daily-diary-analysis
#10
Patrick H Finan, C Patrick Carroll, Gyasi Moscou-Jackson, Marc O Martel, Claudia M Campbell, Alex Pressman, Joshua M Smyth, Jean-Michel Tremblay, Sophie M Lanzkron, Jennifer A Haythornthwaite
Chronic opioid therapy is a common treatment regimen for patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), a chronically painful recessive hemoglobinopathy. The collective risk profile of chronic opioid therapy necessitates an understanding of which pain-related factors, such as affect and pain catastrophizing, are associated with the ebbs and flows of opioid use in daily life, a topic that has received very little attention among patients with any type of chronically painful condition, including SCD. We therefore investigated the variability of day-to-day patterns of short and long-acting opioid use and their associations with pain and pain-related cognitive and affective processes in daily life among patients with SCD using a nightly electronic diary (N = 45)...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942846/trichosporon-asahii-secretes-a-30-kda-aspartic-peptidase
#11
Roberta S Valle, Lívia S Ramos, Vanessa J Reis, Mariangela Ziccardi, Marcos Dornelas-Ribeiro, Cátia L Sodré, Marta H Branquinha, André L S Santos
Trichosporon asahii is a fungal opportunistic pathogen that causes superficial and deep-seated infections presenting high mortality. Very little is known about the virulence attributes produced by this fungus. Herein, aspartic peptidase production was identified in Brazilian clinical isolates of T. asahii by different methodologies. Initially, T. asahii strain 250 (from skin lesion) was inoculated in both liquid and solid culture media containing bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the sole nitrogenous source. A translucent halo around the fungal colony was observed from the 5th day of culture...
December 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942701/feeding-tubes-and-health-care-service-utilization-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-benefits-and-limits-to-a-retrospective-multicenter-study-using-big-data
#12
Keith M Swetz, Stephanie M Peterson, Lindsey R Sangaralingham, Ryan T Hurt, Shannon M Dunlay, Nilay D Shah, Jon C Tilburt
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive, fatal neurologic disorder with predictable challenges regarding disease progression and end-of-life care. These include need for respiratory and nutritional support. Little is known about how such choices impact end-of-life health service utilization for these patients. Using OptumLabs Data Warehouse, a large administrative claims database with more than 150 million privately insured, geographically diverse enrollees, we sought to explore outcomes associated with the use of enteral nutrition (EN)...
January 1, 2017: Inquiry: a Journal of Medical Care Organization, Provision and Financing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942490/susceptibility-of-mice-to-bovine-herpesvirus-type-5-infection-in-the-central-nervous-system
#13
L P Mesquita, R C Costa, M M Fusuma, F R P Bruhn, E Mori, E M Pituco, C M C Mori, R Weiblen, P C Maiorka
Bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5) is an important pathogen that causes meningoencephalitis in cattle. Few studies have used the mouse as a model for BoHV-5 infection. Despite the fact that BoHV-5 can infect mice with immune deficiencies, little is known about viral replication, immune response, and the course of infection in the central nervous system (CNS) of wild-type mice. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the response in the CNS of BALB/c mice acutely infected with BoHV-5 at different days post-inoculation (dpi)...
September 23, 2017: Veterinary Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942425/chromosome-healing-is-promoted-by-the-telomere-cap-component-hiphop-in-drosophila
#14
Rebeccah L Kurzhals, Laura Fanti, A C Gonzalez Ebsen, Yikang S Rong, Sergio Pimpinelli, Kent G Golic
The addition of a new telomere onto a chromosome break, a process termed healing, has been studied extensively in organisms that utilize telomerase to maintain their telomeres. In comparison, relatively little is known about how new telomeres are constructed on broken chromosomes in organisms that do not use telomerase. Chromosome healing was studied in somatic and germline cells of Drosophila melanogaster, a non-telomerase species. We observed, for the first time, that broken chromosomes can be healed in somatic cells...
September 23, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942377/quantifying-pteridines-in-the-heads-of-blow-flies-diptera-calliphoridae-application-for-forensic-entomology
#15
J A Cammack, M H Reiskind, L M Guisewite, S S Denning, D W Watson
In forensic cases involving entomological evidence, establishing the postcolonization interval (post-CI) is a critical component of the investigation. Traditional methods of estimating the post-CI rely on estimating the age of immature blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) collected from remains. However, in cases of delayed discovery (e.g., when remains are located indoors), these insects may have completed their development and be present in the environment as adults. Adult fly collections are often ignored in cases of advanced decomposition because of a presumed little relevance to the investigation; herein we present information on how these insects can be of value...
September 12, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942358/claspin-functions-in-cell-homeostasis-a-link-to-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Diana Azenha, Maria Celeste Lopes, Teresa C Martins
Cancer remains one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Most cancers present high degrees of genomic instability. DNA damage and replication checkpoints function as barriers to halt cell cycle progression until damage is resolved, preventing the perpetuation of errors. Activation of these checkpoints is critically dependent on Claspin, an adaptor protein that mediates the phosphorylation of the effector kinase Chk1 by ATR. However, Claspin also performs other roles related to the protection and maintenance of cell and genome integrity...
September 8, 2017: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942307/renal-interstitial-lipid-accumulation-in-cats-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#17
A L Martino-Costa, F Malhão, C Lopes, P Dias-Pereira
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common progressive condition described in dogs and cats, involving several non-specific morphological and histological lesions. Recently, renal interstitial lipid accumulation was reported in cats with CKD; however, to date, little is known about this condition and its pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and to characterize renal interstitial lipid deposits in dogs and cats. A total of 49 animals (27 cats and 22 dogs) with CKD were included in the study...
August 2017: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942303/lymphoma-koala-retrovirus-infection-and-reproductive-chlamydiosis-in-a-koala-phascolarctos-cinereus
#18
J Fabijan, L Woolford, S Lathe, G Simmons, F Hemmatzadeh, D J Trott, N Speight
Koala retrovirus (KoRV) infection, thought to be associated with lymphoid neoplasia, and Chlamydia pecorum-related ocular and urogenital disease are both highly prevalent in eastern Australian koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) populations. However, in South Australian koalas, little is known about KoRV infection and C. pecorum-associated disease. We report the first South Australian case of lymphoma in a KoRV-A-positive female koala also affected by severe reproductive chlamydiosis. The koala was from the Mount Lofty Ranges population and was presented with hindlimb lameness...
August 2017: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942255/melamine-based-dendrimer-amine-modified-magnetic-nanoparticles-as-an-efficient-pb-ii-adsorbent-for-wastewater-treatment-adsorption-optimization-by-response-surface-methodology
#19
Fatemeh Jiryaei Sharahi, Afsaneh Shahbazi
Magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles with an average diameter of 64 nm was synthesized solvothermically and subsequently modified with melamine-based dendrimer amine (MDA-Fe3O4) via grafting method. The synthesized materials were characterized using DLS, SEM, XRD, FTIR, VSM, TGA and elemental analysis techniques. The MDA-Fe3O4 was employed for the efficient removal of Pb(II) ions from an aqueous solution. The adsorption efficiency was investigated in relation to the independent variables of Pb(II) concentration (80-250 mg L(-1)), pH of the solution (3-7), adsorbent dosage (0...
September 14, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941932/the-intergenerational-transmission-of-problem-gambling-the-mediating-role-of-offspring-gambling-expectancies-and-motives
#20
N A Dowling, E Oldenhof, K Shandley, G J Youssef, S Vasiliadis, S A Thomas, E Frydenberg, A C Jackson
INTRODUCTION: The risk for developing a gambling problem is greater among offspring who have a problem gambling parent, yet little research has directly examined the mechanisms by which this transmission of problem gambling occurs. For this reason, the present study sought to examine the degree to which children's expectancies and motives relating to gambling explain, at least in part, the intergenerational transmission of problem gambling. METHODS: Participants (N=524; 56...
September 11, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
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