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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432932/surveillance-of-vittaforma-corneae-in-hot-springs-by-a-small-volume-procedure
#1
Jung-Sheng Chen, Tsui-Kang Hsu, Bing-Mu Hsu, Tung-Yi Huang, Yu-Li Huang, Men-Fang Shaio, Dar-Der Ji
Vittaforma corneae is an obligate intracellular fungus and can cause human ocular microsporidiosis. Although accumulating reports of V. corneae causing keratoconjunctivitis in both healthy and immunocompromised persons have been published, little is known about the organism's occurrence in aquatic environments. Limitations in detection sensitivity have meant a large sampling volume is required to detect the pathogen up to now, which is problematic. A recent study in Taiwan has shown that some individuals suffering from microsporidial keratitis (MK) were infected after exposure to the pathogen at a hot spring...
April 19, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432826/ploidy-has-little-effect-on-timing-early-embryonic-events-in-the-haplo-diploid-wasp-nasonia
#2
Deanna Arsala, Jeremy A Lynch
The nucleocytoplasmic (N/C) ratio plays a prominent role in the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) in many animals. The effect of the N/C ratio on cell-cycle lengthening and zygotic genome activation (ZGA) has been studied extensively in Drosophila, where haploid embryos experience an additional division prior to completing cellularization and triploid embryos cellularize precociously by one division. In this study, we set out to understand how the obligate difference in ploidy in the haplodiploid wasp, Nasonia, affects the MZT and which aspects of the Drosophila MZT are conserved...
April 22, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432592/perceptual-learning-with-tactile-stimuli-in-rodents-shaping-the-somatosensory-system
#3
REVIEW
Nicole Pacchiarini, Kevin Fox, R C Honey
The animal kingdom contains species with a wide variety of sensory systems that have been selected to function in different environmental niches, but that are also subject to modification by experience during an organism's lifetime. The modification of such systems by experience is often called perceptual learning. In rodents, the classic example of perceptual learning is the observation that simple preexposure to two visual stimuli facilitates a subsequent (reinforced) discrimination between them. However, until recently very little behavioral research had investigated perceptual learning with tactile stimuli in rodents, in marked contrast to the wealth of information about plasticity in the rodent somatosensory system...
April 21, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432575/liver-transplantation-the-role-of-metabolic-syndrome
#4
REVIEW
Brian C Davis, M Shadab Siddiqui
The long-term survival in liver transplant recipients (LTRs) is currently at an historical high level stemming from improvement in perioperative care, infection control, and immunosuppression medications. However, compared to the general population, LTRs have decreased survival. Metabolic diseases like hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, and obesity are key determinants of long-term mortality in LTRs. The incidence and prevalence of these metabolic comorbidities is considerably higher in LTRs and likely results from a combination of factors including exposure to chronic immunosuppression, weight gain, and recurrence of chronic liver disease after liver transplantation (LT)...
April 21, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432564/unintended-pregnancy-and-contraceptive-use-among-women-veterans-the-ecuun-study
#5
Sonya Borrero, Lisa S Callegari, Xinhua Zhao, Maria K Mor, Florentina E Sileanu, Galen Switzer, Susan Zickmund, Donna L Washington, Laurie C Zephyrin, E Bimla Schwarz
BACKGROUND: Little is known about contraceptive care for the growing population of women veterans who receive care in the Veterans Administration (VA) healthcare system. OBJECTIVE: To determine rates of contraceptive use, unmet need for prescription contraception, and unintended pregnancy among reproductive-aged women veterans. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: We conducted a cross-sectional, telephone-based survey with a national sample of 2302 women veterans aged 18-44 years who had received primary care in the VA within the prior 12 months...
April 21, 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432140/visually-evoked-3-5-hz-membrane-potential-oscillations-reduce-the-responsiveness-of-visual-cortex-neurons-in-awake-behaving-mice
#6
Michael C Einstein, Pierre-Olivier Polack, Duy T Tran, Peyman Golshani
Low frequency membrane potential (Vm) oscillations were once thought to only occur in sleeping and anesthetized states. Recently, low frequency Vm oscillations have been described in inactive awake animals, but it is unclear if they shape sensory processing in neurons and whether they occur during active awake behavioral states. To answer these questions, we performed two-photon guided whole-cell Vm recordings from primary visual cortex layer 2/3 excitatory and inhibitory neurons in awake mice during passive visual stimulation and performance of visual and auditory discrimination tasks...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432100/casein-kinase-i-isoform-hrr25-is-a-negative-regulator-of-haa1-in-the-weak-acid-stress-response-pathway-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#7
Morgan E Collins, Joshua J Black, Zhengchang Liu
Haa1 is a transcription factor that adapts Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells to weak organic acid stresses by activating the expression of various genes. Many of these genes encode membrane proteins such as TPO2 and YRO2 How Haa1 is activated by weak acids is not clear. Here, we show that casein kinase I isoform Hrr25 is an important negative regulator of Haa1. Haa1 is known to be multiply phosphorylated. We found that mutations in HRR25 lead to reduced Haa1 phosphorylation and increased expression of Haa1-target genes, and that Hrr25 interacts with Haa1...
April 21, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431845/infection-prevention-and-control-and-the-refugee-population-experiences-from-the-university-of-louisville-global-health-center
#8
Ruth M Carrico, Linda Goss, Timothy L Wiemken, Rahel S Bosson, Paula Peyrani, William A Mattingly, Allison Pauly, Rebecca A Ford, Stanley Kotey, Julio A Ramirez
BACKGROUND: During 2016, approximately 140,000 individuals entered the United States as part of the federal government refugee resettlement program and established themselves in communities in virtually every state. No national database regarding refugee health currently exists; therefore, little is known about existing infectious diseases, conditions, and cultural practices that impact successful acculturation. The objective of this report is to identify what is currently known about refugees and circumstances important to infection prevention and control with respect to their roles as new community members, employees, and consumers of health care...
April 18, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431357/soil-organic-carbon-and-nitrogen-pools-drive-soil-c-co2-emissions-from-selected-soils-in-maritime-antarctica
#9
C V Pires, C E R G Schaefer, A K Hashigushi, A Thomazini, E I F Filho, E S Mendonça
The ongoing trend of increasing air temperatures will potentially affect soil organic matter (SOM) turnover and soil C-CO2 emissions in terrestrial ecosystems of Maritime Antarctica. The effects of SOM quality on this process remain little explored. We evaluated (i) the quantity and quality of soil organic matter and (ii) the potential of C release through CO2 emissions in lab conditions in different soil types from Maritime Antarctica. Soil samples (0-10 and 10-20cm) were collected in Keller Peninsula and the vicinity of Arctowski station, to determine the quantity and quality of organic matter and the potential to emit CO2 under different temperature scenarios (2, 5, 8 and 11°C) in lab...
April 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431176/effect-of-melatonin-on-renewal-of-chicken-small-intestinal-mucosa
#10
J Li, R X Li, G Liu, C F Lv, Y L Mi, C Q Zhang
A higher concentration of melatonin (MEL) in the intestine - even more than that in the plasma and pineal gland - implies its putative important role in the gastrointestinal structural or functional regulation. However, little evidence has shown that MEL can regulate the physiological functions of the intestinal mucosa. In this study, fertilized chicken eggs were treated with MEL (0.1 to 10 μg/d) from embryonic d 12 (E12) to post-hatching d 6 (D6), and the small intestine samples were collected at D6 to determine the changes in mucosal construction and function...
April 20, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430995/is-popular-radio-a-source-of-exposure-to-alcohol-references-in-mid-to-later-life-a-content-analysis
#11
C Haighton, J Halligan, S Scott
Background: There is concern around alcohol consumption in mid to later life yet little understanding about what influences this behaviour. No previous research has explored the extent to which adults in mid to later life may be exposed to alcohol references in the media. This project aimed to determine the frequency of alcohol references on radio stations with a high proportion of listeners in mid to later life. Methods: Content analysis of alcohol references on four popular UK music-based radio stations with a high proportion of listeners aged 55-64 years over three time points...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430865/unmet-needs-in-the-first-line-treatment-of-follicular-lymphoma
#12
C Casulo, L Nastoupil, N H Fowler, J W Friedberg, C R Flowers
For the majority of patients with newly diagnosed follicular lymphoma (FL), current treatments, while not curative, allow for long remission durations. However, several important needs remain unaddressed. Studies have consistently shown that approximately 20% of patients with FL experience disease progression within 2 years of first-line treatment, and consequently have a 50% risk of death in 5 years. Better characterization of this group of patients at diagnosis may provide insight into those in need of alternate or intensive therapies, facilitate a precision approach to inform clinical trials, and allow for improved patient counseling...
April 18, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430778/a-no-film-slot-blot-for-the-detection-of-developing-p-falciparum-oocysts-in-mosquitoes
#13
Bryan Grabias, Nitin Verma, Hong Zheng, Abhai K Tripathi, Godfree Mlambo, Merribeth J Morin, Emily Locke, Sanjai Kumar
Non-microscopy-based assays for sensitive and rapid detection of Plasmodium infection in mosquitoes are needed to allow rapid and high throughput measurement of transmission intensity and malaria control program effectiveness. Here, we report on a modified enhanced chemiluminescence-based slot blot assay for detection of Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) circumsporozite protein (PfCSP) expressed on parasite oocysts developing inside the mosquito midgut. This modified assay has several novel features that include eliminating the need for exposure to autoradiography (AR) film, as well as utilizing a novel high affinity anti-CSP antibody, and optimizing assay procedures resulting in significant reduction in the time required to perform the assay...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430421/flexibility-of-the-carbodiphosphorane-ph3p-2c-structural-characterization-of-a-linear-form
#14
Patrick J Quinlivan, Gerard Parkin
X-ray diffraction studies demonstrate that crystals of the carbodiphosphorane, (Ph3P)2C, obtained from solutions in benzene, exhibit a linear P-C-P interaction. This observation is in contrast to the highly bent structures that have been previously reported for this molecule, thereby providing experimental evidence that the coordination geometry at zerovalent carbon may be very flexible. Density functional theory calculations support the experimental observations by demonstrating that the energy of (Ph3P)2C varies relatively little over the range 130-180°...
April 21, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430309/variation-in-use-of-technology-among-vascular-access-specialists-an-analysis-of-the-picc1-survey
#15
Vineet Chopra, Latoya Kuhn, David Ratz, Suzanne Winter, Peter J Carr, David Paje, Sarah L Krein
BACKGROUND: While the use of technologies such as ultrasound and electrocardiographic (ECG) guidance systems to place peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) has grown, little is known about the clinicians who use these tools or their work settings. METHODS: Using data from a national survey of vascular access specialists, we identified technology users as PICC inserters that: (a) use ultrasound to find a suitable vein for catheter placement; (b) measure catheter-to-vein ratio; and (c) use ECG for PICC placement...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Vascular Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430015/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-mindfulness-and-acceptance-group-therapy-for-residential-substance-use-patients
#16
Ryan C Shorey, Joanna Elmquist, Michael J Gawrysiak, Catherine Strauss, Ellen Haynes, Scott Anderson, Gregory L Stuart
BACKGROUND: Substance use disorders are understood as a chronically relapsing condition that is difficult to treat. However, in recent years there have been promising developments in the treatment of substance use disorders, specifically with interventions based on mindfulness and acceptance and commitment therapy. Little research has examined whether these types of interventions may positively impact residential substance use treatment outcomes. OBJECTIVES: Thus, in the current study we developed and examined, in a randomized controlled trial, a 4-week, eight-session, adjunctive mindfulness and acceptance group therapy for patients in residential substance use treatment...
April 21, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429625/trichotillomania-and-its-clinical-relationship-to-depression-and-anxiety
#17
Jon E Grant, Sarah A Redden, Gustavo C Medeiros, Brian L Odlaug, Erin E Curley, Hermano Tavares, Nancy J Keuthen
OBJECTIVE: Trichotillomania (TTM) is associated with high rates of co-occurring depression and anxiety disorders. What the co-occurrence of TTM, depression or anxiety disorders means clinically and cognitively, however, has garnered little research attention. METHODS: About 530 adults with TTM were examined on a variety of clinical measures including symptom severity, psychosocial measures of functioning, psychiatric comorbidity and neurocognitive testing assessing motor inhibition and cognitive flexibility...
April 21, 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428844/stable-isotope-analyses-a-method-to-distinguish-intensively-farmed-from-wild-frogs
#18
Carolin Dittrich, Ulrich Struck, Mark-Oliver Rödel
Consumption of frog legs is increasing worldwide, with potentially dramatic effects for ecosystems. More and more functioning frog farms are reported to exist. However, due to the lack of reliable methods to distinguish farmed from wild-caught individuals, the origin of frogs in the international trade is often uncertain. Here, we present a new methodological approach to this problem. We investigated the isotopic composition of legally traded frog legs from suppliers in Vietnam and Indonesia. Muscle and bone tissue samples were examined for δ(15)N, δ(13)C, and δ(18)O stable isotope compositions, to elucidate the conditions under which the frogs grew up...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428815/service-user-and-care-giver-involvement-in-mental-health-system-strengthening-in-nepal-a-qualitative-study-on-barriers-and-facilitating-factors
#19
Dristy Gurung, Nawaraj Upadhyaya, Jananee Magar, Nir Prakash Giri, Charlotte Hanlon, Mark J D Jordans
BACKGROUND: Service user and caregiver involvement has become an increasingly common strategy to enhance mental health outcomes, and has been incorporated in the mental healthpolicies of many developed nations. However, this practice is non-existent or fragmented in low and middle income countries (LMICs). Instances of service user and caregiver involvement have been rising slowly in a few LMICs, but are rarely described in the literature. Very little is known about the context of user and caregiver participation in mental health system strengthening processes in a low-income, disaster- and conflict-affected state such as Nepal...
2017: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428253/twitchin-kinase-inhibits-muscle-activity
#20
Yohei Matsunaga, Hyundoo Hwang, Barbara Franke, Rhys Williams, McKenna Penley, Hiroshi Qadota, Hong Yi, Levi T Morran, Hang Lu, Olga Mayans, Guy M Benian
Muscle sarcomeres contain giant polypeptides composed of multiple immunoglobulin and fibronectin domains and one or two protein kinase domains. Although binding partners for a number of this family's kinase domains have been identified, the catalytic necessity of these kinase domains remains unknown. In addition, various members of this kinase family are suspected pseudokinases with no, or little, activity. Here, we address catalytic necessity for the first time using the prototypic invertebrate representative twitchin (UNC-22) from C...
April 20, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
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