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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335021/mri-visible-perivascular-space-location-is-associated-with-alzheimer-s-disease-independently-of-amyloid-burden
#1
Gargi Banerjee, Hee Jin Kim, Zoe Fox, H Rolf Jäger, Duncan Wilson, Andreas Charidimou, Han Kyu Na, Duk L Na, Sang Won Seo, David J Werring
Perivascular spaces that are visible on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are a neuroimaging marker of cerebral small vessel disease. Their location may relate to the type of underlying small vessel pathology: those in the white matter centrum semi-ovale have been associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy, while those in the basal ganglia have been associated with deep perforating artery arteriolosclerosis. As cerebral amyloid angiopathy is an almost invariable pathological finding in Alzheimer's disease, we hypothesized that MRI-visible perivascular spaces in the centrum semi-ovale would be associated with a clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, whereas those in the basal ganglia would be associated with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment...
February 17, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333036/apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B54-specific-imbalance-of-arachidonic-acid-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-in-serum-phospholipids-identifies-individuals-with-preclinical-mild-cognitive-impairment-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Laila Abdullah, James E Evans, Tanja Emmerich, Gogce Crynen, Ben Shackleton, Andrew P Keegan, Cheryl Luis, Leon Tai, Mary J LaDu, Michael Mullan, Fiona Crawford, Corbin Bachmeier
This study was designed to explore the influence of apolipoprotein E (APOE) on blood phospholipids (PL) in predicting preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD). Lipidomic analyses were also performed on blood from an AD mouse model expressing human APOE isoforms (EFAD) and five AD mutations and from 195 cognitively normal participants, 23 of who converted to mild cognitive impairment (MCI)/AD within 3 years. APOE ε4-carriers converting to MCI/AD had high arachidonic acid (AA)/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) ratios in PL compared to cognitively normal ε4 and non-ε4 carriers...
March 23, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332615/integrative-variants-haplotypes-and-diplotypes-of-the-capn3-and-frmd5-genes-and-several-environmental-exposures-associate-with-serum-lipid-variables
#3
Tao Guo, Rui-Xing Yin, Ling Pan, Shuo Yang, Liu Miao, Feng Huang
To determine whether the integrative variants, haplotypes and diplotypes of the calpain 3 (CAPN3) and the FERM domain containing 5 genes (FRMD5) and several environmental exposures are associated with an implication in lipid homeostasis, which are associated with cardiovascular risk. Genotyping of the CAPN3 rs4344713 and FRMD5 rs524908 was performed by Sanger sequencing in 1,640 subjects (Jing, 819 and Han, 821). Multivariate analyses of covariance models that adjusted by age, gender, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure and lifestyle (smoking and drinking), were constructed using variants, haplotypes and diplotypes of the CAPN3 rs4344713 and FRMD5 rs524908 as predictors and changes in lipid variables...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331418/optimization-of-pcr-condition-the-first-study-of-high-resolution-melting-technique-for-screening-of-apoa1-variance
#4
Hesty Wahyuningsih, Ferdy K Cayami, Udin Bahrudin, Mochamad A Sobirin, Farmaditya Ep Mundhofir, Sultana Mh Faradz, Ichiro Hisatome
BACKGROUND: High resolution melting (HRM) is a post-PCR technique for variant screening and genotyping based on the different melting points of DNA fragments. The advantages of this technique are that it is fast, simple, and efficient and has a high output, particularly for screening of a large number of samples. APOA1 encodes apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1) which is a major component of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). This study aimed to obtain an optimal quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-HRM condition for screening of APOA1 variance...
March 2017: Yonago Acta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331304/does-urinary-peptide-content-differ-between-copd-patients-with-and-without-inherited-alpha-1-antitrypsin-deficiency
#5
Alfonso Carleo, Joanna Chorostowska-Wynimko, Thomas Koeck, Harald Mischak, Małgorzata Czajkowska-Malinowska, Adriana Rozy, Tobias Welte, Sabina Janciauskiene
Differentiating between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with normal (PiMM) or deficient (PiZZ) genetic variants of alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT) is important not only for understanding the pathobiology of disease progression but also for improving personalized therapies. This pilot study aimed to investigate whether urinary peptides reflect the A1AT-related phenotypes of COPD. Urine samples from 19 clinically stable COPD cases (7 PiMM and 12 PiZZ A1AT) were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331087/feline-immunodeficiency-virus-evolutionarily-acquires-two-proteins-vif-and-protease-capable-of-antagonizing-feline-apobec3
#6
Rokusuke Yoshikawa, Junko S Takeuchi, Eri Yamada, Yusuke Nakano, Naoko Misawa, Yuichi Kimura, Fengrong Ren, Takayuki Miyazawa, Yoshio Koyanagi, Kei Sato
The interplay between viral and host proteins has been well studied to elucidate virus-host interactions and their relevance to virulence. Mammalian genes encode apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3) proteins, which act as intrinsic restriction factors against lentiviruses. To overcome APOBEC3-mediated anti-viral actions, lentiviruses have evolutionarily acquired an accessory protein, viral infectivity factor (Vif), and Vif degrades host APOBEC3 proteins via a ubiquitin/proteasome-dependent pathway...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330873/amp-activated-protein-kinase-%C3%AE-1-promotes-atherogenesis-by-increasing-monocyte-to-macrophage-differentiation
#7
Miao Zhang, Huaiping Zhu, Ye Ding, Zhaoyu Liu, Zhejun Cai, Ming-Hui Zou
Monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation, which can be initiated by physiological or atherogenic factors, is a pivotal process in atherogenesis, a disorder in which monocytes adhere to endothelial cells and subsequently migrate into the sub-endothelial spaces, where they differentiate into macrophages and macrophage-derived foam cells and cause atherosclerotic lesions. However, the monocyte-differentiation signaling pathways that are activated by atherogenic factors are poorly defined. Here we report that the AMP- activated protein kinase (AMPK) α1 in monocytes promotes atherosclerosis by increasing monocyte differentiation and survival...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330813/atp-binding-cassette-transporter-a1-deficiency-in-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-hepatocytes-abrogates-hdl-biogenesis-and-enhances-triglyceride-secretion
#8
Xin Bi, Evanthia E Pashos, Marina Cuchel, Nicholas N Lyssenko, Mayda Hernandez, Antonino Picataggi, James McParland, Wenli Yang, Ying Liu, Ruilan Yan, Christopher Yu, Stephanie L DerOhannessian, Michael C Phillips, Edward E Morrisey, Stephen A Duncan, Daniel J Rader
Despite the recognized role of the ATP-binding Cassette Transporter A1 (ABCA1) in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism, our understanding of ABCA1 deficiency in human hepatocytes is limited. To define the functional effects of human hepatocyte ABCA1 deficiency, we generated induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) from Tangier disease (TD) and matched control subjects. Control HLCs exhibited robust cholesterol efflux to apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and formed nascent HDL particles...
March 14, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330509/chemically-treated-plasma-a%C3%AE-is-a-potential-blood-based-biomarker-for-screening-cerebral-amyloid-deposition
#9
Jong-Chan Park, Sun-Ho Han, Hyun Jin Cho, Min Soo Byun, Dahyun Yi, Young Min Choe, Seokjo Kang, Eun Sun Jung, Su Jin Won, Eun Hye Kim, Yu Kyeong Kim, Dong Young Lee, Inhee Mook-Jung
BACKGROUND: Plasma β-amyloid (Aβ) is a potential candidate for an Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarker because blood is an easily accessible bio-fluid, which can be collected routinely, and Aβ is one of the major hallmarks of AD pathogenesis in the brain. However, the association between plasma Aβ levels and AD diagnosis is still unclear due to the instability and inaccurate measurements of plasma Aβ levels in the blood of patients with AD. If a consistent value of plasma Aβ from the blood can be obtained, this might help determine whether plasma Aβ is a potential biomarker for AD diagnosis...
March 22, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329241/lipoprotein-a-the-revenant
#10
Baris Gencer, Florian Kronenberg, Erik S Stroes, François Mach
In the mid-1990s, the days of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] were numbered and many people would not have placed a bet on this lipid particle making it to the next century. However, genetic studies brought Lp(a) back to the front-stage after a Mendelian randomization approach used for the first time provided strong support for a causal role of high Lp(a) concentrations in cardiovascular disease and later also for aortic valve stenosis. This encouraged the use of therapeutic interventions to lower Lp(a) as well numerous drug developments, although these approaches mainly targeted LDL cholesterol, while the Lp(a)-lowering effect was only a 'side-effect'...
February 17, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327406/serum-non-hdl-cholesterol-to-apolipoprotein-b-ratio-as-a-screening-test-for-familial-dysbetalipoproteinaemia-type-iii-hyperlipidaemia-in-patients-with-mixed-hyperlipidaemia
#11
Christopher Boot, Elizabeth Holmes, R Dermot G Neely
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326331/effects-of-apolipoprotein-e-isoforms-in-diabetic-nephropathy-of-chinese-type-2-diabetic-patients
#12
YongWei Jiang, Liang Ma, ChengWu Han, Qian Liu, Xiao Cong, YaPing Xu, TingTing Zhao, Ping Li, YongTong Cao
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the major chronic complications of diabetes. Genetic polymorphism of Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) has been proposed to participating in DN. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between ApoE genetic polymorphism and the presence of DN in Chinese type 2 diabetic patients. We studied 845 diabetic patients who were divided into DN group (n = 429) and control group (n = 416). ApoE genotype was determined by ApoE genotyping chip and the plasmatic biochemical characterization was performed on all subjects...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326151/chronic-porphyromonas-gingivalis-infection-accelerates-the-occurrence-of-age-related-granules-in-apoe-mice-brains
#13
Sim K Singhrao, Sasanka Chukkapalli, Sophie Poole, Irina Velsko, St John Crean, Lakshmyya Kesavalu
This study explored the origin of age-related granules in the apolipoprotein E gene knockout (ApoE(-/-)) B6 background mice brains following chronic gingival infection with Porphyromonas gingivalis for 24 weeks. Intracerebral localization of P. gingivalis was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and its protease by immunohistochemistry. The age-related granules were observed by periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), silver impregnation, and immunostaining. FISH showed intracerebral dissemination of P...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325688/current-and-emerging-molecular-tests-for-human-papillomavirus-related-neoplasia-in-the-genomic-era
#14
REVIEW
Sixto M Leal, Margaret L Gulley
Laboratory tests have a key role in preventing human papillomavirus (HPV)-driven carcinomas and in guiding therapeutic interventions. An understanding of the virology, immunology, and carcinogenesis of HPV is essential for choosing appropriate diagnostic test modalities and developing new and even more effective cancer prevention strategies. HPV infects basal epithelial cells on multiple surfaces and induces carcinoma primarily in the cervix and the oropharynx. HPV types are stratified as high risk or low risk based on their carcinogenic potential, driven largely by viral interference with cell cycle regulation and the DNA damage response to promote continuous cell division while thwarting apoptosis, which enables mutation accumulation...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics: JMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324763/interaction-of-apoe-e4-and-poor-glycemic-control-predicts-white-matter-hyperintensity-growth-from-73-to-76
#15
Simon R Cox, Stuart J Ritchie, David Alexander Dickie, Alison Pattie, Natalie A Royle, Janie Corley, Benjamin S Aribisala, Sarah E Harris, Maria Valdés Hernández, Alan J Gow, Susana Muñoz Maniega, John M Starr, Mark E Bastin, Joanna M Wardlaw, Ian J Deary
We examined whether apolipoprotein E (APOE) status interacts with vascular risk factors (VRFs) to predict the progression of white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) on brain MRI scans over a specific period of life in older age when the risk of dementia increases. At age 73 years, baseline VRFs were assessed via self-reported history of diabetes, hypertension, smoking, and hypercholesterolemia, and via objective measures of blood HbA1c, body mass index, diastolic and systolic blood pressure, and blood high-density lipoprotein to total cholesterol (HDL) ratio...
February 27, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324341/beta-amyloid-deposition-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder-with-differing-levels-of-treatment-resistance-a-pilot-study
#16
Peng Li, Ing-Tsung Hsiao, Chia-Yih Liu, Chia-Hsiang Chen, She-Yao Huang, Tzu-Chen Yen, Kuan-Yi Wu, Kun-Ju Lin
BACKGROUND: Lack of treatment response in patients with late-life depression is common. The role of brain beta-amyloid (Aβ) deposition in treatment outcome in subjects with late-life depression remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate brain Aβ deposition in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) with differing treatment outcomes in vivo using (18)F-florbetapir imaging. This study included 62 MDD patients and 18 healthy control subjects (HCs).We first employed the Maudsley staging method (MSM) to categorize MDD patients into two groups according to treatment response: mild treatment resistance (n = 29) and moderate-to-severe treatment resistance (n = 33)...
December 2017: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323832/age-related-cognitive-decline-and-associations-with-sex-education-and-apolipoprotein-e-genotype-across-ethnocultural-groups-and-geographic-regions-a-collaborative-cohort-study
#17
Darren M Lipnicki, John D Crawford, Rajib Dutta, Anbupalam Thalamuthu, Nicole A Kochan, Gavin Andrews, M Fernanda Lima-Costa, Erico Castro-Costa, Carol Brayne, Fiona E Matthews, Blossom C M Stephan, Richard B Lipton, Mindy J Katz, Karen Ritchie, Jacqueline Scali, Marie-Laure Ancelin, Nikolaos Scarmeas, Mary Yannakoulia, Efthimios Dardiotis, Linda C W Lam, Candy H Y Wong, Ada W T Fung, Antonio Guaita, Roberta Vaccaro, Annalisa Davin, Ki Woong Kim, Ji Won Han, Tae Hui Kim, Kaarin J Anstey, Nicolas Cherbuin, Peter Butterworth, Marcia Scazufca, Shuzo Kumagai, Sanmei Chen, Kenji Narazaki, Tze Pin Ng, Qi Gao, Simone Reppermund, Henry Brodaty, Antonio Lobo, Raúl Lopez-Anton, Javier Santabárbara, Perminder S Sachdev
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of dementia varies around the world, potentially contributed to by international differences in rates of age-related cognitive decline. Our primary goal was to investigate how rates of age-related decline in cognitive test performance varied among international cohort studies of cognitive aging. We also determined the extent to which sex, educational attainment, and apolipoprotein E ε4 allele (APOE*4) carrier status were associated with decline. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We harmonized longitudinal data for 14 cohorts from 12 countries (Australia, Brazil, France, Greece, Hong Kong, Italy, Japan, Singapore, Spain, South Korea, United Kingdom, United States), for a total of 42,170 individuals aged 54-105 y (42% male), including 3...
March 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323681/predictors-that-a-diagnosis-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-will-remain-stable-3-years-later
#18
Matthew A Clem, Ryan P Holliday, Seema Pandya, Linda S Hynan, Laura H Lacritz, Fu L Woon
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In half to two thirds of patients who are diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), the diagnosis neither converts to dementia nor reverts to normal cognition; however, little is known about predictors of MCI stability. Our study aimed to identify those predictors. METHODS: We obtained 3-year longitudinal data from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center Uniform Data Set for patients with a baseline diagnosis of MCI. To predict MCI stability, we used the patients' baseline data to conduct three logistic regression models: demographics, global function, and neuropsychological performance...
March 2017: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323321/observed-hearing-loss-and-incident-dementia-in-a-multiethnic-cohort
#19
Justin S Golub, José A Luchsinger, Jennifer J Manly, Yaakov Stern, Richard Mayeux, Nicole Schupf
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether observed hearing loss (OHL) is associated with incident dementia in a multiethnic population. DESIGN: Prospective epidemiological cohort study. SETTING: Community in northern Manhattan. PARTICIPANTS: Participants in the Washington Heights-Inwood Columbia Aging Project, a longitudinal study on aging and dementia in an ethnically diverse community (n = 1,881). MEASUREMENTS: OHL was defined when the examiner observed it or according to self-reported hearing aid use...
March 21, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323160/effect-of-age-and-the-apoe-gene-on-metabolite-concentrations-in-the-posterior-cingulate-cortex
#20
Sana Suri, Uzay Emir, Charlotte J Stagg, Jamie Near, Ralf Mekle, Florian Schubert, E Zsoldos, Abda Mahmood, Archana Singh-Manoux, Mika Kivimäki, Klaus P Ebmeier, Clare E Mackay, Nicola Filippini
Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) has provided valuable information about the neurochemical profile of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, its clinical utility has been limited in part by the lack of consistent information on how metabolite concentrations vary in the normal aging brain and in carriers of apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4, an established risk gene for AD. We quantified metabolites within an 8cm(3) voxel within the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)/precuneus in 30 younger (20-40 years) and 151 cognitively healthy older individuals (60-85 years)...
March 16, 2017: NeuroImage
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