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NCD and India

Sharmistha Bhattacherjee, Saikat Datta, Jayanta Kumar Roy, Manasi Chakraborty
BACKGROUND: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs), principally cardiovascular diseases, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases, and diabetes are the leading causes of death and disability globally. The basic element of NCD prevention is the identification of the common risk factors and their prevention and control. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of risk factors for non-communicable diseases, in Siliguri city of West Bengal, India using WHO Steps approach. METHODS: Between April 2012 to July 2012, 779 adults of 18-64 years from Siliguri city were chosen by 30-cluster sampling...
December 2015: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Tazeen Jafar
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) defined as reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) or presence of albuminuria, progresses to end stage renal disease (ESRD), needing dialysis or kidney transplant to sustain life, and is associated with increased risks of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. CKD ranked 18 leading (and most rapidly rising cause of mortality by the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. The social and economic consequences of CKD are far worse in low and middle income countries (LMICs) including India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Jaya Prasad Tripathy, J S Thakur, Gursimer Jeet, Sohan Chawla, Sanjay Jain, Arnab Pal, Rajendra Prasad
AIMS: Raised blood cholesterol is an important risk factor for heart disease and stroke. Globally, one third of ischaemic heart disease is attributable to high cholesterol. This article reports prevalence of dyslipidemia in the North Indian state of Punjab as part of a large household Non Communicable Disease (NCD) Risk Factor Survey. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A household NCD STEPS survey was done in the state of Punjab, India in a multistage stratified sample of 5127 individuals...
August 23, 2016: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
Bibha Marak, Prabhdeep Kaur, Sudha R Rao, Sriram Selvaraju
We did cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of tobacco, alcohol use, hypertension and diabetes among tuberculosis (TB) patients in comparison to the non-TB patients in East Garo Hills District, Meghalaya, India. We surveyed 110 TB patients attending outpatient TB clinic and 110 age/sex matched non-TB subjects from the general outpatient department as comparison group. Prevalence of ever smoking was 74.5% and 55.4%; alcohol consumption 31.0% and 22.3%; hypertension 24.5% and 17.3%; diabetes 7.5%, 4...
April 2016: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
Rosemary Green, James Milner, Edward J M Joy, Sutapa Agrawal, Alan D Dangour
Dietary patterns analysis is an emerging area of research. Identifying distinct patterns within a large dietary survey can give a more accurate representation of what people are eating. Furthermore, it allows researchers to analyse relationships between non-communicable diseases (NCD) and complete diets rather than individual food items or nutrients. However, few such studies have been conducted in developing countries including India, where the population has a high burden of diabetes and CVD. We undertook a systematic review of published and grey literature exploring dietary patterns and relationships with diet-related NCD in India...
July 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Dinesh Kumar, Shyamsundar J Raithatha, Shanti Gupta, Ravi Raj, Nikhil Kharod
Introduction. Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) account for 53% of deaths and 44% of disability adjusted life years lost in India. A survey was undertaken to measure the prevalence of tobacco and alcohol use and self-reported NCDs in a rural community in western part of India. Methodology. Trained Village Health Workers did the survey in the years 2012-13 under supervision. The data was collected for five NCDs, namely, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cancer, heart disease, and mental illnesses. Results. 18,269 households with a population of 89755 were covered...
2015: International Journal of Chronic Diseases
Violet Jayamani, Vijayaprasad Gopichandran, Premila Lee, Greeda Alexander, Solomon Christopher, Jasmin Helan Prasad
INTRODUCTION: Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) such as diabetes, hypertension, and heart diseases are increasing in India. There is a clear need to study risk factors for NCDs in various population groups in the country. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This community based cross-sectional survey was conducted to study the diet and physical activity of women in urban and rural areas in Vellore district. Dietary data was collected using 24-h dietary recall and physical activity was collected using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ)...
October 2013: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Elizabeth D Brouwer, David Watkins, Zachary Olson, Jane Goett, Rachel Nugent, Carol Levin
BACKGROUND: The burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and CVD risk conditions is rapidly increasing in low- and middle-income countries, where health systems are generally ill-equipped to manage chronic disease. Policy makers need an understanding of the magnitude and drivers of the costs of cardiovascular disease related conditions to make decisions on how to allocate limited health resources. METHODS: We undertook a systematic review of the published literature on provider-incurred costs of treatment for cardiovascular diseases and risk conditions in low- and middle-income countries...
2015: BMC Public Health
Abhijit Pakhare, Sanjeev Kumar, Swati Goyal, Rajnish Joshi
BACKGROUND: Government of India has launched National Program for Prevention & Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases and Stroke (NPCDCS) to address high prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in India. Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) constitute a significant portion of NCD burden. While this program is yet to be launched in all districts of Madhya Pradesh state of India, we performed this study to understand facility-level gaps that need to be addressed to improve CVD services in primary care provided by the public sector...
2015: BMC Health Services Research
Evan L O'Keefe, James J DiNicolantonio, Harshal Patil, John H Helzberg, Carl J Lavie
Within the next 15years, India is projected to overtake China as the world's most populous nation. Due to the rapid pace of urbanization and modernization fueling population growth, in conjunction with a genetic predisposition to insulin resistance, India is suffering a rising epidemic of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), including coronary artery disease (CAD), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and stroke. In addition to the genetic predisposition, major negative lifestyle factors are contributing to the alarming outbreak of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among the Asian Indian population; these factors include: 1) a diet high in added sugar, refined grains and other processed foods, 2) physical inactivity, 3) vitamin D deficiency (VDD), and 4) smoking/pollution...
March 2016: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
John Tayu Lee, Fozia Hamid, Sanghamitra Pati, Rifat Atun, Christopher Millett
BACKGROUND: The burden of non-communicable disease (NCDs) has grown rapidly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where populations are ageing, with rising prevalence of multimorbidity (more than two co-existing chronic conditions) that will significantly increase pressure on already stretched health systems. We assess the impact of NCD multimorbidity on healthcare utilisation and out-of-pocket expenditures in six middle-income countries: China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa...
2015: PloS One
Pamela A Dyson, Denis Anthony, Brenda Fenton, Denise E Stevens, Beatriz Champagne, Li-Ming Li, Jun Lv, Jorge Ramírez Hernández, K R Thankappan, David R Matthews
BACKGROUND: Non-communicable disease (NCD) is increasing rapidly in low and middle-income countries (LMIC), and is associated with tobacco use, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity. There is little evidence for up-scaled interventions at the population level to reduce risk in LMIC. METHODS: The Community Interventions for Health (CIH) program was a population-scale community intervention study with comparator population group undertaken in communities in China, India, and Mexico, each with populations between 150,000-250,000...
2015: PloS One
Anindo Majumdar, Sitanshu Sekhar Kar, Ganesh Kumar S, Chinnakali Palanivel, Puneet Misra
Mobile health technology has been used effectively for healthcare delivery in many developing countries. India is currently facing an epidemic of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs). With greater availability of cheaper phones in the market, the user base of mobile phones in India is increasing rapidly. The present review was thus conducted to explore the current possibilities and future scope of mobile health for NCD prevention and control in India. Literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library to collect information regarding mobile health interventions...
February 2015: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Oyinlola Oyebode, Utz J Pape, Anthony A Laverty, John T Lee, Nandita Bhan, Christopher Millett
BACKGROUND: Understanding how urbanisation and rural-urban migration influence risk-factors for non-communicable disease (NCD) is crucial for developing effective preventative strategies globally. This study compares NCD risk-factor prevalence in urban, rural and migrant populations in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa. METHODS: Study participants were 39,436 adults within the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE), surveyed 2007-2010...
2015: PloS One
Rakesh Kumar
Monitoring of risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) over a period of time would be useful to make an indirect assessment of the actual disease burden. A cross-sectional survey was done among males aged 15-64 years, to study the prevalence of anthropometric and behavioral risk factors of NCDs. Information was collected on the sociodemographical factors, tobacco use, alcohol intake, diet, salt consumption, and physical activity, using a predesigned and pretested interview schedule. Anthropometric measurements were taken...
January 2015: Indian Journal of Public Health
Jaideep Menon, Jacob Joseph, Ajit Thachil, Thankachan V Attacheril, Amitava Banerjee
BACKGROUND: India carries the greatest burden of noncommunicable disease (NCD) globally. However, there are few contemporary, community-based studies of prevalence in India. Given the physician shortages in rural areas, large-scale, region-specific studies of NCD using community health workers (CHW) may offer a feasible means of NCD surveillance. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to conduct a large-scale, population-based, CHW-led study of NCDs in Kerala, India. METHODS: In rural Kerala, India, a population of 113,462 individuals was defined geographically by 5 panchayats (village councils)...
December 2014: Global Heart
W S Bhatki, Anthony Xalxo, Romel Lima, Domnic P Mukadam, Antony Samy
As per the Guidelines of National Leprosy Eradication Programme (NLEP), Government of India, new case detection (NCD) in leprosy is to be promoted by voluntary reporting through Information, Education and Communication (IEC). Accordingly, in addition to the routine IEC activities, Maharashtra Lokahita Seva Mandal (MLSM) carried out Selective Special Drive (SSD) in slum pockets in Mumbai since 2005-06. The SSD methodology prescribed under Leprosy Elimination Action Program (LEAP) of ALERT-INDIA was adopted which included selection of slum pockets, identification and training of Community Volunteers (CVs), door-to-door focused IEC through CVs using standard IEC material and referral of voluntarily reported suspected cases to nearby Health Posts under General Health Services or to Leprosy Referral Centre (LRC) established through MLSM for diagnosis and treatment...
April 2014: Indian Journal of Leprosy
Sukumar Vellakkal, Christopher Millett, Sanjay Basu, Zaky Khan, Amina Aitsi-Selmi, David Stuckler, Shah Ebrahim
BACKGROUND: The use of self-reported measures of chronic disease may substantially underestimate prevalence in low-income and middle-income country settings, especially in groups with lower socioeconomic status (SES). We sought to determine whether socioeconomic inequalities in the prevalence of non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs) differ if estimated by using symptom-based or criterion-based measures compared with self-reported physician diagnoses. METHODS: Using population-representative data sets of the WHO Study of Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE), 2007-2010 (n=42 464), we calculated wealth-related and education-related concentration indices of self-reported diagnoses and symptom-based measures of angina, hypertension, asthma/chronic lung disease, visual impairment and depression in three 'low-income and lower middle-income countries'-China, Ghana and India-and three 'upper-middle-income countries'-Mexico, Russia and South Africa...
March 2015: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Palash Jyoti Misra, G K Mini, K R Thankappan
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: A comprehensive risk factor profile of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) as suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO) has not been reported from tribal population in India. This survey was carried out to assess the prevalence of NCD risk factors among Mishing tribes in Assam using the WHO STEPs approach. METHODS: A total of 332 individuals of the Mishing tribe (men 54%) aged 25-64 yr were selected from Tinsukia district by multistage cluster sampling...
September 2014: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Shu-E Soh, Yap-Seng Chong, Kenneth Kwek, Seang-Mei Saw, Michael J Meaney, Peter D Gluckman, Joanna D Holbrook, Keith M Godfrey
BACKGROUND: The dramatic emergence of noncommunicable diseases (NCD) in Asia, albeit with ethnic variation, has coincided with the rapid socioeconomic and nutritional transition taking place in the region, with the prevalence of diabetes rising 5-fold in Singapore in less than 4 decades. The Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort study recruited 1,247 expectant mothers of Chinese, Malay, or Indian ethnicity in their first trimester, with detailed longitudinal tracking--through the antenatal period, birth, and the child's first 4 years of life--to examine the potential roles of fetal, developmental, and epigenetic factors in early pathways to metabolic and neurodevelopmental outcomes...
2014: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
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