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Communicable diseases and India

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674487/metals-in-urine-in-relation-to-the-prevalence-of-pre-diabetes-diabetes-and-atherosclerosis-in-rural-india
#1
Ganesan Velmurugan, Krishnan Swaminathan, Ganesh Veerasekar, Jonathan Q Purnell, Sundaresan Mohanraj, Mani Dhivakar, Anil Kumar Avula, Mathew Cherian, Nalla G Palaniswami, Thomas Alexander, Thalappil Pradeep
OBJECTIVE: Diabetes and cardiovascular diseases are growing burdens in rural communities worldwide. We have observed a high prevalence of diabetes among rural farming communities in India and sought to evaluate the association of non-traditional risk factors, such as metals, with diabetes and other cardiometabolic risk factors in this community. METHODS: Anthropometric measurements, chemistries and carotid intima-media thickness were determined in 865 participants of the Kovai Medical Center and Hospital-Nallampatti Non-Communicable Disease Study-I (KMCH-NNCD-I, 2015), a cross-sectional study conducted in a farming village in South India...
April 19, 2018: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664035/out-of-pocket-expenditure-for-hospitalization-in-haryana-state-of-india-extent-determinants-financial-risk-protection
#2
Deepshikha Sharma, Shankar Prinja, Arun Kumar Aggarwal, Pankaj Bahuguna, Atul Sharma, Saroj Kumar Rana
Background & objectives: India aspires to achieve universal health coverage, which requires ensuring financial risk protection (FRP). This study was done to assess the extent of out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditure and FRP for hospitalization in Haryana State, India. Further, the determinants for FRP were also evaluated. Methods: Data collected as a part of a household level survey conducted in Haryana 'Concurrent Evaluation of National Rural Health Mission: Haryana Health Survey' were analyzed...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650500/zika-reveals-india-s-risk-communication-challenges-and-needs
#3
Santosh Vijaykumar, Aravind Sesagiri Raamkumar
India's approach to disseminating information about the first three cases of the Zika virus was criticised nationally and internationally after the issue came to light in May 2017 through a World Health Organization news release. We analyse the incident from a risk communication perspective. This commentary recaps the events and synthesises key arguments put forth by the news media and public health stakeholders. We use Peter Sandman's risk = hazard + outrage framework - also adopted by India's risk communication planners - to analyse India's risk communication response and contextualise it against the mandate of the National Risk Communication Plan and Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme...
April 12, 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626558/ensuring-childhood-vaccination-among-slums-dwellers-under-the-national-immunization-program-in-india-challenges-and-opportunities
#4
REVIEW
Sanjeev Singh, Damodar Sahu, Ashish Agrawal, Meeta Dhaval Vashi
AIMS: Almost, one third of the world's urban population resides in slums and the number would double by 2030. Slums denotes collection of people from various communities having a meagre income and living in unhygienic conditions thus making themselves most vulnerable for outbreaks of communicable diseases. India contributes substantially to the global disease burden and under-five mortality rates i.e. 20% attributable to vaccine preventable diseases. Immunization plays a crucial role in combating high childhood mortality rates attributable to vaccine preventable diseases across the globe...
April 4, 2018: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621623/maritime-varicella-illness-and-death-reporting-u-s-2010-2015
#5
Marion E Rice, Millicent Bannerman, Mona Marin, Adriana Lopez, Melissa M Lewis, Caroline Stamatakis, Joanna Regan
BACKGROUND: Ships destined for, or departing from, U.S. ports of entry must report certain signs and symptoms of potentially communicable diseases of public health interest among travelers to the Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. METHODS: We reviewed ships' varicella case and outbreak reports from January 2010 through December 2015. RESULTS: DGMQ received 967 reports of varicella and 13 reports of herpes zoster...
April 2, 2018: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611047/economic-studies-on-non-communicable-diseases-and-injuries-in-india-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Indrani Gupta, Arjun Roy
BACKGROUND: The burden from non-communicable diseases and injuries (NCDI) in India is increasing rapidly. With low public sector investment in the health sector generally, and a high financial burden on households for treatment, it is important that economic evidence is used to set priorities in the context of NCDI. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to understand the extent to which economic analysis has been used in India to (1) analyze the impact of NCDI and (2) evaluate prevention and treatment interventions...
April 2, 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559022/post-flood-rapid-needs-assessment-in-srinagar-city-jammu-and-kashmir-state-india-september-2014
#7
Rajesh Yadav, Dundaiah Somashekar, Samir V Sodha, Kayla F Laserson, Srinivasa Venkatesh, Himanshu Chauhan
OBJECTIVES: Torrential rainfall and flooding from September 2-6, 2014 submerged >350 villages in Jammu and Kashmir state. We conducted rapid needs assessment in capital Srinagar from 27 September to 1 October to assess population health and safety needs. METHODS: Based on Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) methodology, we selected 7 households each from 30 census blocks using 2-stage cluster sampling. We collected information on demographics, needs, and illnesses using structured questionnaire...
March 21, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518580/inequity-in-out-of-pocket-payments-for-hospitalisation-in-india-evidence-from-the-national-sample-surveys-1995-2014
#8
Anamika Pandey, Lynda Clarke, Lalit Dandona, George B Ploubidis
OBJECTIVE: We report inequity in out-of-pocket payments (OOPP) for hospitalisation in India between 1995 and 2014 contrasting older population (60 years or more) with a population under 60 years (younger population). METHODS: We used data from nationwide healthcare surveys conducted in India by the National Sample Survey Organisation in 1995-96, 2004 and 2014 with the sample sizes ranging from 333,104 to 629,888. We used generalised linear and fractional response models to study the determinants of OOPP and their burden (share of OOPP in household consumption expenditure) at a constant price...
February 6, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499698/identification-of-priority-health-conditions-for-field-based-screening-in-urban-slums-in-bangalore-india
#9
Sarah Abdi, Avanti Wadugodapitiya, Sandra Bedaf, Carolin Elizabeth George, Gift Norman, Mark Hawley, Luc de Witte
BACKGROUND: Urban slums are characterised by unique challenging living conditions, which increase their inhabitants' vulnerability to specific health conditions. The identification and prioritization of the key health issues occurring in these settings is essential for the development of programmes that aim to enhance the health of local slum communities effectively. As such, the present study sought to identify and prioritise the key health issues occurring in urban slums, with a focus on the perceptions of health professionals and community workers, in the rapidly growing city of Bangalore, India...
March 2, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444688/twenty-years-of-home-based-palliative-care-in-malappuram-kerala-india-a-descriptive-study-of-patients-and-their-care-givers
#10
Rekha Rachel Philip, Sairu Philip, Jaya Prasad Tripathy, Abdulla Manima, Emilie Venables
BACKGROUND: The well lauded community-based palliative care programme of Kerala, India provides medical and social support, through home-based care, for patients with terminal illness and diseases requiring long-term support. There is, however, limited information on patient characteristics, caregivers and programme performance. This study was carried out to describe: i) the patients enrolled in the programme from 1996 to 2016 and their diagnosis, and ii) the care-giver characteristics and palliative care support from nurses and doctors in a cohort of patients registered during 2013-2015...
February 14, 2018: BMC Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417018/lacunae-in-noncommunicable-disease-control-program-need-to-focus-on-adherence-issues
#11
Tarundeep Singh, Nidhi Bhatnagar, Gopal Singh Moond
Introduction: Chronic non communicable diseases in India have increased in magnitude with earlier onset and more likelihood of complications. Much emphasis is given to early diagnosis and timely treatment. Additionally, tertiary prevention through medication adherence is needed to limit disability and prevent early onset of complications. This study was aimed to assess the magnitude of medication and lifestyle adherence among elderly patients suffering from diabetes and hypertension in rural areas of Punjab...
July 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407939/role-development-of-community-health-workers-for-cardiovascular-disease-prevention-in-india
#12
Aditya Khetan, Toral Patel, Vittal Hejjaji, Dweep Barbhaya, Sri Krishna Madan Mohan, Richard Josephson, Allison Webel
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality in India. Since community health workers (CHWs) have historically played a pivotal role in improving maternal and child health, it has been hypothesized that they have the potential to mitigate the impact of CVD in countries such as India. Project SEHAT is a cluster RCT to test the hypothesis that CHWs can improve the control of cardiovascular risk factors in a community in West Bengal, India. This study sought to quantitatively assess the training outcomes of CHWs recruited for Project SEHAT, and qualitatively assess their recruitment, training and fieldwork experiences...
January 17, 2018: Evaluation and Program Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386327/positive-influence-of-behavior-change-communication-on-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-for-visceral-leishmaniasis-kala-azar-in-india
#13
Raghavan Srinivasan, Tanwir Ahmad, Vidya Raghavan, Manisha Kaushik, Ramakant Pathak
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic to 54 districts in 4 states of India. Poor awareness of the disease and inappropriate health-seeking behavior are major challenges to eliminating the disease. Between February 2016 and March 2017, we implemented a behavior change communication (BCC) intervention in 33 districts of Bihar, 4 districts of Jharkhand, and 3 districts of West Bengal using a mix of channels, including group and interpersonal communication, to improve knowledge, attitudes, and practices of communities, frontline health workers, and opinion leaders...
January 31, 2018: Global Health, Science and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371266/disease-and-age-pattern-of-hospitalisation-and-associated-costs-in-india-1995-2014
#14
Anshul Kastor, Sanjay K Mohanty
OBJECTIVES: The prime objective of this study is to examine the trends of disease and age pattern of hospitalisation and associated costs in India during 1995-2014. DESIGN: Present study used nationally representative data on morbidity and healthcare from the 52nd (1995) and 71st (2014) rounds of the National Sample Survey. SETTINGS: A total of 120 942 and 65 932 households were surveyed in 1995 and 2014, respectively. MEASURES: Descriptive statistics, logistic regression analyses and decomposition analyses were used in examining the changes in patterns of hospitalisation and associated costs...
January 24, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370744/protocol-for-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial-on-information-technology-enabled-nutrition-intervention-among-urban-adults-in-chandigarh-india-smart-eating-trial
#15
Jasvir Kaur, Manmeet Kaur, Jacqui Webster, Rajesh Kumar
Nutrition is an important determinant of health. At present, nutrition programs in India mainly emphasize improving maternal and child nutrition. Adult nutrition has not received due attention, though diseases like hypertension and diabetes are largely preventable through changes in dietary and physical activity behaviour. Little is known about the best approaches to improve dietary behaviours, especially the role of modern information technology (IT) in health education. We describe the protocol of the SMART Eating (Small, Measurable and Achievable dietary changes by Reducing fat, sugar and salt consumption and Trying different fruits and vegetables) health promotion intervention...
2018: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338025/adolescent-cohorts-assessing-growth-cardiovascular-and-cognitive-outcomes-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#16
REVIEW
Joseph L Ward, Katherine Harrison, Russell M Viner, Anthony Costello, Michelle Heys
INTRODUCTION: Life-course studies are needed to explore how exposures during adolescence, particularly puberty, contribute to later cardiovascular risk and cognitive health in low and middle-income countries (LMIC), where 90% of the world's young people live. The extent of any existing cohorts investigating these outcomes in LMIC has not previously been described. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review to identify population cohort studies of adolescents in LMIC that assessed anthropometry and any of cardiovascular risk (blood pressure, physical activity, plasma glucose/lipid profile and substance misuse), puberty (age at menarche, Tanner staging, or other form of pubertal staging) or cognitive outcomes...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334333/are-people-at-high-risk-for-diabetes-visiting-health-facility-for-confirmation-of-diagnosis-a-population-based-study-from-rural-india
#17
Nikhil Srinivasapura Venkateshmurthy, Kathirvel Soundappan, Balaji Gummidi, Malipeddi Bhaskara Rao, Nikhil Tandon, K Srinath Reddy, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Sailesh Mohan
BACKGROUND: India is witnessing a rising burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus. India's National Programme for Prevention and Control of Diabetes, Cancer, Cardiovascular diseases and Stroke recommends population-based screening and referral to primary health centre for diagnosis confirmation and treatment initiation. However, little is known about uptake of confirmatory tests among screen positives. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the uptake of confirmatory tests and identify the reasons for not undergoing confirmation by those at high risk for developing diabetes...
2018: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319246/dengue-outbreak-2012-geo-mapping-and-snapshot-of-clinical-course-from-a-tertiary-referral-center-in-south-india
#18
Ganesh Veerasekar, Krishnan Swaminathan
Background: Using technology to track endemic areas of communicable diseases is possible nowadays. Effectual use of such facilities, especially in developing countries, will increase earlier detection of cases as well as aid in the formulation of effective prevention strategies. Methods: A retrospective data analysis was carried out by collecting the details of patients presented with positive dengue serology, during the outbreak season in the second half of 2012, at Kovai Medical Center and Hospital, Coimbatore, India...
October 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302540/a-chart-review-of-morbidity-patterns-among-adult-patients-attending-primary-care-setting-in-urban-odisha-india-an-international-classification-of-primary-care-experience
#19
Subhashisa Swain, Sandipana Pati, Sanghamitra Pati
Introduction: Disease burden estimations based on sound epidemiological research provide the foundation for designing health services. Patients visiting a primary care often present with symptoms and signs. Understanding the burden is crucial for developing countries including India. The project aimed to record the reasons for encounter (RFE) at primary care settings for estimating the burden at the health-care facility. Methodology: This cross-sectional study was undertaken at four urban health dispensaries of Bhubaneswar, Odisha, with the aim to explore the prevailing patterns of diseases among patients attending these facilities...
April 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298703/cultural-adaptation-of-a-peer-led-lifestyle-intervention-program-for-diabetes-prevention-in-india-the-kerala-diabetes-prevention-program-k-dpp
#20
Elezebeth Mathews, Emma Thomas, Pilvikki Absetz, Fabrizio D'Esposito, Zahra Aziz, Sajitha Balachandran, Meena Daivadanam, Kavumpurathu Raman Thankappan, Brian Oldenburg
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is now one of the leading causes of disease-related deaths globally. India has the world's second largest number of individuals living with diabetes. Lifestyle change has been proven to be an effective means by which to reduce risk of T2DM and a number of "real world" diabetes prevention trials have been undertaken in high income countries. However, systematic efforts to adapt such interventions for T2DM prevention in low- and middle-income countries have been very limited to date...
January 4, 2018: BMC Public Health
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