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visceral leishmaniasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733676/after-infection-with-leishmania-infantum-golden-hamsters-mesocricetus-auratus-become-more-attractive-to-female-sand-flies-lutzomyia-longipalpis
#1
T M Nevatte, R D Ward, L Sedda, J G C Hamilton
In Brazil, human and canine visceral leishmaniasis is caused by infection with Leishmania infantum, a Protist parasite transmitted by blood-feeding female Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies. The objective of this study was to determine if the odour of hamsters, infected with Le. infantum, was more attractive than the odour of the same hamsters, before they were infected. The attractiveness of odour collected from individual hamsters (n = 13), before they were infected, was compared in a longitudinal study, with the attractiveness of the odour of the same hamster in a Y-tube olfactometer bioassay, at a late stage of infection...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732017/disease-severity-in-patients-with-visceral-leishmaniasis-is-not-altered-by-co-infection-with-intestinal-parasites
#2
Fitsumbrhan Tajebe, Mulusew Getahun, Emebet Adem, Asrat Hailu, Mulualem Lemma, Helina Fikre, John Raynes, Aschalew Tamiru, Zemenay Mulugeta, Ermias Diro, Frederic Toulza, Ziv Shkedy, Tadesse Ayele, Manuel Modolell, Markus Munder, Ingrid Müller, Yegnasew Takele, Pascale Kropf
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected tropical disease that affects the poorest communities and can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Visceral leishmaniasis is characterized by the presence of Leishmania parasites in the spleen, liver and bone marrow, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia, prolonged fever, systemic inflammation and low body mass index (BMI). The factors impacting on the severity of VL are poorly characterized. Here we performed a cross-sectional study to assess whether co-infection of VL patients with intestinal parasites influences disease severity, assessed with clinical and haematological data, inflammation, cytokine profiles and BMI...
July 21, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726597/serological-and-molecular-diagnostic-tests-for-canine-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-brazilian-endemic-area-one-out-of-five-seronegative-dogs-are-infected
#3
E G Lopes, A P Sevá, F Ferreira, C M Nunes, L B Keid, R M Hiramoto, H L Ferreira, T M F S Oliveira, M F D Bigotto, F Galvis-Ovallos, E A B Galati, R M Soares
Euthanasia of infected dogs is one of the measures adopted in Brazil to control visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in endemic areas. To detect infected dogs, animals are screened with the rapid test DPP® Visceral Canine Leishmaniasis for detection of antibodies against K26/K39 fusion antigens of amastigotes (DPP). DPP-positives are confirmed with an immunoenzymatic assay probing soluble antigens of promastigotes (ELISA), while DPP-negatives are considered free of infection. Here, 975 dogs from an endemic region were surveyed by using DPP, ELISA and real-time PCR (qPCR) for the diagnosis of VL...
July 20, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719266/serological-and-molecular-analysis-of-leishmania-infection-in-healthy-individuals-from-two-districts-of-west-bengal-india-endemic-for-visceral-leishmaniasis
#4
Himanshu Kaushal, Sujit Kumar Bhattacharya, Sandeep Verma, Poonam Salotra
AbstractSeveral epidemiological studies have indicated the presence of asymptomatic infections with Leishmania donovani in the Indian subcontinent, where parasite transmission is considered anthroponotic. In India, such asymptomatic Leishmania cases have been identified in the state of Bihar. We explored here, the presence of asymptomatic Leishmania infection among healthy individuals living in two districts in the state of West Bengal, India, using serological and molecular tests. Blood samples of 246 healthy individuals were collected from nine villages of Malda and Murshidabad districts in West Bengal, considered endemic for visceral leishmaniasis (VL)...
June 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712974/diversity-and-altitudinal-distribution-of-phlebotomine-sand-flies-diptera-psychodidae-in-visceral-leishmaniasis-endemic-areas-of-northwest-ethiopia
#5
Solomon Yared, Araya Gebreselassie, Essayas Akililu, Kebede Deribe, Meshesha Balkew, Alon Warburg, Asrat Hailu, Teshome Gebre-Michael
BACKGROUND: The Leishmaniases are caused by the protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania and are transmitted to humans by the bite of infected female phlebotomine sand flies. Both visceral and cutaneous leishmaniases are widely distributed in different parts of Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to determine the diversity and altitudinal distribution of phlebotomine sand flies from Kafta Humera to Gondar town in northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: Seven localities were selected with distinct altitudinal variations between 550m above sea level (m a...
July 13, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712973/occurrence-of-lutzomyia-longipalpis-lutz-neiva-1912-and-cerdocyon-thous-linnaeus-1977-in-a-visceral-leishmaniasis-endemic-area-in-brazil
#6
Maria Regiane Araujo Soares, Jadson Emanuel Lopes Antunes, Ivete Lopes de Mendonça, Rogério Nora Lima, Carlos Henrique Nery Costa
Cerdocyon thous presents a wide geographic distribution in Brazil and its role as a possible Leishmania infantum reservoir in a visceral leishmaniasis (VL) transmission cycle regardless of dogs (Canis familiaris) has been discussed. From this perspective, this work describes the occurrence and use of the habitat by Cerdocyon thous in a Lutzomyia longipalpis occurrence area Teresina (Piaui - Brazil), VL endemic region. Three specimens of C. thous were monitored with the use of radio telemetry and trails and footprints, seeking to find possible natural dens in order to collect the sanflies from the site...
July 13, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712122/clinical-features-and-treatment-response-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-north-west-ethiopia
#7
Helina Fikre, Rezika Mohammed, Saba Atinafu, Johan van Griensven, Ermias Diro
OBJECTIVE: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) receives far less attention than visceral leishmaniasis. Nevertheless, CL is predominantly caused by a unique species in Ethiopia (L aethiopica), which is known to cause severe forms such as diffuse (DCL) and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL). We report on the number and type of CL cases diagnosed, the clinical features, the treatments and treatment outcomes in North-West Ethiopia. METHODS: This is a retrospective chart record analysis of CL patients treated at the Leishmania Research and Treatment Center (LRTC) of the University of Gondar, Ethiopia...
July 16, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704391/visceral-leishmaniasis-in-an-environmentally-protected-area-in-southeastern-brazil-epidemiological-and-laboratory-cross-sectional-investigation-of-phlebotomine-fauna-wild-hosts-and-canine-cases
#8
Maria Rita Donalisio, Laís Moraes Paiz, Vanessa Gusmon da Silva, Virgínia Bodelão Richini-Pereira, Andrea Paula Bruno von Zuben, Claudio Luiz Castagna, Gabriela Motoie, Roberto Mitsuyoshi Hiramoto, José Eduardo Tolezano
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is a rapidly expanding zoonosis that shows increasing urbanization. Concern exists regarding the role of wildlife in visceral leishmaniasis (VL) transmission, due to frequent natural or anthropogenic environmental changes that facilitate contact between wildlife, humans and their pets. The municipality of Campinas, in southeastern Brazil, initially recorded VL in 2009, when the first autochthonous case was confirmed in a dog living in an upscale residential condominium, located inside an environmentally protected area (EPA)...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697379/efficacy-and-evaluation-of-environmental-management-system-to-control-sandfly-vector-of-kala-azar
#9
D S Dinesh, S Kumari, F Hassan, V Kumar, V P Singh, P Das
The established vector for visceral leishmaniasis, Phlebotomus argentipes (Diptera: Psychodidae) breeds inside the human dwellings and cattle shed under crevices at the base of the wall. P. argentipes was controlled by plastering the base of wall (9″height × 9″base). The study was conducted in two phases: (i) Screening of plastering materials (ii) validation of the most suitable material. During the first phase (2014); four intervention materials were evaluated in four different arms: (i) cement (ii) brick chimney fly ash (BCFA i...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691653/molecular-biochemical-characterization-and-assessment-of-immunogenic-potential-of-cofactor-independent-phosphoglycerate-mutase-against-leishmania-donovani-a-step-towards-exploring-novel-vaccine-candidate
#10
Rati Tandon, Sharat Chandra, Rajendra Kumar Baharia, Pragya Misra, Sanchita DAS, Keerti Rawat, Mohammad Imran Siddiqi, Shyam Sundar, Anuradha Dube
Despite immense efforts, vaccine against visceral leishmaniasis has yet not been developed. Earlier our proteomic study revealed a novel protein, cofactor-independent phoshoglycerate mutase (LdiPGAM), an important enzyme in glucose metabolism, in T helper cells type 1 (Th1) stimulatory region of soluble Leishmania donovani antigen. In this study, LdiPGAM was biochemically and molecularly characterized and evaluated for its immunogenicity and prophylactic efficacy against L. donovani. Immunogenicity of recombinant LdiPGAM (rLdiPGAM) was initially assessed in naïve hamsters immunized with it by analysing mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) and other Th1/T helper cells type 2 cytokines, which revealed an upregulation of Th1 cytokines along with iNOS...
July 10, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687071/recurrence-of-visceral-and-muco-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-a-patient-under-immunosuppressive-therapy
#11
Gilles Darcis, Gert Van der Auwera, Jean-Baptiste Giot, Marie-Pierre Hayette, Françoise Tassin, Jorge Arrese Estrada, Lieselotte Cnops, Michel Moutschen, Laurence de Leval, Philippe Leonard
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is a protozoan disease caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania, transmitted to humans by sandflies. The diagnosis of leishmaniasis is often challenging as it mimics many other infectious or malignant diseases. The disease can present in three ways: cutaneous, mucocutaneous, or visceral leishmaniasis, which rarely occur together or consecutively. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient was a 52 years old immunosuppressed Belgian woman with a long history of severe rheumatoid arthritis...
July 7, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686398/-leishmaniasis-an-infection-of-travellers-and-migrants
#12
Lena Jessen, Benoît Bard, Xavier Grenon, Frank Bally
Leishmaniasis is an infection of the tropical to temperate zone, occasionally imported in our regions by travellers and migrants. Leishmania parasites are transmitted by the sting of a sand fly, Phlebotomus or Lutzomyia, and causes two clinical syndromes with either cutaneous, also mucosal, or disseminated involvement. Clinical suspicion needs a confirmation by the detection of the parasite. The treatment is adapted to the patient, the clinical presentation, the region, the species and the availability. Cutaneous leishmaniasis can be observed only or treated by topical or systemic regimens...
October 12, 2016: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683183/pegylated-dendritic-polyglycerol-conjugate-delivers-doxorubicin-to-the-parasitophorous-vacuole-in-leishmania-infantum-infections
#13
Camino Gutierrez-Corbo, Barbara Dominguez-Asenjo, Laura I Vossen, Yolanda Pérez-Pertejo, Maria A Muñoz-Fenández, Rafael Balaña-Fouce, Marcelo Calderón, Rosa M Reguera
Most drugs against visceral leishmaniasis must be administered parenterally. A controlled drug release at the target site can improve the efficacy and toxicity of antileishmanial drugs in clinical use. Amastigotes live and grow inside the parasitophorous vacuole of host resident macrophages. Therefore, antileishmanial drugs should accumulate in this compartment to kill the parasite and do not produce toxicity to the cell host. PEGylated dendritic polyglycerol conjugates (PG-PEG) can ensure a controlled drug release and the immune activation efficiency of the host...
July 6, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682767/in-vitro-effects-of-purine-and-pyrimidine-analogues-on-leishmania-donovani-and-leishmania-infantum-promastigotes-and-intracellular-amastigotes
#14
Samira Azzouz, Philippe Lawton
Inhibition of parasite metabolic pathways is a rationale for new chemotherapeutic strategies. The pyrimidine and purine salvage pathways are thus targets against Leishmania donovani and L. infantum, causative agents of visceral human leishmaniasis and canine leishmaniosis. The antiproliferative effect of the pyrimidine analogues Cytarabine and 5-fluorouracil and of the purine analogues Azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine was evaluated in vitro on the promastigote and the intracellular amastigote stages of the parasite...
September 26, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680146/skin-parasite-landscape-determines-host-infectiousness-in-visceral-leishmaniasis
#15
Johannes S P Doehl, Zoe Bright, Shoumit Dey, Helen Davies, John Magson, Najmeeyah Brown, Audrey Romano, Jane E Dalton, Ana I Pinto, Jon W Pitchford, Paul M Kaye
Increasing evidence suggests that the infectiousness of patients for the sand fly vector of visceral leishmaniasis is linked to parasites found in the skin. Using a murine model that supports extensive skin infection with Leishmania donovani, spatial analyses at macro-(quantitative PCR) and micro-(confocal microscopy) scales indicate that parasite distribution is markedly skewed. Mathematical models accounting for this heterogeneity demonstrate that while a patchy distribution reduces the expected number of sand flies acquiring parasites, it increases the infection load for sand flies feeding on a patch, increasing their potential for onward transmission...
July 5, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674535/leishmania-infantum-exoproducts-inhibit-human-invariant-nkt-cell-expansion-and-activation
#16
Renata Belo, Nuno Santarém, Cátia Pereira, Begoña Pérez-Cabezas, Fátima Macedo, Maria Leite-de-Moraes, Anabela Cordeiro-da-Silva
Leishmania infantum is one of the major parasite species associated with visceral leishmaniasis, a severe form of the disease that can become lethal if untreated. This obligate intracellular parasite has developed diverse strategies to escape the host immune response, such as exoproducts (Exo) carrying a wide range of molecules, including parasite virulence factors, which are potentially implicated in early stages of infection. Herein, we report that L. infantum Exo and its two fractions composed of extracellular vesicles (EVs) and vesicle-depleted-exoproducts (VDEs) inhibit human peripheral blood invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cell expansion in response to their specific ligand, the glycolipid α-GalactosylCeramide (α-GalCer), as well as their capacity to promptly produce IL-4 and IFNγ...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673017/prognostic-factors-for-death-from-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-patients-treated-with-liposomal-amphotericin-b-in-an-endemic-state-in-brazil
#17
Bruna Dias Tourinho, Frederico Figueiredo Amâncio, Marcela Lencine Ferraz, Mariângela Carneiro
Objective: To characterize the clinical and epidemiological profiles of patients with visceral leishmaniasis (VL) treated with liposomal amphotericin B (LAmB) and to identify prognostic factors for death from VL in 2008-2012 in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methods: A historical cohort study was conducted using data obtained from treatment requests forms, Brazilian Notifiable Disease Information System and the Mortality Information System. Case-fatality rates of patients with VL treated with LAmB were compared with patients treated with other therapies...
April 1, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671989/tnf-signalling-drives-expansion-of-bone-marrow-cd4-t-cells-responsible-for-hsc-exhaustion-in-experimental-visceral-leishmaniasis
#18
Ana Isabel Pinto, Najmeeyah Brown, Olivier Preham, Johannes S P Doehl, Helen Ashwin, Paul M Kaye
Visceral leishmaniasis is associated with significant changes in hematological function but the mechanisms underlying these changes are largely unknown. In contrast to naïve mice, where most long-term hematopoietic stem cells (LT-HSCs; LSK CD150+ CD34- CD48- cells) in bone marrow (BM) are quiescent, we found that during Leishmania donovani infection most LT-HSCs had entered cell cycle. Loss of quiescence correlated with a reduced self-renewal capacity and functional exhaustion, as measured by serial transfer...
July 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670974/cutaneous-leucocytoclastic-vasculitis-in-visceral-leishmaniasis
#19
Farzana Shumy, Ahmad Mursel Anam, Ma Jalil Chowdhury
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Tropical Doctor
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669838/antileishmanial-and-immunomodulatory-activity-of-lupeol-a-triterpene-compound-isolated-from-sterculia-villosa
#20
Antu Das, Junaid Jibran Jawed, Manash C Das, Padmani Sandhu, Utpal C De, Biswanath Dinda, Yusuf Akhter, Surajit Bhttacharjee
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is one of the most severe forms of leishmaniasis caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani. Nowadays, there is a growing interest in the therapeutic use of natural products to treat parasitic diseases. Sterculia villosa is an ethnomedicinally important plant. A triterpenoid lupeol was isolated from this plant which was further screened for its antileishmanial and immunomodulatory activity in vitro and in vivo. Biochemical colour test and spectroscopic data confirmed that the isolated pure compound is lupeol...
June 29, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
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