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visceral leishmaniasis

Naouel Eddaikra, Khatima Ait-Oudhia, Ihcen Kherrachi, Bruno Oury, Farida Moulti-Mati, Razika Benikhlef, Zoubir Harrat, Denis Sereno
BACKGROUND: In Algeria, the treatment of visceral and cutaneous leishmanioses (VL and CL) has been and continues to be based on antimony-containing drugs. It is suspected that high drug selective pressure might favor the emergence of chemoresistant parasites. Although treatment failure is frequently reported during antimonial therapy of both CL and VL, antimonial resistance has never been thoroughly investigated in Algeria. Determining the level of antimonial susceptibility, amongst Leishmania transmitted in Algeria, is of great importance for the development of public health policies...
March 21, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Akhilesh Kumar, Manas Ranjan Dikhit, Ajay Amit, Amir Zaidi, Raj Kishor Pandey, Ashish Kumar Singh, Shashi S Suman, Vahab Ali, Vidya Nand Rabi Das, Krishna Pandey, Vikas Kumar, Shubhankar Kumar Singh, Shyam Narayan, Hirendra Kumar Chourasia, Pradeep Das, Sanjiva Bimal
We report here a Leishmania donovani ornithine decarboxylase (Ld-ODC) gene used as a DNA vaccine against visceral leishmaniasis in a murine Balb/c mouse model. This study also evaluated the possible mechanism of action directed by this candidate. We found a Th1 immune response after immunization using an Ld-ODC DNA vaccine, with results based on the rearrangement of TCR-V-α-2, proliferation of Carboxy fluorescein Succinimidyle ester positive T cells, which were able to produce cytokines such as TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-12 and IL-2, but not IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 and IL-10, and modulations of the STAT-1 and p38 MAP kinase signaling pathways...
March 17, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Mary Marcondes, Karina Y Hirata, Juliana P Vides, Ludmila S V Sobrinho, Jaqueline S Azevedo, Thállitha S W J Vieira, Rafael F C Vieira
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has been increasingly recognized in cats living in areas endemic for the disease. Co-infection with Leishmania infantum and other infectious agents is well established in dogs. However, for cats, data on co-infections with L. infantum and other infectious agents are still sparse. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of vector-borne pathogens, Mycoplasma spp., feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) in cats from an area endemic for VL in southeastern Brazil...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Shashi Shekhar Suman, Ajay Amit, Krishn Pratap Singh, Parool Gupta, Asif Equbal, Arti Kumari, Roshan Kamal Topno, Vidyananda Ravidas, Krishna Pandey, Sanjiva Bimal, Pradeep Das, Vahab Ali
Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by the unicellular protozoan parasite of genus Leishmania. Tryparedoxin (TXN) is a low molecular mass dithiol protein belonging to oxidoreductases super-family; which function in concert with tryparedoxin peroxidase (TXNPx) as a system in protozoan parasites including Leishmania. Leishmanial hydroperoxides detoxification cascade uses trypanothione as electron donor to reduce hydroperoxide inside the macrophages during infection. However, the mechanism by which tryparedoxin can contribute in progression of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and its impact on host's cellular immune response during infection in Indian VL patient is unknown...
March 16, 2018: Cytokine
Margriet den Boer, Asish Kumar Das, Fatima Akhter, Sakib Burza, V Ramesh, Be-Nazir Ahmed, Eduard E Zijlstra, Koert Ritmeijer
Background: A safe and effective short-course treatment regimen for Post Kala Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) is considered essential for achieving and sustaining elimination of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Indian subcontinent.(1, 2) Here, single dose liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome) has been adopted as a first line regimen for VL; however the effectiveness and safety of AmBisome for PKDL has not been formally evaluated. Methods: The safety and effectiveness of AmBisome 15 mg/kg, given over 15 days in 5 biweekly infusions of 3mg/kg on an outpatient basis, was evaluated between April and November 2014 in clinically diagnosed PKDL patients of 12 years and older residing in a highly VL endemic area in Bangladesh...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Kartikeya Tiwari, Vikash Kumar Dubey
Asparaginase, a pivotal enzyme of the aspartate metabolic pathway is present as two variants in Leishmania donovani, causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Our microscopy based analysis revealed that the green fluorescent protein tagged asparaginase variants were localized in the cytosol of the parasite. The finding was also supported by the in silico analysis of the L. donovani asparaginase variants. This finding is in strike contrast with other parasitic species such as M. tuberculosis where asparaginase is secreted out of the parasite...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Gustavo F Paz, Jeronimo M N Rugani, Andreza P Marcelino, Célia M F Gontijo
The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between naturally occurring Leishmania spp. infections in dogs (Canis familiaris) and the practical implications of the use of serological and molecular methods to confirm diagnoses. The study population consisted of 96 domestic dogs in southeastern Brazil. Serum samples were tested for the presence of anti-Leishmania immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies using four commercial canine visceral leishmaniasis kits. Dogs confirmed positive by immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) were culled and samples from mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen border, bone marrow and ear skin were taken and submitted to DNA extraction...
March 12, 2018: Acta Tropica
Meryem Mniouil, Hajiba Fellah, Fatima Amarir, Abderrahim Sadak, Abdeslam Et-Touys, Youssef Bakri, Aziza Moustachi, Fatima Zahraa Tassou, Mostapha Hida, Mohamed Lyagoubi, El Bachir Adlaoui, Mohamed Rhajaoui, Faiza Sebti
A rapid, sensitive and specific tool for detection of Leishmania infantum infection in Humans would be highly desirable, because it would allow control interventions in endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis. This study was carried out at the Reference National Laboratory of Leishmaniasis (RNLL) in National Institute of Hygiene (NIH) Morocco, in order to evaluate the diagnostic potential of immunochromatographic dipstick test (ICT) rk39 in Moroccan suspected VL patients. A total of 49 admitted patients with strong clinical suspicion of VL and 40 healthy controls were investigated for the performance of the ICT rk39...
March 12, 2018: Acta Tropica
João Gabriel Guimarães Luz, Danilo Bueno Naves, Amanda Gabriela de Carvalho, Gilvani Alves Meira, João Victor Leite Dias, Cor Jesus Fernandes Fontes
The Brazilian municipality of Rondonópolis, Mato Grosso State, represents an important visceral leishmaniasis (VL) endemic area. This study described epidemiological and clinical aspects of the occurrence, VL/HIV coinfection and lethality related to VL in Rondonópolis. Data from autochthonous cases reported between 2011 and 2016 were obtained from official information systems. During this period, 81 autochthonous cases were reported, with decreasing incidence through 2016. Contrastingly, the lethality rate was 8...
March 8, 2018: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
Edeltraud J Lenk, William K Redekop, Marianne Luyendijk, Christopher Fitzpatrick, Louis Niessen, Wilma A Stolk, Fabrizio Tediosi, Adriana J Rijnsburger, Roel Bakker, Jan A C Hontelez, Jan H Richardus, Julie Jacobson, Epke A Le Rutte, Sake J de Vlas, Johan L Severens
BACKGROUND: The control or elimination of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) has targets defined by the WHO for 2020, reinforced by the 2012 London Declaration. We estimated the economic impact to individuals of meeting these targets for human African trypanosomiasis, leprosy, visceral leishmaniasis and Chagas disease, NTDs controlled or eliminated by innovative and intensified disease management (IDM). METHODS: A systematic literature review identified information on productivity loss and out-of-pocket payments (OPPs) related to these NTDs, which were combined with projections of the number of people suffering from each NTD, country and year for 2011-2020 and 2021-2030...
March 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Emeline Riboldi, Flavio Carvalho, Pedro Roosevelt Torres Romão, Regina Bones Barcellos, Graziele Lima Bello, Raquel Rocha Ramos, Rosemari Terezinha de Oliveira, João Pessoa Araújo Júnior, Maria Lucia Rossetti, Eliane Dallegrave
In Brazil, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is expanding and becoming urbanized, especially in non-endemic areas such as the State of Rio Grande do Sul. Considering that infected dogs are the main reservoir for zoonotic VL, this study evaluated the prevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, a new area of expansion of VL in Brazil. Serum and plasma from 405 asymptomatic dogs from the municipalities of Canoas (n=107), São Leopoldo (n=216), and Novo Hamburgo (n=82) were tested for CVL using immunochromatographic (DPP® ) and ELISA EIE® assays (2 assays officially adopted by the Brazilian government for the diagnosis of CVL) and real-time PCR to confirm the results...
February 2018: Korean Journal of Parasitology
José Angelo Lauletta Lindoso, Carlos Henrique Valente Moreira, Beatriz Julieta Celeste, Luiza Keiko Matsuka Oyafuso, Pedro Moreira Folegatti, Eduard Evert Zijlstra
Visceral leishmaniasis is common in Brazil and is caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum/chagasi. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis frequently follows visceral leishmaniasis caused by L. donovani, and para-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis refers to an uncommon presentation wherein it occurs simultaneously along with visceral leishmaniasis. While post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis only occurs occasionally in L. infantum/chagasi infections, it frequently occurs in patients with concomitant immunosuppression (HIV co-infection)...
January 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Mohammed A Mohammed, Noteila M Khalid, Mariam A Aboud
BACKGROUND: Recent reports showed high numbers of visceral leishmaniasis cases in North Darfur, western Sudan. Due to a lack of previous studies, no information is available on local transmission of the disease in these areas. Therefore, a pilot entomological and epidemiological study was conducted in Al-Malha Locality during the year 2013, to investigate possibility of local transmission and places and times of the year where and when people contract the infection. METHODS: Kala-azar incidence data were obtained from records of Ministry of Health, North Darfur; Al-Malha rural hospital; and the Federal Ministry of Health, Division of Communicable and Non-communicable Diseases...
March 6, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Iraci Duarte Lima, Adila L M Lima, Carolina de Oliveira Mendes-Aguiar, José F V Coutinho, Mary E Wilson, Richard D Pearson, José Wilton Queiroz, Selma M B Jeronimo
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania infantum became a disease of urban areas in Brazil in the last 30 years and there has been an increase in asymptomatic L. infantum infection with these areas. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A retrospective study of human VL was performed in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, for the period of 1990-2014. The data were divided into five-time periods. For all VL cases, data on sex, age, nutritional status and childhood vaccination were collected...
March 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Toolika Singh, Michaela Fakiola, Joyce Oommen, Akhil Pratap Singh, Abhishek K Singh, Noel Smith, Jaya Chakravarty, Shyam Sundar, Jenefer M Blackwell
HLA-DRB1 is the major genetic risk factor for visceral leishmaniasis (VL). We used SNP2HLA to impute HLA-DRB1 alleles and SNPTEST to carry out association analyses in 889 human cases and 977 controls from India. NetMHCIIpan 2.1 was used to map epitopes and binding affinities across 49 Leishmania vaccine candidates, as well as across peptide epitopes captured from dendritic cells treated with crude Leishmania Ag and identified using mass spectrometry and alignment to amino acid sequences of a reference Leishmania genome...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Viviane Sant' Anna, Marcelle Railbolt, Aleksandra Oliveira-Menezes, Theodora Calogeropoulou, Jairo Pinheiro, Wanderley de Souza
Alkylphospholipid analogs were initially developed as anticancer agents and were later found to antiparasitic activity. Miltefosine is the prototype alkylphosphocholine and is the first oral treatment against visceral leishmaniasis. Here we investigated the effects of miltefosine and two ring-substituted alkylphosphocholine derivatives, TCAN26 and TC70, on the viability, morphology, and ultrastructure of the life stages of Caenorhabditis elegans and infective larvae of the parasite Strongyloides venezuelensis...
February 26, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Mathieu Bangert, María D Flores-Chávez, Ivonne P Llanes-Acevedo, Carolina Arcones, Carmen Chicharro, Emilia García, Sheila Ortega, Javier Nieto, Israel Cruz
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), the most severe form of leishmaniasis, is endemic in Europe with Mediterranean countries reporting endemic status alongside a worrying northward spread. Serological diagnosis, including immunochromatographic test based on the recombinant antigen rK39 (rK39-ICT) and a direct agglutination test (DAT) based on the whole parasite antigen, have been validated in regions with high VL burden, such as eastern Africa and the Indian subcontinent. To date, no studies using a large set of patients have performed an assessment of both methods within Europe...
March 1, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Dalila Y Martínez, Kristien Verdonck, Paul M Kaye, Vanessa Adaui, Katja Polman, Alejandro Llanos-Cuentas, Jean-Claude Dujardin, Marleen Boelaert
BACKGROUND: Tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL) is a disease of skin and/or mucosal tissues caused by Leishmania parasites. TL patients may concurrently carry other pathogens, which may influence the clinical outcome of TL. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This review focuses on the frequency of TL coinfections in human populations, interactions between Leishmania and other pathogens in animal models and human subjects, and implications of TL coinfections for clinical practice...
March 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Temmy Sunyoto, Gamal K Adam, Atia M Atia, Yassin Hamid, Rabie Ali Babiker, Nugdalla Abdelrahman, Catiane Vander Kelen, Koert Ritmeijer, Gabriel Alcoba, Margriet den Boer, Albert Picado, Marleen Boelaert
Early diagnosis and treatment is the principal strategy to control visceral leishmaniasis (VL), or kala-azar in East Africa. As VL strikes remote rural, sparsely populated areas, kala-azar care might not be accessed optimally or timely. We conducted a qualitative study to explore access barriers in a longstanding kala-azar endemic area in southern Gadarif, Sudan. Former kala-azar patients or caretakers, community leaders, and health-care providers were purposively sampled and thematic data analysis was used...
February 26, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Rodrigo Saar Gomes, Muriel Vilela Teodoro Silva, Jéssica Cristina Dos Santos, Christine van Linge, Juliana Machado Reis, Mauro Martins Teixeira, Sebastião Alves Pinto, Miriam Leandro Dorta, Xiyuan Bai, Edward D Chan, Charles A Dinarello, Milton Adriano Pelli de Oliveira, Leo A B Joosten, Fátima Ribeiro-Dias
Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a chronic parasitic disease caused by Leishmania infantum in the Americas. During VL, several proinflammatory cytokines are produced in spleen, liver and bone marrow. However, the role of IL-32 has not been explored in this disease. IL-32 can induce production of proinflammatory cytokines in innate immune cells and polarize the adaptive immune response. Herein, we discovered that L. infantum antigens induced mainly mRNA expression of the IL-32γ isoform, but also induced low levels of IL-32β transcript in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells...
February 26, 2018: Infection and Immunity
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