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visceral leishmaniasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107861/antileishmanial-activities-of-caffeic-acid-phenethyl-ester-loaded-plga-nanoparticles-against-leishmania-infantum-promastigotes-and-amastigotes-in%C3%A2-vitro
#1
Emrah Sefik Abamor
OBJECTIVE: To investigate and compare the antileishmanial effects of CAPE and (CAPE)PLGA NPs on Leishmania infantum (L. infantum) promastigotes and amastigotes in vitro. METHODS: Efficacies of CAPE, (CAPE)PLGA NPs and free PLGA nanoparticles (NPs) on promastigotes were evaluated using MTT and promastigote count assays, and their anti-amastigote effects were determined via infection index analysis. Griess reaction was also performed to calculate nitric oxide production of macrophages exposed to investigated molecules...
January 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106262/phlebotomine-sandfly-ecology-on-the-indian-subcontinent-does-village-vegetation-play-a-role-in-sandfly-distribution-in-bihar-india
#2
D M Poché, R M Poché, S Mukherjee, G A Franckowiak, L N Briley, D J Somers, R B Garlapati
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a disease that results in approximately 50 000 human deaths annually. It is transmitted through the bites of phlebotomine sandflies and around two-thirds of cases occur on the Indian subcontinent. Indoor residual spraying (IRS), the efficacy of which depends upon sandfly adults resting indoors, is the only sandfly control method used in India. Recently, in Bihar, India, considerable sandfly numbers have been recorded outdoors in village vegetation, which suggests that IRS may control only a portion of the population...
January 20, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103966/chemotherapy-of-leishmaniasis-present-challenges
#3
Silvia R B Uliana, Cristiana T Trinconi, Adriano C Coelho
Cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis are amongst the most devastating infectious diseases of our time, affecting millions of people worldwide. The treatment of these serious diseases rely on a few chemotherapeutic agents, most of which are of parenteral use and induce severe side-effects. Furthermore, rates of treatment failure are high and have been linked to drug resistance in some areas. Here, we reviewed data on current chemotherapy practice in leishmaniasis. Drug resistance and mechanisms of resistance are described as well as the prospects for applying drug combinations for leishmaniasis chemotherapy...
January 20, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103263/splenic-cd4-t-cells-in-progressive-visceral-leishmaniasis-show-a-mixed-effector-regulatory-phenotype-and-impair-macrophage-effector-function-through-inhibitory-receptor-expression
#4
Audrie A Medina-Colorado, Elvia Y Osorio, Omar A Saldarriaga, Bruno L Travi, Fanping Kong, Heidi Spratt, Lynn Soong, Peter C Melby
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), caused by infection with the intracellular protozoan Leishmania donovani, is a chronic progressive disease with a relentlessly increasing parasite burden in the spleen, liver and bone marrow. The disease is characterized by fever, splenomegaly, cachexia, and pancytopenia, and progresses to death if not treated. Control of Leishmania infection is mediated by Th1 (IFNγ-producing) CD4+ T cells, which activate macrophages to produce nitric oxide and kill intracellular parasites. However, despite expansion of CD4+ T cells and increased IFNγ expression in the spleen, humans with active VL do not control the infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101315/vcam-1-and-icam-1-serum-levels-as-markers-of-relapse-in-visceral-leishmaniasis
#5
Alexandros Makis, Sophia Tsabouri, Paraskevi Karagouni, Maria Rogalidou, Irene Sionti, Nikolaos Chaliasos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098109/visceral-leishmaniasis-in-adults-with-nephropathy
#6
H Kaaroud El Jeri, A Harzallah, S Barbouch, M M Bacha, R Kheder, S Turki, S Trabelsi, E Abderrahim, F Ben Hamida, T Ben Abdallah
The aim of this study is to evaluate the features of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in adults with nephropathy, who were not infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. This is a retrospective study of 14 adults hospitalized between 2000 and 2014, with VL and renal involvement. Clinical, biological, and therapeutic data were collected from the patients' medical files. Eleven women and three men, most of whom were from the North of the country, with a mean age of 40.5 years were studied. Lupus was present in five cases, the Sicca syndrome in three cases, diabetes in one case, renal failure on dialysis in two cases, and there were three renal transplant recipients...
January 2017: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096848/immunogenicity-and-efficacy-of-live-l-tarentolae-expressing-kmp11-ntgp96-gfp-fusion-as-a-vaccine-candidate-against-experimental-visceral-leishmaniasis-caused-by-l-infantum
#7
Vahid Nasiri, Abdolhossein Dalimi, Fatemeh Ghaffarifar, Azam Bolhassani
BACKGROUND: The aim of present study was to evaluate the protective efficacy of live recombinant L. tarentolae expressing KMP11-NTGP96-GFP fusion as candidates for live engineered recombinant vaccine against visceral leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice. METHODS: KMP-11 and NT-GP96 genes cloned into the pJET1.2/blunt cloning vector and then into pEGFP-N1 expression vector. The KMP-11, NT-GP96 and GFP fused in pEGFP-N1 and subcloned into Leishmanian pLEXSY-neo vector. Finally this construct was transferred to L...
April 2016: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096483/the-gut-microbiome-of-the-vector-lutzomyia-longipalpis-is-essential-for-survival-of-leishmania-infantum
#8
Patrick H Kelly, Sarah M Bahr, Tiago D Serafim, Nadim J Ajami, Joseph F Petrosino, Claudio Meneses, John R Kirby, Jesus G Valenzuela, Shaden Kamhawi, Mary E Wilson
: The vector-borne disease leishmaniasis, caused by Leishmania species protozoa, is transmitted to humans by phlebotomine sand flies. Development of Leishmania to infective metacyclic promastigotes in the insect gut, a process termed metacyclogenesis, is an essential prerequisite for transmission. Based on the hypothesis that vector gut microbiota influence the development of virulent parasites, we sequenced midgut microbiomes in the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis with or without Leishmania infantum infection...
January 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095796/a-severe-case-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-and-liposomal-amphotericin-b-treatment-failure-in-an-immunosuppressed-patient-15%C3%A2-years-after-exposure
#9
Anna Eichenberger, Annina E Buechi, Andreas Neumayr, Chistroph Hatz, Andri Rauch, Marc Huguenot, Eva Diamantis-Karamitopoulou, Cornelia Staehelin
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a protozoan disease, which is responsible for 200.000-400.000 yearly infections worldwide. If left untreated, the fatality rate can be as high as 100% within 2 years. 90% of cases occur in just six countries: India, Bangladesh, Sudan, South Sudan, Ethiopia and Brazil. It is thus a disease rarely seen by physicians in Europe or North America. We report on the fatal case of VL in an 80-year-old immunosuppressed patient who presented with a latency of over 15 years after having visited an endemic region...
January 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095666/epidemiological-investigation-of-asymptomatic-dogs-with-leishmania-infection-in-southwestern-china-where-visceral-leishmaniasis-is-intractable
#10
Gui-Hua Zhao, Kun Yin, Wei-Xia Zhong, Ting Xiao, Qing-Kuan Wei, Yong Cui, Gong-Zhen Liu, Chao Xu, Hong-Fa Wang
Heishui county, located in northwest Sichuan province, southwestern China, is an endemic area of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and is the most intractable area. VL is never destroyed in it. Asymptomatic dogs (Leishmania parasites have been diagnosed but clinically healthy) are considered to be a potential reservoir host in zoonotic VL area, and most can lead to infection of individuals, that is a new challenge for controlling VL in humans. The present study aimed to assess the Leishmania infection rate of asymptomatic dogs in Heishui county...
December 2016: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093539/leishmaniasis-in-thailand-a-review-of-causative-agents-and-situations
#11
REVIEW
Saovanee Leelayoova, Suradej Siripattanapipong, Jipada Manomat, Phunlerd Piyaraj, Peerapan Tan-Ariya, Lertwut Bualert, Mathirut Mungthin
Before 1999, leishmaniasis was considered an imported disease in Thailand. Since then, autochthonous leishmaniasis was reported in both immmunocompetent and immmunocompromised patients especially in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). A new species was identified and named as Leishmania siamensis consisting of two lineages, that is, lineages TR and PG. Analysis of isoenzymes has clarified the more commonly detected L. siamensis lineage PG as Leishmania martiniquensis (MON-229), a species originally reported from the Martinique Island, whereas the L...
January 16, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092934/visceral-leishmaniasis-treatment-outcome-and-its-determinants-in-northwest-ethiopia
#12
Berihun Assefa Dachew, Getachew Mebrahtu Welay, Kefyalew Addis Alene
Background: Poor treatment outcomes of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are responsible for a high mortality rate in resource limited setting like Ethiopia. This study aimed at evaluating the magnitude and identifying determinants of poor VL treatment outcome in Kahsay Abera Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods: A hospital based retrospective follow up study was conducted among 595 VL patients who were admitted to Kahsay Abera Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia from October 2010 to April 2013...
December 28, 2016: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091623/comparative-genomics-of-canine-isolated-leishmania-leishmania-amazonensis-from-an-endemic-focus-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-governador-valadares-southeastern-brazil
#13
Hugo O Valdivia, Laila V Almeida, Bruno M Roatt, João Luís Reis-Cunha, Agnes Antônia Sampaio Pereira, Celia Gontijo, Ricardo Toshio Fujiwara, Alexandre B Reis, Mandy J Sanders, James A Cotton, Daniella C Bartholomeu
Leishmaniasis is a highly diverse group of diseases caused by kinetoplastid of the genus Leishmania. These parasites are taxonomically diverse, with human pathogenic species separated into two subgenera according to their development site inside the alimentary tract of the sand fly insect vector. The disease encompasses a variable spectrum of clinical manifestations with tegumentary or visceral symptoms. Among the causative species in Brazil, Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis is an important etiological agent of human cutaneous leishmaniasis that accounts for more than 8% of all cases in endemic regions...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077746/vector-competence-of-lutzomyia-cruzi-naturally-demonstrated-for-leishmania-infantum-and-suspected-for-leishmania-amazonensis
#14
Everton Falcão de Oliveira, Elisa Teruya Oshiro, Wagner Souza Fernandes, Alda Maria Teixeira Ferreira, Alessandra Gutierrez de Oliveira, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi Galati
Corumbá city is one of the oldest visceral leishmaniasis-endemic foci in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, where the transmission of Leishmania infantum has been attributed to Lutzomyia cruzi Aiming at investigating the parameters of the vectorial capacity of Lu. cruzi for L. infantum, a project was undertaken in this city. Among these parameters, vector competence was investigated and the results obtained are reported herein. Of the 12 hamsters exposed to feed wild-caught female sandflies, two developed infection with L...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076469/scoring-clinical-signs-can-help-diagnose-canine-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-a-highly-endemic-area-in-brazil
#15
Kleverton Ribeiro da Silva, Vitor Rosa Ramos de Mendonça, Kellen Matuzzy Silva, Leopoldo Fabrício Marçal do Nascimento, Antonio Ferreira Mendes-Sousa, Flaviane Alves de Pinho, Manoel Barral-Netto, Aldina Maria Prado Barral, Maria do Socorro Pires E Cruz
Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) diagnosis is still a challenge in endemic areas with limited diagnostic resources. This study proposes a score with the potential to distinguish positive CVL cases from negative ones. We studied 265 dogs that tested positive for CVL on ELISA and parasitological tests. A score ranging between 0 and 19 was recorded on the basis of clinical signs. Dogs with CVL had an overall higher positivity of the majority of clinical signs than did dogs without CVL or with ehrlichiosis. Clinical signs such as enlarged lymph nodes (83...
January 1, 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067090/assessment-of-formulated-amodiaquine-microparticles-in-leishmania-donovani-infected-rats
#16
Henry Nettey, Grace Lovia Allotey-Babington, Isaac Somuah, N'guessan Benoit Banga, Barima Afrane, Seth Kwabena Amponsah, Henrietta Annor, Henry Darko, Kwame Hanson, Anoa Aidoo, Marisa Nyarkoa Broni, Clement Sasu, Alexander Nyarko
The aim of this study was to formulate, characterize and evaluate the activity of Amodiaquine microparticles against Leishmania donovani. Microparticles were formulated by encapsulating the drug in bovine serum albumin using the spray-dryer method. The microparticles were evaluated for size, zeta potential, drug content, encapsulation efficiency and in vitro release profile. The size range of the microparticles formulated was between 1.9 and 10 µm with an average zeta potential of -25.5 mV. Of the expected 20% drug loading, an average of 18...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Microencapsulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066878/safety-and-effectiveness-of-sodium-stibogluconate-and-paromomycin-combination-for-the-treatment-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-eastern-africa-results-from-a-pharmacovigilance-programme
#17
Robert Kimutai, Ahmed M Musa, Simon Njoroge, Raymond Omollo, Fabiana Alves, Asrat Hailu, Eltahir A G Khalil, Ermias Diro, Peninah Soipei, Brima Musa, Khalid Salman, Koert Ritmeijer, Francois Chappuis, Juma Rashid, Rezika Mohammed, Asfaw Jameneh, Eyasu Makonnen, Joseph Olobo, Lawrence Okello, Patrick Sagaki, Nathalie Strub, Sally Ellis, Jorge Alvar, Manica Balasegaram, Emilie Alirol, Monique Wasunna
INTRODUCTION: In 2010, WHO recommended a new first-line treatment for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Eastern Africa. The new treatment, a combination of intravenous (IV) or intramuscular (IM) sodium stibogluconate (SSG) and IM paromomycin (PM) was an improvement over SSG monotherapy, the previous first-line VL treatment in the region. To monitor the new treatment's safety and effectiveness in routine clinical practice a pharmacovigilance (PV) programme was developed. METHODS: A prospective PV cohort was developed...
January 9, 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065450/the-effects-of-increased-heme-oxygenase-1-on-the-lymphoproliferative-response-in-dogs-with-visceral-leishmaniasis
#18
Breno Fernando Martins de Almeida, Kathlenn Liezbeth Oliveira Silva, Vanessa Marim Chiku, Aline Aparecida Correa Leal, Gabriela Lovizutto Venturin, Luis Gustavo Narciso, Maria Fernanda Cereijido Bersni Fink, Flavia de Rezende Eugênio, Paulo Sergio Patto Dos Santos, Paulo Cesar Ciarlini, Valéria Marçal Felix de Lima
Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is known to affect the cellular immunity of infected dogs, through impairing lymphoproliferation and microbicidal mechanisms. This study examined heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and its metabolites, oxidative stress and IL-10 levels in CVL and investigated correlations between these parameters. Additionally, the effects of HO-1 inhibition on the lymphoproliferative response and cytokine production in lymph node cells (LNCs) from infected dogs were evaluated. Forty-four dogs, 24 controls and 20 dogs with CVL were selected...
December 30, 2016: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064069/immunization-with-leishmania-donovani-protein-disulfide-isomerase-dna-construct-induces-th1-and-th17-dependent-immune-response-and-protection-against-experimental-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-balb-c-mice
#19
Ajay Amit, Vijayamahantesh, Manas R Dikhit, Ashish Kumar Singh, Vikash Kumar, Shashi S Suman, Ashu Singh, Akhilesh Kumar, Ajit Kumar Thakur, Vidyanand Ravi Das, Pradeep Das, Sanjiva Bimal
In the present study, the efficacy of Leishmania donovani protein disulfide isomerase (LdPDI) as a DNA vaccine was evaluated in BALB/C mice. Mice immunized with the LdPDI-DNA construct were found to be the most immuno-reactive, as the construct induced higher T-cell proliferation. The increased T-cell proliferation was associated with a substantial rise in Th1 and Th17+ CD4 cell response and triggered a higher proportion of CD8+ T cells for the release of interferon-gamma along with a reduced splenic parasite load on Days20 and 60 post challenge (PC)...
January 5, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063460/managing-two-decades-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-and-hiv-co-infection-a-case-report-that-illustrates-the-urgent-research-needs-in-the-field
#20
Melissa L Kelly, Angie N Pinto, Dan Suan, Debbie Marriott, David A Cooper, Sarah L Pett
Visceral leishmaniasis and HIV co-infection presents diagnostic, monitoring and treatment challenges. This is a report of a co-infected patient who developed multiple complications and treatment side-effects, including renal and liver failure, pancytopenia with recurrent sepsis, along with anal cancer, depression and poor quality-of-life spanning over two decades. Urgent research specific to this cohort is needed.
January 9, 2017: Sexual Health
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