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visceral leishmaniasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938257/childhood-visceral-leishmaniasis-distinctive-features-and-diagnosis-of-a-re-emerging-disease-an-11-year-experience-from-a-tertiary-referral-center-in-athens-greece
#1
Panagiotis Krepis, Adamantia Krepi, Ioanna Argyri, Anastasios Aggelis, Alexandra Soldatou, Maria Tsolia
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) remains a public health issue in Greece. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of pediatric VL in our region as well as to evaluate the laboratory findings and the diagnostic techniques that are applied. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all children diagnosed with VL in an 11-year period at a tertiary public hospital in the region of Athens. Demographic features, clinical information and laboratory findings were accessed...
September 20, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936226/challenges-in-modeling-complexity-of-neglected-tropical-diseases-a-review-of-dynamics-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-resource-limited-settings
#2
REVIEW
Swati DebRoy, Olivia Prosper, Austin Mishoe, Anuj Mubayi
OBJECTIVES: Neglected tropical diseases (NTD), account for a large proportion of the global disease burden, and their control faces several challenges including diminishing human and financial resources for those distressed from such diseases. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), the second-largest parasitic killer (after malaria) and an NTD affects poor populations and causes considerable cost to the affected individuals. Mathematical models can serve as a critical and cost-effective tool for understanding VL dynamics, however, complex array of socio-economic factors affecting its dynamics need to be identified and appropriately incorporated within a dynamical modeling framework...
2017: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934263/temporal-dynamics-and-leishmania-infantum-infection-prevalence-of-phlebotomus-perniciosus-diptera-phlebotominae-in-highly-endemic-areas-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-tunisia
#3
Meriem Benabid, Jamila Ghrab, Adel Rhim, Rania Ben-Romdhane, Karim Aoun, Aïda Bouratbine
Phlebotomus perniciosus is one of the major vectors of Leishmania infantum in the Mediterranean basin. The aim of this work was (i) to provide information about abundance and temporal dynamics of this Larroussius species in a hot spot area of visceral leishmaniasis in Tunisia, (ii) to detect L. infantum DNA in wild caught female sandflies and (iii) to measure Phlebotomus perniciosus infection rate throughout the active season. Sandflies were collected monthly during one year using CDC miniature light-traps in house and in animal shelters...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932617/visceral-leishmaniasis-malaria-coinfection-and-their-associated-factors-in-patients-attending-metema-hospital-northwest-ethiopia-suggestion-for-integrated-vector-management
#4
Getachew Ferede, Ermias Diro, Sisay Getie, Gebeyaw Getnet, Yegnasew Takele, Anteneh Amsalu, Yitayih Wondimeneh
BACKGROUND: Despite high prevalence of visceral leishmaniasis and malaria in the study area, their coinfection remains unknown. Therefore, this study was aimed to document VL-malaria coinfections and their associated factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among clinical suspected VL patients attending Metema hospital, Northwest Ethiopia, from January 2014 to June 2014. Blood sample was tested by rk39 antigen-based DiaMed IT-Leish dipstick and Giemsa stain microscopic examination of thick and thin blood smears for malaria detection was performed...
2017: Malaria Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919438/molecular-targets-and-pathways-for-the-treatment-of-visceral-leishmaniasis
#5
REVIEW
Vineet Jain, Keerti Jain
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) represents the most severe form of the tropical disease, leishmaniasis. Treatment of VL is complicated because of the few clinically approved antileishmanial drugs available; emerging resistance to first-line drugs; need for a temperature-controlled 'cold' supply chain; serious toxicity concerns over drugs such as Amphotericin B; high cost of medication; and unavailability of clinically approved antileishmanial vaccines. Attacking potential molecular targets, specific to the parasite, is a vital step in the treatment of this and other infectious diseases...
September 14, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903998/shape-form-function-and-leishmania-pathogenicity-from-textbook-descriptions-to-biological-understanding
#6
REVIEW
Jack Sunter, Keith Gull
The shape and form of protozoan parasites are inextricably linked to their pathogenicity. The evolutionary pressure associated with establishing and maintaining an infection and transmission to vector or host has shaped parasite morphology. However, there is not a 'one size fits all' morphological solution to these different pressures, and parasites exhibit a range of different morphologies, reflecting the diversity of their complex life cycles. In this review, we will focus on the shape and form of Leishmania spp...
September 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902295/sandfly-fauna-diptera-psychodidae-in-an-urban-area-central-west-of-brazil
#7
Wagner de Souza Fernandes, Leandro Machado Borges, Aline Etelvina Casaril, Everton Falcão de Oliveira, Jucelei de Oliveira Moura Infran, Eliane Mattos Piranda, Elisa Teruya Oshiro, Suellem Petilim Gomes, Alessandra Gutierrez de Oliveira
Biological and ecological relations among vectors and their pathogens are important to understand the epidemiology of vector-borne diseases. Camapuã is an endemic area for visceral and tegumentary leishmaniasis. The aim of this study was to characterize the sandfly fauna present in Camapuã , MS, Brazil. Sand flies were collected every fortnight from May 2014 to April 2015 using automatic light traps in the domicile and peridomicile of twelve neighborhoods and forest. The collected specimens were identified based on morphology according to the valid identification keys...
August 24, 2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902293/characterization-of-leishmania-l-infantum-chagasi-in-visceral-leishmaniasis-associated-with-hiv-co-infection-in-northeastern-brazil
#8
Elaine Cristina Bomfim de Lima, Walter Lins Barbosa, Maria Edileuza Felinto de Brito, Fábio Lopes de Melo, Sinval Pinto Brandão, Zulma Maria de Medeiros
Visceral leishmaniasis, associated with HIV/AIDS coinfection, is becoming a more aggressive disease, complicating an accurate prognosis. A 21-year-old HIV-positive female presenting with clinical features of visceral leishmaniasis was enrolled in this study. Bone marrow cytology, Novy-MacNeal-Nicolle culture and kDNA PCR of peripheral blood were all positive. Typing methods, multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and ITS1-RFLP PCR of peripheral blood confirmed infection by Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi . PCR has proved to be safer and more affordable than other characterization methods; ITS1-RFLP PCR can diagnose and type Leishmania spp...
August 24, 2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900667/ammonium-trichloro-1-2-ethanediolato-o-o-tellurate-cures-experimental-visceral-leishmaniasis-by-redox-modulation-of-leishmania-donovani-trypanothione-reductase-and-inhibiting-host-integrin-linked-pi3k-akt-pathway
#9
Preeti Vishwakarma, Naveen Parmar, Pragya Chandrakar, Tanuj Sharma, Manoj Kathuria, Pramod K Agnihotri, Mohammad Imran Siddiqi, Kalyan Mitra, Susanta Kar
In an endeavor to search for affordable and safer therapeutics against debilitating visceral leishmaniasis, we examined antileishmanial potential of ammonium trichloro [1,2-ethanediolato-O,O']-tellurate (AS101); a tellurium based non toxic immunomodulator. AS101 showed significant in vitro efficacy against both Leishmania donovani promastigotes and amastigotes at sub-micromolar concentrations. AS101 could also completely eliminate organ parasite load from L. donovani infected Balb/c mice along with significant efficacy against infected hamsters (˃93% inhibition)...
September 12, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900023/gene-expression-in-leishmania-is-regulated-predominantly-by-gene-dosage
#10
Stefano A Iantorno, Caroline Durrant, Asis Khan, Mandy J Sanders, Stephen M Beverley, Wesley C Warren, Matthew Berriman, David L Sacks, James A Cotton, Michael E Grigg
Leishmania tropica, a unicellular eukaryotic parasite present in North and East Africa, the Middle East, and the Indian subcontinent, has been linked to large outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis in displaced populations in Iraq, Jordan, and Syria. Here, we report the genome sequence of this pathogen and 7,863 identified protein-coding genes, and we show that the majority of clinical isolates possess high levels of allelic diversity, genetic admixture, heterozygosity, and extensive aneuploidy. By utilizing paired genome-wide high-throughput DNA sequencing (DNA-seq) with RNA-seq, we found that gene dosage, at the level of individual genes or chromosomal "somy" (a general term covering disomy, trisomy, tetrasomy, etc...
September 12, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898610/-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-hiv-infected-patients-the-challenge-of-relapse-and-treatment-failure
#11
Patrícia Cipriano, Ana Cláudia Miranda, Isabel Antunes, Kamal Mansinho
INTRODUCTION: Visceral leishmaniasis is an endemic disseminated infection, considered to be the third most frequent opportunistic parasitic infection in Europe. It is especially prevalent in patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus, in whom it poses a great therapeutic challenge due to increased risk of relapse. The goal of this study is to characterize a population of co-infected patients, as well as the efficiency of the adopted treatment strategies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective study with a sample composed of all patients with visceral leishmaniasis and human immunodeficiency virus admitted in an Infectious Diseases ward over a period of 10 years...
June 30, 2017: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894565/hematological-characteristics-of-yemeni-adults-and-children-with-visceral-leishmaniasis-could-eosinopenia-be-a-suspicion-index
#12
Jameel Al-Ghazaly, Waled Al-Dubai, Munasser Abdullah, Leila Al-Gharasi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Delay in the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) particularly in non-endemic areas is associated with higher mortality. In our experience, we found that marked bone marrow eosinopenia was a very frequent accompaniment of VL and might be a useful clue for the diagnosis, which indicates the opportunity for further morphological assessment. The aim of this study was to describe the hematological characteristics including peripheral blood and bone marrow findings of Yemeni adults and children with VL...
2017: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892492/hif-1%C3%AE-is-a-key-regulator-in-potentiating-suppressor-activity-and-limiting-the-microbicidal-capacity-of-mdsc-like-cells-during-visceral-leishmaniasis
#13
Akil Hammami, Belma Melda Abidin, Tania Charpentier, Aymeric Fabié, Annie-Pier Duguay, Krista M Heinonen, Simona Stäger
Leishmania donovani is known to induce myelopoiesis and to dramatically increase extramedullary myelopoiesis. This results in splenomegaly, which is then accompanied by disruption of the splenic microarchitecture, a chronic inflammatory environment, and immunosuppression. Chronically inflamed tissues are typically hypoxic. The role of hypoxia on myeloid cell functions during visceral leishmaniasis has not yet been studied. Here we show that L. donovani promotes the output from the bone marrow of monocytes with a regulatory phenotype that function as safe targets for the parasite...
September 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883727/vaccination-with-poly-d-l-lactide-co-glycolide-nanoparticles-loaded-with-soluble-leishmania-antigens-and-modified-with-a-tnf%C3%AE-mimicking-peptide-or-monophosphoryl-lipid-a-confers-protection-against-experimental-visceral-leishmaniasis
#14
Maritsa Margaroni, Maria Agallou, Evita Athanasiou, Olga Kammona, Costas Kiparissides, Catherine Gaitanaki, Evdokia Karagouni
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) persists as a major public health problem, and since the existing chemotherapy is far from satisfactory, development of an effective vaccine emerges as the most appropriate strategy for confronting VL. The development of an effective vaccine relies on the selection of the appropriate antigen and also the right adjuvant and/or delivery vehicle. In the present study, the protective efficacy of poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs), which were surface-modified with a TNFα-mimicking eight-amino-acid peptide (p8) and further functionalized by encapsulating soluble Leishmania infantum antigens (sLiAg) and monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA), a TLR4 ligand, was evaluated against challenge with L...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875178/genetic-validation-of-leishmania-donovani-lysyl-trna-synthetase-shows-that-it-is-indispensable-for-parasite-growth-and-infectivity
#15
Sanya Chadha, N Arjunreddy Mallampudi, Debendra K Mohapatra, Rentala Madhubala
Leishmania donovani is a protozoan parasite that causes visceral leishmaniasis. Increasing resistance and severe side effects of existing drugs have led to the need to identify new chemotherapeutic targets. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) are ubiquitous and are required for protein synthesis. aaRSs are known drug targets for bacterial and fungal pathogens. Here, we have characterized and evaluated the essentiality of L. donovani lysyl-tRNA synthetase (LdLysRS). Two different coding sequences for lysyl-tRNA synthetases are annotated in the Leishmania genome database...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873425/control-of-phlebotomus-argentipes-diptera-psychodidae-sand-fly-in-bangladesh-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Rajib Chowdhury, Shyla Faria, M Mamun Huda, Vashkar Chowdhury, Narayan Prosad Maheswary, Dinesh Mondal, Shireen Akhter, Sakila Akter, Rajaul Karim Khan, Shah Golam Nabi, Axel Kroeger, Daniel Argaw, Jorge Alvar, Aditya Prasad Dash, Qamar Banu
BACKGROUND: A number of studies on visceral leishmaniasis (VL) vector control have been conducted during the past decade, sometimes came to very different conclusion. The present study on a large sample investigated different options which are partially unexplored including: (1) indoor residual spraying (IRS) with alpha cypermethrin 5WP; (2) long lasting insecticide impregnated bed-net (LLIN); (3) impregnation of local bed-nets with slow release insecticide K-O TAB 1-2-3 (KOTAB); (4) insecticide spraying in potential breeding sites outside of house using chlorpyrifos 20EC (OUT) and different combinations of the above...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873400/sisleish-a-multi-country-standardized-information-system-to-monitor-the-status-of-leishmaniasis-in-the-americas
#17
Ana N S Maia-Elkhoury, Samantha Y O B Valadas, Lia Puppim-Buzanovsky, Felipe Rocha, Manuel J Sanchez-Vazquez
BACKGROUND: In the Americas, leishmaniasis is endemic in 18 countries, and from 2001 through 2015, 17 countries reported 843,931 cases of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, and 12 countries reported 52,176 cases of visceral leishmaniasis. A Regional Information System (SisLeish) was created in order to provide knowledge of the distribution and tendency of this disease to analyze and monitor the leishmaniasis status. This article analyses the performance and progress of SisLeish from 2012-2015...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873394/systematic-review-of-clinical-trials-assessing-the-therapeutic-efficacy-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-treatments-a-first-step-to-assess-the-feasibility-of-establishing-an-individual-patient-data-sharing-platform
#18
Jacob T Bush, Monique Wasunna, Fabiana Alves, Jorge Alvar, Piero L Olliaro, Michael Otieno, Carol Hopkins Sibley, Nathalie Strub Wourgaft, Philippe J Guerin
BACKGROUND: There are an estimated 200,000 to 400,000 cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) annually. A variety of factors are taken into account when considering the best therapeutic options to cure a patient and reduce the risk of resistance, including geographical area, malnourishment and HIV coinfection. Pooled analyses combine data from many studies to answer specific scientific questions that cannot be answered with individual studies alone. However, the heterogeneity of study design, data collection, and analysis often makes direct comparison difficult...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870535/historical-overview-of-infantile-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-el-agamy-alexandria-egypt
#19
REVIEW
Hala A Kassem, John C Beier, Bahira M El Sawaf
Infantile visceral leishmaniasis (IVL) is considered a rare and neglected disease in Egypt. An outbreak of the disease in El Agamy, Alexandria occurred in 1982 although the disease was previously reported 80 years before. Epidemiological and entomological studies were conducted ever since the 1982 outbreak to identify human cases, the parasite, reservoir host and the sand fly vector. Leishmania infantum MON-98, a new and unique zymodeme, was responsible of the disease. Stray dogs acted as the reservoir host and Phlebotomus langeroni was the proven vector...
September 8, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867354/development-of-a-simple-and-economical-diagnostic-test-for-canine-leishmaniasis
#20
Valeria S García, Verónica D G Gonzalez, Luis Gugliotta, Alexis Burna, Ana Demonte, Diego G Arias, Matías S Cabeza, Sergio A Guerrero
Visceral leishmaniasis is a public health problem worldwide. The early diagnosis in dogs is crucial, since they are an epidemiologically relevant reservoir of the disease. The aim of a field study is to early identify the disease allowing rapid intervention to reduce its effects. We propose an immunoagglutination test as a visual in situ method for diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis. Latex-protein complexes were sensitized by covalent coupling of a chimeric recombinant antigen of Leishmania spp. onto polystyrene latex with carboxyl functionality...
September 1, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
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