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visceral leishmaniasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225906/the-current-status-of-the-lutzomyia-longipalpis-diptera-psychodidae-phlebotominae-species-complex
#1
Nataly A Souza, Reginaldo P Brazil, Alejandra S Araki
Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. is a complex of sibling species and is the principal vector of American visceral leishmaniasis. The present review summarises the diversity of efforts that have been undertaken to elucidate the number of unnamed species in this species complex and the phylogenetic relationships among them. A wide variety of evidence, including chemical, behavioral and molecular traits, suggests very recent speciation events and complex population structure in this group. Although significant advances have been achieved to date, differential vector capacity and the correlation between structure of parasite and vector populations have yet to be elucidated...
March 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222329/inflammatory-chemokines-and-their-receptors-in-human-visceral-leishmaniasis-gene-expression-profile-in-peripheral-blood-splenic-cellular-sources-and-their-impact-on-trafficking-of-inflammatory-cells
#2
Neetu Singh, Shyam Sundar
Chemokines play an important role in determining cellular composition at inflammatory sites, and as such, influence disease outcome. In this study, we investigated the expression profile and splenic cellular source of various inflammatory chemokines and their receptors in human visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The expression of chemokines or their receptors was measured at the gene and protein level by employing real time qPCR and a cytometric bead array assay, respectively. In addition, the cellular source of chemokines and their receptors in the spleen was identified employing gene expression analyses in sequentially selected cell subsets...
February 18, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222162/optimal-combinations-of-control-strategies-and-cost-effective-analysis-for-visceral-leishmaniasis-disease-transmission
#3
Santanu Biswas, Abhishek Subramanian, Ibrahim M ELMojtaba, Joydev Chattopadhyay, Ram Rup Sarkar
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a deadly neglected tropical disease that poses a serious problem in various countries all over the world. Implementation of various intervention strategies fail in controlling the spread of this disease due to issues of parasite drug resistance and resistance of sandfly vectors to insecticide sprays. Due to this, policy makers need to develop novel strategies or resort to a combination of multiple intervention strategies to control the spread of the disease. To address this issue, we propose an extensive SIR-type model for anthroponotic visceral leishmaniasis transmission with seasonal fluctuations modeled in the form of periodic sandfly biting rate...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221822/clinical-characteristics-and-spatial-distribution-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-children-in-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-state-an-emerging-focus-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-brazil
#4
Patricia Rodrigues Naufal Spir, Luiz Euribel Prestes-Carneiro, Elivelton Silva Fonseca, Aline Dayse, Rogério Giuffrida, Lourdes Aparecida Zampieri D'Andrea
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an emerging zoonosis, and Brazil harbors about 90% of those infected in Latin America. Since 1998, the disease has been spreading quickly in São Paulo state, and the western region is considered an emerging focus of VL in Brazil. Our aim was to evaluate the clinical characteristics and spatial distribution of VL in children referred to a public tertiary hospital located in the western region of São Paulo state, Brazil. METHODS: Medical records of children up to 18 years of age who were diagnosed with VL between January 2006 and December 2010 were reviewed...
February 21, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221113/autochthonous-outbreak-and-expansion-of-canine-visceral-leishmaniasis-uruguay
#5
Dinora Satragno, Paula Faral-Tello, Bruno Canneva, Lorenzo Verger, Alejandra Lozano, Edgardo Vitale, Gonzalo Greif, Carlos Soto, Carlos Robello, Yester Basmadjián
We report an outbreak of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Uruguay. Blood specimens from 11/45 dogs tested positive for Leishmania spp. Specimens of Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies were captured; typing revealed Leishmania infantum. Our findings document an expansion of visceral leishmaniasis to southern South America and risk for vectorborne transmission to humans.
March 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212625/prevalence-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-and-associated-factors-among-visceral-leishmaniasis-infected-patients-in-northwest-ethiopia-a-facility-based-cross-sectional-study
#6
Mekuriaw Alemayehu, Mamo Wubshet, Nebiyu Mesfin, Abebaw Gebayehu
BACKGROUND: Visceral Leishmaniasis coinfection with HIV/AIDS has emerged as a series of disease pattern. It most often results in unfavorable responses to treatment, frequent relapses, and deaths. Scarce data is available regarding the prevalence of HIV and associated factors among Visceral Leishmaniasis coinfected patients. This study sought to determine the prevalence of HIV and associated factors among Visceral Leishmaniasis infected patients. METHODS: Facility based cross-sectional study was conducted from October, 2015 to August, 2016 in Northwest Ethiopia...
February 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209553/intraspecific-genetic-variability-in-a-population-of-moroccan-leishmania-infantum-revealed-by-pcr-rflp-of-kdna-minicircles
#7
Adil El Hamouchi, Rajaa Ejghal, Moustapha Hida, Meryem Lemrani
In Morocco, Leishmania infantum is the main etiologic agent of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis (VL). This species has been proven to be an opportunistic agent in HIV+ patients and is also responsible of sporadic cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL).This work aims to evaluate the genetic variability of Moroccan L. infantum strains based on PCR-RFLP analysis of the kinetoplastid DNA (kDNA) minicircles. A total of 75 DNA samples extracted from positive Giemsa-stained smears (n=32) and from L. infantum cultures (n=43) was studied...
February 14, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209209/perceived-quality-of-life-among-visceral-leishmaniasis-and-hiv-coinfected-migrant-male-workers-in-northwest-ethiopia-a-qualitative-study
#8
Mekuriaw Alemayehu, Mamo Wubshet, Nebiyu Mesfin, Abebaw Gebayehu
BACKGROUND: There is paucity of data on quality of life as a dimension of treatment outcome among Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV coinfected patients. This study sought to explore perceived quality of life among Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV coinfected male migrant workers in Northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: Twenty Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV coinfected study participants took part in the in-depth interviews at Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV treatment centers. Ten participants were on antiretroviral treatment (ART) and the remaining 10 have not yet started ART...
February 16, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207741/visceral-leishmaniasis-during-pregnancy-a-rare-case-report-from-greece
#9
Periklis Panagopoulos, Vasileios Mitsopoulos, Antonios Papadopoulos, Spyridoula Theodorou, Chrysoula Christodoulaki, Kyriakos Aloupogiannis, Nikolaos Papantoniou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191297/leishmania-infantum-and-epstein-barr-virus-co-infection-in-a-patient-with-hemophagocytosis
#10
Zied Gaifer, Mohamed-Rachid Boulassel
The authors describe a rare case of a 27- year old previously healthy male presenting with high grade fever, pancytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly, high levels of ferritin and triglyceride, suggesting a diagnosis of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) syndrome. Other investigations showed a positive Leishmania infantum serology and high Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) viremia. The diagnosis of a visceral leishmaniasis was confirmed by bone morrow biopsy, which showed Leishman-Donovan bodies and evidence of HLH. The patient received liposomal amphotericin B and he had a complete resolution of his symptoms and clearance of EBV viremia...
December 31, 2016: Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187202/asymptomatic-leishmaniasis-in-kala-azar-endemic-areas-of-malda-district-west-bengal-india
#11
Pabitra Saha, Swagata Ganguly, Moytrey Chatterjee, Soumendu Bikash Das, Pratip K Kundu, Subhasish K Guha, Tamal K Ghosh, Dilip K Bera, Nandita Basu, Ardhendu K Maji
Asymptomatic leishmaniasis may drive the epidemic and an important challenge to reach the goal of joint Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) elimination initiative taken by three Asian countries. The role of these asymptomatic carriers in disease transmission, prognosis at individual level and rate of transformation to symptomatic VL/Post Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) needs to be evaluated. Asymptomatic cases were diagnosed by active mass survey in eight tribal villages by detecting antileishmanial antibody using rK39 based rapid diagnostic kits and followed up for three years to observe the pattern of sero-conversion and disease transformation...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182549/putative-drug-and-vaccine-target-identification-in-leishmania-donovani-membrane-proteins-using-na%C3%A3-ve-bayes-probabilistic-classifier
#12
Arvind Kumar Sinha, Pradeep Singh, Anand Prakash, Dharm Pal, Anuradha Dube, Awanish Kumar
Predicting the role of protein is one of the most challenging problems. There are few approaches available for the prediction of role of unknown protein in terms of drug target or vaccine candidate. We propose here Naïve Bayes probabilistic classifier, a promising method for reliable predictions. This method is tested on the proteins identified in our mass spectrometry based membrane protemics study of Leishmania donovani parasite that causes a fatal disease (Visceral Leishmaniasis) in humans all around the world...
January 2017: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179112/glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-and-trypanothione-reductase-interaction-protects-leishmania-donovani-from-metalloid-mediated-oxidative-stress
#13
Ayan Kumar Ghosh, Savita Saini, Sushmita Das, Abhishek Mandal, Abul Hasan Sardar, Md Yousuf Ansari, Kumar Abhishek, Ajay Kumar, Ruby Singh, Sudha Verma, Asif Equbal, Vahab Ali, Pradeep Das
Exploration of metabolons as viable drug target is rare in kinetoplastid biology. Here we present a novel protein-protein interaction among Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (LdG6PDH) and Trypanothione reductase (LdTryR) of Leishmania donovani displaying interconnection between central glucose metabolism and thiol metabolism of this parasite. Digitonin fractionation patterns observed through immunoblotting indicated localisation of both LdG6PDH and LdTryR in cytosol. In-silico and in-vitro interaction observed by size exclusion chromatography, co-purification, pull-down assay and spectrofluorimetric analysis revealed LdG6PDH and LdTryR physically interact with each other in a NADPH dependent manner...
February 4, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177045/maxadilan-simile-expression-in-nyssomyia-neivai-a-sandfly-vector-in-an-endemic-region-of-brazil-and-its-immunogenicity-in-patients-with-american-tegumentary-leishmaniasis
#14
Juliana Aires, Claudio Casanova, Sebastian Vernal, Margarida Nascimento, Sandra Rodrigues, Ethan A Lerner, Ana Maria Roselino
BACKGROUND: Maxadilan (Max) is a salivary component in the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva 1912), a vector of visceral leishmaniasis. Max has a powerful vasodilatory effect and is a candidate vaccine that has been tested in experimental leishmaniasis. Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto 1926) is a vector of the pathogen responsible for American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) in Brazil. OBJECTIVE: We searched for Max expression in Ny. neivai and for antibodies against Max in ATL patients...
February 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177044/comparison-of-lamp-and-pcr-for-molecular-mass-screening-of-sand-flies-for-leishmania-martiniquensis-infection
#15
Saruda Tiwananthagorn, Hirotomo Kato, Ranchana Yeewa, Amontip Muengpan, Raxsina Polseela, Saovanee Leelayoova
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania martiniquensis infection has been reported in human and domestic animals of Martinique Island, Germany, Switzerland, USA, Myanmar and Thailand. The peculiar clinical features of disseminated cutaneous and visceral forms co-existence render the urgent need of specific diagnostic tool to identify the natural sand fly vectors for effective prevention and control strategies. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of 18S rRNA gene as well as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of minicircle kinetoplast DNA gene (PCR-mkDNA) have never been applied to detect L...
February 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174102/copper-salisylaldoxime-cusal-imparts-protective-efficacy-against-visceral-leishmaniasis-by-targeting-leishmania-donovani-topoisomerase-ib
#16
Manoj Kumar Singh, Siddhartha Kumar Bhaumik, Subir Karmakar, Joydeep Paul, Sudeshna Sawoo, Hemanta K Majumder, Amit Roy
In vitro and in vivo anti-leishmanial efficacy of copper salisylaldoxime (CuSAL), a transition metal complex, was evaluated and the underlying mechanism was studied. In vitro studies revealed that 30 μM of CuSAL causes 96% reduction in parasite burden in infected macrophages. CuSAL is least toxic in host cells. A dose of 5 mg/kg bodyweight per mice on alternate days (5 doses) gives ∼97% protection in both liver and spleen. Moreover, CuSAL potentially inhibits the catalytic activity of LdTOPILS and causes apoptosis of Leishmania parasites through induction of intracellular ROS generation and activation of caspase-like proteases...
February 4, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173714/evaluation-of-the-antileishmanial-potency-toxicity-and-phytochemical-constituents-of-methanol-bark-extract-of-sterculia-villosa
#17
Antu Das, Manash C Das, Niranjan Das, Surajit Bhattacharjee
CONTEXT: Visceral leishmaniasis is a protozoan disease caused by Leishmania donovani parasite. The genus Sterculia (Malvaceae) possesses ethnobotanical potential against this protozoan infection. OBJECTIVE: Determining the potential role of methanol bark extracts from Sterculia villosa Roxb (SVE) and its phytoconstituents against Leishmania donovani promastigotes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: SVE was analysed by TLC, UV-Vis, IR spectroscopy and biochemical assays...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167544/nanoliposomal-buparvaquone-immunomodulates-leishmania-l-infantum-infected-macrophages-and-is-highly-effective-in-murine-model
#18
Thais Alves da Costa-Silva, Andrés Jimenez Galisteo, José Angelo Lauletta Lindoso, Leandro R S Barbosa, Andre Gustavo Tempone
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a fatal parasitic neglected disease affecting 1.5 million people worldwide. Based on the drug repositioning approach, the aim of this work was to investigate the in vitro immunomodulatory potential of buparvaquone (BPQ) and to stablish a safe regimen to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of BPQ entrapped into negatively charged nanoliposomes (BPQ-LP) in Leishmania (L.) infantum infected hamsters. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and ζ-potential were applied in order to study the influence of BPQ on the liposome structure...
February 6, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167209/efficacy-of-protease-inhibitor-from-marine-streptomyces-sp-vitbvk2-against-leishmania-donovani-an-in-vitro-study
#19
Veena Sreedharan, K V Bhaskara Rao
In the present study the leishmanicidal effect of potential protease inhibitor producing marine actinobacterial isolate has been investigated against Leishmania donovani, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis. Among 89 marine actinobacteria isolated from a salt pan in Kanyakumari, only one isolate (BVK2) showed 97% of protease inhibition activity against trypsin. Moderate to high protease inhibitor activity was shown by isolate BVK2 on proteinase (30%) and chymotrypsin (85%). In optimization study for protease inhibitor production glucose as carbon source and casein as nitrogen source showed the best activity...
February 4, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166308/optimal-control-and-cost-effective-analysis-of-malaria-visceral-leishmaniasis-co-infection
#20
Folashade B Agusto, Ibrahim M ELmojtaba
In this paper, a deterministic model involving the transmission dynamics of malaria/visceral leishmaniasis co-infection is presented and studied. Optimal control theory is then applied to investigate the optimal strategies for curtailing the spread of the diseases using the use of personal protection, indoor residual spraying and culling of infected reservoirs as the system control variables. Various combination strategies were examined so as to investigate the impact of the controls on the spread of the disease...
2017: PloS One
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