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visceral leishmaniasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919688/leishmaniases-in-ecuador-comprehensive-review-and-current-status
#1
REVIEW
Yoshihisa Hashiguchi, Lenin N Velez, Nancy V Villegas, Tatsuyuki Mimori, Eduardo A L Gomez, Hirotomo Kato
This article reviews current knowledge about leishmaniases in Ecuador, proceeding from 1920, when the first human case was described, to the present, mainly focusing on the recent research events published. Regarding basic situations, it appears that 23 of Ecuador's 24 provinces have leishmaniasis-case reports. The disease is one of the mandatory notification infectious diseases in the country since 2005. All the 21,305 cases notified to the Ministry of Public Health, during the period from 2001 through 2014, were said to involve different clinical features of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) but not visceral (VL)...
December 2, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911896/different-mutations-in-a-p-type-atpase-transporter-in-leishmania-parasites-are-associated-with-cross-resistance-to-two-leading-drugs-by-distinct-mechanisms
#2
Christopher Fernandez-Prada, Isabel M Vincent, Marie-Christine Brotherton, Mathew Roberts, Gaétan Roy, Luis Rivas, Philippe Leprohon, Terry K Smith, Marc Ouellette
Leishmania infantum is an etiological agent of the life-threatening visceral form of leishmaniasis. Liposomal amphotericin B (AmB) followed by a short administration of miltefosine (MF) is a drug combination effective for treating visceral leishmaniasis in endemic regions of India. Resistance to MF can be due to point mutations in the miltefosine transporter (MT). Here we show that mutations in MT are also observed in Leishmania AmB-resistant mutants. The MF-induced MT mutations, but not the AmB induced mutations in MT, alter the translocation/uptake of MF...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907136/immune-activation-and-bacterial-translocation-a-link-between-impaired-immune-recovery-and-frequent-visceral-leishmaniasis-relapses-in-hiv-infected-patients
#3
Maria Luciana Silva-Freitas, Glaucia Fernandes Cota, Talia S Machado-de-Assis, Carmem Giacoia-Gripp, Ana Rabello, Alda M Da-Cruz, Joanna R Santos-Oliveira
The maintenance of chronic immune activation due to leishmaniasis or even due to microbial translocation is associated with immunosenescence and may contribute to frequent relapses. Our aim was to investigate whether patients with HIV-associated visceral leishmaniasis (VL/HIV) who experience a single episode of VL have different immunological behaviors in comparison to those who experience frequent relapses. VL/HIV patients were allocated to non-relapsing (NR, n = 6) and relapsing (R, n = 11) groups and were followed from the active phase of VL up to 12 months post-treatment (mpt)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906059/a-mitochondrial-hsp70-hspa9b-is-linked-to-miltefosine-resistance-and-stress-response-in-leishmania-donovani
#4
P Vacchina, B Norris-Mullins, E S Carlson, M A Morales
BACKGROUND: Protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania are responsible for leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease affecting millions worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), caused by Leishmania donovani, is the most severe form of leishmaniasis with high rates of mortality if left untreated. Current treatments include pentavalent antimonials and amphotericin B. However, high toxicity and emergence of resistance hinder the success of these options. Miltefosine (HePC) is the first oral treatment available for leishmaniasis...
December 1, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905287/hemophagocytic-syndrome-due-to-leishmania-infection-diagnosed-with-immunofluorescence-antibody-test
#5
Hakan Sarbay, Yasemin Işık Balcı, Selin Güler, Meral Türk, Mehmet Akın, Aziz Polat
Leishmaniasis is a reticuloendothelial system disease that mostly observed before the age of 5. Visceral infection causes long-standing fever, weight loss, weakness, pancytopenia, and hepatosplenomegaly. Leishmania infantum is responsible for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Turkey. We present a case of hemophagocytic syndrome due to Leishmania infection diagnosed with an immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT). Leishmania amastigotes were not observed on bone marrow aspiration. We consider that IFAT is very important for parasite detection in the diagnosis of VL in children, particularly when amastigotes are not obtained on bone marrow aspiration...
September 2016: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899126/new-epidemiological-aspects-of-visceral-and-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-taza-morocco
#6
Maryam Hakkour, Asmae Hmamouch, Mohamed Mahmoud El Alem, Abdelkbir Rhalem, Fatima Amarir, Mohamed Touzani, Abderrahim Sadak, Hajiba Fellah, Faiza Sebti
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is considered among the main endemic diseases in Morocco. However, further knowledge about epidemiological aspects of this disease is needed in several provinces to plan control and preventive strategies to tackle the disease. The present study aims to determine the epidemiological aspect of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis in Taza Province from 2007-2014 and to identify the circulating species in this province. RESULTS: The temporal study from 2007 to 2014 showed that the number of cutaneous leishmaniasis cases increased since 2010...
November 29, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895274/disease-severity-prediction-by-spirometry-in-adults-with-visceral-leishmaniasis-from-minas-gerais-brazil
#7
Isabel A Maia, Frank S Bezerra, André Luis Pereira de Albuquerque, Heitor F Andrade, Valdir S Amato
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is associated with interstitial pneumonitis according to histology and radiology reports. However, studies to address the functional impact on respiratory function in patients are lacking. We assessed pulmonary function using noninvasive spirometry in a cross-sectional study of hospitalized adult VL patients from Minas Gerais, Brazil, without unrelated lung conditions or acute infections. Lung conditions were graded as normal, restrictive, obstructive, or mixed patterns, according to Brazilian consensus standards for spirometry...
November 28, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894365/leishmania-infantum-illness-transmission-profile-and-risk-factors-for-asymptomatic-infection-in-an-endemic-metropolis-in-brazil
#8
Letícia Helena Dos Santos Marques, Iara Caixeta Marques DA Rocha, Ilka Afonso Reis, Gisele Macedo Rodrigues DA Cunha, Edward Oliveira, Thais Ribeiro Pfeilsticker, Valdelaine Etelvina Miranda DE Araújo, Maria Helena Franco Morais, Ana Rabello, Mariângela Carneiro
To evaluate the distribution of asymptomatic infection by Leishmania infantum in a metropolis in Brazil with different relative risks (RRs) for disease and risk factors associated with the infection, an ecological study was conducted using a Bayesian approach to estimate the RR of human visceral leishmaniasis (HVL) based on cases between 2008 and 2011. The areas were categorized and selected according to disease incidence: low (area-1), medium (area-2) and high (area-3). Cross-sectional study enrolling 935 children was used to estimate the prevalence of infection by L...
November 29, 2016: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892844/identification-of-b-cell-epitope-of-leishmania-donovani-and-its-application-in-diagnosis-of-visceral-leishmaniasis
#9
Fauzia Jamal, Manas Ranjan Dikhit, Manish K Singh, Pushkar Shivam, Sarita Kumari, Pushpanjali, Amit K Dubey, Prakash Kumar, Shyam Narayan, Anil K Gupta, Krishna Pandey, V N R Das, Sanjiva Bimal, Pradeep Das, Shubhankar K Singh
Diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is often hindered by cross-reactions with antigens from other related parasite infections. This study aimed to develop an immunochromatographic test (ICT) which can detect the antigen present in circulating immune complexes (CICs) of VL patients using B cell epitope-specific antibodies. MS analysis of six immunoreactive 2DE spots revealed two epitopes i.e RFFVQGDGIGQHSLQEALERR (P1) and RRVAVLVLLDRL (P2) (From a hypothetical protein [Acc No: XP_003861458.1]). The epitope conservancy analysis suggested that the linear epitope (P1P2) is 97% to 100% conserved among Leishmania species and diverged from Homo sapiens (61% query coverage and 80% identity)...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890957/unusual-presentation-of-mucocutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-hiv-infected-patient
#10
Anupama Bains, Deepak Vedant, Priyanka Gupta, G R Tegta
Leishmaniasis is caused by protozoan parasite of genus leishmania. Visceral leishmaniasis, diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis, and atypical forms of cutaneous leishmaniasis are common in HIV-infected patients. Our patient presented with an obstructive mass in nasal cavity and was diagnosed as a case of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Spontaneous healing of lesions in HIV-infected patients is rare rather they are unresponsive to treatment and have frequent relapses, especially in patients with low CD4 count. However, in our patient, the lesion improved significantly after 2 months of highly active antiretroviral therapy and co-trimoxazole prophylaxis...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890367/evaluation-of-interleukin-8%C3%A2-2767-a-t-polymorphism-in-visceral-leishmaniasis
#11
Alireza Ahmadi, Mehrdad Hajilooi, Ghasem Solgi, Mohammad Abasi, Ahad Bazmani, Alireza Khalilian, Mohammad Matini, Khosro Sardarian
OBJECTIVE: To evaluated the relationship between the genetic variations at IL-8 +2767 position with VL pathogenesis among Iranian patients. METHODS: Three groups including patients with VL clinical presentation and leishmania seropositive (n = 124), patients seropositive but without clinical presentation (n = 82) and healthy controls (n = 63) were selected to conduct this cross-sectional study. Polymorphism at +2767 position of IL-8 was investigated using PCR-RFLP techniques...
November 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890077/t-lymphocyte-immunophenotypes-in-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-dogs-with-visceral-leishmaniasis
#12
Fernanda G Grano, José Eduardo Dos S Silva, Guilherme D Melo, Juliana Perosso, Valéria M F Lima, Gisele F Machado
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a disease causing several clinical manifestations in dogs, including neurological disorders. Nevertheless, there are few studies related to the evaluation of the brain alterations during VL. Evidences of the involvement of cerebral barriers in infected dogs was reported, including the presence of brain inflammatory infiltrate, with a predominance of CD3+ T cells. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the immunophenotypes of T lymphocytes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), as well as in peripheral blood, and to correlate with brain alterations in dogs with VL...
December 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888011/antiproliferative-and-ultrastructural-effects-of-phenethylamine-derivatives-on-promastigotes-and-amastigotes-of-leishmania-leishmania-infantum-chagasi
#13
Paula Ferreira Brasil, Júlia Araújo de Freitas, Anna Léa Silva Barreto, Camila Marques Adade, Leandro Figueira Reis de Sá, Pamella Constantino-Teles, Fabiano Travanca Toledo, Bruno A de Sousa, Augusto Cesar Gonçalves, Maria Teresa Villela Romanos, João V Comasseto, Alcindo A Dos Santos, Ana Claudia Tessis, Thais Souto-Padrón, Rosangela Maria A Soares, Antonio Ferreira-Pereira
Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi is one of the agents that cause visceral leishmaniasis. This disease occurs more frequently in third world countries, such as Brazil. The treatment is arduous, and is dependent on just a few drugs like the antimonial derivatives and amphotericin B. Moreover, these drugs are not only expensive, but they can also cause severe side effects and require long-term treatment. Therefore, it is very important to find new compounds that are effective against leishmaniasis. In the present work we evaluated a new group of synthetic amides against the promastigote and amastigote forms of L...
November 22, 2016: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879460/effectiveness-of-short-course-meglumine-antimoniate-glucantime%C3%A2-for-treatment-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-a-13-year-multistage-non-inferiority-study-in-iran
#14
Abdolvahab Alborzi, Gholamreza Pouladfar, Armin Attar, Fatemeh Falahi, Zahra Jafarpour, Abdollah Karimi, Mohammad Rahim Kadivar
The World Health Organization's (WHO) recommendation is 28-day course of meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime(®)) for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a shorter duration of treatment in regions with low level of resistance to Glucantime. During 13 years, this study was conducted in three phases on 392 patients. In the pilot first phase, we performed splenic punctures in seven patients to assess the correlation between the changes in the parasite load during treatment with Glucantime and defervescence...
November 22, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879457/protective-efficacy-of-secondary-prophylaxis-against-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-coinfected-patients-over-the-past-10-years-in-eastern-india
#15
Rama P Goswami, Rudra P Goswami, Ayan Basu, Yogiraj Ray, Mehebubar Rahman, Santanu K Tripathi
Coinfection with visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) leads to frequent treatment failure, relapse, and death. In this retrospective analysis from eastern India (2005-2015), our primary objective was to ascertain the protective efficacy of secondary prophylaxis with monthly amphotericin B (AmB) given in patients with HIV-VL coinfection toward reducing relapse and mortality rates. The secondary objective was to compare clinical features, laboratory findings, and treatment outcomes in HIV-VL patients in contrast to VL monoinfection...
November 22, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879160/development-of-mannose-anchored-thiolated-amphotericin-b-nanocarriers-for-treatment-of-visceral-leishmaniasis
#16
Gul Shahnaz, Benson J Edagwa, JoEllyn McMillan, Sohail Akhtar, Abida Raza, Naveeda A Qureshi, Masoom Yasinzai, Howard E Gendelman
AIM: Our goal was to improve treatment outcomes for visceral leishmaniasis by designing nanocarriers that improve drug biodistribution and half-life. Thus, long-acting mannose-anchored thiolated chitosan amphotericin B nanocarrier complexes (MTC AmB) were developed and characterized. MATERIALS & METHODS: A mannose-anchored thiolated chitosan nanocarrier was manufactured and characterized. MTC AmB was examined for cytotoxicity, biocompatibility, uptake and antimicrobial activities...
November 23, 2016: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876928/in-silico-sequence-analysis-homology-modeling-and-function-annotation-of-leishmanolysin-from-leishmania-donovani
#17
Somnath Waghmare, Abhishek Buxi, Yogesh Nandurkar, Anil Shelke, Ramrao Chavan
Leishmaniases are a complex of diseases that range from the deadly visceral disease and some self-curing lesions to gross disfigurations. About 12 million peoples from 88 different countries get infected by this protozoan parasite through the sand flies. Visceral leishmaniasis is a potentially fatal disease endemic to large parts of Asia and Africa, primarily caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani. L. donovani is a species of Leishmania, a hemoflagellate parasite and causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876645/diagnostic-accuracy-of-rklo8-versus-rk26-elisas-for-screening-of-canine-visceral-leishmaniasis
#18
Lily P Martínez Abad, Caroline S Almeida, Ana Márcia M Mattos, Ana Carolina P Mendonça, Márcio J M Alves, Aimara C Pinheiro, Renato Porrozzi, Elfadil Abass, Ulrich Steinhoff, Henrique C Teixeira
Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) represents an important public health issue. Despite numerous diagnostic tests available, CVL diagnosis still needs to be improved to achieve a more accurate detection rate. Recently, rKLO8, a new antigenic protein of Sudanese Leishmania donovani, was studied for the first time in diagnosis of human visceral leishmaniasis (HVL) and showed good performance. The present study aimed to evaluate serum reactivity to rKL08 and the reference antigen rK26, and to compare both diagnostic proteins with the combined DPP(®) CVL rapid test and ELISA (EIE-Bio-Manguinhos) confirmatory test, which are both recommended for the diagnosis of CVL in Brazil...
November 19, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873456/visceral-leishmaniasis-in-two-patients-with-il-12p40-and-il-12r%C3%AE-1-deficiencies
#19
Nima Parvaneh, Vincent Barlogis, Abdolvahab Alborzi, Caroline Deswarte, Stéphanie Boisson-Dupuis, Mélanie Migaud, Catherine Farnaria, Janet Markle, Leila Parvaneh, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Jacinta Bustamante
Mutations of the IL12B and IL12RB1 genes underlie the development of IL-12 p40 and IL-12Rβ1 deficiencies, respectively, both of which cause predisposition to infection with weakly virulent mycobacteria and Salmonella. Infections with other intramacrophagic organisms have only been rarely observed. We identified two patients with visceral leishmaniasis who had autosomal recessive IL-12 p40 and IL-12Rβ1 deficiencies, respectively. This finding demonstrates the importance of IFN-γ immunity in the control of leishmaniasis...
November 22, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870870/epidemiologic-correlates-of-mortality-among-symptomatic-visceral-leishmaniasis-cases-findings-from-situation-assessment-in-high-endemic-foci-in-india
#20
Aritra Das, Morchan Karthick, Shweta Dwivedi, Indranath Banerjee, Tanmay Mahapatra, Sridhar Srikantiah, Indrajit Chaudhuri
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is highly prevalent in the Indian state of Bihar and, without proper diagnosis and treatment, is associated with high fatality. However, lack of efficient reporting mechanism had been an impediment in estimating the burden of mortality and its antecedents among symptomatic VL cases. The objectives of the current study were to generate a reliable estimate of symptomatic VL caseload and mortality in Bihar, as well as to identify the epidemiologic and health infrastructure-related predictors of VL mortality...
November 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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