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visceral leishmaniasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790825/epidemiological-and-clinical-features-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-children-in-alicante-province-spain
#1
Jose M Ramos, Agustin Clavijo, Luis Moral, Cesar Gavilan, Tatiana Salvador, Javier González de Dios
Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic to the Mediterranean basin. In children, VL often presents with non-specific symptoms and can be life-threatening without proper treatment. Aim To describe the epidemiological and clinical features of pediatric VL in children in Alicante, Spain. Methods The study included all paediatric (<15 years) cases admitted to three hospitals in the province of Alicante from May 1992 to May 2015 with diagnosis of VL (detection was either by anti-Leishmania antibodies in serology or Leishmania in blood and/or bone marrow aspirates)...
May 23, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784509/lactoferrin-modified-betulinic-acid-loaded-plga-nanoparticles-are-strong-anti-leishmanials
#2
Asim Halder, Divanshu Shukla, Suvadra Das, Partha Roy, Arup Mukherjee, Bhaskar Saha
Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL), caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani, is a potentially fatal disease. The only orally bioavailable drug miltefosine is toxic and the effective liposomal Amphotericin B (AmBisome) is limited by its prohibitive cost and requirement for parenteral administration. Therefore, finding a new potential drug candidate and an alternative delivery system is imperative. We report that Betulinic acid (BA), a pentacyclic triterpenoid from Betula alba bark, was loaded onto uniformly spherical PLGA nanoparticles (BANPs; diameter 187...
May 18, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780019/parasitic-infections-in-individuals-travelling-to-america-and-precautionary-measures
#3
Mehmet Aykur, Muhammet Karakavuk, Ayşegül Ünver, Hande Dağcı
Over the past decade, the number of international travels has increased. Hence, the risk of transmission of parasitic diseases has also increased. One of the risk infections is malaria; Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum species can be transmitted. The distribution of leishmaniasis cases has been reported from the south of USA to the north of Argentina. Approximately 57,000 cases of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis occur annually, and approximately 4000 visceral leishmaniasis cases are observed. It is reported that Chagas disease is endemic in 21 countries, and approximately 6 million people are affected every year...
March 2018: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775824/is-urine-a-reliable-clinical-sample-for-the-diagnosis-of-human-visceral-leishmaniasis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Shabnam Asfaram, Saeed Hosseini Teshnizi, Mahdi Fakhar, Elham Sadat Banimostafavi, Masoud Soosaraei
Visualization of amastigotes in lymph nodes, bone marrow, and other tissues samples remains the gold standard method for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in humans. This gold standard diagnostic method uses a technically challenging microscopy procedure that is often not accessible in many places in the world where VL is endemic. Here, we report the current systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate whether urine is a reliable clinical sample for diagnosis of human VL. Data were extracted from ten available databases during the period from 2002 to 2017...
May 15, 2018: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775225/cytokines-and-chemokines-differentially-regulate-innate-immune-cell-trafficking-during-post-kala-azar-dermal-leishmaniasis
#5
Ashish K Singh, Vidya N R Das, Ajay Amit, Manas R Dikhit, Vijaya Mahantesh, Shubhankar K Singh, Shyam Naryan, Krishna Pandey, Pradeep Das, Neena Verma, Sanjiva Bimal
Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is often considered to be the anthroponotic reservoir of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in India. A better understanding of the host immune-response in dermal lesions of PKDL patients is therefore of utmost significance to minimize such patients and to restrict VL transmission. Although the innate immune response is known to play an important role in parasite clearance from dermal lesions, the actual contribution of innate cells to the pathogenicity of PKDL is poorly understood...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774295/serological-investigation-of-visceral-leishmania-infection-in-human-and-its-associated-risk-factors-in-welkait-district-western-tigray-ethiopia
#6
Abrha Bsrat, Mebrahtu Berhe, Endalemaw Gadissa, Habtamu Taddele, Yohannes Tekle, Yohannes Hagos, Adugna Abera, Messele G/Micael, Tehetna Alemayhu, Getachew Gugsa, Abraham Aseffa
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is major neglected public health problem in terms of geographical spread and incidence in Ethiopia. Magnitude, public health impact and dynamics of VL were not well studied in Welkait District, Western Tigray, though the area is known for VL. Hence, this study aimed to determine sero-prevalence of human VL and associated risk factors in Welkait as new foci. A cross sectional study design was employed in this study. Two stage stratified random sampling method was used to select study participants...
February 2018: Parasite Epidemiology and Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774290/urbanization-of-human-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-morocco
#7
Kholoud Kahime, Samia Boussaa, Haddou Nhammi, Ali Boumezzough
Human visceral leishmaniasis one of the seven most neglected tropical diseases in the world. In Morocco, HVL is widespread in all regions; but it is more common in the northern part with sporadic cases observed in the South. During the period between 2004 and 2013, the most affected Moroccan provinces were Taounate province, with 220 cases (16.09% of all cases), followed by Chefchaouen with 13.17% and Taza with 10.46% of the total cases. Children < 5 years old are the most affected age group, most cases registered were male...
November 2017: Parasite Epidemiology and Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770328/second-blood-meal-by-female-lutzomyia-longipalpis-enhancement-by-oviposition-and-its-effects-on-digestion-longevity-and-leishmania-infection
#8
C S Moraes, K Aguiar-Martins, S G Costa, P A Bates, R J Dillon, F A Genta
Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in America. Physiological and molecular mechanisms of Leishmania infection in sand flies have been studied during the first gonotrophic cycle. There are few studies about these interactions during the second gonotrophic cycle mainly because of the difficulties maintaining sand flies through sequential feeds. Here we standardized conditions to perform the second blood feed efficiently, and our results show that oviposition is an essential factor for the success of multiple feeds...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762040/orally-bioavailable-and-effective-buparvaquone-lipid-based-nanomedicines-for-visceral-leishmaniasis
#9
Lindsay A Smith, Dolores Remedios Serrano, Marion Mauger, Francisco Bolás-Fernández, Maria Auxiliadora Dea-Ayuela, Aikaterini Lalatsa
Nano-enabled lipid based drug delivery systems offer a platform to overcome challenges encountered with current failed leads in the treatment of parasitic and infectious diseases. When prepared with FDA or EMA approved excipients, they can be readily translated without the need for further toxicological studies, while they remain affordable and amenable to scale-up. Buparvaquone (BPQ), a hydroxynapthoquinone with in vitro activity in the nanomolar range, failed to clinically translate as a viable treatment for visceral leishmaniasis due to its poor oral bioavailability limited by its poor aqueous solubility (BCS Class II drug)...
May 15, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758031/the-mass-use-of-deltamethrin-collars-to-control-and-prevent-canine-visceral-leishmaniasis-a-field-effectiveness-study-in-a-highly-endemic-area
#10
Bruna Martins Macedo Leite, Manuela da Silva Solcà, Liliane Celestino Sales Santos, Lívia Brito Coelho, Leila Denise Alves Ferreira Amorim, Lucas Edel Donato, Sandra Maria de Souza Passos, Adriana Oliveira de Almeida, Patrícia Sampaio Tavares Veras, Deborah Bittencourt Mothé Fraga
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonosis of great importance. Limitations in current VL control measures compromise efficacy, indicating the need to implement new strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the mass use of deltamethrin-impregnated collars in dogs as a public health measure to control and prevent canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). METHODOLOGY: An interventional study was implemented in two endemic areas in the district of Monte Gordo (Bahia-Brazil): an intervention area, in which VL seronegative dogs were collared, and a control area in which only conventional CVL control measures were applied...
May 14, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756426/nephrotic-syndrome-in-a-patient-with-visceral-leishmaniasis-a-case-report
#11
T A D Tilakaratne, I W G A L Malhasi, A Rathnathilaka
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 31, 2018: Ceylon Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746470/new-insights-into-leishmaniasis-in-the-immunosuppressed
#12
REVIEW
Hannah Akuffo, Carlos Costa, Johan van Griensven, Sakib Burza, Javier Moreno, Mercè Herrero
Immunosuppression contributes significantly to the caseload of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). HIV coinfection, solid organ transplantation, malnutrition, and helminth infections are the most important immunosuppression-related factors. This review briefly describes the challenges of these associations. East Africa and the Indian subcontinent are the places where HIV imposes the highest burden in VL. In the highlands of Northern Ethiopia, migrant rural workers are at a greater risk of coinfection and malnutrition, while in India, HIV reduces the sustainability of a successful elimination programme...
May 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746438/hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-associated-with-visceral-leishmaniasis
#13
Nihal Özdemir, Başak Koç, Esra Arslantaş, Işik Odaman Al, Çiğdem Kelleci, Ezgi Pasli Uysalol, Cengiz Bayram, Ali Ayçiçek
This is the report of a 2-year-old boy who presented with fever, cytopenia, and splenomegaly. The patient was diagnosed with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) and treated with HLH-2004 protocol. Repeated bone marrow aspiration showed amastigotes on follow-up. In endemic countries, visceral leishmaniasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis to avoid chemotherapy toxicity.
May 9, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745990/an-il-10-dominant-polarization-of-monocytes-is-a-feature-of-indian-visceral-leishmaniasis
#14
Susmita Roy, Debanjan Mukhopadhyay, Shibabrata Mukherjee, Srija Moulik, Soumyadip Chatterji, Nayan Brahme, Netai Pramanik, Rama P Goswami, Bibhuti Saha, Mitali Chatterjee
BACKGROUND: Leishmania donovani, the causative parasite of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) deviously manipulates host monocytes/macrophages to ensure its survival. Although monocytes/macrophages from patients with VL have demonstrated an impaired oxidative burst and antigen presentation, an unanswered yet pertinent question remains as to whether they are deactivated or alternatively activated. METHODS AND RESULTS: The significantly raised plasma levels of IL-4/IL-13 and IL-10 in VL patients suggested a microenvironment conducive for alternative activation of monocytes/macrophages...
May 10, 2018: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745468/epidemiological-evaluation-of-leishmania-infantum-zoonotic-transmission-risk-in-the-recently-established-endemic-area-of-northwestern-italy
#15
E Ferroglio, E Battisti, S Zanet, C Bolla, E Concialdi, A Trisciuoglio, S Khalili, A Biglino
Leishmania infantum infection had been expanding into new areas due to changes in vector and host biology. Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis has become endemic in previously unsuitable areas as vectors find favourable climatic conditions and an increasing number of reservoir dogs are moved between traditionally and new endemic areas. Monitoring vector and disease expansion in areas of recent colonization is needed to understand transmission mechanisms and patterns of disease establishment. Here, we studied the infection status of 815 human blood donors and of 803 sympatric dogs from five, newly endemic, areas in Northwestern Italy...
May 10, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743809/evaluation-of-regulatory-immune-response-in-skin-lesions-of-patients-affected-by-nonulcerated-or-atypical-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-honduras-central-america
#16
Gabriela Venicia Araujo Flores, Carmen Maria Sandoval Pacheco, Thaise Yumie Tomokane, Wilfredo Sosa Ochoa, Concepción Zúniga Valeriano, Claudia Maria Castro Gomes, Carlos Eduardo Pereira Corbett, Marcia Dalastra Laurenti
In Honduras, Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi causes both visceral leishmaniasis (LV) and nonulcerated or atypical cutaneous leishmaniasis (NUCL). NUCL is characterized by mononuclear inflammatory infiltration of the dermis, composed mainly of lymphocytes followed by macrophages with discrete parasitism. Considering that little is known about the pathogenesis of NUCL, the aim of this study was to evaluate the regulatory response in situ in skin lesions of patients affected by NUCL. Biopsies ( n = 20) from human cutaneous nonulcerative lesions were collected and processed by usual histological techniques...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742167/canine-leishmaniasis-genome-wide-analysis-and-antibody-response-to-lutzomyia-longipalpis-saliva
#17
Luís F S Batista, Yuri T Utsunomiya, Thaís B F Silva, Mariana M Carneiro, Joyr S F Paiva, Rafaela B Silva, Thaíse Y Tomokane, Claudio N Rossi, Acácio D Pacheco, Rafaela B P Torrecilha, Fernando T Silveira, Mary Marcondes, Cáris M Nunes, Márcia D Laurenti
The anti-inflammatory properties of sand fly saliva favor the establishment of the Leishmania infantum infection. In contrast, an antibody response against Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva is often associated with a protective cell-mediated response against canine visceral leishmaniasis. Genetic studies may demonstrate to what extent the ability to secrete anti-saliva antibodies depends on genetic or environmental factors. However, the genetic basis of canine antibody response against sand fly saliva has not been assessed...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741738/biochemical-characterization-of-agmo-variants-implicated-in-relapses-in-visceral-leishmaniasis
#18
Katrin Watschinger, Markus A Keller, Georg Golderer, Stefan Coassin, Johannes Zschocke, Ernst R Werner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 5, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740532/epidemiological-aspects-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-larestan-and-ghiro-karzin-counties-southwest-of-iran
#19
Nasiri Zahra, Keshavarzi Davood, Akbari Morteza, Soltani Zahra
Objectives: Leishmania parasites are the causative agents of leishmaniasis. The Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) form of the disease is fatal if not treated in most cases. This study examined the epidemiological aspects of VL in two southwest counties of Iran. Methods: This was a retrospective study of hospitalized patients with a laboratory confirmation of VL from Larestan and Ghiro-Karzin Counties. Results: For Larestan county, a decline in the incidence of VL has been observed from 2004 to 2015...
April 2018: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740446/antigenicity-of-leishmania-activated-c-kinase-antigen-lack-in-human-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-and-protective-effect-of-prime-boost-vaccination-with-pci-neo-lack-plus-attenuated-lack-expressing-vaccinia-viruses-in-hamsters
#20
Laura Fernández, Eugenia Carrillo, Lucas Sánchez-Sampedro, Carmen Sánchez, Ana Victoria Ibarra-Meneses, M Angeles Jimenez, Valter Dos Anjos Almeida, Mariano Esteban, Javier Moreno
Leishmania -activated C-kinase antigen (LACK) is a highly conserved protein among Leishmania species and is considered a viable vaccine candidate for human leishmaniasis. In animal models, prime-boost vaccination with LACK-expressing plasmids plus attenuated vaccinia viruses (modified vaccinia Ankara [MVA] and mutant M65) expressing LACK, has been shown to protect against cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Further, LACK demonstrated to induce the production of protective cytokines in patients with active CL or cured visceral leishmaniasis, as well as in asymptomatic individuals from endemic areas...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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