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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346269/identification-of-secreted-proteins-involved-in-nonspecific-dsrna-mediated-lutzomyia-longipalpis-ll5-cell-antiviral-response
#1
Andrea Martins-da-Silva, Erich Loza Telleria, Michel Batista, Fabricio Klerynton Marchini, Yara Maria Traub-Csekö, Antonio Jorge Tempone
Hematophagous insects transmit infectious diseases. Sand flies are vectors of leishmaniasis, but can also transmit viruses. We have been studying immune responses of Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas. We identified a non-specific antiviral response in L. longipalpis LL5 embryonic cells when treated with non-specific double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs). This response is reminiscent of interferon response in mammals. We are investigating putative effectors for this antiviral response...
January 18, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345601/vaccine-effectiveness-and-use-of-collar-impregnated-with-insecticide-for-reducing-incidence-of-leishmania-infection-in-dogs-in-an-endemic-region-for-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-brazil
#2
E G Lopes, A P Sevá, F Ferreira, C M Nunes, L B Keid, R M Hiramoto, H L Ferreira, T M F S Oliveira, F G Ovallos, E A B Galati, T J Villegas, D V Bortoletto, S Y O B Valadas, R M Soares
Although a national programme for control of visceral leishmaniosis (VL) is being run in Brazil, the disease continues to spread. This programme is essentially based on culling infected dogs from endemic regions. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop other control measures against VL to deter its advance. Here, a subunit vaccine, a recombinant vaccine, an insecticide-impregnated collar and the associations between these measures were evaluated for reducing the incidence of Leishmania infection in dogs. This was through a cohort study conducted in an endemic region of Brazil, considering the incidence and time of total exposure over a period of 1 year...
January 18, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345298/leishmania-amazonensis-isolated-from-human-visceral-leishmaniasis-histopathological-analysis-and-parasitological-burden-in-different-inbred-mice
#3
Celeste da Silva Freitas de Souza, Kátia da Silva Calabrese, Ana Lúcia Abreu-Silva, Luiz Otávio Pereira Carvalho, Flávia de Oliveira Cardoso, Maria Elizabeth Moraes Cavalheiros Dorval, Elisa Teruya Oshiro, Patrícia Flávia Quaresma, Célia Maria Ferreira Gontijo, Raquel da Silva Pacheco, Maria Isabel Doria Rossi, Sylvio Celso Gonçalves da Costa, Tânia Zaverucha do Valle
Leishmania amazonensis is a major etiological agent of human cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Americas; nevertheless there are some reports of this species causing visceral disease in dogs and men. In the present work we have studied a Leishmania strain isolated from a human case of visceral leishmaniasis. We have infected different mouse strains and analyzed the development of the disease, studying the parasite's ability to visceralize and whether this ability is influenced by host genetics. Female BALB/c, C57BL/6, C57BL/10, CBA, DBA/2, and C3H/He mice were subcutaneously infected with 104 L...
January 18, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329619/hepatic-fibropoiesis-in-dogs-naturally-infected-with-leishmania-leishmania-infantum-treated-with-liposome-encapsulated-meglumine-antimoniate-and-allopurinol
#4
R S Castro, I F G de Amorim, R A Pereira, S M Silva, L J Pinheiro, A J W Pinto, E G Azevedo, C Demicheli, M M V Caliari, D M Mosser, M S M Michalick, Frédéric J G Frezard, Wagner L Tafuri
Hepatic fibropoiesis in canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) were evaluated by histological (morphometrical collagen deposition) and immunohistochemical assays characterizing alpha-actin (α-SMA), vimentin, calprotectin (L1 antigen), and TGF-β in 46 naturally infected dogs with Leishmania infantum treated with liposome-encapsulated meglumine antimoniate and allopurinol separately and in combination. Six treatment groups were defined: meglumine antimoniate encapsulated in nanometric liposomes (LMA), allopurinol (ALLOP); liposome-encapsulated meglumine antomoniate combined with allopurinol (LMA+ALLOP); empty liposomes (LEMP); empty liposomes combined with allopurinol (LEMP+ALLOP) and saline...
January 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324838/canine-visceral-leishmaniasis-diagnosis-and-management-of-the-reservoir-living-among-us
#5
REVIEW
Bruno L Travi, Anabela Cordeiro-da-Silva, Filipe Dantas-Torres, Guadalupe Miró
This article reviews essential topics of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) due to Leishmania infantum infection. It focuses on the current serological and molecular diagnostic methods used in epidemiological research and veterinary clinics to diagnose CVL and includes new point-of-care (POC) tests under development. The efficacy of different treatment regimens on the clinical improvement and infectiousness of dogs is also addressed. In the last section, the review provides a critical appraisal of the effectiveness of different control measures that have been implemented to curb disease transmission...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324760/bionomics-of-phlebotomus-argentipes-in-villages-in-bihar-india-with-insights-into-efficacy-of-irs-based-control-measures
#6
David M Poché, Rajesh B Garlapati, Shanta Mukherjee, Zaria Torres-Poché, Epco Hasker, Tahfizur Rahman, Aakanksha Bharti, Vishnu P Tripathi, Suman Prakash, Rahul Chaubey, Richard M Poché
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a deadly vector-borne disease. Approximately 90% of Indian VL cases occur in Bihar, where the sand fly, Phlebotomus argentipes, is the principal vector. Sand fly control in Bihar consists of indoor residual spraying (IRS), the practice of spraying the inner walls of village dwellings with insecticides. Prior researchers have evaluated success of IRS-control by estimating vector abundance in village houses, but the number of sampling periods (n = 2-3) were minimal, and outdoor-resting P...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322016/evaluation-of-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo-antileishmanial-potential-of-bergenin-rich-bergenia-ligulata-wall-engl-root-extract-against-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-inbred-balb-c-mice-through-immunomodulation
#7
Rupinder Kaur, Sukhbir Kaur
Background: Medicinal plants with immunomodulatory properties can provide good alternative therapeutics for curing visceral leishmaniasis. Bergenia ligulata (Wall.) Engl. is an interesting plant with strong antioxidant, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory and hepatoprotective properties. Aim: The present study was planned to determine the antileishmanial activity of plant extract by modulating the immune responses of inbred BALB/c mice. Methodology: Bergenin, the principle active component of B...
January 2018: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318986/oxidative-status-and-lipid-profile-among-dogs-at-different-stages-of-visceral-leishmaniasis
#8
Mehmet Gültekin, Serdar Paşa, Kerem Ural, Canberk Balıkçı, Gamze Sevri Ekren Aşıcı, Gamze Gültekin
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to investigate the oxidative status and lipid profile among dogs at different stages of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). METHODS: Dogs with VL were divided into four groups according to the classification reported by the Leishvet group: stage I (n=9), stage II (n=11), stage III (n=6), and stage IV (n=6); these dogs were compared to healthy control dogs (n=14). The lipid profile [high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), cholesterol, and triglyceride levels) and oxidative status [total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS), and paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) activity] were evaluated...
December 2017: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317889/clinical-and-laboratory-analysis-of-patients-with-leishmaniasis-a-retrospective-study-from-a-tertiary-care-center-in-new-delhi
#9
Nitin Gupta, Kamla Kant, Bijay Ranjan Mirdha
Background: Leishmaniasis manifests as visceral (VL), cutaneous (CL) or a dermal sequel of VL, known as Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL). The aim of the study was to analyze the clinical and laboratory features of cases diagnosed with leishmaniasis. Methods: This hospital-based retrospective study included all cases of VL, PKDL, and CL diagnosed between Jan 2011 to Jan 2016 at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. Clinical and laboratory profile of the diagnosed cases were analyzed in detail...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317872/transmission-of-leishmania-infantum-by-rhipicephalus-sanguineus-acari-ixodidae-in-dogs
#10
Alaleh Rakhshanpour, Abdolali Malmasi, Mehdi Mohebali, Sedigheh Nabian, Hossein Mirhendi, Zabihollah Zarei, Abdolhossein Dalimi, Anita Mohammadiha, Behnaz Akhoundi, Amrollah Azarm
Background: Rhipicephalus sanguineus is the most widely distributed tick in the world, which is partly due to its biological flexibility and the global distribution of its major host, the domestic dog. In Mediterranean region it could be principal reservoir host for Leishmania infantum, usually transmitted by the phlebotomine sand flies. In this study, we evaluated the vector potential of R. sanguineus in transmitting L. infantum to uninfected dogs. Methods: During 2014, five dogs with clinical manifestations of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL), high anti-Leishmania antibody titers and tick infestation, were selected from CVL endemic areas (Tehran and Alborz provinces)...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315303/genome-wide-comparison-of-ethiopian-leishmania-donovani-strains-reveals-differences-potentially-related-to-parasite-survival
#11
Arie Zackay, James A Cotton, Mandy Sanders, Asrat Hailu, Abedelmajeed Nasereddin, Alon Warburg, Charles L Jaffe
Leishmania donovani is the main cause of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in East Africa. Differences between northern Ethiopia/Sudan (NE) and southern Ethiopia (SE) in ecology, vectors, and patient sensitivity to drug treatment have been described, however the relationship between differences in parasite genotype between these two foci and phenotype is unknown. Whole genomic sequencing (WGS) was carried out for 41 L. donovani strains and clones from VL and VL/HIV co-infected patients in NE (n = 28) and SE (n = 13)...
January 9, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304878/bionomic-aspects-of-lutzomyia-evansi-and-lutzomyia-longipalpis-proven-vectors-of-leishmania-infantum-in-an-endemic-area-of-non-ulcerative-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-honduras
#12
Ángel Mejía, Gabriela Matamoros, Gustavo Fontecha, Wilfredo Sosa-Ochoa
BACKGROUND: Some Lutzomyia species are the vectors of human leishmaniasis in the Americas. Visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis are both endemic in the Pacific region of Honduras, but the non-ulcerative form is the more frequent clinical manifestation in this region, where Lutzomyia longipalpis is the most abundant and the only incriminated vector. Taxonomic identification and distribution studies of sand flies are important to understand the epidemiology and to control these neglected tropical diseases...
January 5, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301342/small-myristoylated-protein-3-identified-as-a-potential-virulence-factor-in-leishmania-amazonensis-proves-to-be-a-protective-antigen-against-visceral-leishmaniasis
#13
Marcelo P Oliveira, Vívian T Martins, Thaís T O Santos, Daniela P Lage, Fernanda F Ramos, Beatriz C S Salles, Lourena E Costa, Daniel S Dias, Patrícia A F Ribeiro, Mônica S Schneider, Ricardo A Machado-de-Ávila, Antônio L Teixeira, Eduardo A F Coelho, Miguel A Chávez-Fumagalli
In a proteomics approach conducted with Leishmania amazonensis, parasite proteins showed either an increase or a decrease in their expression content during extensive in vitro cultivation, and were related to the survival and the infectivity of the parasites, respectively. In the current study, a computational screening was performed to predict virulence factors among these molecules. Three proteins were selected, one of which presented no homology to human proteins. This candidate, namely small myristoylated protein-3 (SMP-3), was cloned, and its recombinant version (rSMP-3) was used to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy subjects living in an endemic area of leishmaniasis and from visceral leishmaniasis patients...
January 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297684/isolation-derivative-synthesis-and-structure-activity-relationships-of-antiparasitic-bromopyrrole-alkaloids-from-the-marine-sponge-tedania-brasiliensis
#14
Lizbeth L L Parra, Ariane F Bertonha, Ivan R M Severo, Anna C C Aguiar, Guilherme E de Souza, Glaucius Oliva, Rafael V C Guido, Nathalia Grazzia, Tábata R Costa, Danilo C Miguel, Fernanda R Gadelha, Antonio G Ferreira, Eduardo Hajdu, Daniel Romo, Roberto G S Berlinck
The isolation and identification of a series of new pseudoceratidine (1) derivatives from the sponge Tedania brasiliensis enabled the evaluation of their antiparasitic activity against Plasmodium falciparum, Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, and Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agents of malaria, cutaneous leishmaniasis, visceral leishmaniasis, and Chagas disease, respectively. The new 3-debromopseudoceratidine (4), 20-debromopseudoceratidine (5), 4-bromopseudoceratidine (6), 19-bromopseudoceratidine (7), and 4,19-dibromopseudoceratidine (8) are reported...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291591/proteome-scale-identification-of-leishmania-infantum-for-novel-vaccine-candidates-a-hierarchical-subtractive-approach
#15
Bahareh Vakili, Navid Nezafat, Gholam Reza Hatam, Bijan Zare, Nasrollah Erfani, Younes Ghasemi
Vaccines are one of the most significant achievements in medical science. However, vaccine design is still challenging at all stages. The selection of antigenic peptides as vaccine candidates is the first and most important step for vaccine design. Experimental selection of antigenic peptides for the design of vaccines is a time-consuming, labor-intensive and expensive procedure. More recently, in the light of computer-aided biotechnology and reverse vaccinology, the precise selection of antigenic peptides and rational vaccine design against many pathogens have developed...
December 24, 2017: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290574/gut-microbes-egested-during-bites-of-infected-sand-flies-augment-severity-of-leishmaniasis-via-inflammasome-derived-il-1%C3%AE
#16
Ranadhir Dey, Amritanshu B Joshi, Fabiano Oliveira, Lais Pereira, Anderson B Guimarães-Costa, Tiago D Serafim, Waldionê de Castro, Iliano V Coutinho-Abreu, Parna Bhattacharya, Shannon Townsend, Hamide Aslan, Alec Perkins, Subir Karmakar, Nevien Ismail, Morgan Karetnick, Claudio Meneses, Robert Duncan, Hira L Nakhasi, Jesus G Valenzuela, Shaden Kamhawi
Leishmania donovani parasites are the cause of visceral leishmaniasis and are transmitted by bites from phlebotomine sand flies. A prominent feature of vector-transmitted Leishmania is the persistence of neutrophils at bite sites, where they protect captured parasites, leading to enhanced disease. Here, we demonstrate that gut microbes from the sand fly are egested into host skin alongside Leishmania parasites. The egested microbes trigger the inflammasome, leading to a rapid production of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), which sustains neutrophil infiltration...
December 27, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287082/risk-factors-for-mortality-of-children-with-zoonotic-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-central-tunisia
#17
Khaled Ben Helel, Mohamed Ben Rejeb, Zakia Habboul, Nizar Khattat, Houssain Mejaouel, Houyem Said-Latiri, Belhassen Kaabi, Elyes Zhioua
BACKGROUND: Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) caused by Leishmania infantum is endemic with an epidemiological profile of a paediatric disease in Tunisia. In the context of a high fatality rate, identifying risk factors for in-hospital mortality in children treated for ZVL is of major epidemiological importance. DESIGN: A retrospective (case-control) study included 230 immuno-competent children diagnosed and confirmed with primary ZVL in the paediatric department of the University Hospital of Kairouan between 2004 and 2014...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284754/viral-discovery-and-diversity-in-trypanosomatid-protozoa-with-a-focus-on-relatives-of-the-human-parasite-leishmania
#18
Danyil Grybchuk, Natalia S Akopyants, Alexei Y Kostygov, Aleksandras Konovalovas, Lon-Fye Lye, Deborah E Dobson, Haroun Zangger, Nicolas Fasel, Anzhelika Butenko, Alexander O Frolov, Jan Votýpka, Claudia M d'Avila-Levy, Pavel Kulich, Jana Moravcová, Pavel Plevka, Igor B Rogozin, Saulius Serva, Julius Lukeš, Stephen M Beverley, Vyacheslav Yurchenko
Knowledge of viral diversity is expanding greatly, but many lineages remain underexplored. We surveyed RNA viruses in 52 cultured monoxenous relatives of the human parasite Leishmania (Crithidia and Leptomonas), as well as plant-infecting PhytomonasLeptomonas pyrrhocoris was a hotbed for viral discovery, carrying a virus (Leptomonas pyrrhocoris ostravirus 1) with a highly divergent RNA-dependent RNA polymerase missed by conventional BLAST searches, an emergent clade of tombus-like viruses, and an example of viral endogenization...
December 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284535/bacterial-diversity-of-wild-caught-lutzomyia-longipalpis-a-vector-of-zoonotic-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-brazil-under-distinct-physiological-conditions-by-metagenomics-analysis
#19
Ana Clara Araújo Machado Pires, Luís Eduardo Martinez Villegas, Thaís Bonifácio Campolina, Alessandra Silva Orfanó, Paulo Filemon Paolucci Pimenta, Nágila Francinete Costa Secundino
BACKGROUND: The leishmaniases are a group of diseases caused by protozoans of the genus Leishmania, which are transmitted by the bite of phlebotomine sand flies. In the New World, Lutzomyia longipalpis is the most important vector of visceral leishmaniasis and is a proven vector for Leishmania infantum chagasi in Brazil. During development within the vector, Leishmania can interact with a variety of microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria. The presence of bacteria in the midgut of sand flies can influence the development and survival of the parasite...
December 29, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284049/leishmania-viannia-braziliensis-infection-in-wild-small-mammals-in-ecotourism-area-of-brazil
#20
Gabriel Barbosa Tonelli, Aline Tanure, Felipe Dutra Rego, Gustavo Mayr de Lima Carvalho, Rodolfo Stumpp, Gabriela Ribeiro Ássimos, Aldenise Martins Campos, Ana Cristina Viana Mariano da Rocha Lima, Célia Maria Ferreira Gontijo, Gustavo Fontes Paz, José Dilermando Andrade Filho
Leishmaniases are parasitic diseases transmitted to mammalian hosts by sand fly vectors (Diptera: Psychodidae). Despite the increasing occurrence of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in urban centers, their transmission still occur primarily in wild environments and may be associated with professional activities and recreation, such as ecotourism. The Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Santuário do Caraça (RPPNSC) is one of the largest ecotourism attractions in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, and comprises an area of environmental preservation with 11,233 hectares presenting a transitional vegetation between Cerrado and Atlantic Forest...
2017: PloS One
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