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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585791/-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury-due-to-civil-gunshot-wounds-at-a-general-hospital-in-cali-colombia
#1
L Parrado Sánchez, C Gómez, J A Valderrama Chaparro, L D Beltrán Osorio, M Sierra Ruiz, A Enríquez Marulanda, J Lobato Polo
OBJECTIVES: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to gunshot-wounds (GSW) is a critical situation in the pediatric population. The aim of this study is to characterize TBI in this population since there are few reports that describe it especially in Colombia where its incidence is high, also to determine which were the main mortality predictor within our population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study in which we reviewed pediatric medical records of patients that had consulted at the Fundacion Valle del Lili pediatric Emergency Room between January of 2011 and December of 2015 because of TBI due to GSW...
January 25, 2017: Cirugía Pediátrica: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532914/penetrating-bihemispheric-traumatic-brain-injury-a-collective-review-of-gunshot-wounds-to-the-head
#2
REVIEW
Lauren Turco, David L Cornell, Bradley Phillips
BACKGROUND: Head injuries that cross midline structures of the brain are bihemispheric. Other terms have been used to describe such injuries, but bihemispheric is the most accurate and should be standard nomenclature. Bihemispheric head injuries are associated with greater mortality and morbidity than other penetrating traumatic brain injuries (TBIs). Currently, there is a tendency to manage severe gunshot wounds (GSWs) to the head nonoperatively, despite reports of improved outcome in military patients treated aggressively...
August 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392030/an-unusual-exit-wound-as-a-result-of-a-shotgun-suicide-to-the-head
#3
S N Kunz
The location of a gunshot entrance wound as well as the wound path trajectory are the main findings that help to determine the position from which a weapon was fired and thus distinguish firearm suicides from homicides and accidents. We present a case of a 28-year old man, who was found dead in his car. Because of an unusual position of the firearm, which was clamped into the steering wheel, and an unclear entrance/exit wound, an autopsy was performed. The deceased showed typical signs of a contact shotgun wound to the head with an entrance wound in the right temporal region and an exit wound in the midface...
March 30, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314903/diatoms-in-drowning-cases-in-forensic-veterinary-context-a-preliminary-study
#4
Nadia Fucci, Carlo P Campobasso, L Mastrogiuseppe, C Puccinelli, S Marcheggiani, L Mancini, L Marino, V L Pascali
In this preliminary study, a digestive method used in forensic context to extract diatoms has been applied in organs taken from ten wildlife animals belonging three species of mammals (a deer, a roe and five otters) and one species of birds (two magpies). Only four carcasses were recovered from aquatic environments (bath trough for animals, bathtub irrigation, river) and only in three cases out of ten that the cause of death was ruled out as drowning. In seven cases, the death was due to other causes: gunshot injuries for one otter, blunt trauma for a magpie, and traumatic injuries followed by motor vehicle collision in other four otters and a roe...
March 17, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249550/amelioration-of-penetrating-ballistic-like-brain-injury-induced-cognitive-deficits-after-neuronal-differentiation-of-transplanted-human-neural-stem-cells
#5
Markus S Spurlock, Aminul I Ahmed, Karla N Rivera, Shoji Yokobori, Stephanie W Lee, Pingdewinde N Sam, Deborah A Shear, Michael P Hefferan, Thomas G Hazel, Karl K Johe, Shyam Gajavelli, Frank C Tortella, Ross M Bullock
Penetrating traumatic brain injury (PTBI) is one of the major cause of death and disability worldwide. Previous studies with penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI), a PTBI rat model revealed widespread perilesional neurodegeneration, similar to that seen in humans following gunshot wound to the head, which is unmitigated by any available therapies to date. Therefore, we evaluated human neural stem cell (hNSC) engraftment to putatively exploit the potential of cell therapy that has been seen in other central nervous system injury models...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091809/a-review-of-penetrating-brain-trauma-epidemiology-pathophysiology-imaging-assessment-complications-and-treatment
#6
REVIEW
Mona T Vakil, Ajay K Singh
Gunshot injuries are the most common cause of penetrating brain injury (PBI) and carry a high morbidity and mortality. The incidence of PBI has increased over the last decade with an estimated 35,000 civilian deaths annually. Patients that survive to reach the hospital require rapid triage and imaging evaluation. CT findings in conjunction with the Glasgow Coma Scale are typically used to determine which patients are surgical candidates. Radiologists should be familiar with the various injury patterns and imaging findings which are poor prognostic indicators, notably brainstem, bilateral hemispheric, multilobar, or transventricular injuries...
June 2017: Emergency Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903839/the-effect-of-brain-tomography-findings-on-mortality-in-sniper-shot-head-injuries
#7
Çağdaş Can, M Bolatkale, A Sarıhan, Y Savran, A Ç Acara, M Bulut
OBJECTIVES: Penetrating gunshot head injuries have a poor prognosis and require prompt care. Brain CT is a routine component of the standard evaluation of head wounds and suspected brain injury. We aimed to investigate the effect of brain CT findings on mortality in gunshot head injury patients who were admitted to our emergency department (ED) from the Syrian Civil War. METHODS: The study group comprised patients who were admitted to the ED with gunshot brain injury...
June 2017: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871133/civilian-cerebral-gunshot-wounds-a-south-african-experience
#8
Victor Kong, Jocinta Odendaal, Benn Sartorius, Damian Clarke, Petra Brysiewicz, Ellen Jerome, John Bruce, Grant Laing
BACKGROUND: Cerebral gunshot wounds represent one of the most lethal forms of traumatic brain injury, but there is a paucity of literature on the topic, especially from the developing world. We reviewed our experience and describe the spectrum and outcome of civilian cerebral gunshot wounds in a major metropolitan trauma centre in South Africa. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of all patients with isolated cerebral gunshot wounds managed by the Pietermaritzburg Metropolitan Trauma Service over a 5-year period from 2010 to 2014...
March 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843239/unique-neuro-ophthalmic-presentation-of-gun-pellet-injury
#9
Reena Sharma, Sanjay Sharma, Swati Phuljhele, Rohit Saxena
We describe a unique case of orbital gunshot injury with isolated intraorbital pellets lodged symmetrically in the two apices, causing identical clinical presentation, and absence of any associated globe or cerebral injury. He developed bilateral complete third nerve palsy with bilateral traumatic optic neuropathy. The optic nerve strut prevented the pellets from going into the brain on both the sides.
September 2016: Oman Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752059/klebsiella-pneumoniae-carbapenemase-producing-k-pneumoniae-kpc-kp-in-brain-and-spinal-cord-injury-patients-potential-for-prolonged-colonization
#10
N R Zembower, A Zhu, M Malczynski, C Qi
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of brain and spinal cord injury (BSCI) patients among all patients with Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae (KPC-KP) and to evaluate clinical characteristics and duration of colonization. SETTING: Tertiary care academic medical center. METHODS: Electronic medical records of BSCI patients with KPC-KP from February 2009 to December 2014 were reviewed to determine clinical characteristics...
April 2017: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27546337/surgical-resection-for-epilepsy-following-cerebral-gunshot-wounds
#11
Yoshua Esquenazi, Giridhar P Kalamangalam, Omotola A Hope, Sonia N Krish, Jeremy Slater, Nitin Tandon
OBJECTIVE: The surgical management of epilepsy after penetrating gunshot wounds (GSWs) to the head has not been described in the modern era. Given the extensive damage to the cranium and cortex from such injuries, the safety and efficacy of surgical intervention are unclear. We report surgical strategy and outcomes after resection for medically refractory epilepsy following GSWs in 4 patients. METHODS: A prospectively compiled database of 325 patients with epilepsy was used to identify patients undergoing surgery for medically refractory epilepsy after a GSW to the brain...
November 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27488491/effect-of-time-to-operation-on-mortality-for-hypotensive-patients-with-gunshot-wounds-to-the-torso-the-golden-10-minutes
#12
Jonathan P Meizoso, Juliet J Ray, Charles A Karcutskie, Casey J Allen, Tanya L Zakrison, Gerd D Pust, Tulay Koru-Sengul, Enrique Ginzburg, Louis R Pizano, Carl I Schulman, Alan S Livingstone, Kenneth G Proctor, Nicholas Namias
INTRODUCTION: Timely hemorrhage control is paramount in trauma; however, a critical time interval from emergency department arrival to operation for hypotensive gunshot wound (GSW) victims is not established. We hypothesize that delaying surgery for more than 10 minutes from arrival increases all-cause mortality in hypotensive patients with GSW. METHODS: Data of adults (n = 309) with hypotension and GSW to the torso requiring immediate operation from January 2004 to September 2013 were retrospectively reviewed...
October 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27472666/neurological-findings-in-pediatric-penetrating-head-injury-at-a-university-teaching-hospital-in-durban-south-africa-a-23-year-retrospective-study
#13
Kadhaya David Muballe, Timothy Hardcastle, Erastus Kiratu
OBJECTIVES Penetrating traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) can be divided into gunshot wounds or stab wounds based on the mechanisms of injury. Pediatric penetrating TBIs are of major concern as many parental and social factors may be involved in the causation. The authors describe the penetrating cranial injuries in pediatric patient subgroups at risk and presenting to the Department of Neurosurgery at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, by assessment of the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score and review of the common neurological manifestations including cranial nerve abnormalities...
November 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27416716/-comparative-evaluation-of-drainage-methods-used-for-penetrating-gunshot-cerebral-injuries
#14
COMPARATIVE STUDY
V P Orlov
The paper presents a comparative evaluation of the methods of gunshot craniocerebral wounds draining, applied when the primary surgical treatment at the stages of medical evacuation of the limited contingent of Soviet troops in Afghanistan. An analysis of occurring infectious complications and outcomes of surgical treatment of the wounded is given. Based on clinical observations revealed most effective method of the active drainage gunshot traumatic brain injuries. The advantages of tidal drainage, appropriate for mechanical cleaning of wounds, allows controlling hemostasis, using antibacterial solutions are given...
April 2016: Voenno-medit︠s︡inskiĭ Zhurnal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27383839/pathophysiology-associated-with-traumatic-brain-injury-current-treatments-and-potential-novel-therapeutics
#15
REVIEW
Matthew L Pearn, Ingrid R Niesman, Junji Egawa, Atsushi Sawada, Angels Almenar-Queralt, Sameer B Shah, Josh L Duckworth, Brian P Head
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of death of young people in the developed world. In the United States alone, 1.7 million traumatic events occur annually accounting for 50,000 deaths. The etiology of TBI includes traffic accidents, falls, gunshot wounds, sports, and combat-related events. TBI severity ranges from mild to severe. TBI can induce subtle changes in molecular signaling, alterations in cellular structure and function, and/or primary tissue injury, such as contusion, hemorrhage, and diffuse axonal injury...
May 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27323322/communicating-hydrocephalus-due-to-traumatic-lumbar-spine-injury-case-report-and-literature-review
#16
Nikola Dragojlovic, Argyrios Stampas, Ryan S Kitagawa, Karl M Schmitt, William Donovan
: Hydrocephalus is a rare complication of traumatic spine injury. A literature review reflects the rare occurrence with cervical spine injury. We present a case of traumatic injury to the lumbar spine from a gunshot wound, which caused communicating hydrocephalus. The patient sustained a gunshot wound to the lumbar spine and had an L4-5 laminectomy with exploration and removal of foreign bodies. At the time of surgery, the patient was found to have dense subarachnoid hemorrhage in the spinal column. He subsequently had intermittent headaches and altered mental status that resolved without intervention...
June 17, 2016: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27315028/early-venous-thromboembolism-chemoprophylaxis-in-combat-related-penetrating-brain-injury
#17
R Michael Meyer, M Benjamin Larkin, Nicholas S Szuflita, Chris J Neal, Jeffrey M Tomlin, Rocco A Armonda, Jeffrey A Bailey, Randy S Bell
OBJECTIVE Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is independently associated with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). Given the numerous studies of civilian closed-head injury, the Brain Trauma Foundation recommends venous thromboembolism chemoprophylaxis (VTC) after severe TBI. No studies have specifically examined this practice in penetrating brain injury (PBI). Therefore, the authors examined the safety and effectiveness of early VTC after PBI with respect to worsening intracranial hemorrhage and DVT or PE...
April 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27169063/management-of-craniocerebral-gunshot-injuries-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Hernando Raphael Alvis-Miranda, Roberto Adie Villafañe, Alejandro Rojas, Gabriel Alcala-Cerra, Luis Rafael Moscote-Salazar
Craniocerebral gunshot injuries (CGI) are increasingly encountered by neurosurgeons in civilian and urban settings. Unfortunately this is a prevalent condition in developing countries, with major armed conflicts which is not very likely to achieve a high rate of prevention. Management goals should focus on early aggressive, vigorous resuscitation and correction of coagulopathy; those with stable vital signs undergo brain computed tomography scan. Neuroimaging is vital for surgical purposes, especially for determine type surgery, size and location of the approach, route of extraction of the foreign body; however not always surgical management is indicated, there is also the not uncommon decision to choose non-surgical management...
October 2015: Korean Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27165750/a-rare-remarkable-recovery-in-a-pediatric-patient-with-the-bi-hemispheric-transventricular-trajectory-craniocerebral-gunshot-wound
#19
Ninh Doan, Mohit Patel, Ha Son Nguyen, Andrew Montoure, Saman Shabani, Michael Gelsomino, Karl Janich, Wade Mueller
The gunshot wound to the head (GSWH) is associated with a mortality rate of 20-90% in adults and 20-65% in the pediatric population. Due to the high rates of mortality and morbidity, the management of these patients has been a topic of high interest in the neurosurgical community. We present an 18-year-old male suffering a GSWH with the bullet following a transventricular trajectory and crossing the midsagittal plane, creating extensive intracranial injuries. Despite a calculated mortality rate of >97% from these devastating injuries, the patient survived the GSWH and made a remarkable recovery...
2016: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27072332/treatment-of-penetrating-nonmissile-traumatic-brain-injury-case-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#20
REVIEW
Stephanie Zyck, Gentian Toshkezi, Satish Krishnamurthy, David A Carter, Adnan Siddiqui, Ali Hazama, Mayur Jayarao, Lawrence Chin
INTRODUCTION: Penetrating traumatic brain injuries (TBIs), with the exception of gunshot wounds, are relatively rare occurrences and affect all ages. Clinical presentation varies depending on the mechanism of the injury. Prompt surgical treatment is often indicated and is influenced by patient clinical examination, anatomic trajectory, and the penetrating object's size, shape, and velocity. METHODS: We present 3 cases of penetrating TBI. Their similarities and differences affecting operative and medical management are compared...
July 2016: World Neurosurgery
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