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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434162/isolation-of-astrocytes-displaying-myofibroblast-properties-and-present-in-multiple-sclerosis-lesions
#1
Nicolas Vedrenne, Vincent Sarrazy, Laurence Richard, Nelly Bordeau, Serge Battu, Fabrice Billet, Alexis Desmoulière
A wide heterogeneity of lesions can affect the central nervous system (CNS). In all situations where neurons are damaged, including multiple sclerosis (MS), a common reactive astrocytosis is present. Sedimentation field-flow fractionation (SdFFF) was used to sort astrocyte subpopulations. After SdFFF elution, cells, prepared from rat newborn cortex, were cultured and analyzed by immunocytofluorescence for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and α-smooth muscle (SM) actin (a specific marker for myofibroblasts) expression...
April 22, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434112/dendritic-cell-based-vaccination-strategy-an-evolving-paradigm
#2
REVIEW
Anna C Filley, Mahua Dey
Malignant gliomas (MG), tumors of glial origin, are the most commonly diagnosed primary intracranial malignancies in adults. Currently available treatments have provided only modest improvements in overall survival and remain limited by inevitable local recurrence, necessitating exploration of novel therapies. Among approaches being investigated, one of the leading contenders is immunotherapy, which aims to modulate immune pathways to stimulate the selective destruction of malignant cells. Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent initiators of adaptive immune responses and therefore crucial players in the development and success of immunotherapy...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433620/depressive-behavior-induced-by-unpredictable-chronic-mild-stress-increases-dentin-hypersensitivity-in-rats
#3
Fabiane Martins Barbosa, Danilo Cabral, Fernanda Kabadayan, Eduardo Fernandes Bondan, Maria de Fátima Monteiro Martins, Thiago Berti Kirsten, Leoni Villano Bonamin, Nicolle Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, Maria Martha Bernardi, Cintia Helena Coury Saraceni
OBJECTIVE: The present study evaluated the nociceptive response induced by dentin hypersensitivity after dental erosion in rats that were exhibited to unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS)-induced depressive-like behavior. DESIGN: Adult male rats were subjected to UCMS (depression [D] group) or not (no depression [ND] group) for 30days and received either acidic solution to induce dental erosion (E) or water (W), thus forming the WND, END, WD, and ED groups. After the end of treatment, depressive-like parameters (i...
April 15, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433262/primary-motor-cortex-alterations-in-alzheimer-disease-a-study-in-the-3xtg-ad-model
#4
E Orta-Salazar, A I Feria-Velasco, S Díaz-Cintra
INTRODUCTION: In humans and animal models, Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterised by accumulation of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated tau protein, neuronal degeneration, and astrocytic gliosis, especially in vulnerable brain regions (hippocampus and cortex). These alterations are associated with cognitive impairment (loss of memory) and non-cognitive impairment (motor impairment). The purpose of this study was to identify cell changes (neurons and glial cells) and aggregation of Aβ and hyperphosphorylated tau protein in the primary motor cortex (M1) in 3xTg-AD mouse models at an intermediate stage of AD...
April 19, 2017: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432362/succinate-supplementation-improves-metabolic-performance-of-mixed-glial-cell-cultures-with-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#5
Susan Giorgi-Coll, Ana I Amaral, Peter J A Hutchinson, Mark R Kotter, Keri L H Carpenter
Mitochondrial dysfunction, the inability to efficiently utilise metabolic fuels and oxygen, contributes to pathological changes following traumatic spinal cord or traumatic brain injury (TBI). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that succinate supplementation can improve cellular energy state under metabolically stressed conditions in a robust, reductionist in vitro model of mitochondrial dysfunction in which primary mixed glial cultures (astrocytes, microglia and oligodendrocytes) were exposed to the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432079/regulation-of-microtubule-associated-motors-drives-intermediate-filament-network-polarization
#6
Cécile Leduc, Sandrine Etienne-Manneville
Intermediate filaments (IFs) are key players in the control of cell morphology and structure as well as in active processes such as cell polarization, migration, and mechanoresponses. However, the regulatory mechanisms controlling IF dynamics and organization in motile cells are still poorly understood. In this study, we investigate the mechanisms leading to the polarized rearrangement of the IF network along the polarity axis. Using photobleaching and photoconversion experiments in glial cells expressing vimentin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and nestin, we show that the distribution of cytoplasmic IFs results from a continuous turnover based on the cooperation of an actin-dependent retrograde flow and anterograde and retrograde microtubule-dependent transports...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431906/transgenic-mice-with-increased-astrocyte-expression-of-ccl2-show-altered-behavioral-effects-of-alcohol
#7
Jennifer G Bray, Amanda J Roberts, Donna L Gruol
Emerging research provides strong evidence that activation of CNS glial cells occurs in neurological diseases and brain injury and results in elevated production of neuroimmune factors. These factors can contribute to pathophysiological processes that lead to altered CNS function. Recently, studies have also shown that both acute and chronic alcohol consumption can produce activation of CNS glial cells and the production of neuroimmune factors, particularly the chemokine CCL2. The consequences of alcohol-induced increases in CCL2 levels in the CNS have yet to be fully elucidated...
April 18, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431387/cypermethrin-toxication-leads-to-histopathological-lesions-and-induces-inflammation-and-apoptosis-in-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio-l
#8
Harun Arslan, Selçuk Özdemir, Serdar Altun
Cypermethrin (Cyp), a known neurotoxic pesticide, is widely used in agricultural applications. In the present study, the aim was to determine the histopathological effects of Cyp toxication and evaluate the activation of inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS) and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) using an immunofluorescence assay. Thereafter, we identified the expressions of caspase 3, capsase 8, iNOS, and metallothionein 1 (MT1) genes in common carp using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)...
April 14, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431179/mirna-regulation-in-gliomas-usual-suspects-in-glial-tumorigenesis-and-evolving-clinical-applications
#9
Heather Ames, Marc K Halushka, Fausto J Rodriguez
In recent years, an increasing role for noncoding small RNAs (miRNA) has been uncovered in carcinogenesis. These oligonucleotides can promote degradation and/or inhibit translation of key mRNAs. Recent studies have also highlighted a possible role for miRNAs in adult and pediatric brain tumors, including high- and low-grade gliomas, medulloblastoma, ependymoma, and neoplasms associated with neurofibromatosis type 1. Gliomas represent the most common category of primary intraparenchymal brain tumors, and, for example, manipulation of signaling pathways, through inhibition of PTEN transcription appears to be an important function of miRNA dysregulation through miR-21, miR-106b, and miR-26a...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431165/corrigendum-to-glial-fibrillary-acidic-protein-plasma-levels-are-correlated-with-degree-of-hypothermia-during-cardiopulmonary-bypass-in-congenital-heart-disease-surgery-interact-cardiovasc-thorac-surg-2017-%C3%A2
#10
Luca Vedovelli, Massimo Padalino, Sara D'Aronco, Giovanni Stellin, Carlo Ori, Virgilio P Carnielli, Manuela Simonato, Paola Cogo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 17, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430869/inhibition-of-the-p2x7-panx1-complex-suppresses-spreading-depolarization-and-neuroinflammation
#11
Shih-Pin Chen, Tao Qin, Jessica L Seidel, Yi Zheng, Matthias Eikermann, Michel D Ferrari, Arn M J M van den Maagdenberg, Michael A Moskowitz, Cenk Ayata, Katharina Eikermann-Haerter
Spreading depolarization is a wave of neuronal and glial depolarization. Within minutes after spreading depolarization, the neuronal hemichannel pannexin 1 (PANX1) opens and forms a pore complex with the ligand-gated cation channel P2X7, allowing the release of excitatory neurotransmitters to sustain spreading depolarization and activate neuroinflammation. Here, we explore the hypothesis that the P2X7-PANX1 pore complex is a critical determinant of spreading depolarization susceptibility with important consequences for neuroinflammation and trigeminovascular activation...
April 20, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429734/neuroprotective-pentapeptide-cn-105-is-associated-with-reduced-sterile-inflammation-and-improved-functional-outcomes-in-a-traumatic-brain-injury-murine-model
#12
Daniel T Laskowitz, Haichen Wang, Tony Chen, David T Lubkin, Viviana Cantillana, Tian Ming Tu, Dawn Kernagis, Guanen Zhou, Gary Macy, Bradley J Kolls, Hana N Dawson
At present, there are no proven pharmacological treatments demonstrated to improve long term functional outcomes following traumatic brain injury(TBI). In the setting of non-penetrating TBI, sterile brain inflammatory responses are associated with the development of cerebral edema, intracranial hypertension, and secondary neuronal injury. There is increasing evidence that endogenous apolipoprotein E(apoE) modifies the neuroinflammatory response through its role in downregulating glial activation, however, the intact apoE holoprotein does not cross the blood-brain barrier due to its size...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429571/melatonin-antagonizes-interleukin-18-mediated-inhibition-on-neural-stem-cell-proliferation-and-differentiation
#13
Zheng Li, Xingye Li, Matthew T V Chan, William Ka Kei Wu, DunXian Tan, Jianxiong Shen
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are self-renewing, pluripotent and undifferentiated cells which have the potential to differentiate into neurons, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. NSC therapy for tissue regeneration, thus, gains popularity. However, the low survivals rate of the transplanted cell impedes its utilities. In this study, we tested whether melatonin, a potent antioxidant, could promote the NSC proliferation and neuronal differentiation, especially, in the presence of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-18 (IL-18)...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427592/pathologic-active-mtor-mutation-in-brain-malformation-with-intractable-epilepsy-leads-to-cell-autonomous-migration-delay
#14
Sae Hanai, Sayuri Sukigara, Hongmei Dai, Tomoo Owa, Shin-Ichi Horike, Taisuke Otsuki, Takashi Saito, Eiji Nakagawa, Naoki Ikegaya, Takanobu Kaido, Noriko Sato, Akio Takahashi, Kenji Sugai, Yuko Saito, Masayuki Sasaki, Mikio Hoshino, Yu-Ichi Goto, Schuichi Koizumi, Masayuki Itoh
The activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-AKTs-mammalian target of rapamycin cell signaling pathway leads to cell overgrowth and abnormal migration and results in various types of cortical malformations, such as hemimegalencephaly (HME), focal cortical dysplasia, and tuberous sclerosis complex. However, the pathomechanism underlying abnormal cell migration remains unknown. With the use of fetal mouse brain, we performed causative gene analysis of the resected brain tissues from a patient with HME and investigated the pathogenesis...
May 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427563/neuroinflammation-in-alzheimer-s-disease-the-preventive-and-therapeutic-potential-of-polyphenolic-nutraceuticals
#15
Yousef Sawikr, Nagendra Sastry Yarla, Ilaria Peluso, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Gjumrakch Aliev, Anupam Bishayee
Brain inflammation, characterized by increased microglia and astrocyte activation, increases during aging and is a key feature of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). In AD, neuronal death and synaptic impairment, induced by amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide, are at least in part mediated by microglia and astrocyte activation. Glial activation results in the sustained production of proinflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species, giving rise to a chronic inflammatory process. Astrocytes are the most abundant glial cells in the central nervous system and are involved in the neuroinflammation...
2017: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427510/central-nervous-system-gliomas
#16
REVIEW
Michele Reni, Elena Mazza, Silvia Zanon, Gemma Gatta, Charles J Vecht
Evidence-based practical guidelines on diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment on the most frequent adult brain tumours are delineated. In Europe, 27,000 new cases of malignant glial tumours and 1000 new cases of malignant ependymal tumours are diagnosed every year. The most common glial tumours are glioblastoma multiforme and anaplastic glioma, comprising more than 50% and 10%, respectively, of the total gliomas. Prognosis of gliomas is generally poor. Environmental and genetic factors have been correlated with an increased risk of developing brain tumours...
May 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427061/emerging-insights-into-pathogenesis
#17
Edoardo Midena, Elisabetta Pilotto
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a frequent complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). Persistent hyperglycemia leads to the activation of multiple cellular pathways involved in the pathogenesis of DR, resulting in increased inflammation, oxidative stress, and vascular dysfunction. DR has been considered a "chronic, low-grade inflammatory disease of the retina". However, an increasing body of evidence suggests that inflammation and neurodegeneration both occur in human diabetes even before the development of clinical signs of DR...
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427055/aquaporin-4-mediates-the-suppressive-effect-of-lipopolysaccharide-on-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#18
Rui Liang, Shoulei Yong, Xu Huang, Hui Kong, Gang Hu, Yi Fan
OBJECTIVE: Aquaporin-4 (AQP4), a key molecule for water homeostasis in the brain, is associated with adult neurogenesis, but its mechanisms regulating adult neural stem cells (aNSC) remain largely unexplored. Neuroinflammation has a relevant influence on adult neurogenesis, which is a common feature in various neurodegenerative diseases. Considering the possible link between neuroinflammation and AQP4, we speculate that AQP4 may mediate the synthesis and release of proinflammatory cytokines in glia and then indirectly regulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis...
April 21, 2017: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425952/antioxidant-and-anti-senescence-effect-of-metformin-on-mouse-olfactory-ensheathing-cells-moecs-may-be-associated-with-increased-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-levels-an-ex-vivo-study
#19
Agnieszka Śmieszek, Zuzanna Stręk, Katarzyna Kornicka, Jakub Grzesiak, Christine Weiss, Krzysztof Marycz
Metformin, the popular anti-diabetic drug was shown to exert multiple biological effects. The most recent metformin gained attention as an agent that mobilizes endogenous progenitor cells and enhances regenerative potential of organisms, for example by promoting neurogenesis. In the present study, we examined the role of metformin on mouse olfactory ensheathing cells (mOECs) derived from animals receiving metformin for eight weeks at a concentration equal to 2.8 mg/day. The mOECs expanded ex vivo were characterized in terms of their cellular phenotype, morphology, proliferative activity, viability and accumulation of oxidative stress factors...
April 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425051/upregulation-and-phosphorylation-of-hspb1-hsp25-and-hspb5-%C3%AE-b-crystallin-after-transient-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-in-rats
#20
Britta Bartelt-Kirbach, Alexander Slowik, Cordian Beyer, Nikola Golenhofen
Ischemic stroke leads to cellular dysfunction, cell death, and devastating clinical outcomes. The cells of the brain react to such a cellular stress by a stress response with an upregulation of heat shock proteins resulting in activation of endogenous neuroprotective capacities. Several members of the family of small heat shock proteins (HspBs) have been shown to be neuroprotective. However, yet no systematic study examined all HspBs during cerebral ischemia. Here, we performed a comprehensive comparative study comprising all HspBs in an animal model of stroke, i...
April 20, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
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