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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530785/anti-edematous-anti-inflammatory-and-neuroprotective-effect-of-etanercept-in-acute-stage-in-experimental-head-injury
#1
Ömer Aykanat, Durmuş Oğuz Karakoyun, Mehmet Erhan Türkoğlu, Cem Dinç
BACKGROUND: To study the anti-edematous, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effect of etanercept in the model of experimental head injury. METHODS: In this study, 40 male-adult Spraque-Dawley rats, with weight ranging from 250g to 300g, were used. The rats are divided into groups as control; non-penetrating trauma; trauma +NS; post-traumatic normal saline; trauma + D; post-traumatic dexamethasone and trauma + E. All medicines were given into peritoneum. After applying trauma and medicine, rats were decapitated in the 24th hour and the samples were studied histopathologically...
May 2017: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529158/evaluation-of-direct-and-cell-mediated-triple-gene-therapy-in-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#2
Rustem Robertovich Islamov, Andrey Alexandrovich Izmailov, Mikhail Evgenyevich Sokolov, Philip Olegovich Fadeev, Farid Vagizovich Bashirov, Anton Alexandrovich Eremeev, Gulnara Ferdinantovna Shaymardanova, Maxim Michaylovich Shmarov, Boris Savelyevich Naroditskiy, Yuri Alexandrovich Chelyshev, Igor Aleksandrovich Lavrov, András Palotás
Current treatment options for spinal cord injury (SCI) are scarce. One of the most promising innovative approaches include gene-therapy, however no single gene has so far been shown to be of clinical relevance. This study investigates the efficacy of various combinations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), angiogenin (ANG) and neuronal cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) in rats. Multiple therapeutic genes were administered intrathecally either via adenoviral vectors or by using genetically modified human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (hUCBMCs)...
May 18, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529047/bezafibrate-prevents-mitochondrial-dysfunction-antioxidant-system-disturbance-glial-reactivity-and-neuronal-damage-induced-by-sulfite-administration-in-striatum-of-rats-implications-for-a-possible-therapeutic-strategy-for-sulfite-oxidase-deficiency
#3
Mateus Grings, Alana Pimentel Moura, Belisa Parmeggiani, Julia Tauna Pletsch, Gabriela Miranda Fernandez Cardoso, Pauline Maciel August, Cristiane Matté, Angela T S Wyse, Moacir Wajner, Guilhian Leipnitz
Sulfite accumulates in tissues of patients affected by sulfite oxidase (SO) deficiency, a neurometabolic disease characterized by seizures and progressive encephalopathy, often resulting in early death. We investigated the effects of sulfite on mitochondrial function, antioxidant system, glial reactivity and neuronal damage in rat striatum, as well as the potential protective effects of bezafibrate on sulfite-induced toxicity. Thirty-day-old rats were intrastriatally administered with sulfite (2μmol) or NaCl (2μmol; control) and euthanized 30min after injection for evaluation of biochemical parameters and western blotting, or 7days after injection for analysis of glial reactivity and neuronal damage...
May 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528122/probdnf-inhibits-proliferation-migration-and-differentiation-of-mouse-neural-stem-cells
#4
Jia-Yi Li, Jia Liu, Nimshitha Pavathuparambil Abdul Manaph, Larisa Bobrovskaya, Xin-Fu Zhou
ProBDNF, a precursor of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), is an important regulator of neurodegeneration, hippocampal long-term depression, and synaptic plasticity. ProBDNF and its receptors pan-neurotrophin receptor p75 (p75NTR), vps10p domain-containing receptor Sortilin and tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) are expressed in neuronal and glial cells. The role of proBDNF in regulation of neurogenesis is not fully defined. This study aims to uncover the function of proBDNF in regulating the differentiation, migration and proliferation of mouse neural stem cells (NSCs) in vitro...
May 17, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527997/zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-mediated-cytotoxicity-mitochondrial-membrane-potential-and-level-of-antioxidants-in-presence-of-melatonin
#5
Sruthi S, N Millot, Mohanan Pv
Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are widely used in a variety of products and are currently being investigated for biomedical applications. However, they have the potential to interact with macromolecules like proteins, lipids and DNA within the cells which makes the safe biomedical application difficult. The toxicity of the ZnO NP is mainly attributed reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Different strategies like iron doping, polymer coating and external supply of antioxidants have been evaluated to minimize the toxic potential of ZnO NPs...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527846/characterization-of-dental-pulp-myofibroblasts-in-rat-molars-after-pulpotomy
#6
Naoki Edanami, Nagako Yoshiba, Naoto Ohkura, Ryosuke Takeuchi, Aiko Tohma, Yuichiro Noiri, Kunihiko Yoshiba
INTRODUCTION: Myofibroblasts express alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and play a critical role in wound healing. Myofibroblast differentiation is controlled by the joint actions of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) and the extradomain A fibronectin splice variant (EDA-FN). Currently, the contribution of myofibroblasts to dental pulp healing is unknown. Therefore, we analyzed expressional characteristics of α-SMA-positive cells and investigated TGF-β1, EDA-FN, and α-SMA expression levels after pulpotomy to better understand dental pulp healing...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527714/investigation-of-left-and-right-lateral-fluid-percussion-injury-in-c57bl6-j-mice-in-vivo-functional-consequences
#7
Lesley D Schurman, Terry L Smith, Anthony J Morales, Nancy N Lee, Thomas M Reeves, Linda L Phillips, Aron H Lichtman
Although rodent models of traumatic brain injury (TBI) reliably produce cognitive and motor disturbances, behavioral characterization resulting from left and right hemisphere injuries remains unexplored. Here we examined the functional consequences of targeting the left versus right parietal cortex in lateral fluid percussion injury, on Morris water maze (MWM) spatial memory tasks (fixed platform and reversal) and neurological motor deficits (neurological severity score and rotarod). In the MWM fixed platform task, right lateral injury produced a small delay in acquisition rate compared to left...
May 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527591/the-role-of-astrocyte-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease-pathogenesis
#8
REVIEW
Heather D E Booth, Warren D Hirst, Richard Wade-Martins
Astrocytes are the most populous glial subtype and are critical for brain function. Despite this, historically there have been few studies into the role that they may have in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Recently, however, several studies have determined that genes known to have a causative role in the development of PD are expressed in astrocytes and have important roles in astrocyte function. Here, we review these recent developments and discuss their impact on our understanding of the pathophysiology of PD, and the implications that this might have for its treatment...
May 17, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527575/coup-tf-genes-human-diseases-and-the-development-of-the-central-nervous-system-in-murine-models
#9
Xiong Yang, Su Feng, Ke Tang
COUP-TFI and -TFII are members of the steroid/thyroid nuclear receptor superfamily. Recent clinical studies reveal that COUP-TFI gene mutations are associated with Bosch-Boonstra-Schaaf optic atrophy syndrome displaying symptoms of optic atrophy, intellectual disability, hypotonia, seizure, autism spectrum disorders, oromotor dysfunction, thin corpus callosum, or hearing defects, and COUP-TFII gene mutations lead to congenital heart defects and/or congenital diaphragmatic hernia with developmental delay and mental defects...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527331/analysis-of-zip-zrt-irt-related-protein-transporter-gene-expression-in-murine-neural-stem-progenitor-cells
#10
Mayu Nishikawa, Hideki Mori, Masayuki Hara
Zinc plays important roles for brain development. Zrt-, Irt-related protein (ZIP) is a major transporter family to regulate the intracellular zinc levels. Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) are more sensitive than their differentiated progeny (neural/glial cells) to zinc in vitro (Nishikawa et al., 2015). We analyzed relative gene expression of 14 different ZIPs in murine NSPCs and differentiated cells by real-time polymerase chain reaction technique. Expression of Zip4 and that of Zip12 drastically increased, while that of Zip8 clearly decreased after differentiation of NSPCs...
May 11, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527062/the-prokineticin-system-an-interface-between-neural-inflammation-and-pain
#11
Silvia Franchi, Paola Sacerdote, Alberto Panerai
Prokineticins (PK) 1 and 2 belong to a new family of chemokines capable to interact with two different G coupled receptors: Prokineticin receptor (PKR)1 and 2. Both prokineticins and their receptors are widely distributed in different tissues and regulate several biological functions. In particular, a role of the PK system in inflammation and nociception has been established. PKRs are expressed in regions of the nervous system associated with pain and in primary sensitive neurons they colocalize with transient potential receptor vanilloid-TRPV1 providing an anatomical interaction in nociceptor sensitization...
May 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526811/proteomic-analysis-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-from-children-with-central-nervous-system-tumors-identifies-candidate-proteins-relating-to-tumor-metastatic-spread
#12
Filippo Spreafico, Italia Bongarzone, Sara Pizzamiglio, Ruben Magni, Elena Taverna, Maida De Bortoli, Chiara M Ciniselli, Elena Barzanò, Veronica Biassoni, Alessandra Luchini, Lance A Liotta, Weidong Zhou, Michele Signore, Paolo Verderio, Maura Massimino
Central nervous system (CNS) tumors are the most common solid tumors in childhood. Since the sensitivity of combined cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology and radiological neuroimaging in detecting meningeal metastases remains relatively low, we sought to characterize the CSF proteome of patients with CSF tumors to identify biomarkers predictive of metastatic spread. CSF samples from 27 children with brain tumors and 13 controls (extra-CNS non-Hodgkin lymphoma) were processed using core-shell hydrogel nanoparticles, and analyzed with reverse-phase liquid chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)...
May 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526609/effects-of-l-dopa-benserazide-co-treatment-on-colonic-excitatory-cholinergic-motility-and-enteric-inflammation-following-dopaminergic-nigrostriatal-neurodegeneration
#13
C Pellegrini, L Antonioli, R Colucci, E Tirotta, D Gentile, C Ippolito, C Segnani, G Levandis, S Cerri, R F Blandini, E Barocelli, V Ballabeni, N Bernardini, C Blandizzi, M Fornai
INTRODUCTION: The mainstay therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD) relies on L-3,4- dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) plus a DOPA-decarboxylase inhibitor. However, their effects on colonic dysmotility and inflammation observed in PD are undetermined. This study examined the effects of L-DOPA plus benserazide (BE) on colonic motility and inflammation in rats with central nigrostriatal dopaminergic denervation. METHODS: Neurodegeneration was induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) injection into the median forebrain bundle (MFB)...
May 16, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526579/differential-involvement-of-vesicular-and-glial-glutamate-transporters-around-spinal-%C3%AE-motoneurons-in-the-pathogenesis-of-sod1-g93a-mouse-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#14
Tomohiro Ohgomori, Ryo Yamasaki, Hideyuki Takeuchi, Kenji Kadomatsu, Jun-Ichi Kira, Shozo Jinno
From a view point of the glutamate excitotoxicity theory, several studies have suggested that abnormal glutamate homeostasis via dysfunction of glial glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) may underlie neurodegeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, the detailed role of GLT-1 in the pathogenies of ALS remains controversial. To assess this issue, here we elucidated structural alterations associated with dysregulation of glutamate homeostasis using SOD1(G93A) mice, a genetic model of familial ALS...
May 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525381/the-cell-of-origin-dictates-the-temporal-course-of-neurofibromatosis-1-nf1-low-grade-glioma-formation
#15
Anne C Solga, Joseph A Toonen, Yuan Pan, Patrick J Cimino, Yu Ma, Guillaume A Castillon, Scott M Gianino, Mark H Ellisman, Da Yong Lee, David H Gutmann
Low-grade gliomas are one of the most common brain tumors in children, where they frequently form within the optic pathway (optic pathway gliomas; OPGs). Since many OPGs occur in the context of the Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) cancer predisposition syndrome, we have previously employed Nf1 genetically-engineered mouse (GEM) strains to study the pathogenesis of these low-grade glial neoplasms. In the light of the finding that human and mouse low-grade gliomas are composed of Olig2+ cells and that Olig2+ oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) give rise to murine high-grade gliomas, we sought to determine whether Olig2+ OPCs could be tumor-initiating cells for Nf1 optic glioma...
May 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524415/ndrg4-an-early-detection-marker-for-colorectal-cancer-is-specifically-expressed-in-enteric-neurons
#16
N Vaes, M H F M Lentjes, M J Gijbels, G Rademakers, K L Daenen, W Boesmans, K A D Wouters, A Geuzens, X Qu, H P J Steinbusch, B P F Rutten, S H Baldwin, K A Sharkey, R M W Hofstra, M van Engeland, P Vanden Berghe, V Melotte
BACKGROUND: Promoter methylation of N-myc Downstream-Regulated Gene 4 (NDRG4) in fecal DNA is an established early detection marker for colorectal cancer (CRC). Despite its connection to CRC, NDRG4 is predominantly studied in brain and heart, with little to no knowledge about its expression or role in other organs. In this study, we aimed to determine the whole-body expression of NDRG4, with a focus on the intestinal tract. METHODS: We investigated NDRG4 expression throughout the body by immunohistochemistry, Western Blotting and in situ mRNA hybridization using tissues from NDRG4 wild-type, heterozygous and knockout mice and humans...
May 19, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524218/-autoimmune-pathology-in-neuropaediatrics-what-aspects-have-really-undergone-a-change
#17
V Cantarin-Extremera
Autoimmune neurological diseases are an important group of pathologies in neuropaediatrics. The central nervous system was considered to be an immunologically privileged organ, as it protects itself from the surroundings by means of the blood-brain barrier. In recent years, however, reports have been published of a growing number of disorders produced by antibodies that react against neuronal or glial proteins and give rise to a wide variety of clinical conditions (epilepsy, encephalopathy, movement disorders, etc...
May 17, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524001/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-promotes-growth-of-neurons-and-neural-stem-cells-possibly-by-triggering-the-phosphoinositide-3-kinase-akt-glycogen-synthase-kinase-3%C3%AE-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway
#18
Jin-Wei Yang, Zhang Liang, Shi-Kang Deng Deng, Wei Ma, Xian-Bin Wang, Xing-Tong Li, Tong-Tong Wang, Yun-Fei Dai, Jian-Hui Guo, Li-Yan Li
BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a crucial role in promoting survival and differentiation of neurons and neural stem cells (NSCs), but the downstream regulating mechanisms remain poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether BDNF exerts its effect by triggering the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B, PKB (AKT), glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and β-catenin signaling pathway in cultured neurons and NSCs derived from the rat embryonic spinal cord...
May 18, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523372/dietary-eicosapentaenoic-acid-normalizes-hippocampal-omega-3-and-6-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-profile-attenuates-glial-activation-and-regulates-bdnf-function-in-a-rodent-model-of-neuroinflammation-induced-by-central-interleukin-1%C3%AE-administration
#19
Yilong Dong, Min Xu, Allan V Kalueff, Cai Song
PURPOSE: Interleukin (IL)-1β can activate glial cells to trigger neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Lower omega (n)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and lower n-3/n-6 PUFA ratios occur in the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have previously reported that an n-3 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), can improve memory and attenuate neurodegeneration-like changes in animal models of AD. However, whether and how EPA modulates glial cell activity and functions remains unclear...
May 18, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522972/recent-advances-in-the-study-of-bipolar-rod-shaped-microglia-and-their-roles-in-neurodegeneration
#20
Ngan Pan Bennett Au, Chi Him Eddie Ma
Microglia are the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS) and they contribute to primary inflammatory responses following CNS injuries. The morphology of microglia is closely associated with their functional activities. Most previous research efforts have attempted to delineate the role of ramified and amoeboid microglia in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. In addition to ramified and amoeboid microglia, bipolar/rod-shaped microglia were first described by Franz Nissl in 1899 and their presence in the brain was closely associated with the pathology of infectious diseases and sleeping disorders...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
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