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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236326/knockdown-of-ski-decreased-the-reactive-astrocytes-proliferation-in-vitro-induced-by-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-reoxygenation
#1
Xin Zhao, Kai-Sheng Zhou, Zhong-Hao Li, Wei Nan, Jing Wang, Ya-Yi Xia, Hai-Hong Zhang
Glia scar is a pathological marker in late phase of brain ischemia disease, which constitutes a major physical biochemical barrier to impede axonal regrowth. Astrocytes are known to be critically involved in the formation of glial scar. However, their response to ischemia and their role in neuroprotection after central nervous system (CNS) injury are not completely clear. Recently, we have demonstrated for the first time that Ski was up-regulated in reactive astrocytes after spinal cord injury in vivo and in vitro, which indicates Ski may be a new molecule that control astrocytes biologic properties after CNS injury...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235200/concise-review-the-cellular-conspiracy-of-als
#2
REVIEW
Andrea Serio, Rickie Patani
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is incurable and devastating. A dearth of therapies has galvanized experimental focus onto the cellular and molecular mechanisms that both initiate and subsequently drive motor neuron (MN) degeneration. A traditional view of ALS pathogenesis posits that disease-specific injury to a subtype of neurons is mechanistically cell-autonomous. This "neuron-centric" view has biased past research efforts. However, a wealth of accumulating evidence now strongly implicates non-neuronal cells as being major determinants of ALS...
December 13, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235064/induction-of-neuroinflammatory-response-and-histopathological-alterations-caused-by-quinolinic-acid-administration-in-the-striatum-of-glutaryl-coa-dehydrogenase-deficient-mice
#3
Alexandre Umpierrez Amaral, Bianca Seminotti, Janaína Camacho da Silva, Francine Hehn de Oliveira, Rafael Teixeira Ribeiro, Carmen Regla Vargas, Guilhian Leipnitz, Abel Santamaría, Diogo Onofre Souza, Moacir Wajner
Glutaric acidemia type I (GA I) is an inherited neurometabolic disorder caused by a severe deficiency of the mitochondrial glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH) activity. Patients usually present progressive cortical leukodystrophy and commonly develop acute bilateral striatal degeneration mainly during infections that markedly worse their prognosis. A role for quinolinic acid (QA), a key metabolite of the kynurenine pathway, which is activated during inflammatory processes, on the pathogenesis of the acute striatum degeneration occurring in GA I was proposed but so far has not yet been evaluated...
December 12, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234492/no-preliminary-evidence-of-differences-in-astrocyte-density-within-the-white-matter-of-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-in-autism
#4
Ting Ting Lee, Efstratios Skafidas, Mirella Dottori, Daniela Zantomio, Christos Pantelis, Ian Everall, Gursharan Chana
Background: While evidence for white matter and astrocytic abnormalities exist in autism, a detailed investigation of astrocytes has not been conducted. Such an investigation is further warranted by an increasing role for neuroinflammation in autism pathogenesis, with astrocytes being key players in this process. We present the first study of astrocyte density and morphology within the white matter of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in individuals with autism. Methods: DLPFC formalin-fixed sections containing white matter from individuals with autism (n = 8, age = 4-51 years) and age-matched controls (n = 7, age = 4-46 years) were immunostained for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234273/indirubin-derivative-7-bromoindirubin-3-oxime-7bio-attenuates-a%C3%AE-oligomer-induced-cognitive-impairments-in-mice
#5
Liping Chen, Chunhui Huang, Jieyi Shentu, Minjun Wang, Sicheng Yan, Fei Zhou, Zaijun Zhang, Chuang Wang, Yifan Han, Qinwen Wang, Wei Cui
Indirubins are natural occurring alkaloids extracted from indigo dye-containing plants. Indirubins could inhibit various kinases, and might be used to treat chronic myelocytic leukemia, cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. 7-bromoindirubin-3-oxime (7Bio), an indirubin derivative derived from indirubin-3-oxime, possesses inhibitory effects against cyclin-dependent kinase-5 (CDK5) and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β), two pharmacological targets of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we have discovered that 2...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233635/therapeutic-benefit-of-environmental-enrichment-on-optic-neuritis
#6
REVIEW
Marcos L Aranda, María F González Fleitas, Hernán H Dieguez, Georgia A Milne, Julián D Devouassoux, María I Keller Sarmiento, Mónica Chianelli, Pablo H Sande, Damián Dorfman, Ruth E Rosenstein
Optic neuritis (ON) is an inflammatory, demyelinating, neurodegenerative, and presently untreatable condition of the optic nerve which might induce blindness. We analyzed the effect of environmental enrichment (EE) on visual pathway damage provoked by experimental ON induced by a microinjection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the optic nerve. For this purpose, LPS was microinjected into the optic nerve from male Wistar rats. After injection, one group of animals was submitted to EE, and another group remained in standard environment (SE) for 21 days...
December 9, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232670/some-galeomorph-sharks-express-a-mammalian-microglia-specific-protein-in-radial-ependymoglia-of-the-telencephalon
#7
Skirmantas Janušonis
Ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1), also known as allograft inflammatory factor 1 (AIF-1), is a highly conserved cytoplasmic scaffold protein. Studies strongly suggest that Iba1 is associated with immune-like reactions in all Metazoa. In the mammalian brain, it is abundantly expressed in microglial cells and is used as a reliable marker for this cell type. The present study used multiple-label microscopy and Western blotting to examine Iba1 expression in the telencephalon of 2 galeomorph shark species, the swellshark (Cephaloscyllium ventriosum) and the horn shark (Heterodontus francisci), a member of an ancient extant order...
December 13, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232196/mechanisms-of-action-of-intravenous-immunoglobulin-in-septic-encephalopathy
#8
Figen Esen, Perihan Ergin Ozcan, Erdem Tuzun, M Dustin Boone
Acute brain dysfunction associated with sepsis is a serious complication that results in morbidity and mortality. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) treatment is known to alleviate behavioral deficits in the experimentally induced model of sepsis. To delineate the mechanisms by which IVIg treatment prevents neuronal dysfunction, an array of immunological and apoptosis markers was investigated. Our results suggest that IVIgG and IgGAM administration ameliorates neuronal dysfunction and behavioral deficits by reducing apoptotic cell death and glial cell proliferation...
December 12, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231279/copper-sulphate-forms-in-piglet-diets-microbiota-intestinal-morphology-and-enteric-nervous-system-glial%C3%A2-cells
#9
Alessia Di Giancamillo, Raffaella Rossi, Piera Anna Martino, Lucia Aidos, Federica Maghin, Cinzia Domeneghini, Carlo Corino
The objective of this study was to evaluate dietary supplementation with different copper sulphate (CuSO4 ) forms on small intestine microanatomy and large intestine microbiota. Ninety weaned piglets were divided into three experimental groups: control diet (CTR), with no added CuSO4 and diets supplemented with 150 ppm of CuSO4 in protected (150P) and unprotected form (150UP). After 18 days of dietary treatment, six piglets per treatment were randomly selected and sacrificed. Duodenum villi length and crypt depths were higher (P < 0...
December 12, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230865/glial-source-of-nitric-oxide-in-epileptogenesis-a-target-for-disease-modification-in-epilepsy
#10
REVIEW
Shaunik Sharma, Sreekanth Puttachary, Thimmasettappa Thippeswamy
Epileptogenesis is the process of developing an epileptic condition and/or its progression once it is established. The molecules that initiate, promote, and propagate remarkable changes in the brain during epileptogenesis are emerging as targets for prevention/treatment of epilepsy. Epileptogenesis is a continuous process that follows immediately after status epilepticus (SE) in animal models of acquired temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Both SE and epileptogenesis are potential therapeutic targets for the discovery of anticonvulsants and antiepileptogenic or disease-modifying agents...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230619/neuroanatomical-and-molecular-correlates-of-cognitive-and-behavioural-outcomes-in-hypogonadal-males
#11
O B Akinola, M O Gabriel
Robust epidemiological, clinical and laboratory evidence supports emerging roles for the sex steroids in such domains as neurodevelopment, behaviour, learning and cognition. Regions of the mammalian brain that are involved in cognitive development and memory do not only express the classical nuclear androgen receptor, but also the non-genomic membrane receptor, which is a G protein-coupled receptor that mediates some rapid effects of the androgens on neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity. Under physiological conditions, hippocampal neurons do express the enzyme aromatase, and therefore actively aromatize testosterone to oestradiol...
December 11, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230288/embryonal-tumor-with-multilayered-rosettes-c19mc-altered-report-of-an-extremely-rare-malignant-pediatric-central-nervous-system-neoplasm
#12
Muhammad Usman Tariq, Zubair Ahmad, Muhammad Khurram Minhas, Aisha Memon, Noreen Mushtaq, Cynthia Hawkins
The 2016 update of the WHO Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System has redefined a number of tumors. Embryonal tumor with multilayered rosettes, C19MC-altered is one such tumor entity which has been newly defined on the basis of a characteristic molecular alteration. We report, to our knowledge, the first case of this rare pediatric brain neoplasm in the Pakistani population. An 8-month-old girl was presented with vomiting and left-sided ptosis, and magnetic resonance imaging scan showed a cerebellar tumor...
2017: SAGE Open Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229920/integration-of-neurogenesis-and-angiogenesis-models-for-constructing-a-neurovascular-tissue
#13
Hiroyuki Uwamori, Takuya Higuchi, Ken Arai, Ryo Sudo
Neurovascular unit (NVU) is a basic unit in the brain, including neurons, glial cells, blood vessels and extracellular matrix. This concept implies the importance of a three-dimensional (3D) culture model including these cell types for investigating brain functions. However, little is known about the construction of an in vitro 3D NVU model. In the present study, we aimed at constructing 3D neurovascular tissues by combining in vitro neurogenesis and angiogenesis models using a microfluidic platform, which is a critical step toward the NVU construction in vitro...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229533/xanthoceraside-attenuates-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptide1-42-induced-memory-impairments-by-reducing-neuroinflammatory-responses-in-mice
#14
Yue Qi, Xue-Fei Ji, Tian-Yan Chi, Peng Liu, Ge Jin, Qian Xu, Qing Jiao, Li-Hua Wang, Li-Bo Zou
Xanthoceraside, a novel triterpenoid saponin extracted from the husks of Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge, has neuroprotective effects in vivo and anti-inflammatory properties in vitro. However, the exact mechanism of xanthoceraside on anti-amyloid beta (Aβ)-induced neuroinflammatory responses has not been elucidated. Therefore, we used intracerebroventricular injection of amyloid 1-42 (Aβ1-42) to establish a mouse model to test the effects of xanthoceraside on Aβ-induced cognitive impairments and the TLR2/NF-κB and MAPK pathways...
December 8, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228949/a-mathematical-model-for-histamine-synthesis-release-and-control-in-varicosities
#15
Janet Best, H F Nijhout, Srimal Samaranayake, Parastoo Hashemi, Michael Reed
BACKGROUND: Histamine (HA), a small molecule that is synthesized from the amino acid histidine, plays an important role in the immune system where it is associated with allergies, inflammation, and T-cell regulation. In the brain, histamine is stored in mast cells and other non-neuronal cells and also acts as a neurotransmitter. The histamine neuron cell bodies are in the tuberomammillary (TM) nucleus of the hypothalamus and these neurons send projections throughout the central nervous system (CNS), in particular to the cerebral cortex, amygdala, basal ganglia, hippocampus, thalamus, retina, and spinal cord...
December 12, 2017: Theoretical Biology & Medical Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228391/arsenic-attenuates-heparin-binding-egf-like-growth-factor-egfr-signalling-that-promotes-matrix-metalloprotease-9-dependent-astrocyte-damage-in-the-developing-rat-brain
#16
Rajesh Kushwaha, Juhi Mishra, Sachin Tripathi, Waseem Raza, Kapil Mandrah, Somendu Kumar Roy, Sanghamitra Bandyopadhyay
We earlier reported that exposure to arsenic at concentrations in ground water of India attenuated glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) during brain development. Here, we validated the effects and explored mechanism in cultured astrocytes and developing rat brain. We hypothesized participation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), known to regulate GFAP. We found that arsenic inactivated EGFR, marked by reduced phospho-EGFR in astrocytes. Screening EGFR ligands revealed an arsenic-mediated attenuation in cellular and secreted-Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF)...
December 7, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228384/letter-is-serum-glial-fibrillary-acidic-protein-a-comprehensive-marker-for-high-grade-glioma
#17
Varidh Katiyar, Ravi Sharma, Hitesh Kumar Gurjar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 4, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228020/transplantation-of-canine-olfactory-ensheathing-cells-producing-chondroitinase-abc-promotes-chondroitin-sulphate-proteoglycan-digestion-and-axonal-sprouting-following-spinal-cord-injury
#18
Darren Carwardine, Jonathan Prager, Jacob Neeves, Elizabeth M Muir, James Uney, Nicolas Granger, Liang-Fong Wong
Olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) transplantation is a promising strategy for treating spinal cord injury (SCI), as has been demonstrated in experimental SCI models and naturally occurring SCI in dogs. However, the presence of chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans within the extracellular matrix of the glial scar can inhibit efficient axonal repair and limit the therapeutic potential of OECs. Here we have used lentiviral vectors to genetically modify canine OECs to continuously deliver mammalian chondroitinase ABC at the lesion site in order to degrade the inhibitory chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans in a rodent model of spinal cord injury...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226998/antisense-suppression-of-glial-fibrillary-acidic-protein-as-a-treatment-for-alexander-disease
#19
Tracy L Hagemann, Berit Powers, Curt Mazur, Aneeza Kim, Steven Wheeler, Gene Hung, Eric Swayze, Albee Messing
OBJECTIVE: Alexander disease is a fatal leukodystrophy caused by autosomal dominant gain-of-function mutations in the gene for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), an intermediate filament protein primarily expressed in astrocytes of the central nervous system. A key feature of pathogenesis is over-expression and accumulation of GFAP, with formation of characteristic cytoplasmic aggregates known as Rosenthal fibers. Here we investigate whether suppressing GFAP with antisense oligonucleotides could provide a therapeutic strategy for treating Alexander disease...
December 11, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226988/cns-high-grade-neuroepithelial-tumor-with-bcor-internal-tandem-duplication-a-comparison-with-its-counterparts-in-the-kidney-and-soft-tissue
#20
Yuka Yoshida, Sumihito Nobusawa, Satoshi Nakata, Mitsutoshi Nakada, Yoshiki Arakawa, Yohei Mineharu, Yasuo Sugita, Takako Yoshioka, Asuka Araki, Yuichiro Sato, Hideo Takeshima, Masahiko Okada, Akira Nishi, Tatsuya Yamazaki, Kenichi Kohashi, Yoshinao Oda, Junko Hirato, Hideaki Yokoo
Central nervous system high-grade neuroepithelial tumors with BCOR alteration (CNS HGNET-BCOR) are a recently reported rare entity, identified as a small fraction of tumors previously institutionally diagnosed as so-called CNS primitive neuroectodermal tumors. Their genetic characteristic is a somatic internal tandem duplication in the 3' end of BCOR (BCOR ITD), which has also been found in clear cell sarcomas of the kidney (CCSK) and soft tissue undifferentiated round cell sarcomas/primitive myxoid mesenchymal tumors of infancy (URCS/PMMTI), and these BCOR ITD-positive tumors have been reported to share similar pathological features...
December 11, 2017: Brain Pathology
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