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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728258/-follow-up-and-genetic-study-of-43-chinese-children-with-type-%C3%A2-alexander-disease
#1
T T Ban, Y Wu, Z B Zhang, L L Zang, J M Wang, Y W Jiang
Objective: To identify the clinical and genetic characteristics in 43 Chinese children diagnosed with type Ⅰ Alexander disease (AxD). Method: Forty-three type Ⅰ AxD cases identified by glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) gene mutations in Peking University First Hospital from 2005 to 2016 were followed up. The data of medical history, physical examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were collected. All these patients were followed up in December 2010, Febury 2012, June 2014 and January 2016, respectively...
July 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728023/persistent-expression-of-vcam1-in-radial-glial-cells-is-required-for-the-embryonic-origin-of-postnatal-neural-stem-cells
#2
Xiao-Ling Hu, Guo Chen, Sanguo Zhang, Jiangli Zheng, Jun Wu, Qing-Ran Bai, Yue Wang, Ji Li, Huanhuan Wang, Han Feng, Jia Li, Xicai Sun, Qijun Xia, Fan Yang, Jing Hang, Chang Qi, Timothy N Phoenix, Sally Temple, Qin Shen
During development, neural stem cells (NSCs) undergo transitions from neuroepithelial cells to radial glial cells (RGCs), and later, a subpopulation of slowly dividing RGCs gives rise to the quiescent adult NSCs that populate the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ). Here we show that VCAM1, a transmembrane protein previously found in quiescent adult NSCs, is expressed by a subpopulation of embryonic RGCs, in a temporal and region-specific manner. Loss of VCAM1 reduced the number of active embryonic RGCs by stimulating their premature neuronal differentiation while preventing quiescence in the slowly dividing RGCs...
July 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724805/diabetic-retinopathy-current-understanding-mechanisms-and-treatment-strategies
#3
REVIEW
Elia J Duh, Jennifer K Sun, Alan W Stitt
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) causes significant visual loss on a global scale. Treatments for the vision-threatening complications of diabetic macular edema (DME) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) have greatly improved over the past decade. However, additional therapeutic options are needed that take into account pathology associated with vascular, glial, and neuronal components of the diabetic retina. Recent work indicates that diabetes markedly impacts the retinal neurovascular unit and its interdependent vascular, neuronal, glial, and immune cells...
July 20, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724733/early-evolution-of-radial-glial-cells-in-bilateria
#4
Conrad Helm, Anett Karl, Patrick Beckers, Sabrina Kaul-Strehlow, Elke Ulbricht, Ioannis Kourtesis, Heidrun Kuhrt, Harald Hausen, Thomas Bartolomaeus, Andreas Reichenbach, Christoph Bleidorn
Bilaterians usually possess a central nervous system, composed of neurons and supportive cells called glial cells. Whereas neuronal cells are highly comparable in all these animals, glial cells apparently differ, and in deuterostomes, radial glial cells are found. These particular secretory glial cells may represent the archetype of all (macro) glial cells and have not been reported from protostomes so far. This has caused controversial discussions of whether glial cells represent a homologous bilaterian characteristic or whether they (and thus, centralized nervous systems) evolved convergently in the two main clades of bilaterians...
July 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724211/dexmedetomidine-preconditioning-protects-against-retinal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-and-inhibits-inflammation-response-via-toll-like-receptor-4-tlr4-pathway
#5
Zong Chen, Ping-Yang Qiu, Chuan-Gen Ma
BACKGROUND: Retinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is one of significant cause of visual dysopia and causes inflammatory response. Dexmedetomidine is widely applied to general/local anaesthesia and has been reported to have extensive anti-inflammatory effect. However, the role of dexmedetomidine in retinal I/R injury is currently unknown. This study investigates the effect of dexmedetomidine preconditioning on retinal I/R injury and explore the related signal mechanism toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathway...
July 14, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724203/huprine-x-attenuates-the-neurotoxicity-induced-by-kainic-acid-especially-brain-inflammation
#6
J Relat, B Pérez, P Camps, D Muñoz-Torrero, A Badia, M V Clos
Huprine X (HX) is a synthetic anticholinesterasic compound that exerts a potent inhibitory action on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, an agonist effect on cholinergic receptors, neuroprotective activity in different neurotoxicity models in vivo and in vitro and cognition enhancing effects in non-transgenic (C57BL/6) and transgenic (3xTg-AD, APPswe) mice. In the present study, we assessed the ability of HX (0.8 mg/kg, 21 days) to prevent the damage induced by kainic acid (KA; 28 mg/kg) regarding apoptosis, glia reactivity and neurogenesis in mouse brain...
July 19, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722693/ikk-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-dependent-satellite-glia-activation-induces-spinal-cord-microglia-activation-and-neuropathic-pain-after-nerve-injury
#7
Hyoungsub Lim, Hyunkyoung Lee, Kyungchul Noh, Sung Joong Lee
Increasing evidence indicates that both microglia and satellite glial cell (SGC) activation play causal roles in neuropathic pain development after peripheral nerve injury; however, the activation mechanisms and their contribution to neuropathic pain remain elusive. To address this issue, we generated Ikkβ conditional knockout mice (Cnp-Cre/Ikkβ; cIkkβ) in which IKK/NF-κB-dependent proinflammatory SGC activation was abrogated. In these mice, nerve injury-induced spinal cord microglia activation and pain hypersensitivity were significantly attenuated compared to those in control mice...
May 30, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722234/minocycline-reduces-microgliosis-and-improves-subcortical-white-matter-function-in-a-model-of-cerebral-vascular-disease
#8
Yasmina Manso, Philip R Holland, Akihiro Kitamura, Stefan Szymkowiak, Jessica Duncombe, Edel Hennessy, James L Searcy, Martina Marangoni, Andrew D Randall, Jon T Brown, Barry W McColl, Karen Horsburgh
Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion is a key mechanism associated with white matter disruption in cerebral vascular disease and dementia. In a mouse model relevant to studying cerebral vascular disease, we have previously shown that cerebral hypoperfusion disrupts axon-glial integrity and the distribution of key paranodal and internodal proteins in subcortical myelinated axons. This disruption of myelinated axons is accompanied by increased microglia and cognitive decline. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether hypoperfusion impairs the functional integrity of white matter, its relation with axon-glial integrity and microglial number, and whether by targeting microglia these effects can be improved...
July 19, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720882/cell-type-specific-differences-in-promoter-activity-of-the-als-linked-c9orf72-mouse-ortholog
#9
Abraham J Langseth, Juhyun Kim, Janet E Ugolino, Yajas Shah, Ho-Yon Hwang, Jiou Wang, Dwight E Bergles, Solange P Brown
A hexanucleotide repeat expansion in the C9orf72 gene is the most common cause of inherited forms of the neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Both loss-of-function and gain-of-function mechanisms have been proposed to underlie this disease, but the pathogenic pathways are not fully understood. To better understand the involvement of different cell types in the pathogenesis of ALS, we systematically analyzed the distribution of promoter activity of the mouse ortholog of C9orf72 in the central nervous system...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719803/elevated-sterol-regulatory-elementary-binding-protein-1-and-glua2-levels-in-the-hippocampal-nuclear-fraction-of-genetic-absence-epilepsy-rats-from-strasbourg
#10
Sathiya Sekar, Entesar Omran, Venkat Gopalakrishnan, John G Howland, Terrance P Snutch, Changiz Taghibiglou
Studies in animal models and human tissues show that nuclear translocation of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1) and glutamate A2 subunit (GluA2) of cell-surface AMPA receptor (AMPAR) trigger neuronal excitotoxicity-induced apoptosis in stroke. However, it is not known whether a similar type of underlying pathophysiology occurs in absence epilepsy. To explore this issue, we examined the levels of mature SREBP1, GluA2, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), p53, and activated to total caspase 3 ratio in nuclear fractions (NF) of hippocampal homogenate from 8 to 10 week old male Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS) and non-epileptic control (NEC) strains...
July 12, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719020/fibrin-ogen-and-neurodegeneration-in-the-progressive-multiple-sclerosis-cortex
#11
Richard L Yates, Margaret M Esiri, Jacqueline Palace, Benjamin Jacobs, Rafael Perera, Gabriele C DeLuca
OBJECTIVE: Neuronal loss, a key substrate of irreversible disability in multiple sclerosis (MS), is a recognised feature of MS cortical pathology of which the cause remains unknown. Fibrin(ogen) deposition is neurotoxic in animal models of MS, but has not been evaluated in human progressive MS cortex. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent and distribution of fibrin(ogen) in progressive MS cortex and elucidate its relationship with neurodegeneration. METHODS: A post-mortem cohort of pathologically confirmed MS (n=47) and control (n=10) cases was used...
July 18, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718304/the-role-of-surgery-in-low-grade-gliomas-do-timing-and-extent-of-resection-matter
#12
Hugues Duffau
Hugues Duffau is a Professor and Chairman of the Neurosurgery Department in the Montpellier University Medical Center and Head of the INSERM 1051 Team "plasticity of the central nervous system, human stem cells and glial tumors" at the Institute for Neurosciences of Montpellier (France). He is an expert in the awake cognitive neurosurgery of slow-growing brain tumors, such as low-grade gliomas, a routine which he has developed since 20 years. His fundamental approach is centered on the concepts of the brain connectomics and neuroplasticity, breaking with the traditional localizationist view of cerebral processing...
July 18, 2017: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717884/serum-concentrations-of-glial-fibrillary-acidic-protein-gfap-do-not-indicate-tumor-recurrence-in-patients-with-glioblastoma
#13
Julia-Mareen Vietheer, Johannes Rieger, Marlies Wagner, Christian Senft, Julia Tichy, Christian Foerch
Recent studies identified serum concentrations of the astroglial protein glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) to be indicative of glioblastoma (GBM) in patients with newly diagnosed space occupying cerebral mass lesions. Until now, no data is available whether GFAP serum concentrations decrease after first therapy and whether GFAP may be used as a predictor of survival and an indicator of tumor recurrence. In this prospective study, we included 44 patients with a single space occupying cerebral mass lesion suspicious for GBM...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717351/serial-sampling-of-serum-protein-biomarkers-for-monitoring-human-traumatic-brain-injury-dynamics-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Eric Peter Thelin, Frederick Adam Zeiler, Ari Ercole, Stefania Mondello, András Büki, Bo-Michael Bellander, Adel Helmy, David K Menon, David W Nelson
BACKGROUND: The proteins S100B, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1), and neurofilament light (NF-L) have been serially sampled in serum of patients suffering from traumatic brain injury (TBI) in order to assess injury severity and tissue fate. We review the current literature of serum level dynamics of these proteins following TBI and used the term "effective half-life" (t1/2) in order to describe the "fall" rate in serum...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717139/relationship-between-retinal-inner-nuclear-layer-thickness-and-severity-of-visual-field-loss-in-glaucoma
#15
Eun Kyoung Kim, Hae-Young Lopilly Park, Chan Kee Park
Glaucoma is a disease characterized by pathologic changes in inner retinal layers, which are comprised of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). As retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) cross over other retinal neurons that are connected by synapses, it is meaningful to investigate the outer retinal changes in glaucoma. We evaluated the association between thicknesses of segmented retinal layers in macular region and severity of visual field loss in open-angle glaucoma (OAG). This study involved 103 glaucomatous eyes. Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), ganglion cell layer (GCL), inner plexiform layer (IPL), inner nuclear layer (INL), outer plexiform layer (OPL), and outer nuclear layer (ONL) thicknesses were measured at the macular level using the Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography with segmentation software...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715802/nerve-glial-antigen-2-a-novel-target-for-anti-tumor-therapy-in-colorectal-cancer
#16
Cem Cengiz, Safak Bulut, A Sedat Boyacioglu, M Ayhan Kuzu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To identify cell surface markers selectively expressed by tumor cells and tumor vasculature is the current goal for tumor therapy. One such marker is nerve/glial antigen 2 (NG2), which is a transmembrane glycoprotein. We aimed to investigate the expression of NG2 in colorectal cancer (CRC) and its association with clinicopathological parameters. METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining of NG2, vascular endothelial growth factor, and CD34 in 65 patients diagnosed with CRC over a 5-year period was performed...
July 18, 2017: Digestion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715117/differential-activation-of-neuronal-and-glial-stat3-in-the-spinal-cord-of-the-sod1-g93a-mouse-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#17
Tomohiro Ohgomori, Ryo Yamasaki, Hideyuki Takeuchi, Kenji Kadomatsu, Jun-Ichi Kira, Shozo Jinno
Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins are activated by phosphorylation in the spinal cord of patients suffering from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The major scope of our study is a comprehensive histological characterization of the mechanisms underlying neuronal and glial STAT3 activation in the pathogenesis of ALS using SOD1(G93A) mice. We calculated the fold changes (FCs, ratios vs. appropriate controls) of the numerical densities of the following phosphorylated STAT3-positive (pSTAT3)(+) cells: choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)(+) α-motoneurons, ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1)(+) microglia, and S100β(+) astrocytes in SOD1(G93A) mice...
July 17, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714867/enhanced-astrocytic-d-serine-underlies-synaptic-damage-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#18
Enmanuel J Perez, Stephen A Tapanes, Zachary B Loris, Darrick T Balu, Thomas J Sick, Joseph T Coyle, Daniel J Liebl
After traumatic brain injury (TBI), glial cells have both beneficial and deleterious roles in injury progression and recovery. However, few studies have examined the influence of reactive astrocytes in the tripartite synapse following TBI. Here, we have demonstrated that hippocampal synaptic damage caused by controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury in mice results in a switch from neuronal to astrocytic d-serine release. Under nonpathological conditions, d-serine functions as a neurotransmitter and coagonist for NMDA receptors and is involved in mediating synaptic plasticity...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714852/the-small-molecule-mimetic-agonist-trimebutine-of-adhesion-molecule-l1-contributes-to-functional-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-mice
#19
Junping Xu, Chengliang Hu, Qiong Jiang, Hongchao Pan, Huifan Shen, Melitta Schachner
Curing spinal cord injury (SCI) in mammals is a daunting task because of the lack of permissive mechanisms and strong inhibitory responses at and around the lesion. The neural cell adhesion molecule L1CAM (L1) has been shown to favor axonal regrowth and enhance neuronal survival and synaptic plasticity, and thus constitutes a viable target to promote regeneration after SCI. Since delivery of full-length L1 or its extracellular domain could encounter difficulties in translation to therapy in humans, we have identified several small organic compounds that bind to L1 and stimulate neuronal survival, neuronal migration, and neurite outgrowth in an L1-dependent manner...
July 14, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714175/schwann-cells-secrete-extracellular-vesicles-to-promote-and-maintain-the-proliferation-and-multipotency-of-hdpcs
#20
Ziyue Li, Yan Liang, Kuangwu Pan, Hui Li, Mei Yu, Weihua Guo, Guoqing Chen, Weidong Tian
OBJECTIVES: Schwann cells (SCs) are the principal glial cells in peripheral nerve system, involved in neuropathies with great regenerative potential. Dental pulp cells have been reported to maintain neurogenic potential. In contrast, the regulatory role of SCs on human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) development remains undefined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: SC secretion and SC-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) were collected and used to treat hDPCs; and proliferation and multiple differentiation of hDPCs were detected after EVs treatments...
August 2017: Cell Proliferation
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