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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474476/rage-dependent-potentiation-of-trpv1-currents-in-sensory-neurons-exposed-to-high-glucose
#1
Doris Lam, Zeinab Momeni, Michael Theaker, Santosh Jagadeeshan, Yasuhiko Yamamoto, Juan P Ianowski, Verónica A Campanucci
Diabetes mellitus is associated with sensory abnormalities, including exacerbated responses to painful (hyperalgesia) or non-painful (allodynia) stimuli. These abnormalities are symptoms of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), which is the most common complication that affects approximately 50% of diabetic patients. Yet, the underlying mechanisms linking hyperglycemia and symptoms of DPN remain poorly understood. The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel plays a central role in such sensory abnormalities and shows elevated expression levels in animal models of diabetes...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474348/downregulated-nuclear-factor-e2-related-factor-2-nrf2-aggravates-cognitive-impairments-via-neuroinflammation-and-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-senescence-accelerated-mouse-prone-8-samp8-mouse-a-model-of-accelerated-senescence
#2
Hui Ling Ren, Chao Nan Lv, Ying Xing, Yuan Geng, Feng Zhang, Wei Bu, Ming Wei Wang
BACKGROUND We observed the effects of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) downregulation via intrahippocampal injection of a lentiviral vector on cognition in senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) to investigate the role of the (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway in age-related changes. MATERIAL AND METHODS Control lentivirus and Nrf2-shRNA-lentivirus were separately injected into the hippocampus of 4-month-old SAMR1 and SAMP8 mice and then successfully downregulated Nrf2 expression in this brain region...
February 23, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472575/glial-cell-type-specific-changes-in-spinal-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-expression-and-effects-of-its-inhibitors-in-inflammatory-and-neuropatic-pain
#3
Kornél Király, Márk Kozsurek, Erika Lukácsi, Benjamin Barta, Alán Alpár, Tamás Balázsa, Csaba Fekete, Judit Szabon, Zsuzsanna Helyes, Kata Bölcskei, Valéria Tékus, Zsuzsanna E Tóth, Károly Pap, Gábor Gerber, Zita Puskár
Altered pain sensations such as hyperalgesia and allodynia are characteristic features of various pain states, and remain difficult to treat. We have shown previously that spinal application of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors induces strong antihyperalgesic effect during inflammatory pain. In this study we observed low level of DPP4 mRNA in the rat spinal dorsal horn in physiological conditions, which did not change significantly either in carrageenan-induced inflammatory or partial nerve ligation-generated neuropathic states...
February 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471717/differential-response-in-novel-stem-cell-niches-of-the-brain-following-cervical-spinal-cord-injury-and-traumatic-brain-injury
#4
Aditi Falnikar, Jarred Stratton, Ruihe Lin, Carrie E Andrews, Ashley Tyburski, Victoria A Trovillion, Chelsea Gottschalk, Biswarup Ghosh, Lorraine Iacovitti, Melanie B Elliott, Angelo C Lepore
Populations of neural stem cells (NSCs) reside in a number of defined niches in the adult CNS where they continually give rise to mature cell types throughout life, including newly-born neurons. In addition to prototypical niches of the subventricular zone and subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus, novel stem cell niches that are also neurogenic have recently been identified in multiple midline structures, including circumventricular organs (CVOs) of the brain. These resident NSCs may have the potential for reparative processes in pathologies such as traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) and traumatic brain injury (TBI)...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471030/neuroprotective-effects-of-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-on-mptp-induced-parkinson-s-disease-mice-gut-microbiota-glial-reaction-and-tlr4-tnf-%C3%AE-signaling-pathway
#5
Meng-Fei Sun, Ying-Li Zhu, Zhi-Lan Zhou, Xue-Bing Jia, Yi-Da Xu, Qin Yang, Chun Cui, Yan-Qin Shen
Parkinson's disease (PD) patients display alterations in gut microbiota composition. However, mechanism between gut microbial dysbiosis and pathogenesis of PD remains unexplored, and no recognized therapies are available to halt or slow progression of PD. Here we identified that gut microbiota from PD mice induced motor impairment and striatal neurotransmitter decrease on normal mice. Sequencing of 16S rRNA revealed that phylum Firmicutes and order Clostridiales decreased, while phylum Proteobacteria, order Turicibacterales and Enterobacteriales increased in fecal samples of PD mice, along with increased fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs)...
February 19, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470677/a-critical-view-of-the-quest-for-brain-structural-markers-of-albert-einstein-s-special-talents-a-pot-of-gold-under-the-rainbow
#6
Jorge A Colombo
Assertions regarding attempts to link glial and macrostructural brain events with cognitive performance regarding Albert Einstein, are critically reviewed. One basic problem arises from attempting to draw causal relationships regarding complex, delicately interactive functional processes involving finely tuned molecular and connectivity phenomena expressed in cognitive performance, based on highly variable brain structural events of a single, aged, formalin fixed brain. Data weaknesses and logical flaws are considered...
February 22, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469068/reirradiation-for-recurrent-primary-central-nervous-system-tumors-eight-year-audit-from-a-tertiary-cancer-care-center-in-south-india
#7
D Menon, P G Chelakkot
BACKGROUND: Radiation therapy is a major treatment option in the management of primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors, though recurrences after primary treatment, especially in high-grade glial tumors, is a challenge for treating physician. Advances in the field of radiation have made reirradiation a feasible option in recurrent CNS tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Details of patients with primary CNS lesions who presented between 2009 and 2016, with recurrent CNS lesions, and who were treated with reirradiation were retrieved from electronic medical records, as a departmental audit, and the outcome was analyzed...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468756/copper-deposition-in-oligodendroglial-cells-in-an-autopsied-case-of-hepatolenticular-degeneration
#8
Mayu Nishimuta, Kenta Masui, Tomoko Yamamoto, Yuichi Ikarashi, Katsutoshi Tokushige, Etsuko Hashimoto, Yoji Nagashima, Noriyuki Shibata
We present a case of hepatolenticular degeneration, so-called Wilson's disease (WD), in a 31-year-old Japanese man with broader deposition of copper in the liver, kidney and brain. The liver showed severe cirrhotic changes with macronodular pseudolobule formation, but there was little difference in immunohistochemical expression patterns of the copper transporter ATP7B between the control and present case. In the brain, there were both WD-related lesions such as the scattering of Opalski cells and changes caused by hepatic encephalopathy including the appearance of Alzheimer type II glia...
February 21, 2018: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467625/effect-of-vitamin-d-in-hn9-10e-embryonic-hippocampal-cells-and-in-hippocampus-from-mptp-induced-parkinson-s-disease-mouse-model
#9
Samuela Cataldi, Cataldo Arcuri, Stéphane Hunot, Carmen Mecca, Michela Codini, Maria E Laurenti, Ivana Ferri, Elisabetta Loreti, Mercedes Garcia-Gil, Giovanna Traina, Carmela Conte, Francesco S Ambesi-Impiombato, Tommaso Beccari, Francesco Curcio, Elisabetta Albi
It has long been proven that neurogenesis continues in the adult brains of mammals in the dentatus gyrus of the hippocampus due to the presence of neural stem cells. Although a large number of studies have been carried out to highlight the localization of vitamin D receptor in hippocampus, the expression of vitamin D receptor in neurogenic dentatus gyrus of hippocampus in Parkinson's disease (PD) and the molecular mechanisms triggered by vitamin D underlying the production of differentiated neurons from embryonic cells remain unknown...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467608/understanding-the-role-of-adenosine-a2ar-heteroreceptor-complexes-in-neurodegeneration-and-neuroinflammation
#10
Dasiel O Borroto-Escuela, Sonja Hinz, Gemma Navarro, Rafael Franco, Christa E Müller, Kjell Fuxe
Adenosine is a nucleoside mainly formed by degradation of ATP, located intracellularly or extracellularly, and acts as a neuromodulator. It operates as a volume transmission signal through diffusion and flow in the extracellular space to modulate the activity of both glial cells and neurons. The effects of adenosine are mediated via four adenosine receptor subtypes: A1R, A2AR, A2BR, A3R. The A2AR has a wide-spread distribution but it is especially enriched in the ventral and dorsal striatum where it is mainly located in the striato-pallidal GABA neurons at a synaptic and extrasynaptic location...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466978/repeated-electroacupuncture-treatment-attenuated-hyperalgesia-through-suppression-of-spinal-glial-activation-in-chronic-neuropathic-pain-rats
#11
Jun-Ying Wang, Yong-Hui Gao, Li-Na Qiao, Jian-Liang Zhang, Cheng-Lin Duan-Mu, Ya-Xia Yan, Shu-Ping Chen, Jun-Ling Liu
BACKGROUND: Cumulated evidence reveals that glial cells in the spinal cord play an important role in the development of chronic neuropathic pain and are also complicated in the analgesic effect of EA intervention. But the roles of microgliacytes and astrocytes of spinal cord in the process of EA analgesia remain unknown. METHODS: A total of 120 male Wistar rats were used in the present study. The neuropathic pain model was established by chronic constrictive injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve...
February 21, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466532/association-of-hippocampal-atrophy-with-duration-of-untreated-psychosis-and-molecular-biomarkers-during-initial-antipsychotic-treatment-of-first-episode-psychosis
#12
Donald C Goff, Botao Zeng, Babak A Ardekani, Erica D Diminich, Yingying Tang, Xiaoduo Fan, Isaac Galatzer-Levy, Chenxiang Li, Andrea B Troxel, Jijun Wang
Importance: Duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) has been associated with poor outcomes in schizophrenia, but the mechanism responsible for this association is not known. Objectives: To determine whether hippocampal volume loss occurs during the initial 8 weeks of antipsychotic treatment and whether it is associated with DUP, and to examine molecular biomarkers in association with hippocampal volume loss and DUP. Design, Setting, and Participants: A naturalistic longitudinal study with matched healthy controls was conducted at Shanghai Mental Health Center...
February 21, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466379/activation-of-retinal-glial-m%C3%A3-ller-cells-by-extracellular-atp-induces-pronounced-increases-in-extracellular-h-flux
#13
Boriana K Tchernookova, Chad Heer, Marin Young, David Swygart, Ryan Kaufman, Michael Gongwer, Lexi Shepherd, Hannah Caringal, Jason Jacoby, Matthew A Kreitzer, Robert Paul Malchow
Small alterations in extracellular acidity are potentially important modulators of neuronal signaling within the vertebrate retina. Here we report a novel extracellular acidification mechanism mediated by glial cells in the retina. Using self-referencing H+-selective microelectrodes to measure extracellular H+ fluxes, we show that activation of retinal Müller (glial) cells of the tiger salamander by micromolar concentrations of extracellular ATP induces a pronounced extracellular H+ flux independent of bicarbonate transport...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466087/rat-hippocampal-ca3-neuronal-injury-induced-by-limb-ischemia-reperfusion-a-possible-restorative-effect-of-alpha-lipoic-acid
#14
Ola A Hussein, Amel M M Abdel-Hafez, Ayat Abd El Kareim
Limb ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury is associated with serious local and systemic effects. Reperfusion may augment tissue injury in excess of that produced by ischemia alone. The hippocampus has been reported to be vulnerable to I/R injury. Alpha lipoic acid (ALA) is an endogenous antioxidant with a powerful antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic properties. We studied the probable restorative effect of ALA on limb I/R-induced structural damage of rat hippocampus. Forty adult male albino rats were divided equally into four groups: group I (sham); group II (I/R-1 day) has undergone bilateral femoral arteries occlusion (3 h), then reperfusion for 1 day; group III (I/R-7 days) has undergone reperfusion for seven days; group IV (I/R-ALA) has undergone I/R as group III and received an intraperitoneal injection of ALA (100 mg/kg) for 7 days...
March 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466086/vulnerability-of-glia-and-vessels-of-rat-substantia-nigra-in-rotenone-parkinson-model
#15
Sanaa A M Elgayar, Amel A M Abdel-Hafez, Asmaa M S Gomaa, Raghda Elsherif
BACKGROUND: Astrocytes have been implicated as potentially exerting both neurotoxic and neuroprotective activities in Parkinson's disease (PD). Whether glial cells negatively impact the neuron integrity remains to be determined. We aimed to assess the vulnerability of glia and vessels in rat substantia nigra in a rotenone PD model. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty adult male albino rats were divided into two equal groups: vehicle-control group (received dimethylsulfoxide + polyethylene glycol (PEG)-300, 1:1 v/v) and rotenone-treated group (received six doses of rotenone, 1...
March 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464861/glioma-infiltration-and-extracellular-matrix-key-players-and-modulators
#16
REVIEW
Valéria Pereira Ferrer, Vivaldo Moura Neto, Rolf Mentlein
An outstanding characteristic of gliomas is their infiltration into brain parenchyma, a property that impairs complete surgical resection; consequently, these tumors might recur, resulting in a high mortality rate. Gliomas invade along preferential routes, such as those along white matter tracts and in the perineuronal and perivascular spaces. Brain extracellular components and their partners and modulators play a crucial role in glioma cell invasion. This review presents an extensive survey of the literature, showing how the brain extracellular matrix (ECM) is modulated during the glioma infiltration process...
February 21, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464573/intrinsic-inflammation-is-a-potential-anti-epileptogenic-target-in-the-organotypic-hippocampal-slice-model
#17
Seon-Ah Chong, Silvia Balosso, Catherine Vandenplas, Gregory Szczesny, Etienne Hanon, Kasper Claes, Xavier Van Damme, Bénédicte Danis, Jonathan Van Eyll, Christian Wolff, Annamaria Vezzani, Rafal M Kaminski, Isabelle Niespodziany
Understanding the mechanisms of epileptogenesis is essential to develop novel drugs that could prevent or modify the disease. Neuroinflammation has been proposed as a promising target for therapeutic interventions to inhibit the epileptogenic process that evolves from traumatic brain injury. However, it remains unclear whether cytokine-related pathways, particularly TNFα signaling, have a critical role in the development of epilepsy. In this study, we investigated the role of innate inflammation in an in vitro model of post-traumatic epileptogenesis...
February 20, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464321/origin-and-development-of-septoclasts-in-endochondral-ossification-of-mice
#18
Yasuhiko Bando, Hide Sakashita, Fuyoko Taira, Genki Miyake, Yudai Ogasawara, Koji Sakiyama, Yuji Owada, Osamu Amano
Septoclasts are mononuclear spindle-shaped phagocytes with their long processes in uncalcified cartilage matrices and locate adjacent to the capillary endothelium at the chondro-osseous junction of the growth plate. We have previously revealed a selective expression of epidermal-type fatty acid-binding protein (E-FABP/FABP5) in septoclasts. Although, pericytes are known to distribute along capillaries and directly surround their endothelial cells in a situation similar to septoclasts, no clear evidence is available on the relationship between septoclasts and pericytes...
February 20, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464197/mecp2-deficiency-leads-to-loss-of-glial-kir4-1
#19
Uri Kahanovitch, Vishnu A Cuddapah, Natasha L Pacheco, Leanne M Holt, Daniel K Mulkey, Alan K Percy, Michelle L Olsen
Rett syndrome (RTT) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder usually caused by mutations in methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). RTT is typified by apparently normal development until 6-18 mo of age, when motor and communicative skills regress and hand stereotypies, autonomic symptoms, and seizures present. Restoration of MeCP2 function selectively to astrocytes reversed several deficits in a murine model of RTT, but the mechanism of this rescue is unknown. Astrocytes carry out many essential functions required for normal brain functioning, including extracellular K+ buffering...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463313/lymphotoxin-%C3%AE-receptor-mediated-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-promotes-glial-lineage-differentiation-and-inhibits-neuronal-lineage-differentiation-in-mouse-brain-neural-stem-progenitor-cells
#20
Xiao Xiao, Raj Putatunda, Yonggang Zhang, Priya V Soni, Fang Li, Ting Zhang, Mingyang Xin, Jin Jun Luo, John R Bethea, Yuan Cheng, Wenhui Hu
BACKGROUND: Lymphotoxin (LT) is a lymphokine mainly expressed in lymphocytes. LTα binds one or two membrane-associated LTβ to form LTα2 β1 or LTα1 β2 heterotrimers. The predominant LTα1 β2 binds to LTβ receptor (LTβR) primarily expressed in epithelial and stromal cells. Most studies on LTβR signaling have focused on the organization, development, and maintenance of lymphoid tissues. However, the roles of LTβR signaling in the nervous system, particularly in neurogenesis, remain unknown...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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