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F Merola, P Memmolo, L Miccio, M Mugnano, P Ferraro
High-throughput single-cell analysis is a challenging target for implementing advanced biomedical applications. An excellent candidate for this aim is label-free tomographic phase microscopy (TPM). In this paper, some of the methods used to obtain TPM are reviewed, analyzing advantages and disadvantages of each of them. Moreover, an alternative tomographic technique is described for live cells analysis, and future trends of the method are foreseen. In particular, by exploiting random rolling of cells while they are flowing along a microfluidic channel, it is possible to obtain phase-contrast tomography thus obtaining complete retrieval of both 3D-position and orientation of rotating cells...
January 13, 2018: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
Nie Jinhui, Zewei Ren, Jiajia Shao, Chaoran Deng, Liang Xu, Xiangyu Chen, Meicheng Li, Zhong Lin Wang
Electrowetting technique is an actuation method for manipulating position and velocity of fluids in the microchannels. By combining electrowetting technique and a freestanding mode triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG), we have designed a self-powered micro-fluidic transport system. In this system, a mini vehicle is fabricated by using four droplets to carry a pallet (6 mm × 8 mm) and it can transport some tiny object on the track electrodes under the drive of TENG. The motion of TENG can provide both driving power and control signal for the mini vehicle...
January 17, 2018: ACS Nano
Irma Liascukiene, Gabriel Amselem, Deniz Z Gunes, Charles N Baroud
Foams can be stabilized for long periods by the adsorption of solid particles on the liquid-gas interfaces. Although such long-term observations are common, mechanistic descriptions of the particle adsorption process are scarce, especially in confined flows, in part due to the difficulty of observing the particles in the complex gas-liquid dispersion of a foam. Here, we characterise the adsorption of micron-scale particles onto the interface of a bubble flowing in a colloidal aqueous suspension within a microfluidic channel...
January 17, 2018: Soft Matter
Yongmin Cho, David N Oakland, Sol Ah Lee, William R Schafer, Hang Lu
Mechanosensation is fundamentally important for the abilities of an organism to experience touch, hear sounds, and maintain balance. Caenorhabditis elegans is a powerful system for studying mechanosensation as this worm is well suited for in vivo functional imaging of neurons. Many years of research using labor-intensive methods have generated a wealth of knowledge about mechanosensation in C. elegans, and the recent microfluidic-based platforms continue to push the boundary for this field. However, developmental aspects of sensory biology, including mechanosensation, are still not fully understood...
January 17, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Alexander T Pearson, Patrick Ingram, Shoumei Bai, Patrick O'Hayer, Jaehoon Chung, Euisik Yoon, Trachette Jackson, Ronald J Buckanovich
Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) are a topic of increasing importance in cancer research, but are difficult to study due to their rarity and ability to rapidly divide to produce non-self-cells. We developed a simple model to describe transitions between aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) positive CSCs and ALDH(-) bulk ovarian cancer cells. Microfluidics device-isolated single cell experiments demonstrated that ALDH+ cells were more proliferative than ALDH(-) cells. Based on our model we used ALDH+ and ALDH(-) cell division and proliferation properties to develop an empiric sampling algorithm and predict growth rate and CSC proportion for both ovarian cancer cell line and primary ovarian cancer cells, in-vitro and in-vivo...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
Ioannis Lignos, Loredana Protesescu, Dilara Börte Emiroglu, Richard M Maceiczyk, Simon Schneider, Maksym V Kovalenko, Andrew J deMello
Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites and in particular formamidinium lead halide (FAPbX3, X = Cl, Br, I) perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) have shown great promise for their implementation in optoelectronic devices. Specifically, the Br and I counterparts have shown unprecedented photoluminescence properties, including precise wavelength tuning (530-790 nm), narrow emission linewidths ( less than 100 meV) and high photoluminescence quantum yields (70-90%). However, the controlled formation of blue emitting FAPb(Cl1-xBrx)3 NCs lags behind their green and red counterparts and the mechanism of their formation remains unclear...
January 16, 2018: Nano Letters
Yunyun Zhou, Qi Zou, Jing Qiu, Linjun Wang, Liangliang Zhu
A controllable sensing ability strongly connects to complex and precise events in diagnosis and treatment. However, imposing visible light into the molecular-scale mediation of sensing process is restricted by the lack of structural relevance. To address this critical challenge, we present the rational design, synthesis, and in vitro studies of a novel cyanostyryl-modified azulene system for green light mediated fast switchable acidic sensing. The advantageous features of the design include a high- efficient green-light driven Z/E-isomerization (a quantum yield up to 61...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Jianxin Sun, L Moore, Wei Xue, James Kim, Maciej Zborowski, Jeffrey J Chalmers
Magnetic separation of cells has been, and continues to be, widely used in a variety of applications, ranging from healthcare diagnostics to detection of food contamination. Typical, these technologies require cells labeled with antibody magnetic particle conjugate and a high magnetic energy gradient created in the flow containing the labeled cells (i.e. a column packed with magnetically inducible material), or dense packing of magnetic particles next to the flow cell. Such designs while creating high magnetic energy gradients, are not amenable to easy, highly detailed, mathematic characterization...
January 16, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Mariana R Carvalho, Rui Luís Reis, Joaquim Miguel Oliveira
The development of tissue-engineering (TE) solutions for osteochondral (OC) regeneration has been slowed by technical hurdles related to the recapitulation of their complex and hierarchical architecture. OC defects refer to damage of both the articular cartilage and the underlying subchondral bone. To repair an OC tissue defect, the complexity of the bone and cartilage must be considered. To help achieve this, microfluidics is converging with TE approaches to provide new treatment possibilities. Microfluidics uses precise micrometer-to-millimeter-scale fluid flows to achieve high-resolution and spatial and/or temporal control of the cell microenvironment, providing powerful tools for cell culturing...
January 11, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
Chang-Hyung Choi, Hyomin Lee, David A Weitz
We present a simple and rapid method to spatially pattern the surface wetting properties of PDMS microfluidic devices by Layer-by-Layer (LbL) deposition of polyelectrolytes using syringe-vacuum-induced segmented flow in non-planar geometry. Our technique offers selective surface modification in microfluidic chips with multiple flow-focusing junctions, enabling production of monodisperse double- and triple- emulsion drops.
January 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yuchao Chen, Pan Mao, Antoine M Snijders, Daojing Wang
Cellular senescence plays an important role in organismal aging and age-related diseases. However, it is challenging to isolate low numbers of senescent cells from small volumes of biofluids for downstream analysis. Furthermore, there is no technology that could selectively remove senescent cells in a high-throughput manner. In this work, we developed a novel microfluidic chip platform, termed senescence chip, for ultrahigh-throughput isolation and removal of senescent cells. The core component of our senescence chip is a slanted and tunable 3D micropillar array with a variety of shutters in the vertical direction for rapid cell sieving, taking advantage of the characteristic cell size increase during cellular senescence...
January 16, 2018: Aging Cell
Cunlu Zhao, Chun Yang
In this work, we report an effective microfluidic technique for continuous-flow trapping and localized enrichment of micro- and nano-particles by using induced-charge electrokinetic (ICEK) phenomena. The proposed technique utilizes a simple microfluidic device that consists of a straight microchannel and a conducting strip attached to the bottom wall of the microchannel. Upon application of the electric field along the microchannel, the conducting strip becomes polarized to introduce two types of ICEK phenomena, the ICEK flow vortex and particle dielectrophoresis, and they are identified by a theoretical model formulated in this study to be jointly responsible for the trapping of particles over the edge of the conducting strip...
January 16, 2018: Soft Matter
Matthias Kaiser, Florian Jug, Thomas Julou, Siddharth Deshpande, Thomas Pfohl, Olin K Silander, Gene Myers, Erik van Nimwegen
Much is still not understood about how gene regulatory interactions control cell fate decisions in single cells, in part due to the difficulty of directly observing gene regulatory processes in vivo. We introduce here a novel integrated setup consisting of a microfluidic chip and accompanying analysis software that enable long-term quantitative tracking of growth and gene expression in single cells. The dual-input Mother Machine (DIMM) chip enables controlled and continuous variation of external conditions, allowing direct observation of gene regulatory responses to changing conditions in single cells...
January 15, 2018: Nature Communications
Shukai Ding, Mohamed F Attia, Justine Wallyn, Chiara Taddei, Christophe A Serra, Nicolas Anton, Mohamad Kassem, Marc Schmutz, Meriem Er-Rafik, Nadia Messaddeq, Alexandre Collard, Wei Yu, Michele Giordano, Thierry F Vandamme
In this paper, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs, around 6 nm) encapsulated in poly(methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles (PMMA NPs) with controlled sizes ranging from 100 nm to 200 nm have been successfully produced. The hybrid polymeric nanoparticles were prepared following two different methods: (1) nanoprecipitation and (2) nanoemulsification-evaporation. These two methods were implemented in two different microprocesses based on the use of an impact jet micromixer and an elongational-flow microemulsifier respectively...
January 16, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Uson Laura, Manuel Arruebo, Victor Sebastian
The continuous production of Pt-based heterogeneous catalysts based on ultra-small (<2 nm) noble metal nanoparticles deposited on mesoporous ordered silica and their catalytic activity in VOC abatement are here reported. Microfluidic reactors can be used not only to enable the fast and controlled production of ultra-small Pt nanoparticles (NPs), but also alloyed NPs including PtPd, PtRu and PtRh can be formed in short residence times (between 60 s and 5 min). A novel continuous and homogeneous loading of these catalytic NPs on SBA-15 used as a mesoporous support is also here reported...
January 15, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Dongyue Jiang, Seunguk Lee, Sung Woo Bae, Sung-Yong Park
With the increasing capabilities and ubiquity of smartphones and their associated digital cameras, this study presents a smartphone integrated optoelectrowetting (SiOEW) device as a simple, portable tool capable of on-chip water sample preparation and microscopic detection of the target cells in water samples, which significantly reduce the detection time and the labor cost required for water quality monitoring. A commercially available smartphone is used as a low-intensity portable light source to perform optoelectrowetting (OEW)-based microfluidic operations such as droplet transportation, merging, mixing, and immobilization on a hydrophobic detection zone...
January 15, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Supriya Nagaraju, Danh Truong, Ghassan Mouneimne, Mehdi Nikkhah
Cancer is a major leading cause of disease-related death in the world. The severe impact of cancer can be attributed to poor understanding of the mechanisms involved in earliest steps of the metastatic cascade, specifically invasion into the surrounding stroma and intravasation into the blood capillaries. However, conducting integrated biological studies of invasion and intravasation have been challenging, within in vivo models and traditional in vitro assay, due to difficulties in establishing a precise tumor microenvironment...
January 15, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Xuxu Yang, Chengrui An, Shuting Liu, Tingyu Cheng, Varitsara Bunpetch, Yixiao Liu, Shurong Dong, Shijian Li, Xiaohui Zou, Tiefeng Li, Hongwei Ouyang, Zhaohui Wu, Wei Yang
Developing soft devices for invasive procedures bears great importance for human health. The softness and large strain actuation of responsive hydrogels promise the potential to fabricate soft devices, which can attach on and assist to the function of organs. The key challenges lie in the fabrication of soft devices with robust actuating ability and biocompatibility to the attached organ. This paper presents a solution that integrates the thermoresponsive hydrogel membrane with flexible electronics and silk scaffold into a balloon-like soft device...
January 15, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Liyuan Zhang, Kaiwen Chen, Haoyue Zhang, Bo Pang, Chang-Hyung Choi, Angelo S Mao, Hongbing Liao, Stefanie Utech, David J Mooney, Huanan Wang, David A Weitz
Controlled encapsulation and pairing of single cells within a confined 3D matrix can enable the replication of the highly ordered cellular structure of human tissues. Microgels with independently controlled compartments that can encapsulate cells within separately confined hydrogel matrices would provide precise control over the route of pairing single cells. Here, a one-step microfluidic method is presented to generate monodisperse multicompartment microgels that can be used as a 3D matrix to pair single cells in a highly biocompatible manner...
January 15, 2018: Small
Shaowei Shi, Xubo Liu, Yanan Li, Xuefei Wu, Dong Wang, Joe Forth, Thomas P Russell
Using the interfacial jamming of cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) surfactants, a new concept, termed all-liquid molding, is introduced to produce all-liquid objects that retain the shape and details of the mold with high fidelity, yet remain all liquid and are responsive to external stimuli. This simple process, where the viscosity of the CNC dispersion can range from that of water to a crosslinked gel, opens tremendous opportunities for encapsulation, delivery systems, and unique microfluidic devices. The process described is generally applicable to any functionalized nanoparticles dispersed in one liquid and polymer ligands having complementary functionality dissolved in a second immiscible liquid...
January 15, 2018: Advanced Materials
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