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Drug marketing

Elle Wadsworth, Colin Drummond, Paolo Deluca
The Internet has played a major role in the distribution of New Psychoactive Substances (NPS), and crypto markets are increasingly used for the anonymous sale of drugs, including NPS. This study explores the availability of individual NPS and vendors on the crypto markets and considers whether crypto markets are a reliable platform for the sale of NPS. Data was collected from 22 crypto markets that were accessed through the hidden web using the Onion Router (Tor). Data collection took place bimonthly from October 2015 to October 2016 as part of the CASSANDRA ( C omputer A ssisted S olutions for S tudying the A vailability a N d D ist R ibution of novel psycho A ctive substances) project...
March 16, 2018: Brain Sciences
Manon Auffret, Sophie Drapier, Marc Vérin
Apomorphine is now recognized as the oldest antiparkinsonian drug on the market. Though still underused, it is increasingly prescribed in Europe for patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) with motor fluctuations. However, its history is far from being limited to movement disorders. This paper traces the history of apomorphine, from its earliest empirical use, to its synthesis, pharmacological development, and numerous indications in human and veterinary medicine, in light of its most recent uses and newest challenges...
March 15, 2018: Drugs in R&D
Dev R Sahni, Steven R Feldman, Sarah L Taylor
Rosacea is a chronic and recurrent disease with a variety of cutaneous manifestations. The disorder is a centrofacial inflammatory dermatosis with significant financial, physical and psychological impacts. There are a number of topical, oral and systemic treatments available. Yet, treatment for rosacea remains difficult. The multifactorial nature of the disease combined with an incomplete understanding of the pathophysiology is challenging for providers and patients. Areas covered: This article provides an in-depth review of rosacea treatment and emerging use of ivermectin 1% cream for papulopustular rosacea based on multiple clinical trials...
March 16, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
D A van Riet-Nales, E D Nijholt-Faber, A de Boer
The Netherlands Medicines Evaluation Board (MEB) was recently informed about a serious pipamperone overdose in a 6-year-old boy, which happened because the boy was given the medication in streams rather than in drops. This article describes the use of drops in pharmaceutical patient care and explains why the MEB has maintained marketing authorization for the product on the basis of currently available information. The MEB urgently requests the healthcare professional groups to report all problems concerning drug use to the Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Centre Lareb, and the Portal for Patient Safety; this is the only way in which it can be verified whether incidental medication errors are actually, and continue to be, incidental...
2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Geraldine Dowling, Pierce V Kavanagh, Hans-Georg Eckhardt, Brendan Twamley, Gary Hessman, Gavin McLaughlin, John O' Brien, Simon D Brandt
Nitrazolam and clonazolam are two designer benzodiazepines that are available from internet retailers and there is growing evidence suggesting that such compounds have the potential to cause severe adverse events. Information about tolerability in humans is scarce but typically, low doses can be difficult to administer for users when handling bulk material and variability of the active ingredient in tablet formulations can also be of a concern. Customs, toxicology and forensic laboratories are increasingly encountering designer benzodiazepines, both in tablet and powdered forms, and the unavailability of reference standards can impact on the ability to identify these compounds...
March 15, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Dominique Douguet
Presented here are several data sets that gather information collected from the labels of the FDA approved drugs: their molecular structures and those of the described active metabolites, their associated pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics data, and the history of their marketing authorization by the FDA. To date, 1852 chemical structures have been identified with a molecular weight less than 2000 of which 492 are or have active metabolites. To promote the sharing of data, the original web server was upgraded for browsing the database and downloading the data sets (http://chemoinfo...
March 8, 2018: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Arnaud Boyer, Eddy Pasquier, Pascale Tomasini, Joseph Ciccolini, Laurent Greillier, Nicolas Andre, Fabrice Barlesi, Celine Mascaux
Drug repurposing is the use of known drugs for new indications. Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare cancer with a poor prognosis. So far, few treatments have been approved in this disease. However, its incidence is expected to increase significantly, particularly in developing countries. Consequently, drug repurposing appears as an attractive strategy for drug development in MPM, since the known pharmacology and safety profile based on previous approvals of repurposed drugs allows for faster time-to-market for patients and lower treatment cost...
March 31, 2018: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
Leandro Nóbrega, Ricardo Jorge Dinis-Oliveira
New psychoactive substances (NPS), often referred as 'legal highs' or 'designer drugs', are derivatives and analogs of existing psychoactive drugs that are introduced in the recreational market to circumvent existing legislation on drugs of abuse. This work aims to review the state-of-the-art regarding chemical, molecular pharmacology, and in vitro and in vivo data on toxicokinetics of the potent synthetic cathinone α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP or flakka or zombie drug). Chemical, pharmacological, toxicological, and clinical effects of α-PVP were searched in PubMed (U...
March 14, 2018: Drug Metabolism Reviews
Elizabeth T Makino, Lily I Jiang, Priscilla Tan, Tsing Cheng, Rahul C Mehta
The growing male skincare market reflects the increased interest of men in addressing facial aging concerns and maintaining a healthy youthful appearance. Because of differences in skin structure and aging as well as in lifestyle and behavior, male facial skin presents unique challenges that may result in different priorities or treatment strategies compared to female skin. A clinical study was conducted to assess clinical efficacy and tolerability of a topical skincare treatment product that was developed to address several male facial skin concerns related to skin quality, skin aging, and shaving...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
Juan Andrés Abin-Carriquiry, Marcela Martínez-Busi, Martín Galvalisi, Manuel Minteguiaga, José Pedro Prieto, María Cecilia Scorza
Adulteration is a common practice in the illicit drugs market, but the psychoactive and toxic effects provided by adulterants are clinically underestimated. Coca-paste (CP) is a smokable form of cocaine which has an extremely high abuse liability. CP seized samples are sold adulterated; however, qualitative and quantitative data of CP adulteration in forensic literature is still scarce. Besides, it is unknown if adulterants remain stable when CP is heated. This study was designed to report the chemical content of an extensive series of CP seized samples and to demonstrate the stability (i...
March 13, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Rabab Kamel, Haidy Abbas, Mona El-Naa
Citalopram HCl (CH) is one of the few drugs which can be used safely in childhood psychiatric disorders. This study was focused on the preparation of interpenetrating polyelectrolytes nano-complexes (IPNC) to transform the hydrophilic carbohydrate polymers into an insoluble form. The IPNCs were loaded with CH to sustain its effect. The IPNC2 (composed of chitosan:pectin in a 3:1 ratio) showed the most extended drug release pattern (P < 0.05) and followed a Higuchi-order kinetics model. It was characterized using SEM, X-rays diffractometry, and FTIR...
March 12, 2018: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
Satoshi Kondo, Hiroyuki Kakihata, Yosuke Nishida, Yuko Furuno, Yumiko Kobayashi, Hidehiro Tabata, Makoto Nomura
We conducted a post-marketing observational study to investigate the safety and effectiveness of eldecalcitol for the treatment of osteoporosis in a Japanese clinical setting. The observation period was 12 months for women and 36 months for men. The final results for the female patients have already been published. In this article, the final results for the male patients are reported. A total of 470 male osteoporosis patients were enrolled. The safety analysis set included 431 patients (mean age, 76.8 years; mean ± SD follow-up period, 631...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
Talat Ghane, Nasim Zamani, Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam, Ali Beyrami, Alireza Noroozi
Objective: To describe an outbreak of lead poisoning among opium users in the Islamic Republic of Iran and estimate the number of affected people in the country. Methods: We used data from the country's largest poison treatment centre to illustrate the epidemiology of an outbreak of lead poisoning in oral opium users. We describe the government's referral and treatment guidelines in response to the outbreak. Based on the number of individuals treated and previous studies on the prevalence of oral opium use we estimated the total number of people at risk of lead-contaminated opium nationwide...
March 1, 2018: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
Greta Hsu, Jessica Y Sun, Shu-Hong Zhu
BACKGROUND: The electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) industry has grown in size and organizational complexity in recent years, most notably with the entry of major tobacco companies in 2012 and the proliferation of vape shops. Many brands maintain retail websites that present e-cigarette marketing claims and sell directly to consumers. Understanding of the evolving composition of different types of e-cigarette brand websites is currently underdeveloped. OBJECTIVE: This paper presents how e-cigarette brand websites surveyed in 2013-2014 evolved by 2016-2017, and how the websites run by different types of e-cigarette producers currently differ...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
J M Mercadé Cerdá, F J López Gonzalez, P Serrano Castro, M D Castro Vilanova, D M Campos Blanco, M R Querol Pascual
INTRODUCTION: The study aims to quantify the types of antiepileptic drugs (AED) prescribed in neurology consultations. MATERIAL AND METHOD: This descriptive, observational study included a sample of 559 patients older than 14 years, diagnosed with epilepsy, and receiving pharmacological treatment. Data were collected at outpatient consultations by 47 Spanish neurologists in May 2016. Epilepsy was defined based on the International League Against Epilepsy classification...
March 9, 2018: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
Torben Breindahl, Peter Hindersson, Peter Derek-Christian Leutscher, Andreas Kimergård
The emergence of an increasing number of new psychoactive substances (NPS) on the drug market requires a paradigm shift in drug testing. Immunoassay screening needs to be replaced with highly specific and sensitive analytical methods based on chromatography and mass spectrometry to produce accurate results, promote health and patient safety and collect data on the prevalence of NPS use, impact on public health and clinical aspects of NPS in Denmark. Development and implementation of new analytical methods currently present a major challenge for both clinical and forensic laboratories...
March 12, 2018: Ugeskrift for Laeger
Anders Helander, Katarina Stojanovic, Tomas Villén, Olof Beck
In recent time, structural variants of fentanyl ("designer fentanyls") have appeared on the recreational drug market for new psychoactive substances (NPS). These potent opioids have caused harmful intoxications and increased opioid related mortality in many countries. This work evaluated three commercial immunoassays for fentanyl screening in urine, and investigated whether they are useful also for screening of designer fentanyls. The assays examined were the Thermo DRI® Fentanyl Enzyme Immunoassay, the ARK™ Fentanyl Assay homogeneous enzyme immunoassay, and the Immunalysis® Fentanyl Urine SEFRIA™ Drug Screening Kit...
March 12, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Samson W Duresso, Allison J Matthews, Stuart G Ferguson, Raimondo Bruno
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the efficacy of the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS) as a screening tool for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition-defined khat use disorder. METHODS: Cross-sectional, purposive sample of past-year khat consumers aged 16 and above were recruited from khat markets and cafes from university and general community in Adama, Ethiopia. Participants self-completed a survey comprising current substance use disorder...
March 11, 2018: Human Psychopharmacology
Valerie Evans, Peter Roderick, Allyson M Pollock
There is growing national and international concern about the drug regulatory system in India. Parliamentary reports have highlighted the presence of high numbers of unapproved medicines and irrational combinations of both approved and unapproved drugs in the Indian market-place. Fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) are a peculiar feature of the Indian pharmaceutical landscape. Although metformin is a first-line treatment, FDCs for diabetes in India account for two-thirds of all diabetes medicine sales, and some have not been approved by the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSCO)...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Mototsugu Kato, Noriko Ito, Mamiko Demura, Kimitoshi Kubo, Katsuhiro Mabe, Naohiko Harada
Introduction: The first drug selected for treatment of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and prevention of the recurrence is a proton pump inhibitor (PPI), but recently, a potassium-competitive acid blocker (P-CAB) was put on the market in Japan. Its onset of effect is faster than PPI, and it takes more than 2 days to recover acid secretion after the withdrawal period. Therefore, unlike PPI, the usefulness of every other day administration or discontinuous administration is expected...
2018: BMJ Open Gastroenterology
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