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Olfactory ensheathing cells

Rosalia Pellitteri, Roberta Bonfanti, Michela Spatuzza, Maria Teresa Cambria, Mariacristina Ferrara, Giuseppina Raciti, Agata Campisi
Herein, we assessed in a particular glial cell type, called olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs), the effect of some growth factors (GFs) on tissue transglutaminase (TG2) overexpression induced by amyloid-beta (Aβ) with native full-length peptide 1-42 or by fragments, 25-35 or 35-25, as control. Previously, we demonstrated that TG2 overexpression induced by some stressors was down-regulated by GFs exposure in OECs. To monitor cell viability, an MTT test was used, while TG2 expression was examined using immunocytochemical and Western blot analysis...
October 18, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Rachelle T Hassarati, L John R Foster, Rylie A Green
The recent success of olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) assisted regeneration of injured spinal cord has seen a rising interest in the use of these cells in tissue-engineered systems. Previously shown to support neural cell growth through glial scar tissue, OECs have the potential to assist neural network formation in living electrode systems to produce superior neuroprosthetic electrode surfaces. The following study sought to understand the influence of biphasic electrical stimulation (ES), inherent to bionic devices, on cell survival and function, with respect to conventional metallic and developmental conductive hydrogel (CH) coated electrodes...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Ding-Jun Hao, Cuicui Liu, Lingling Zhang, Bo Chen, Qian Zhang, Rui Zhang, Jing An, Jingjing Zhao, Mingmei Wu, Yi Wang, Alfred Simental, Baorong He, Hao Yang
The gradual deterioration following central nervous system (CNS) injuries or neurodegenerative disorders is usually accompanied by infiltration of degenerated and apoptotic neural tissue debris. A rapid and efficient clearance of these deteriorated cell products is of pivotal importance in creating a permissive environment for regeneration of those damaged neurons. Our recent report revealed that the phagocytic activity of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) can make a substantial contribution to neuronal growth in such a hostile environment...
October 14, 2016: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Karen Oprych, Daniel Cotfas, David Choi
The in situ immunocytochemical properties of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) have been well studied in several small to medium sized animal models including rats, mice, guinea pigs, cats and canines. However, we know very little about the antigenic characteristics of OECs in situ within the adult and developing human olfactory bulb and nerve roots. To address this gap in knowledge we undertook an immunocytochemical analysis of the 11-19 pcw human foetal olfactory system. Human foetal OECs in situ possessed important differences compared to rodents in the expression of key surface markers...
October 7, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Camila Oliveira Goulart, Daniella de Freitas Pereira Ângelo Durço, Lítia Alves de Carvalho, Júlia Teixeira Oliveira, Lucinéia Alves, Leny A Cavalcante, Ana Maria Blanco Martinez
The regenerative potential of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) is widely known, but functional recovery, particularly in humans, is seldom complete. Therefore, it is necessary to resort to strategies that induce or potentiate the PNS regeneration. Our main objective was to test the effectiveness of Olfactory Ensheathing Cells (OEC) transplantation into a biodegradable conduit as a therapeutic strategy to improve the repair outcome after nerve injury. Sciatic nerve transection was performed in C57BL/6 mice; proximal and distal stumps of the nerve were sutured into the collagen conduit...
November 1, 2016: Brain Research
Frank Cloutier, Tomas Kalincik, Jenny Lauschke, Gervase Tuxworth, Brenton Cavanagh, Adrian Meediniya, Alan Mackay-Sim, Pascal Carrive, Phil Waite
Autonomic dysreflexia is a common complication after high level spinal cord injury and can be life-threatening. We have previously shown that the acute transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells into the lesion site of rats transected at the fourth thoracic spinal cord level reduced autonomic dysreflexia up to 8weeks after spinal cord injury. This beneficial effect was correlated with changes in the morphology of sympathetic preganglionic neurons despite the olfactory cells surviving no longer than 3weeks...
August 24, 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Paul O'Neill, Susan L Lindsay, Andreea Pantiru, Scott E Guimond, Nitish Fagoe, Joost Verhaagen, Jeremy E Turnbull, John S Riddell, Susan C Barnett
Schwann cell (SC) transplantation following spinal cord injury (SCI) may have therapeutic potential. Functional recovery is limited however, due to poor SC interactions with host astrocytes and the induction of astrogliosis. Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) are closely related to SCs, but intermix more readily with astrocytes in culture and induce less astrogliosis. We previously demonstrated that OECs express higher levels of sulfatases, enzymes that remove 6-O-sulfate groups from heparan sulphate proteoglycans, than SCs and that RNAi knockdown of sulfatase prevented OEC-astrocyte mixing in vitro...
August 18, 2016: Glia
Ying Wang, Hong-Lin Teng, Yuan Gao, Fan Zhang, Yu-Qiang Ding, Zhi-Hui Huang
Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) are a unique type of glial cells with axonal growth-promoting properties in the olfactory system. Organized migration of OECs is essential for neural regeneration and olfactory development. However, the molecular mechanism of OEC migration remains unclear. In the present study, we examined the effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on OEC migration. Initially, the "scratch" migration assay, the inverted coverslip and Boyden chamber migration assays showed that BDNF could promote the migration of primary cultured OECs...
August 18, 2016: Glia
Eduardo D Gomes, Sofia S Mendes, Hugo Leite-Almeida, Jeffrey M Gimble, Roger Y Tam, Molly S Shoichet, Nuno Sousa, Nuno A Silva, António J Salgado
Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) is a highly incapacitating condition for which there is still no cure. Current clinical approaches are mainly based on palliative care, so there is a need to find possible treatments to SCI. Cellular transplantation is regarded with great expectation due to the therapeutic potential of cells such as Adipose tissue-derived Stromal/Stem Cells (ASCs) or Olfactory Ensheathing Cells (OECs). Both are accessible sources and present positive paracrine and cell-to-cell interactions, previously reported by our group...
October 2016: Biomaterials
Tao Jiang, Li-fa Huang, Shui-jing Zhou, Jian-jun Cui, Qiang Ye
OBJECTIVE: To observe cerebral protective effect of muscone (nasal administration) on traumatic brain injury model rats. METHODS: SD rats were divided into the sham-operation group, the model group, and the treatment groups according to random digit table, 50 in each group. Traumatic brain injury model was established by controlled cortical strike. Rats in the sham-operation group received surgery and anesthesia procedures only, with no strike. Muscone (1.8 mg/kg) was delivered to rats in the treatment group using in situ nasal perfusion, 30 min each time, twice daily for 7 successive days...
June 2016: Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine
Darren Carwardine, Liang-Fong Wong, James W Fawcett, Elizabeth M Muir, Nicolas Granger
A multitude of factors must be overcome following spinal cord injury (SCI) in order to achieve clinical improvement in patients. It is thought that by combining promising therapies these diverse factors could be combatted with the aim of producing an overall improvement in function. Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs) present in the glial scar that forms following SCI present a significant block to axon regeneration. Digestion of CSPGs by chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) leads to axon regeneration, neuronal plasticity and functional improvement in preclinical models of SCI...
August 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Ahmed Munaz, Raja K Vadivelu, James A St John, Nam-Trung Nguyen
Understanding the process of fusion of olfactory ensheathing cell spheroids will lead to improvement of cell transplantation therapies to repair spinal cord injuries. The successful fusion of transplanted spheroids will enable alternative transplantation strategies to be developed for in vivo applications. This paper describes the use of a microfluidic device to trap and fuse olfactory ensheathing cell spheroids. The velocity, the pressure distribution in the device were simulated numerically to predict the trapping location...
August 7, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Johana Tello Velasquez, Rebecca-Qing Yao, Filip Lim, Chunguang Han, Makoto Ojika, Jenny A K Ekberg, Ronald J Quinn, James A St John
Linckosides are members of the steroid glycoside family isolated from the starfish Linckia laevigata. These natural compounds have notable neuritogenic activity and synergistic effects on NGF-induced neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells. Neurogenic factors or molecules that are able to mimic their activities are known to be involved in the survival, proliferation and migration of neurons and glial cells; however how glial cells respond to specific neurogenic molecules such as linckosides has not been investigated...
September 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Rana R Khankan, Khris G Griffis, James R Haggerty-Skeans, Hui Zhong, Roland R Roy, V Reggie Edgerton, Patricia E Phelps
UNLABELLED: Multiple neural and peripheral cell types rapidly respond to tissue damage after spinal cord injury to form a structurally and chemically inhibitory scar that limits axon regeneration. Astrocytes form an astroglial scar and produce chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), activate microglia, and recruit blood-derived immune cells to the lesion for debris removal. One beneficial therapy, olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) transplantation, results in functional improvements and promotes axon regeneration after spinal cord injury...
June 8, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Sophie R Miller, Surangi N Perera, Cristina Benito, Simon R W Stott, Clare V H Baker
Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) are a unique glial population found in both the peripheral and central nervous system: they ensheath bundles of unmyelinated olfactory axons from their peripheral origin in the olfactory epithelium to their central synaptic targets in the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb. Like all other peripheral glia (Schwann cells, satellite glia, enteric glia), OECs are derived from the embryonic neural crest. However, in contrast to Schwann cells, whose development has been extensively characterised, relatively little is known about their normal development in vivo...
September 2016: Journal of Anatomy
Iona Novak, Karen Walker, Rod W Hunt, Euan M Wallace, Michael Fahey, Nadia Badawi
UNLABELLED: : Evidence for stem cells as a potential intervention for cerebral palsy is emerging. Our objective was to determine the efficacy and safety of stem cells for improving motor and cognitive function of people with cerebral palsy. Searches were conducted in October 2015 in CENTRAL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Libraries. Randomized controlled trials and controlled clinical trials of stem cells for cerebral palsy were included. Two authors independently decided upon included trials, extracted data, quality, and risk of bias...
August 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Ralf Watzlawick, Julian Rind, Emily S Sena, Benedikt Brommer, Tian Zhang, Marcel A Kopp, Ulrich Dirnagl, Malcolm R Macleod, David W Howells, Jan M Schwab
Olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) transplantation is a candidate cellular treatment approach for human spinal cord injury (SCI) due to their unique regenerative potential and autologous origin. The objective of this study was, through a meta-epidemiologic approach, (i) to assess the efficacy of OEC transplantation on locomotor recovery after traumatic experimental SCI and (ii) to estimate the likelihood of reporting bias and/or missing data. A study protocol was finalized before data collection. Embedded into a systematic review and meta-analysis, we conducted a literature research of databases including PubMed, EMBASE, and ISI Web of Science from 1949/01 to 2014/10 with no language restrictions, screened by two independent investigators...
May 2016: PLoS Biology
Qi Dai, Zhicun Zhang, Quan Liu, Hongmeng Yu
CONCLUSIONS: Transplantation of OECs into the cochlea may protect and increase the survival of SGCs. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the protective effect of the transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) on injured spiral ganglion cells (SGCs) in rats. METHODS: OECs were transplanted into the cochlea in rats with SGCs that were injured by kanamycin sulfate (KM). An equal volume of D-Hanks was injected into the cochlea of control rats...
May 26, 2016: Acta Oto-laryngologica
Aimee Goel
Spinal cord injury (SCI) remains one of the most physically, psychologically and socially debilitating conditions worldwide. While rehabilitation measures may help limit disability to some extent, there is no effective primary treatment yet available. The efficacy of stem cells as a primary therapeutic option in spinal cord injury is currently an area under much scrutiny and debate. Several laboratory and some primary clinical studies into the use of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells or embryonic stem cell-derived oligodentrocyte precursor cells have shown some promising results in terms of remyelination and regeneration of damaged spinal nerve tracts...
April 2016: Journal of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine
Kamble Harshad, Myeongjun Jun, Sungsu Park, Matthew J Barton, Raja K Vadivelu, James St John, Nam-Trung Nguyen
Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) are primary candidates for cell transplantation therapy to repair spinal cord injury (SCI). However, the post transplantation survival of these cells remains a major hurdle for a success using this therapy. Mechanical stimuli may contribute to the maintenance of these cells and thus, mechanotransduction studies of OECs may serve as a key benefit to identify strategies for improvement in cell transplantation. We developed an electromagnetic cell stretching device based on a single sided uniaxial stretching approach to apply tensile strain to OECs in culture...
June 2016: Biomedical Microdevices
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