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Tara H Abraham
As American psychiatrists moved from the asylum to the private clinic during the early twentieth century, psychiatry acquired a growing presence within medical school curricula. This shift in disciplinary status took place at a time when medical education itself was experiencing a period of reform. By examining medical school registers at Harvard University, records from the Dean's office of Harvard's medical school, and oral histories, this paper examines the rise in prominence of psychiatry in medical education...
April 16, 2018: Canadian Bulletin of Medical History, Bulletin Canadien D'histoire de la Médecine
Emily Brennan, Megan Bayly, Michelle Scollo, Meghan Zacher, Melanie A Wakefield
Background: Implementation of tobacco plain packaging (PP) in Australia in December 2012 was associated with significant reductions in the percentage of patrons at outdoor cafés observed to be displaying tobacco packs and actively smoking, immediately post-implementation and 1 year later. This study examines whether these positive effects were sustained through to 2 years post-PP. Methods: An observational study conducted at cafés, restaurants and bars with outdoor seating in Melbourne, Australia documented the number of: patrons; patrons actively smoking; tobacco packs on display; orientation and type of displayed packs and whether or not children were present...
March 27, 2018: European Journal of Public Health
Victor O Lasebikan, Olatunde Ayinde, Mayokun Odunleye, Babajide Adeyefa, Samson Adepoju, Shina Fakunle
BACKGROUND: There is a rapid shift in the social context of drinking, with a large proportion of regular drinkers favouring outdoor-open space drinking, such as motor-parks, by the road sides, the majority of which are unlicensed premises for drinking. METHOD: This study determined the prevalence and determinants of harmful or hazardous alcohol use and possible dependence, defined as a "likely alcohol use disorder" (AUD) in a community sample of 1119 patrons of open space drinking places in Ibadan, Nigeria, using the AUDIT...
March 27, 2018: BMC Public Health
Jacob G Sorbello, Grant J Devilly, Corey Allen, Lee R J Hughes, Kathleen Brown
Background: Several field studies have used fuel-cell breathalysers (FCB) to investigate the prevalence of alcohol intoxication. However, there is a lack of evidence evaluating the psychometric properties of these breathalysers outside of the forensic disciplines. Methods: The current research describes four studies designed that assess the reliability and validity of portable platinum FCBs for research on alcohol intoxication. Utilising the Alcolizer LE5 breathalyser and, to a lesser degree, the Lifeloc FC-20 and the Lion Intoxilyzer 8000, each study sampled patrons frequenting popular night-time entertainment districts with varying levels of alcohol intoxication...
2018: PeerJ
Zara Quigg, Karen Hughes, Nadia Butler, Kat Ford, Ian Canning, Mark A Bellis
AIMS: To estimate the association between implementation of a community-based multi-component intervention (Drink Less Enjoy More) and sales of alcohol to pseudo-intoxicated patrons and nightlife patron awareness of associated legislation. DESIGN: Cross-sectional pre-intervention and follow-up measurements including alcohol test purchases (using pseudo-intoxicated patrons) in licensed premises (stratified random sample; 2013, 2015) and a survey with nightlife patrons (convenience sample; 2014, 2015)...
March 25, 2018: Addiction
Matt Luther, Fergus Gardiner, Shane Lenson, David Caldicott, Ryan Harris, Ryan Sabet, Mark Malloy, Jo Perkins
Specific Event Identifiers a. Event type: Outdoor music festival. b. Event onset date: December 3, 2016. c. Location of event: Regatta Point, Commonwealth Park. d. Geographical coordinates: Canberra, Australian Capital Territory (ACT), Australia (-35.289002, 149.131957, 600m). e. Dates and times of observation in latitude, longitude, and elevation: December 3, 2016, 11:00-23:00. f. Response type: Event medical support. Abstract Introduction Young adult patrons are vulnerable to risk-taking behavior, including drug taking, at outdoor music festivals...
April 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Katherine A Prentice, Erica K Argyropoulos
The objective of this article is to describe the recent space and furniture utilization study conducted through direct observation at the small, academic-centered Schusterman Library. Student workers from the library's reference desk monitored two semesters of use and went on to observe a third semester after electrical power upgrades were installed. Extensive use details were collected about where library patrons sat during which parts of the day, and certain areas of the library were ultimately identified as much more active than others...
April 2018: Medical Reference Services Quarterly
Alexandra Pitman
Analyses of population-based registers provide evidence to support an increased risk of suicide and mental illness after the suicide of a relative or partner. This editorial explores the implications of this work for progressing recommendations made in suicide prevention strategies regarding the specific support provided to people bereaved by suicide. Declaration of interest A.P. served on the Public Health England expert reference committee contributing to local guidance on commissioning and delivering postvention support (Public Health England, 2016...
April 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Lisanne M Jenkins, Kristy A Skerrett, Sophie R DelDonno, Víctor G Patrón, Kortni K Meyers, Scott Peltier, Jon-Kar Zubieta, Scott A Langenecker, Monica N Starkman
We investigated the ability of preferred classical music to activate the nucleus accumbens in patients with Major depressive disorder (MDD). Twelve males with MDD and 10 never mentally ill male healthy controls (HC) completed measures of anhedonia and depression severity, and listened to 90-second segments of preferred classical music during fMRI. Compared to HCs, individuals with MDD showed less activation of the left nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Individuals with MDD showed attenuation of the left NAcc response in later compared to earlier parts of the experiment, supporting theories that MDD involves an inability to sustain reward network activation...
March 5, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Larisa J Geskin, James J Damiano, Christina C Patrone, Lisa H Butterfield, John M Kirkwood, Louis D Falo
In the current era of checkpoint inhibitors, some patients with metastatic melanoma have shown a significant improvement in survival. However, optimization of immunotherapy is an ongoing effort. Monocyte-derived dendritic cell (MODC) vaccines have been shown in clinical trials to be safe and capable of inducing tumor-specific immunity as well as occasional objective clinical responses. Here, we conducted a three-arm pilot clinical study in 15 patients with metastatic melanoma to evaluate three types of MODC vaccines, differing only by strategies of tumor antigen delivery...
March 14, 2018: Melanoma Research
Ronald G Victor, Kathleen Lynch, Ning Li, Ciantel Blyler, Eric Muhammad, Joel Handler, Jeffrey Brettler, Mohamad Rashid, Brent Hsu, Davontae Foxx-Drew, Norma Moy, Anthony E Reid, Robert M Elashoff
Background Uncontrolled hypertension is a major problem among non-Hispanic black men, who are underrepresented in pharmacist intervention trials in traditional health care settings. Methods We enrolled a cohort of 319 black male patrons with systolic blood pressure of 140 mm Hg or more from 52 black-owned barbershops (nontraditional health care setting) in a cluster-randomized trial in which barbershops were assigned to a pharmacist-led intervention (in which barbers encouraged meetings in barbershops with specialty-trained pharmacists who prescribed drug therapy under a collaborative practice agreement with the participants' doctors) or to an active control approach (in which barbers encouraged lifestyle modification and doctor appointments)...
March 12, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
Kristin Buvik, Elin K Bye, Johanna Gripenberg
AIMS: There is increased concern about the use of alcohol and illicit drugs in nightlife settings. Most studies of substance use in nightlife settings are from the patrons' perspective, which leaves an understudied population - the nightclub staff. The aim of this paper is to study self-reported alcohol and substance use among staff at licensed premises in Norway: types of illicit drugs used, attitudes towards drugs, and observed drug use among patrons. METHODS: A survey was conducted at server-training courses in 20 different cities in Norway during 2015...
March 1, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
Lydia Aziato, Cephas N Omenyo
BACKGROUND: Prior to the advent of modern obstetric services, traditional birth attendants (TBAs) have rendered services to pregnant women and women in labour for a long time. Although it is anticipated that women in contemporary societies will give birth in hospitals and clinics, some women still patronize the services of TBAs. The study therefore sought to gain an in-depth understanding of the initiation of TBAs and their traditional and spiritual practices employed during pregnancy and childbirth in Ghana...
March 7, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Victor O Lasebikan, Olatunde Ayinde, Mayokun Odunleye
BACKGROUND: There are indications that drinking in outdoor bars, such as at motor-parks, by the roadsides or street corners have become popular in Nigeria. METHOD: Three sets of qualitative assessments were carried out from three outdoor bars, randomly selected from 22 of such in Ibadan, Nigeria. The main sources of data were by direct observation and focus group discussion (FGD), conducted by a non-probabilistic sample of outdoor bar drinkers, alcohol vendors and from community members...
March 6, 2018: BMC Public Health
Christopher M Altman, Nadja Schreiber Compo, Dawn McQuiston, Angelica V Hagsand, Jiselle Cervera
Research on alcohol and witness memory has burgeoned over the last decade. However, most studies have tested participants at relatively low breath alcohol concentration (BAC) levels, unrepresentative of those encountered by officers in the field. To examine how higher intoxication levels might impair witness memory for events and faces, the current research tested participants' ability to recall a mock crime at elevated BAC levels (>.08%). The BAC levels of bar patrons (N = 138) were recorded before witnessing a video-taped mock crime...
March 4, 2018: Memory
Luis Gustavo A Patrone, Vivian Biancardi, Danuzia A Marques, Kênia C Bícego, Luciane H Gargaglioni
The respiratory network undergoes significant development during the postnatal phase, including the maturation of the catecholaminergic (CA) system. However, postnatal development of this network and its effect on the control of pulmonary ventilation (V̇E ), is not fully understood. We investigated the involvement of brainstem CA neurones in respiratory control during postnatal (P) development (P7-8, P14-15 and P20-21), in male and female rats, through chemical injury with conjugated saporin anti-dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DβH-SAP)...
February 25, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Grazyna Lietzau, William Davidsson, Claes-Göran Östenson, Fausto Chiazza, David Nathanson, Hiranya Pintana, Josefin Skogsberg, Thomas Klein, Thomas Nyström, Vladimer Darsalia, Cesare Patrone
Recent data suggest that olfactory deficits could represent an early marker and a pathogenic mechanism at the basis of cognitive decline in type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, research is needed to further characterize olfactory deficits in diabetes, their relation to cognitive decline and underlying mechanisms.The aim of this study was to determine whether T2D impairs odour detection, olfactory memory as well as neuroplasticity in two major brain areas responsible for olfaction and odour coding: the main olfactory bulb (MOB) and the piriform cortex (PC), respectively...
February 23, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Felipe Benavente-Villegas, Tania Díaz-Corpas, María García-Briz, Lya Moneva-Léniz, José Sánchez-Motilla, Amelia Prats-Máñez, Amparo Fuertes-Prosper, Pilar Soriano-Sarrió
La práctica de tatuajes tienen más de 8000 años de antigüedad, existiendo un incremento continuo en la sociedad occidental en las últimos 3 décadas La introducción de una sustancia exógena en la pielpuede provocar una respuesta inmunológica en su contra, estando descritas reacciones cutáneas por hipersensibilidad a una variedad de pigmentos, las que se limitan al área de un determinado color,atribuyéndose a los materiales inyectados. El color más reportado en la literatura es el rojo, que tradicionalmente se confeccionaban a base dederivados del mercurio (cinabrio)...
January 15, 2018: Dermatology Online Journal
Vladimer Darsalia, Martin Larsson, Thomas Klein, Cesare Patrone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 21, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
Claudia M Carlini, Zila M Sanchez
BACKGROUND: Nightclubs are venues in which excessive alcohol use and illegal drug consumption occur in addition to other high-risk behaviors, such as violence and sexual risk behaviors. Environmental factors common in nightclubs and the personal characteristics of patrons might increase the risk of these events. To better understand the relationship between these factors, typologies were formulated that clustered nightclubs according to definite profiles to identify differences to be taken into consideration in preventive interventions...
February 21, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
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