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Zabiholah Zarei, Mehdi Mohebali, Khadijeh Khanaliha, Eshrat Beigom Kia, Afsaneh Motevalli Haghi, Zahra Heidari, Tahereh Rezaeian, Mostafa Rezaeian
Background: Trichomonas muris is one of the most common protozoa diagnosed in rodents. The trichomonads are generally described as presenting only trophozoite form while pseudocyst is another morphological form of trichomonads identified among gastrointestinal and genitourinary trichomonads. We identified and described different shapes of T. muris pseudocysts and trophozoite in stool samples were collected from rodents including Merinos persicus , Mus musculus and Cricetulus migratorius ...
May 2018: Iranian Journal of Public Health
Julian Sartori, Sebastian Köhring, Hartmut Witte, Martin S Fischer, Markus Löffler
The whole-organ, three-dimensional microstructure of murine Achilles tendon entheses was visualized with micro-computed tomography (microCT). Contrast-enhancement was achieved either by staining with phosphotungstic acid (PTA) or by a combination of cell-maceration, demineralization and critical-point drying with low tube voltages and propagation-based phase-contrast (fibrous structure scan). By PTA-staining, X-ray absorption of the enthesial soft tissues became sufficiently high to segment the tendon and measure cross-sectional areas along its course...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Axel Sauter, Harald Breivik
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Max Franz, Harold Rodriguez, Christian Lopes, Khalid Zuberi, Jason Montojo, Gary D Bader, Quaid Morris
GeneMANIA ( is a flexible user-friendly web site for generating hypotheses about gene function, analyzing gene lists and prioritizing genes for functional assays. Given a query gene list, GeneMANIA finds functionally similar genes using a wealth of genomics and proteomics data. In this mode, it weights each functional genomic dataset according to its predictive value for the query. Another use of GeneMANIA is gene function prediction. Given a single query gene, GeneMANIA finds genes likely to share function with it based on their interactions with it...
June 15, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Yongfeng Deng, Yan Zhang, Ruxia Qiao, Melvin M Bonilla, Xiaoliang Yang, Hongqiang Ren, Bernardo Lemos
This study was performed to reveal the health risks of co-exposure to organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) and microplastics (MPs). We exposed mice to polyethylene (PE) and polystyrene (PS) MPs and OPFRs [tris (2-chloroethy) phosphate (TCEP) and tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP)] for 90 days. Biochemical markers and metabolomics were used to determine whether MPs could enhance the toxicity of OPFRs. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) increased (p < 0.05) by 21% and 26% respectively in 10 μg/L TDCPP + PE group compared to TDCPP group...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
John M David, Xian Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 12, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
Syed Aoun Ali, Deeba N Baig
Ezrin, Radixin and Moesin (ERM) are critical membranous component involved in cross-linking of actin filaments. Moesin (Msn) is recognized as a pivotal protein involved in regulation of cell signalling events associated with the maintenance of epithelial integrity, actin organization and polarity. Radixin (Rad) is known to cell-to-cell adherens junction as a barbed end-capping protein whereas ezrin (Ezr) is recognized at cell adhesion, motility, apoptosis and phagocytosis. The current study for the first time reports the transcriptional and RNA secondary structural variations among brain-specific ERM genes...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Malcolm Maden
The spiny mouse, Acomys cahirinus, shows remarkable regenerative abilities after excisional skin wounding by regrowing hair, sebaceous glands, smooth muscle, skeletal muscle and dermis without scarring. We have asked here whether this same regeneration can be seen after full thickness thermal burn injuries. Using a brass rod thermal injury model we show that in contrast to the lab mouse, Mus musculus, which forms a thick scar covered by a hairless epidermis, the spiny mouse regenerates all the tissues injured - skeletal muscle, dermis, hairs, sebaceous glands such that the skin is externally indistinguishable from its original appearance...
June 11, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
Uros Midic, Kailey A Vincent, Kai Wang, Alyson Lokken, Ashley L Severance, Amy Ralston, Jason G Knott, Keith E Latham
Structural maintenance of chromosome flexible domain containing 1 (Smchd1) is a chromatin regulatory gene for which mutations are associated with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy and arhinia. The contribution of oocyte- and zygote-expressed SMCHD1 to early development was examined in mice (Mus musculus) using an siRNA knockdown approach. Smchd1 knockdown compromised long-term embryo viability, with reduced embryo nuclear volumes at the morula stage, reduced blastocyst cell number, formation and hatching, and reduced viability to term...
June 13, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Maria de Lurdes Pinto, Paula Rodrigues
Histological analysis of mouse embryos, fetuses, or newborns remains one the most common methods and in some cases the "gold standard" used in teratology studies to detect abnormal morphogenesis during development. Histochemistry methods are based on the selectivity of certain chemical compounds for certain cellular or tissue components, several of them related to specific maturation processes. In this chapter, specific histochemistry techniques that allow for the monitoring of critical stages of tissue and organ formation, such as skeleton and muscle differentiation, neuronal maturation, neuronal connectivity, and neurodevelopment after teratogenic exposure are described in detail...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Yulia Irnidayanti, Win Darmanto, Dias R Sutiono
A broad range of research must be answered in order to gain a complete understanding of the histological and histochemical profile of teratological exposure in Mus musculus. Continued research is needed to track patterns of teratogen effects on the DNA expression of the embryonic brain and its variation impact. An important technique used in cell and molecular biology is Western blotting. By using a Western blot analysis and immunostaining, researchers are able to predict embryotoxicity in Mus musculus. The method uses three elements to accomplish this task: (1) Nonspecific antibody binding to a nitrocellulose membrane, (2) an incubation using a primary antibody, and (3) the antigen-antibody reaction using a secondary antibody...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Sofia Alves-Pimenta, Bruno Colaço, Paula A Oliveira, Carlos Venâncio
During pregnancy fetus can be exposed to a variety of chemicals which may induce abortion and malformations. Due to the amounts of new substances coming into the market every year, a high demand for a rapid, reliable, and cost-effective method to detect potential toxicity is necessary. Different species have been used as animal models for teratogen screening, most of them sharing similar development processes with humans. However, the application of embryology knowledge to teratology is hampered by the complexity of the reproduction processes...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Dagmar Čížková, Stuart J E Baird, Jana Těšíková, Sebastian Voigt, Ďureje Ľudovít, Jaroslav Piálek, Joëlle Goüy de Bellocq
Murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) has been reported from house mice (Mus musculus) worldwide, but only recently from Eastern house mice (M. m. musculus), of particular interest because they form a semi-permeable species barrier in Europe with Western house mice, M. m. domesticus. Here we report genome sequences of EastMCMV (from Eastern mice), and set these in the context of MCMV genomes from genus Mus hosts. We show EastMCMV and WestMCMV are genetically distinct. Phylogeny splitting analyses show a genome wide (94%) pattern consistent with no West-East introgression, the major exception (3...
June 9, 2018: Virology
Stephanie K Courtney Jones, Adam J Munn, Phillip G Byrne
Captive breeding programmes are increasingly relied upon for threatened species management. Changes in morphology can occur in captivity, often with unknown consequences for reintroductions. Few studies have examined the morphological changes that occur in captive animals compared with wild animals. Further, the effect of multiple generations being maintained in captivity, and the potential effects of captivity on sexual dimorphism remain poorly understood. We compared external and internal morphology of captive and wild animals using house mouse ( Mus musculus ) as a model species...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Malcolm Maden, Jason Orr Brant, Andres Rubiano, Aaron Gabriel W Sandoval, Chelsey Simmons, Robert Mitchell, Henry Collin-Hooper, Jason Jacobson, Saleh Omairi, Ketan Patel
The spiny mouse, Acomys cahirinus, is an adult mammal capable of remarkable feats of scar-free tissue regeneration after damage to several organs including the skin and the heart. Here we investigate the regenerative properties of the skeletal muscle of A. cahirinus tibialis anterior in comparison to the lab mouse, Mus musculus. The A. cahirinus TA showed a similar distribution of myosin heavy chain fibre types and a reduced proportion of oxidative fibres compared to M. musculus. There were differences in the matrix components of the TA with regard to collagen VI and the biomechanical properties...
June 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yixin Liu, Heidi Kaljunen, Ana Pavić, Tuulia Saarenpää, Juha P Himanen, Dimitar B Nikolov, Adrian Goldman
Eph/Ephrin signaling pathways are crucial in regulating a large variety of physiological processes during development, such as cell morphology, proliferation, migration and axonal guidance. EphrinA (efn-A) ligands, in particular, can be activated by EphA receptors at cell-cell interfaces and have been proposed to cause reverse signaling via RET receptor tyrosine kinase. Such association has been reported to mediate spinal motor axon navigation, but conservation of the interactive signaling pathway and the molecular mechanism of the interaction are unclear...
2018: PloS One
Jakob Voelkl, Trang Td Luong, Rashad Tuffaha, Katharina Musculus, Tilman Auer, Xiaoming Lian, Christoph Daniel, Daniel Zickler, Beate Boehme, Michael Sacherer, Bernhard Metzler, Dietmar Kuhl, Maik Gollasch, Kerstin Amann, Dominik N Müller, Burkert Pieske, Florian Lang, Ioana Alesutan
Medial vascular calcification, associated with enhanced mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD), is fostered by osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Here, we describe that serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1) was upregulated in VSMCs under calcifying conditions. In primary human aortic VSMCs, overexpression of constitutively active SGK1S422D, but not inactive SGK1K127N, upregulated osteo-/chondrogenic marker expression and activity, effects pointing to increased osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Fitya S Mozar, Ezharul Hoque Chowdhury
pH sensitives carbonate apatite (CA) has emerged as a targeted delivery vehicle for chemotherapeutics agent with tremendous potential to increase the effectivity of breast cancer treatment. The major challenge for intravenous delivery of drug-incorporated nanoparticles is their rapid opsonisation, resulting in accumulation within the organs of reticuloendothelial system (RES), such as liver and spleen. Therefore, surface modification by polyethylene glycol (PEG) was implemented in order to improve the half-life of drug-particles complexes and enhance their uptake by target tissues...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Hikari Myoshu, Masahiro A Iwasa
To evaluate the colonization histories of the Japanese house mice (Mus musculus), phenotypic and genotypic admixtures of the subspecific traits were studied by evaluation of external body characteristics and mitochondrial gene elements. We analyzed mitochondrial Cytb gene and coat colorations and body dimensions as subspecific characteristics in mice from four areas of the Japanese Islands, the Sorachi, Ishikari and Iburi areas of Hokkaido, the Hidaka area of Hokkaido, and northeastern and central Honshu. Three occurrence patterns of the subspecific haplotypes of Cytb-the castaneus type only, the musculus type only, and the castaneus, musculus, and domesticus types together-were observed in the study areas...
June 2018: Zoological Science
Heung-Chul Kim, Won-Keun Kim, Jin Sun No, Seung-Ho Lee, Se Hun Gu, Sung-Tae Chong, Terry A Klein, Jin-Won Song
Rodent-borne pathogens pose a critical public health threat in urban areas. An epidemiological survey of urban rodents was conducted from 2006 to 2010 at the U.S. Army Garrison (USAG), Seoul, Republic of Korea (ROK), to determine the prevalence of Seoul virus (SEOV), a rodent-borne hantavirus. A total of 1,950 rodents were captured at USAG, Yongsan, near/in 19.4% (234/1,206) of the numbered buildings. Annual mean rodent infestation rates were the highest for food service facilities, e.g., the Dragon Hill Lodge complex (38...
June 4, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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