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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441645/short-telomeres-induce-p53-and-autophagy-and-modulate-age-associated-changes-in-cardiac-progenitor-cell-fate
#1
Collin Matsumoto, Yan Jiang, Jacqueline Emathinger, Pearl Quijada, Nathalie Nguyen, Andrea De La Torre, Maryam Moshref, Jonathan Nguyen, Aimee B Levinson, Minyoung Shin, Mark A Sussman, Nirmala Hariharan
Aging severely limits myocardial repair and regeneration. Delineating the impact of age-associated factors such as short telomeres is critical to enhance the regenerative potential of cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs). We hypothesized that short telomeres activate p53 and induce autophagy to elicit the age-associated change in CPC fate. We isolated CPCs and compared mouse strains with different telomere lengths for phenotypic characteristics of aging. Wild mouse strain Mus musculus castaneus (CAST) possessing short telomeres exhibits early cardiac aging with cardiac dysfunction, hypertrophy, fibrosis and senescence, as compared to common lab strains FVB and C57 bearing longer telomeres...
February 14, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422486/evaluating-the-functional-outcomes-of-ultrasound-guided-botulinum-toxin-type-a-injections-using-the-euro-musculus-approach-for-upper-limb-spasticity-treatment-in-post-stroke-patients-an-observational-study
#2
Raikan Buyukavci, Semra Akturk, Yüksel Ersoy
BACKGROUND: Ultrasound-guided botulinum toxin type A injection is an effective treatment for spasticity. Euro-musculus spasticity approach is a new method for administering injections to the correct point of the correct muscle. The clinical outcomes of this practical approach is not yet available in the literature. AIM: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects on spasticity and the functional outcomes of ultrasound guided botulinum toxin type A injections via the Euro-musculus spasticity approach to treat upper limb spasticity in post-stroke patients...
February 7, 2018: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420797/octopus-toolkit-a-workflow-to-automate-mining-of-public-epigenomic-and-transcriptomic-next-generation-sequencing-data
#3
Taemook Kim, Hogyu David Seo, Lothar Hennighausen, Daeyoup Lee, Keunsoo Kang
Octopus-toolkit is a stand-alone application for retrieving and processing large sets of next-generation sequencing (NGS) data with a single step. Octopus-toolkit is an automated set-up-and-analysis pipeline utilizing the Aspera, SRA Toolkit, FastQC, Trimmomatic, HISAT2, STAR, Samtools, and HOMER applications. All the applications are installed on the user's computer when the program starts. Upon the installation, it can automatically retrieve original files of various epigenomic and transcriptomic data sets, including ChIP-seq, ATAC-seq, DNase-seq, MeDIP-seq, MNase-seq and RNA-seq, from the gene expression omnibus data repository...
February 6, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416113/cryo-electron-tomography-reveals-that-dynactin-recruits-a-team-of-dyneins-for-processive-motility
#4
Danielle A Grotjahn, Saikat Chowdhury, Yiru Xu, Richard J McKenney, Trina A Schroer, Gabriel C Lander
Cytoplasmic dynein is a protein complex that transports molecular cargo along microtubules (MTs), playing a key role in the intracellular trafficking network. Vertebrate dynein's movement becomes strikingly enhanced upon interacting with dynactin and a cargo adaptor such as BicaudalD2. However, the mechanisms responsible for increased transport activity are not well understood, largely owing to limited structural information. We used cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) to visualize the 3D structure of the MT-bound dynein-dynactin complex from Mus musculus and show that the dynactin-cargo adaptor complex binds two dimeric dyneins...
February 7, 2018: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414377/photons-and-foraging-artificial-light-at-night-generates-avoidance-behaviour-in-male-but-not-female-new-zealand-weta
#5
Bridgette Farnworth, John Innes, Catherine Kelly, Ray Littler, Joseph R Waas
Avoiding foraging under increased predation risk is a common anti-predator behaviour. Using artificial light to amplify predation risk at ecologically valuable sites has been proposed to deter introduced mice (Mus musculus) and ship rats (Rattus rattus) from degrading biodiversity in island ecosystems. However, light may adversely affect native species; in particular, little is known about invertebrate responses to altered lighting regimes. We investigated how endemic orthopterans responded to artificial light at Maungatautari Ecological Island (Waikato, New Zealand)...
January 26, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410806/from-conservation-genetics-to-conservation-genomics-a-genome-wide-assessment-of-blue-whales-balaenoptera-musculus-in%C3%A2-australian-feeding-aggregations
#6
Catherine R M Attard, Luciano B Beheregaray, Jonathan Sandoval-Castillo, K Curt S Jenner, Peter C Gill, Micheline-Nicole M Jenner, Margaret G Morrice, Luciana M Möller
Genetic datasets of tens of markers have been superseded through next-generation sequencing technology with genome-wide datasets of thousands of markers. Genomic datasets improve our power to detect low population structure and identify adaptive divergence. The increased population-level knowledge can inform the conservation management of endangered species, such as the blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus). In Australia, there are two known feeding aggregations of the pygmy blue whale (B. m. brevicauda) which have shown no evidence of genetic structure based on a small dataset of 10 microsatellites and mtDNA...
January 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410804/the-genomic-ancestry-landscape-genetics-and-invasion-history-of-introduced-mice-in-new-zealand
#7
Andrew J Veale, James C Russell, Carolyn M King
The house mouse (Mus musculus) provides a fascinating system for studying both the genomic basis of reproductive isolation, and the patterns of human-mediated dispersal. New Zealand has a complex history of mouse invasions, and the living descendants of these invaders have genetic ancestry from all three subspecies, although most are primarily descended from M. m. domesticus. We used the GigaMUGA genotyping array (approximately 135 000 loci) to describe the genomic ancestry of 161 mice, sampled from 34 locations from across New Zealand (and one Australian city-Sydney)...
January 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410800/deletion-loss-of-bone-morphogenetic-protein-7-changes-tooth-morphology-and-function-in-mus-musculus-implications-for-dental-evolution-in-mammals
#8
Chelsey Zurowski, Heather Jamniczky, Daniel Graf, Jessica Theodor
Quantifying regulatory gene effects on dental morphology and function has implications for the underlying mechanisms that generated dental diversity in mammals. We tested the hypothesis that regulatory gene expression changes lead to differences in molars using a neural crest knockout of bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) in Mus musculus. Three-dimensional geometric morphometric methods were used to quantify the shape of the molar toothrow. BMP7 mutants have extra cusps on the first upper and lower molars, and alterations in cusp orientation and morphology...
January 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410327/the-importance-of-species-pygmy-rattlesnake-venom-toxicity-differs-between-native-prey-and-related-non-native-species
#9
Sarah A Smiley-Walters, Terence M Farrell, H Lisle Gibbs
Venom toxicity assessments are often based upon non-native surrogate prey species that are not consumed in the wild by the venomous predator. This raises questions about the relevance of toxicity results on these "model" prey in addressing ecological or evolutionary questions about venom effects on native prey. We explore this issue by comparing the toxicity of venom from pygmy rattlesnakes (Sistrurus miliarius) on taxonomically-diverse sets of model (non-native) and native prey. Specifically, we compared rattlesnake venom toxicity for nine species from three broad taxonomic groups of prey (reptiles, mammals, and amphibians) to determine whether estimates of venom toxicity for the non-native model species of each group was representative of species which were native prey...
February 1, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402350/evaluation-of-volume-of-intramuscular-injection-into-the-caudal-thigh-muscles-of-female-and-male-balb-c-mice-mus-musculus
#10
Alicia M Gehling, Kyle Kuszpit, Emily J Bailey, Krystal H Allen-Worthington, David P Fetterer, Pedro J Rico, Thomas M Bocan, Christian C Hofer
This study presents recommendations for intramuscular injection into the caudal thigh muscle of mice according to analysis of in vivo imaging of intramuscularly injected iohexol, a radiocontrast agent commonly used in CT imaging. An experienced laboratory animal technician using a Hamilton syringe intramuscularly injected iohexol into isoflurane-anesthetized female and male BALB/c mice. Injected volumes (25, 50, 100, and 200 μL) underwent CT scanning at 9 time points over a 3-h period. The distribution of the injectate in the muscles of the rear leg was examined over time for each volume group...
January 1, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382827/probability-of-phenotypically-detectable-protein-damage-by-enu-induced-mutations-in-the-mutagenetix-database
#11
Tao Wang, Chun Hui Bu, Sara Hildebrand, Gaoxiang Jia, Owen M Siggs, Stephen Lyon, David Pratt, Lindsay Scott, Jamie Russell, Sara Ludwig, Anne R Murray, Eva Marie Y Moresco, Bruce Beutler
Computational inference of mutation effects is necessary for genetic studies in which many mutations must be considered as etiologic candidates. Programs such as PolyPhen-2 predict the relative severity of damage caused by missense mutations, but not the actual probability that a mutation will reduce/eliminate protein function. Based on genotype and phenotype data for 116,330 ENU-induced mutations in the Mutagenetix database, we calculate that putative null mutations, and PolyPhen-2-classified "probably damaging", "possibly damaging", or "probably benign" mutations have, respectively, 61%, 17%, 9...
January 30, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380645/variations-in-diet-cause-alterations-in-microbiota-and-metabolites-that-follow-changes-in-disease-severity-in-a-multiple-sclerosis-model
#12
J E Libbey, J M Sanchez, D J Doty, J T Sim, M F Cusick, J E Cox, K F Fischer, J L Round, R S Fujinami
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a metabolically demanding disease involving immune-mediated destruction of myelin in the central nervous system. We previously demonstrated a significant alteration in disease course in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) preclinical model of MS due to diet. Based on the established crosstalk between metabolism and gut microbiota, we took an unbiased sampling of microbiota, in the stool, and metabolites, in the serum and stool, from mice (Mus musculus) on the two different diets, the Teklad global soy protein-free extruded rodent diet (irradiated diet) and the Teklad sterilisable rodent diet (autoclaved diet)...
January 30, 2018: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371219/gemin4-is-an-essential-gene-in-mice-and-its-overexpression-in-human-cells-causes-relocalization-of-the-smn-complex-to-the-nucleoplasm
#13
Ingo D Meier, Michael P Walker, A Gregory Matera
Gemin4 is a member of the Survival Motor Neuron (SMN) protein complex, which is responsible for the assembly and maturation of Sm-class small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs). In metazoa, Sm snRNPs are assembled in the cytoplasm and subsequently imported into the nucleus. We previously showed that the SMN complex is required for snRNP import in vitro, although it remains unclear which specific components direct this process. Here, we report that Gemin4 overexpression drives SMN and the other Gemin proteins from the cytoplasm into the nucleus...
January 25, 2018: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363276/-candidatus-neoehrlichia-chilensis-sp-nov-molecular-detection-and-characterization-of-a-novel-anaplasmataceae-in-wild-rodents-from-valdivia-southern-chile
#14
A Müller, G Monti, C Otth, P Sepúlveda, P Bittencourt, Y Nachum-Biala, R Gutiérrez, S Harrus
This study aimed to screen wild rodents from southern Chile, for the presence of Anaplasmatacea. Spleen samples from 33 wild rodents trapped in Valdivia Province were screened by conventional PCR (cPCR), targeting the Anaplasmataceae 16S rRNA gene (16S). Positive samples were further evaluated, targeting a larger 16S fragment, groEL operon, and gltA gene, followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Anaplasmataceae DNA was detected in 15% (five of 33) of the tested rodents (Abrothrix sp. [four of five] and Mus musculus [one of five])...
January 24, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360742/vaccinia-virus-in-feces-and-urine-of-wild-rodents-from-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-state-brazil
#15
Marina G Peres, Thais S Bacchiega, Camila M Appolinário, Acácia F Vicente, Mateus S R Mioni, Bruna L D Ribeiro, Clóvis R S Fonseca, Vanessa C Pelícia, Fernando Ferreira, Jonatas S Abrahão, Jane Megid
The origin of Vaccinia virus (VACV) outbreaks in Brazil remains unknown, but since the isolation of VACV in Mus musculus mice during a zoonotic outbreak affecting cattle and milkers, peridomestic rodents have been suggested to be a link between cows and wild animals. Considering that experimentally infected mice eliminate viral particles in their feces, we investigated the presence of VACV in the feces and urine of wild rodents that were captured in the forest areas surrounding milking farms in the central west region of São Paulo State...
January 23, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351577/effects-of-excess-thromboxane-a2-on-placental-development-and-nutrient-transporters-in-a-mus-musculus-model-of-fetal-growth-restriction
#16
Karen J Gibbins, Katherine N Gibson-Corley, Ashley S Brown, Matthew Wieben, Richard C Law, Camille M Fung
Hypertensive disease of pregnancy (HDP) with placental insufficiency is the most common cause of fetal growth restriction (FGR) in the developed world. Despite the known negative consequences of HDP both to the mother and fetus, little is known about the longitudinal placental changes that occur as HDP progresses in pregnancy. This is because longitudinal sampling of human placentae during each gestation is impossible. Therefore, using a mouse model of thromboxane A2-analog infusion to mimic human HDP in the last trimester, we calculated placental efficiencies based on fetal and placental weights, quantified spongiotrophoblast and labyrinth thicknesses and vascular density within these layers, examined whether hypoxia signaling pathway involving vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and its receptors (VEGFR1, VEGFR2) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) contributed to vascular change, and examined nutrient transporter abundance including glucose transporters 1 and 3 (GLUT1, GLUT3), neutral amino acid transporters 1, 2, and 4 (SNAT1, SNAT2, and SNAT4), fatty acid transporters 2 and 4 (FATP2, FATP4) and fatty acid translocase (CD36) from embryonic day 15...
January 17, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351020/a-dynamic-state-model-of-migratory-behavior-and-physiology-to-assess-the-consequences-of-environmental-variation-and-anthropogenic-disturbance-on-marine-vertebrates
#17
Enrico Pirotta, Marc Mangel, Daniel P Costa, Bruce Mate, Jeremy A Goldbogen, Daniel M Palacios, Luis A Hückstädt, Elizabeth A McHuron, Lisa Schwarz, Leslie New
Integrating behavior and physiology is critical to formulating new hypotheses on the evolution of animal life-history strategies. Migratory capital breeders acquire most of the energy they need to sustain migration, gestation, and lactation before parturition. Therefore, when predicting the impact of environmental variation on such species, a mechanistic understanding of the physiology of their migratory behavior is required. Using baleen whales as a model system, we developed a dynamic state variable model that captures the interplay among behavioral decisions, energy, reproductive needs, and the environment...
February 2018: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348406/active-state-organization-of-spontaneous-behavioral-patterns
#18
C Hillar, G Onnis, D Rhea, L Tecott
We report the development and validation of a principled analytical approach to reveal the manner in which diverse mouse home cage behaviors are organized. We define and automate detection of two mutually-exclusive low-dimensional spatiotemporal units of behavior: "Active" and "Inactive" States. Analyses of these features using a large multimodal 16-strain behavioral dataset provide a series of novel insights into how feeding, drinking, and movement behaviors are coordinately expressed in Mus Musculus. Moreover, we find that patterns of Active State expression are exquisitely sensitive to strain, and classical supervised machine learning incorporating these features provides 99% cross-validated accuracy in genotyping animals using behavioral data alone...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346277/vaccinia-virus-in-blood-samples-of-humans-domestic-and-wild-mammals-in-brazil
#19
Marina G Peres, Thais S Bacchiega, Camila M Appolinário, Acácia F Vicente, Mateus de Souza Ribeiro Mioni, Bruna L D Ribeiro, Clóvis R S Fonseca, Vanessa C Pelícia, Fernando Ferreira, Graziele P Oliveira, Jonatas S Abrahão, Jane Megid
Outbreaks of Vaccinia virus (VACV) affecting cattle and humans have been reported in Brazil in the last 15 years, but the origin of outbreaks remains unknown. Although VACV DNA have been already detected in mice (Mus musculus), opossums (Didelphis albiventris) and dogs during VACV zoonotic outbreaks, no transmission to cattle or humans from any of these were reported during Brazilian outbreaks. In this work, we assessed the PCR positivity to VACV in blood samples of cows and other domestic mammals, wild rodents and other wild mammals, and humans from areas with or without VACV infection reports...
January 18, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341905/intensity-difference-limens-in-adult-cba-caj-mice-mus-musculus
#20
Anastasiya Kobrina, Katrina L Toal, Micheal L Dent
Mice have emerged as important models of auditory perception and acoustic communication. To study and model complex sound perception and communication, basic hearing abilities have to be established, yet intensity difference limens have not been measured in CBA/CAJ mice. Nine mice were trained using operant conditioning procedures with positive reinforcement to discriminate sound intensity across frequencies. Intensity difference limens were measured for 12, 16, 24, and 42 kHz tones at 10 and 30 dB sensation levels...
January 13, 2018: Behavioural Processes
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