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Todd Blevins
Cells have evolved intricate RNA-directed mechanisms that destroy viruses, silence transposons, and regulate gene expression. These nucleic acid surveillance and gene silencing mechanisms rely upon the selective base-pairing of ~19-25 nt small RNAs to complementary RNA targets. This chapter describes northern blot hybridization techniques for the detection of such small RNAs. Blots spiked with synthetic standards are used to illustrate the detection specificity and sensitivity of DNA oligonucleotide probes...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Andrew P Morgan, John P Didion, Anthony G Doran, James M Holt, Leonard McMillan, Thomas M Keane, Fernando Pardo-Manuel de Villena
Wild-derived mouse inbred strains are becoming increasingly popular for complex traits analysis, evolutionary studies, and systems genetics. Here we report the whole-genome sequencing of two wild-derived mouse inbred strains, LEWES/EiJ and ZALENDE/EiJ, of Mus musculus domesticus origin. These two inbred strains were selected based on their geographic origin, karyotype, and use in ongoing research. We generated 14X and 18X coverage sequence, respectively, and discovered over 1.1 million novel variants, most of which are private to one of these strains...
October 7, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Kevin K Ohlemiller, Sherri M Jones, Kenneth R Johnson
Laboratory mice (Mus musculus) have become the major model species for inner ear research. The major uses of mice include gene discovery, characterization, and confirmation. Every application of mice is founded on assumptions about what mice represent and how the information gained may be generalized. A host of successes support the continued use of mice to understand hearing and balance. Depending on the research question, however, some mouse models and research designs will be more appropriate than others...
October 17, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
Christina Backes, Tim Kehl, Daniel Stöckel, Tobias Fehlmann, Lara Schneider, Eckart Meese, Hans-Peter Lenhof, Andreas Keller
In the last decade, miRNAs and their regulatory mechanisms have been intensively studied and many tools for the analysis of miRNAs and their targets have been developed. We previously presented a dictionary on single miRNAs and their putative target pathways. Since then, the number of miRNAs has tripled and the knowledge on miRNAs and targets has grown substantially. This, along with changes in pathway resources such as KEGG, leads to an improved understanding of miRNAs, their target genes and related pathways...
October 13, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Bart Ellenbroek, Jiun Youn
Rodents (especially Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus) have been the most widely used models in biomedical research for many years. A notable shift has taken place over the last two decades, with mice taking a more and more prominent role in biomedical science compared to rats. This shift was primarily instigated by the availability of a much larger genetic toolbox for mice, particularly embryonic-stem-cell-based targeting technology for gene disruption. With the recent emergence of tools for altering the rat genome, notably genome-editing technologies, the technological gap between the two organisms is closing, and it is becoming more important to consider the physiological, anatomical, biochemical and pharmacological differences between rats and mice when choosing the right model system for a specific biological question...
October 1, 2016: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Heather A Richbourg, Matthew J Martin, Emma R Schachner, Margaret A McNulty
Rodent models are used for a variety of orthopedic research applications; however, anatomy references include mostly artistic representations. Advanced imaging techniques, including micro-computed tomography (microCT), can provide more accurate representations of subtle anatomical characteristics. A recent microCT atlas of laboratory mouse (Mus musculus) anatomy depicts the central and tarsal bone III (T3) as a single bone, differing from previous references. Fusion of tarsal bones is generally characterized as pathological secondary to mutations associated with growth factors, and normal variation has not been documented in the mouse tarsus...
October 12, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Cheng-Hsiu Tsai, Naoki Kohno
Living baleen whales (Mysticeti) include the world's largest animals to have ever lived-blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) can reach more than 30 m. However, the gigantism in baleen whales remains little explored. Here, we compiled all published stem mysticetes from the Eocene and Oligocene and then mapped the estimated body size onto different phylogenies that suggest distinct evolutionary histories of baleen whales. By assembling all known stem baleen whales, we present three novel findings in early mysticete evolution...
December 2016: Die Naturwissenschaften
Humberto Contreras-Cornejo, Germán Saucedo-Correa, Javier Oviedo-Boyso, Juan José Valdez-Alarcón, Víctor Manuel Baizabal-Aguirre, Marcos Cajero-Juárez, Alejandro Bravo-Patiño
The Notch signaling pathway is a reiteratively used cell to cell communication pathway that triggers pleiotropic effects. The correct regulation of the pathway permits the efficient regulation of genes involved in cell fate decision throughout development. This activity relies notably on the CSL proteins, (an acronym for CBF-1/RBPJ-κ in Homo sapiens/Mus musculus respectively, Suppressor of Hairless in Drosophila melanogaster, Lag-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans) which is the unique transcription factor and DNA binding protein involved in this pathway...
2016: Cell Division
C L Li, X Y Du, J Gao, C Wang, H G Guo, F W Dai, X Y Sa, W An, Z W Chen
Meriones unguiculatus (Gerbillinae, Rodentia) is widely used as an animal model of human disease. Here, we provide the first report of the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of M. unguiculatus (GenBank accession Nos. KF425526 and NC_023263). The sequence contained the conserved vertebrate pattern of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs, and 1 major noncoding region. We identified one extended termination-associated sequence and one conserved sequence block in the non-coding region...
September 16, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Valérie Julian, David Thivel, Bruno Pereira, Frédéric Costes, Ruddy Richard, Martine Duclos
OBJECTIVE: The effects of a training program (TP) on muscle microvascularization during exercise remained to be explored in adolescents with obesity. We hypothesized that a TP would lead to better microvascular adaptations to exercise in skeletal muscle. METHODS: 15 inactive adolescents followed a 12-week TP where both peripheral (muscular microvascularization) and central (cardiac) adaptations to exercise (40 min exercise set at 70% V̇O2peak) were assessed before and after intervention...
October 4, 2016: Obesity Facts
Michelle D Parmenter, Melissa M Gray, Caley A Hogan, Irene N Ford, Karl W Broman, Christopher J Vinyard, Bret A Payseur
Organisms on islands often undergo rapid morphological evolution, providing a platform for understanding mechanisms of phenotypic change. Many examples of evolution on islands involve the vertebrate skeleton. Although the genetic basis of skeletal variation has been studied in laboratory strains, especially in the house mouse Mus musculus domesticus, the genetic determinants of skeletal evolution in natural populations remain poorly understood. We used house mice living on the remote Gough Island - the largest wild house mice on record - to understand the genetics of rapid skeletal evolution in nature...
September 30, 2016: Genetics
Lavanya Pothana, Lalitha Devi, Naresh Kumar Venna, Niharika Pentakota, Vivek Phani Varma, Jedy Jose, Sandeep Goel
Cryopreservation of immature testis is a feasible approach for germplasm preservation of male animals. Combinations of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and foetal bovine serum (FBS) are used for testis cryopreservation. However, an alternative to FBS is needed, because FBS is expensive. Buffalo ocular fluid (BuOF), a slaughter house by-product, could be an economical option. The objective of the present study was to assess whether BuOF can replace FBS for cryopreservation of immature mouse (Mus musculus), rat (Rattus norvegicus), and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) testes...
September 28, 2016: Cryobiology
Felipe Roberto Borba Ferreira, Pollyanna Michelle da Silva, Tatiana Soares, Larissa Gonçalves Machado, Larissa Cardoso Corrêa de Araújo, Teresinha Gonçalves da Silva, Gabriela Souto Vieira de Mello, Maira Galdino da Rocha Pitta, Moacyr Jesus Barreto de Melo Rego, Emmanuel Viana Pontual, Russolina Benedeta Zingali, Thiago Henrique Napoleão, Patrícia Maria Guedes Paiva
This study characterized the protein/peptide profile of venom isolated from the spider Lasiodora sp. (Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae) found in northeastern Brazil and determined its antimicrobial activity, toxicity against human cells, and hemolytic activity. Protein concentration of the Lasiodora sp. venom was 4.53 ± 0.38 mg/mL. SDS-PAGE showed proteins with molecular masses up to 75 kDa, some of which contained disulfide bridges. RP-HPLC analysis separate at least 12 peaks that were identified by mass spectrometry as peptides U1-theraphotoxin-Lp1a (lasiotoxin-1), U1-theraphotoxin-Lp1c (lasiotoxin-3), U3-theraphotoxin-Lsp1a (LTx5), and ω-theraphotoxin-Asp3a as well as the proteins phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and hyaluronidase...
September 29, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Inga Jarosch, Sebastian Gehlert, Daniel Jacko, Rembert Andreas Koczulla, Marion Wencker, Tobias Welte, Wilhelm Bloch, Sabina Janciauskiene, Klaus Kenn
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) improves oxidative capacity of peripheral muscles in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The exercise-induced oxidative skeletal muscle adaptation in COPD patients with inherited alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (A1ATD) has not been studied. OBJECTIVES: To compare PR effects on skeletal muscle adaptation in COPD patients with and without A1ATD. METHODS: Nine COPD patients with A1ATD (genotype PiZZ, 6 receiving A1AT augmentation therapy), and 10 'usual' COPD patients (genotype PiMM) performed an incremental cycling test and underwent musculus vastus lateralis biopsies before and after a 3-week PR program including exercise training...
September 30, 2016: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
Alexandre Guet-McCreight, Olivier Camiré, Lisa Topolnik, Frances K Skinner
Determining how intrinsic cellular properties govern and modulate neuronal input-output processing is a critical endeavor for understanding microcircuit functions in the brain. However, lack of cellular specifics and nonlinear interactions prevent experiments alone from achieving this. Building and using cellular models is essential in these efforts. We focus on uncovering the intrinsic properties of mus musculus hippocampal type 3 interneuron-specific (IS3) cells, a cell type that makes GABAergic synapses onto specific interneuron types, but not pyramidal cells...
July 2016: ENeuro
Kristine Røren Nordén, Hanne Dagfinrud, Amund Løvstad, Truls Raastad
Introduction. The purpose of this study was to investigate body composition, muscle function, and muscle morphology in patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA). Methods. Ten male SpA patients (mean ± SD age 39 ± 4.1 years) were compared with ten healthy controls matched for sex, age, body mass index, and self-reported level of physical exercise. Body composition was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Musculus quadriceps femoris (QF) strength was assessed by maximal isometric contractions prior to test of muscular endurance...
2016: TheScientificWorldJournal
Michael Czerwinski, Anirudh Natarajan, Lindsey Barske, Loren L Looger, Blanche Capel
Temperature dependent sex determination (TSD) is the process by which the environmental temperature experienced during embryogenesis influences the sex of an organism, as in the red-eared slider turtle Trachemys scripta elegans. In accord with current paradigms of vertebrate sex determination, temperature is believed to exert its effects on sexual development in T. scripta entirely within the middle third of development, when the gonad is forming. However, whether temperature regulates the transcriptome in T...
September 23, 2016: Developmental Biology
Christophe Diagne, Alexis Ribas, Nathalie Charbonnel, Ambroise Dalecky, Caroline Tatard, Philippe Gauthier, Voitto Haukisalmi, Odile Fossati-Gaschignard, Khalilou Bâ, Mamadou Kane, Youssoupha Niang, Mamoudou Diallo, Aliou Sow, Sylvain Piry, Mbacké Sembène, Carine Brouat
Understanding why some exotic species become widespread and abundant in their colonised range is a fundamental issue that still needs to be addressed. Among many hypotheses, newly established host populations may benefit from a parasite loss ("enemy release" hypothesis) through impoverishment of their original parasite communities or reduced infection levels. Moreover, the fitness of competing native hosts may be negatively affected by the acquisition of exotic taxa from invaders ("parasite spillover") and/or by an increased transmission risk of native parasites due to their amplification by invaders ("parasite spillback")...
September 23, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
Pim van der Harst, Jessica van Setten, Niek Verweij, Georg Vogler, Lude Franke, Matthew T Maurano, Xinchen Wang, Irene Mateo Leach, Mark Eijgelsheim, Nona Sotoodehnia, Caroline Hayward, Rossella Sorice, Osorio Meirelles, Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, Ozren Polašek, Toshiko Tanaka, Dan E Arking, Sheila Ulivi, Stella Trompet, Martina Müller-Nurasyid, Albert V Smith, Marcus Dörr, Kathleen F Kerr, Jared W Magnani, Fabiola Del Greco M, Weihua Zhang, Ilja M Nolte, Claudia T Silva, Sandosh Padmanabhan, Vinicius Tragante, Tõnu Esko, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Michiel E Adriaens, Karl Andersen, Phil Barnett, Joshua C Bis, Rolf Bodmer, Brendan M Buckley, Harry Campbell, Megan V Cannon, Aravinda Chakravarti, Lin Y Chen, Alessandro Delitala, Richard B Devereux, Pieter A Doevendans, Anna F Dominiczak, Luigi Ferrucci, Ian Ford, Christian Gieger, Tamara B Harris, Eric Haugen, Matthias Heinig, Dena G Hernandez, Hans L Hillege, Joel N Hirschhorn, Albert Hofman, Norbert Hubner, Shih-Jen Hwang, Annamaria Iorio, Mika Kähönen, Manolis Kellis, Ivana Kolcic, Ishminder K Kooner, Jaspal S Kooner, Jan A Kors, Edward G Lakatta, Kasper Lage, Lenore J Launer, Daniel Levy, Alicia Lundby, Peter W Macfarlane, Dalit May, Thomas Meitinger, Andres Metspalu, Stefania Nappo, Silvia Naitza, Shane Neph, Alex S Nord, Teresa Nutile, Peter M Okin, Jesper V Olsen, Ben A Oostra, Josef M Penninger, Len A Pennacchio, Tune H Pers, Siegfried Perz, Annette Peters, Yigal M Pinto, Arne Pfeufer, Maria Grazia Pilia, Peter P Pramstaller, Bram P Prins, Olli T Raitakari, Soumya Raychaudhuri, Ken M Rice, Elizabeth J Rossin, Jerome I Rotter, Sebastian Schafer, David Schlessinger, Carsten O Schmidt, Jobanpreet Sehmi, Herman H W Silljé, Gianfranco Sinagra, Moritz F Sinner, Kamil Slowikowski, Elsayed Z Soliman, Timothy D Spector, Wilko Spiering, John A Stamatoyannopoulos, Ronald P Stolk, Konstantin Strauch, Sian-Tsung Tan, Kirill V Tarasov, Bosco Trinh, Andre G Uitterlinden, Malou van den Boogaard, Cornelia M van Duijn, Wiek H van Gilst, Jorma S Viikari, Peter M Visscher, Veronique Vitart, Uwe Völker, Melanie Waldenberger, Christian X Weichenberger, Harm-Jan Westra, Cisca Wijmenga, Bruce H Wolffenbuttel, Jian Yang, Connie R Bezzina, Patricia B Munroe, Harold Snieder, Alan F Wright, Igor Rudan, Laurie A Boyer, Folkert W Asselbergs, Dirk J van Veldhuisen, Bruno H Stricker, Bruce M Psaty, Marina Ciullo, Serena Sanna, Terho Lehtimäki, James F Wilson, Stefania Bandinelli, Alvaro Alonso, Paolo Gasparini, J Wouter Jukema, Stefan Kääb, Vilmundur Gudnason, Stephan B Felix, Susan R Heckbert, Rudolf A de Boer, Christopher Newton-Cheh, Andrew A Hicks, John C Chambers, Yalda Jamshidi, Axel Visel, Vincent M Christoffels, Aaron Isaacs, Nilesh J Samani, Paul I W de Bakker
BACKGROUND: Myocardial mass is a key determinant of cardiac muscle function and hypertrophy. Myocardial depolarization leading to cardiac muscle contraction is reflected by the amplitude and duration of the QRS complex on the electrocardiogram (ECG). Abnormal QRS amplitude or duration reflect changes in myocardial mass and conduction, and are associated with increased risk of heart failure and death. OBJECTIVES: This meta-analysis sought to gain insights into the genetic determinants of myocardial mass...
September 27, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Kevin M Lewis, Gerhard R Munske, Samuel S Byrd, Jeehoon Kang, Hyun-Jai Cho, Eduardo Ríos, ChulHee Kang
Calsequestrin is glycosylated and phosphorylated during its transit to its final destination in the junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum. To determine the significance and universal profile of these post-translational modifications to mammalian calsequestrin, we characterized, via mass spectrometry, the glycosylation and phosphorylation of skeletal muscle calsequestrin from cattle (B. taurus), lab mice (M. musculus) and lab rats (R. norvegicus) and cardiac muscle calsequestrin from cattle, lab rats and humans...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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