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Simon H Williams, Xiaoyu Che, Joel A Garcia, John D Klena, Bohyun Lee, Dorothy Muller, Werner Ulrich, Robert M Corrigan, Stuart Nichol, Komal Jain, W Ian Lipkin
The microbiome of wild Mus musculus (house mouse), a globally distributed invasive pest that resides in close contact with humans in urban centers, is largely unexplored. Here, we report analysis of the fecal virome of house mice in residential buildings in New York City, NY. Mice were collected at seven sites in Manhattan, Queens, Brooklyn, and the Bronx over a period of 1 year. Unbiased high-throughput sequencing of feces revealed 36 viruses from 18 families and 21 genera, including at least 6 novel viruses and 3 novel genera...
April 17, 2018: MBio
Simon H Williams, Xiaoyu Che, Ashley Paulick, Cheng Guo, Bohyun Lee, Dorothy Muller, Anne-Catrin Uhlemann, Franklin D Lowy, Robert M Corrigan, W Ian Lipkin
House mice ( Mus musculus ) thrive in large urban centers worldwide. Nonetheless, little is known about the role that they may play in contributing to environmental contamination with potentially pathogenic bacteria. Here, we describe the fecal microbiome of house mice with emphasis on detection of pathogenic bacteria and antimicrobial resistance genes by molecular methods. Four hundred sixteen mice were collected from predominantly residential buildings in seven sites across New York City over a period of 13 months...
April 17, 2018: MBio
Anis Irmawati, Nadira Jasmin, Sidarningsih
Aim: The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of moderate exercise on the elevation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Materials and Methods: Eighteen Mus musculus strain Swiss Webster (Balb/c) were divided into three groups (n=6). K1 and K2 had contact with water 3 times/week for 12 weeks, while the members of the K3 group swam 3 times/week for 12 weeks while carrying load weighed 3% of their body weight. After 5 weeks, they were induced with 0.04 ml oleum olivarum (K1), 0...
February 2018: Veterinary World
Stephen Abolins, Luke Lazarou, Laura Weldon, Louise Hughes, Elizabeth C King, Paul Drescher, Michael J O Pocock, Julius C R Hafalla, Eleanor M Riley, Mark Viney
The immune state of wild animals is largely unknown. Knowing this and what affects it is important in understanding how infection and disease affects wild animals. The immune state of wild animals is also important in understanding the biology of their pathogens, which is directly relevant to explaining pathogen spillover among species, including to humans. The paucity of knowledge about wild animals' immune state is in stark contrast to our exquisitely detailed understanding of the immunobiology of laboratory animals...
April 13, 2018: PLoS Biology
Stefania Bellesso, Marika Salvalaio, Susanna Lualdi, Elisa Tognon, Roberto Costa, Paola Braghetta, Chiara Giraudo, Roberto Stramare, Laura Rigon, Mirella Filocamo, Rosella Tomanin, Enrico Moro
Skeletal abnormalities represent a major clinical burden in patients affected by the lysosomal storage disorder mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPSII, OMIM #309900). While extensive research has emphasized the detrimental role of stored glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the bone marrow (BM), a limited understanding of primary cellular mechanisms underlying bone defects in MPSII has hampered the development of bone-targeted therapeutic strategies beyond enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). We here investigated the involvement of key signaling pathways related to the loss of iduronate-2-sulfatase activity in two different MPSII animal models, D...
April 10, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Simon Spalthoff, Rüdiger Zimmerer, Jan Dittmann, Horst Kokemüller, Marco Tiede, Laura Flohr, Philippe Korn, Nils-Claudius Gellrich, Philipp Jehn
Osseous reconstruction of large bone defects remains a challenge in oral and maxillofacial surgery. In addition to autogenous bone grafts, which despite potential donor-site mobility still represent the gold standard in reconstructive surgery, many studies have investigated less invasive alternatives such as in vitro cultivation techniques. This study compared different types of seeding techniques on pure β-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds in terms of bone formation and ceramic resorption in vivo . Cylindrical scaffolds loaded with autologous cancellous bone, venous blood, bone marrow aspirate concentrate or extracorporeal in vitro cultivated bone marrow stromal cells were cultured in sheep on a perforator vessel of the musculus latissimus dorsi over a 6-month period...
March 2018: Regenerative Biomaterials
Yuru Zhang, Chaobin Qin, Liping Yang, Ronghua Lu, Xiaoyan Zhao, Guoxing Nie
BACKGROUND: Glucose plays a key role as an energy source in most mammals, but its importance in fish appears to be limited that so far seemed to belong to diabetic humans only. Several laboratories worldwide have made important efforts in order to better understand this strange phenotype observed in fish. However, the mechanism of carbohydrate/glucose metabolism is astonishingly complex. Why basal glycaemia is different between fish and mammals and how carbohydrate metabolism is different amongst organisms is largely uncharted territory...
April 11, 2018: BMC Genomics
Benjamin Zickmantel, Fabian Krause, Lars Frauchiger
In the present case, the plantaris tendon was ruptured in isolation and at the distal part of the tendon. An injury of the Achilles tendon, gastrocnemius muscle, or soleus muscle was not detected. To the best of our knowledge, a similar case has not yet been reported. Our case basically demonstrates that a rupture of the musculus plantaris does not have to occur at the myotendiouns junction or the muscle belly itself. The initial nonoperative treatment with physiotherapy, antiinflammatory medicine, and an early return to sports, even for this more distal plantaris tendon rupture, led to a good result...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
Restry Sinansari, Bambang Prajogo Ew, Prihartini Widiyanti
Background: Justicia gendarussa Burm f. (Achanthaceae) has been known as traditional medicine in Indonesia. It contains of flavonoids and alkaloids. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of J. gendarussa on the profile of IFN-γ on mice (Mus musculus ). Molecular docking test was also conducted to determine the interaction of alkaloids and flavonoids on the J. gendarussa leaves against IFN-γ receptor. It is expected that this research will provide scientific information on the development of J...
2018: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
Heni Puspitasari, Lucia T Suwanti, Mufasirin
Background: The study aimes to determine the effect of administering anti- T. gondii membrane IgY against liver damage (Necrotic index) and the effectiveness of the antibody's delivery time. Materials and Methods: This research was a laboratory experiment with five treatments and five replicantions. Each treatment used female mice ( Mus musculus ) as animal models. The treatment groups consisted of a P0 group (not infected), P1 group (infected), P2 group (anti- T...
2018: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
Annaliese K Beery, Jennifer D Christensen, Nicole S Lee, Katrina L Blandino
Social behavior is often described as a unified concept, but highly social (group-living) species exhibit distinct social structures and may make different social decisions. Prairie voles ( Microtus ochrogaster ) are socially monogamous rodents that often reside in extended family groups, and exhibit robust preferences for familiar social partners (same- and opposite-sex) during extended choice tests, although short-term preferences are not known. Mice ( Mus musculus ) are gregarious and colonial, but in brief laboratory tests of social preference they typically prefer social novelty...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Sankar Subramanian
The ratio of diversities at amino acid changing (nonsynonymous) and neutral (synonymous) sites (ω = πN/πS) is routinely used to measure the intensity of selection pressure. It is well known that this ratio is influenced by the effective population size (Ne) and selection coefficient (s). Here, we examined the effects of effective population size on ω by comparing protein-coding genes from Mus musculus castaneus and Mus musculus musculus-two mouse subspecies with different Ne. Our results revealed a positive relationship between the magnitude of selection intensity and the ω estimated for genes...
March 1, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
Rida Batool, Asma Kalsoom, Iqra Akbar, Najma Arshad, Nazia Jamil
The present study was proposed to investigate the toxicological and prophylactic potential of ethanolic extracts of Rosa damascena and Nymphaea alba and their mixture in albino mice. For toxicity study, three different doses of plant extracts were orally administrated to three groups of mice for 14 successive days. Blood biochemistry and histological examinations of liver and kidney revealed that these extracts had no harmful effects up to 1000 mg/kg. To determine the prophylactic effects of Rosa damascena , Nymphaea alba , and their mixture, an infection model of Listeria monocytogenes was established in a pilot study...
2018: BioMed Research International
Edgar Hell Kampke, Maria Eduarda de Souza Barroso, Franciane Martins Marques, Marcio Fronza, Rodrigo Scherer, Mayara Fumiere Lemos, Bianca Prandi Campagnaro, Levy Carvalho Gomes
"Erva cidreira" (Lippia alba (Mill.) N. E. Brown) is popular for its therapeutic properties, especially its sedative properties. Such properties led to the discovery of the anesthetic action of Lippia alba essential oil in fish culture. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic effect of Lippia alba essential oil in fish and mammals. The oil was extracted by hydrodistillation with a Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS), where the compounds linalool, eucalyptol, γ-muurolene, and caryophyllene were identified as the most abundant compounds...
March 26, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Chi Zhang, Fenglin Song, Leshan Xiu, Yang Liu, Jian Yang, Lisi Yao, Junping Peng
Members in the genus Bocaparvovirus are closely related to human health and have a wide host range. The diverse hosts raise the possibility of crossing species barrier, which is a feature of emerging viruses. Among the mammalian hosts, rodents are generally acknowledged to be important reservoirs of emerging viruses. Here, rodent samples collected from six provinces and autonomous regions of China (Liaoning, Inner Mongolia, Tibet, Xinjiang, Guangxi and Yunnan) were used to investigate the prevalence and distribution of bocaparvoviruses...
March 29, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Amin A Seleem, Belal H M Hussein
The objective of this study was to synthesize Gibberellic lanthanide complex and evaluate its biological activity to reduce the Gibberellic acid toxicity on liver and kidney. The new bis (Gibberellic)-nitro-terbium(III) complex was characterized by different analytical methods: elemental analyses, Uv-vis, molar ratio, fluorescence, FT-IR, and TGA-DTA measurements. Thirty newborns were classified into three groups control, Gibberellic acid, and Terbium gibberellic acid complex. Livers and kidneys of studied groups proceed for general histology and immunohistochemical staining of Cyr61, cytochrome C, and TNFR2...
March 25, 2018: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
Tim Anderson, Jing Liu, Scott McMurry, Carey Pope
We compared biochemical, functional and behavioral responses to the organophosphorus anticholinesterase chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) in mice (Mus musculus, CD-1) and toads (Anaxyrus cognatus, Great Plains toad). Toads were substantially less sensitive to acute lethality of CPO based on the maximum tolerated (nonlethal) dose (MTD: toads, 77 mg/kg; mice, 5.9 mg/kg). Sublethal exposures led to classical signs of toxicity (increased involuntary movements, autonomic secretions) in mice, but hypo-activity in toads...
March 24, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Soledad Berríos, Raúl Fernández-Donoso, Jesús Page, Eliana Ayarza, Ernesto Capanna, Emanuela Solano, Riccardo Castiglia
The size and shape of the chromosomes, as well as the chromosomal domains that compose them, are determinants in the distribution and interaction between the bivalents within the nucleus of spermatocytes in prophase I of meiosis. Thus the nuclear architecture characteristic of the karyotype of a species can be modified by chromosomal changes such as Rb chromosomes. In this study we analysed the meiotic prophase nuclear organization of the heterozygous spermatocytes from Mus musculus domesticus 2n=26, and the synaptic configuration of the hexavalent formed by the dependent Rb chromosomes Rbs 6...
February 20, 2018: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
Jordan M Meyers, Miranda Grace, Aayushi Uberoi, Paul F Lambert, Karl Munger
Infections with cutaneous papillomaviruses have been linked to cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas that arise in patients who suffer from a rare genetic disorder, epidermodysplasia verruciformis, or those who have experienced long-term, systemic immunosuppression following organ transplantation. The E6 proteins of the prototypical cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) 5 and HPV8 inhibit TGF-β and NOTCH signaling. The Mus musculus papillomavirus 1, MmuPV1, infects laboratory mouse strains and causes cutaneous skin warts that can progress to squamous cell carcinomas...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Stefano Lazzarano, Marek Kučka, João P L Castro, Ronald Naumann, Paloma Medina, Michael N C Fletcher, Rebecka Wombacher, Joost Gribnau, Tino Hochepied, Marc Van Montagu, Claude Libert, Yingguang Frank Chan
Discovering the genetic changes underlying species differences is a central goal in evolutionary genetics. However, hybrid crosses between species in mammals often suffer from hybrid sterility, greatly complicating genetic mapping of trait variation across species. Here, we describe a simple, robust, and transgene-free technique to generate "in vitro crosses" in hybrid mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells by inducing random mitotic cross-overs with the drug ML216, which inhibits the DNA helicase Bloom syndrome (BLM)...
March 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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