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Intestinal failure children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433363/the-molecular-impact-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-on-hepatic-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-signaling
#1
George J Ventro, Yingkui Yang, Min Chen, Carroll M Harmon
PURPOSE: Parenteral nutrition associated liver disease (PNALD) develops in a subset of children receiving parenteral nutrition for intestinal failure. Omegaven™ is an omega-3 fatty acid (Ω3FA) lipid emulsion high in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) that can lessen PNALD. Inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, TNF-α, TGF-β) are elevated in PNALD and can decrease paraoxonase 1 protein expression (PON1). We sought to determine the effect of Omegaven™, EPA, and DHA on inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1, and TGF-β via ERK1/2 and p-Smad2/3 signaling pathways as well as the changes in intracellular PON1 protein expression as a potential mechanism explaining the protective effects of Omegaven™ and Ω3FA...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426458/anti-tnf%C3%AE-treatment-after-surgical-resection-for-crohn-s-disease-is-effective-despite-previous-pharmacodynamic-failure
#2
Amit Assa, Jiri Bronsky, Kaija-Leena Kolho, Kristyna Zarubova, Tim de Meij, Oren Ledder, Margaret Sladek, Stephanie van Biervliet, Caterina Strisciuglio, Raanan Shamir
BACKGROUND: The outcome of patients with Crohn's disease who failed anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNFα) therapy despite adequate serum drug levels (pharmacodynamic failure) is unclear. We aimed to assess such pediatric patients who underwent intestinal resection and were re-treated with the same anti-TNFα agent postoperatively. METHODS: Pediatric patients with Crohn's disease who underwent intestinal resection and were treated with anti-TNFα agents postoperatively were assessed retrospectively...
May 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396264/causal-pathways-from-enteropathogens-to-environmental-enteropathy-findings-from-the-mal-ed-birth-cohort-study
#3
Margaret N Kosek
BACKGROUND: Environmental enteropathy (EE), the adverse impact of frequent and numerous enteric infections on the gut resulting in a state of persistent immune activation and altered permeability, has been proposed as a key determinant of growth failure in children in low- and middle-income populations. A theory-driven systems model to critically evaluate pathways through which enteropathogens, gut permeability, and intestinal and systemic inflammation affect child growth was conducted within the framework of the Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) birth cohort study that included children from eight countries...
March 8, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379928/impact-of-multidisciplinary-teams-for-management-of-intestinal-failure-in-children
#4
Christina Belza, Paul W Wales
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the recent literature related to the impact of an intestinal rehabilitation program (IRP) on the management of intestinal failure in children. RECENT FINDINGS: As publication of a systematic review of pediatric IRPs in 2013, there have been four publications further describing the impact of IRPs in children with intestinal failure. The results continue to support an improvement in survival and enteral autonomy, and a decrease in complications related to liver dysfunction, central venous catheters, and transplantation...
April 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365108/hybrid-interventions-for-catheter-placement-in-pediatric-intestinal-rehabilitation-patients-with-end-stage-venous-access
#5
Ludger Sieverding, Andreas Busch, Jens Gesche, Gunnar Blumenstock, Ekkehard Sturm, Ilias Tsiflikas, Femke Piersma, Anja Hauser, Gesa Wiegand, Steffen Hartleif, Michael Hofbeck, Jörg Fuchs, Steven W Warmann
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to analyze the combined approach of endovascular and open surgical procedures for insertion of permanent central venous catheters in children with intestinal failure and end-stage venous access. METHODS: Data of 14 children (16 interventions) with intestinal failure and end-stage venous access, treated within the pediatric intestinal rehabilitation program at our institution between September 2011 and November 2016, were retrospectively reviewed...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361844/new-mutations-of-epcam-gene-for-tufting-enteropathy-in-saudi-arabia
#6
Shaden AlMahamed, Abdelhai Hammo
BACKGROUND/AIM: Tufting enteropathy (TE) is a rare cause of congenital intractable diarrhea in children. It often results in an irreversible intestinal failure and total parenteral nutrition (TPN) dependency; eventually, intestinal transplantation may be necessary. Data on TE from the Middle East are scarce; therefore, our aim of conducting this study was to clarify the clinical, histopathologic, and molecular features of TE in Saudi children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective chart review of four children with TE who presented between January 2011 and December 2013 to King Fahad Specialist Hospital-Dammam (KFSH-D)...
March 2017: Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357138/growth-of-infants-with-intestinal-failure-or-feeding-intolerance-does-not-follow-standard-growth-curves
#7
Danielle L Morton, Keli M Hawthorne, Carolyn E Moore
Objective. Infants with intestinal failure or feeding intolerance are nutritionally compromised and are at risk for extrauterine growth restriction. The aim of the study was to evaluate growth velocities of infants with intestinal failure and feeding intolerance for the first three months of age and to determine growth percentiles at birth and at 40-week postmenstrual age (PMA). Methods. A chart review of infants followed by the Texas Children's Hospital Intestinal Rehabilitation Team was conducted from April 2012 to October 2014...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355492/longitudinal-bone-mineralization-assessment-in-children-treated-with-long-term-parenteral-nutrition-for-severe-intestinal-failure
#8
Pierre Poinsot, Perrine Geoffroy, Pierre Braillon, Angelique Denis, Irene Loras-Duclaux, Stéphanie Marotte, Stéphanie Boutroy, Justine Bacchetta, Sandrine Touzet, Alain Lachaux, Noel Peretti
BACKGROUND: Metabolic bone disease is common in children receiving home parenteral nutrition (HPN) for intestinal failure (IF). Long-term evolution of bone mass in pediatric IF is poorly documented. The aims of this study were (1) to determine the prevalence of low bone mass (LBM) in children receiving HPN for IF, (2) to evaluate the evolution of total bone mineral content (TBMC) during HPN with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and (3) to identify related factors. METHODS: All children referred in our HPN center from 2004 to 2014 were eligible...
March 1, 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351520/toll-like-receptor-4-is-critical-for-the-development-of-resection-associated-hepatic-steatosis
#9
Lauren K Barron, James W Bao, Bola G Aladegbami, Jason J Colasanti, Jun Guo, Christopher R Erwin, Brad W Warner
BACKGROUND: A significant number of children with short bowel syndrome experience intestinal failure-associated liver disease. We recently demonstrated accelerated hepatic steatosis after 50% small bowel resection (SBR) in mice. Since SBR is associated with alterations in the gut microbiome, the purpose of this study was to determine whether TLR4 signaling is critical to the development of resection-associated hepatic steatosis. METHODS: Male C57BL6 (control) and TLR4-knockout (KO) mice underwent 50% proximal SBR...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295952/long-term-outcomes-of-living-related-small-intestinal-transplantation-in-children-a-single-center-experience
#10
Sandra Garcia Aroz, Ivo Tzvetanov, Elizabeth Anne Hetterman, Hoonbae Jeon, Jose Oberholzer, Giuliano Testa, Eunice John, Enrico Benedetti
Pediatric patients with irreversible intestinal failure present a significant challenge to meet the nutritional needs that promote growth. From 2002 to 2013, 13 living-related small intestinal transplantations were performed in 10 children, with a median age of 18 months. Grafts included isolated living-related intestinal transplantation (n=7), and living-related liver and small intestine (n=6). The immunosuppression protocol consisted of induction with thymoglobulin and maintenance therapy with tacrolimus and steroids...
March 12, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288230/-somatotropic-axis-and-molecular-markers-of-mineral-metabolism-in-children-undergoing-chronic-peritoneal-dialysis
#11
María Luisa Ceballos Osorio, Francisco Cano Schuffeneger
Growth failure is one of the most relevant complications in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Among others, growth hormone (GH) resistance and bone mineral disorders have been identified as the most important causes of growth retardation. OBJECTIVES: 1. To characterize bone mineral metabolism and growth hormone bio-markers in CKD children treated with chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD). 2. To evaluate height change with rhGH treatment. PATIENTS AND METHOD: A longitudinal 12-month follow-up in prepuberal PD children...
February 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274657/bone-health-of-children-with-intestinal-failure-measured-by-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-and-digital-x-ray-radiogrammetry
#12
Esther Neelis, Noortje Rijnen, Johanna Sluimer, Joanne Olieman, Dimitris Rizopoulos, René Wijnen, Edmond Rings, Barbara de Koning, Jessie Hulst
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Children with intestinal failure (IF) receiving long-term parenteral nutrition (PN) are at risk of developing low bone mineral density (BMD). Next to the dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) method, digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) using the BoneXpert software has become available to obtain the Bone Health Index (BHI) in hand radiographs. In this study we 1) evaluated the prevalence of low BMD in children with IF using DXA and DXR, 2) compared DXA and DXR results, and 3) aimed to identify factors associated with low BMD...
February 21, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261374/the-impact-on-quality-of-life-on-families-of-children-on-an-elimination-diet-for-non-immunoglobulin-e-mediated-gastrointestinal-food-allergies
#13
Rosan Meyer, Heather Godwin, Robert Dziubak, Julie A Panepinto, Ru-Xin M Foong, Mandy Bryon, Adriana Chebar Lozinsky, Kate Reeve, Neil Shah
BACKGROUND: The impact on health related quality of life (HRQL) has been well studied in children with Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated food allergy. However limited data exists on related quality of life (QOL) of families who have a child suffering from food protein induced non-IgE mediated gastrointestinal allergies. We aimed to establish the QOL of families with children at the beginning of following an elimination diet for non-IgE mediated gastrointestinal food allergies. METHODS: A prospective, observational study was performed...
2017: World Allergy Organization Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230559/anti-tnf%C3%AE-treatment-after-surgical-resection-for-crohn-s-disease-is-effective-despite-previous-pharmacodynamic-failure
#14
Amit Assa, Jiri Bronsky, Kaija-Leena Kolho, Kristyna Zarubova, Tim de Meij, Oren Ledder, Margaret Sladek, Stephanie van Biervliet, Caterina Strisciuglio, Raanan Shamir
BACKGROUND: The outcome of patients with Crohn's disease who failed anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNFα) therapy despite adequate serum drug levels (pharmacodynamic failure) is unclear. We aimed to assess such pediatric patients who underwent intestinal resection and were re-treated with the same anti-TNFα agent postoperatively. METHODS: Pediatric patients with Crohn's disease who underwent intestinal resection and were treated with anti-TNFα agents postoperatively were assessed retrospectively...
February 22, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209419/a-safety-and-pharmacokinetic-dosing-study-of-glucagon-like-peptide-2-in-infants-with-intestinal-failure
#15
David L Sigalet, Mary E Brindle, Dana Boctor, Bryan Dicken, Viona Lam, Lily Sia Lu, Elaine de Heuvel, Bolette Hartmann, Jens J Holst
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) analogues are approved for adults with intestinal failure (IF), but no studies have included infants. This study examined the pharmacokinetics (PK), safety, and nutritional effects of GLP-2 in infants with IF. METHODS: With parental consent (Health Canada Protocol:150,979), parenteral nutrition (PN)-dependent infants were treated with 5-20-μg/kg/day GLP-2 for 3days (phase 1), and if tolerated continued for 42days (phase 2)...
January 29, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194723/teduglutide-a-review-in-short-bowel-syndrome
#16
Esther S Kim, Susan J Keam
Subcutaneous teduglutide (Revestive(®)), a glucagon-like peptide-2 analogue that increases intestinal absorption, is approved in the EU for the treatment of short bowel syndrome (SBS) in patients aged ≥1 year who are stable following a period of postsurgical intestinal adaptation. In a phase III trial in adults with SBS intestinal failure (IF) dependent on parenteral support (PS), a significantly greater proportion of teduglutide 0.05 mg/kg/day than placebo recipients achieved a ≥20% reduction in weekly PS volume from baseline to week 20 and maintained it to week 24...
February 14, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190552/use-of-balloon-dilatation-for-management-of-postoperative-intestinal-strictures-in-children-with-short-bowel-syndrome
#17
Christina Belza, Kevin Fitzgerald, Joao Amaral, Karen Steinberg, Yaron Avitzur, Paul W Wales
PURPOSE: Children with short bowel syndrome (SBS) often require numerous operations to optimize intestinal function. Postoperative intestinal strictures are a complication that inhibits enteral feeding advancement and prolongs parenteral nutrition dependency, often requiring reoperation. Our objective was to review our experience with fluoroscopic balloon dilatation to treat intestinal strictures. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of intestinal failure patients with SBS was completed...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180937/guidelines-for-the-management-of-postoperative-obstructive-symptoms-in-children-with-hirschsprung-disease
#18
REVIEW
J C Langer, M D Rollins, M Levitt, A Gosain, L de la Torre, R P Kapur, R A Cowles, J Horton, D H Rothstein, A M Goldstein
Although most children with Hirschsprung disease ultimately do well, many experience a variety of ongoing problems after pull-through surgery. The most common include obstructive symptoms, soiling, enterocolitis and failure to thrive. The purpose of this guideline is to present a rational approach to the management of postoperative obstructive symptoms in children with Hirschsprung disease. The American Pediatric Surgical Association Board of Governors established a Hirschsprung Disease Interest Group. Group discussions, literature review and expert consensus were then used to summarize the current state of knowledge regarding causes, methods of diagnosis, and treatment approaches to children with obstructive symptoms following pull-through for Hirschsprung disease...
February 8, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168988/a-comparison-of-broviac-%C3%A2-and-peripherally-inserted-central-catheters-in-children-with-intestinal-failure
#19
Carolina Blotte, Jennifer Styers, Hong Zhu, Nandini Channabasappa, Hannah G Piper
PURPOSE: Central venous catheters (CVCs) are a source of morbidity for children with intestinal failure (IF). Complications include infection, breakage, occlusion, and venous thrombosis. Broviacs® have traditionally been preferred, but peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) are gaining popularity. This study compares complications between Broviacs® and PICCs in children with IF. METHODS: After IRB approval, children with IF receiving parenteral nutrition (2012-2016) were reviewed...
January 29, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149511/the-development-and-role-of-microbial-host-interactions-in-gut-mucosal-immune-development
#20
REVIEW
C R Stokes
At birth the piglet's immune system is immature and it is dependent upon passive maternal protection until weaning. The piglet's mucosal immune system develops over the first few weeks but has not reached maturity at weaning ages which are common on commercial farms. At weaning piglets are presented with a vast and diverse range of microbial and dietary/environmental antigens. Their ability to distinguish between antigens and mount a protective response to potential pathogens and to develop tolerance to dietary antigens is critical to their survival and failure to do so is reflected in the high incidence of morbidity and mortality in the post-weaning period...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
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