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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102223/global-and-local-selection-acting-on-the-pathogen-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-in-the-human-lung
#1
Hattie Chung, Tami D Lieberman, Sara O Vargas, Kelly B Flett, Alexander J McAdam, Gregory P Priebe, Roy Kishony
Bacterial populations diversify during infection into distinct subpopulations that coexist within the human body. Yet, it is unknown to what extent subpopulations adapt to location-specific selective pressures as they migrate and evolve across space. Here we identify bacterial genes under local and global selection by testing for spatial co-occurrence of adaptive mutations. We sequence 552 genomes of the pathogen Stenotrophomonas maltophilia across 23 sites of the lungs from a patient with cystic fibrosis. We show that although genetically close isolates colocalize in space, distant lineages with distinct phenotypes separated by adaptive mutations spread throughout the lung, suggesting global selective pressures...
January 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093889/power-in-methods-language-to-infants-in-structured-and-naturalistic-contexts
#2
Catherine S Tamis-LeMonda, Yana Kuchirko, Rufan Luo, Kelly Escobar, Marc H Bornstein
Methods can powerfully affect conclusions about infant experiences and learning. Data from naturalistic observations may paint a very different picture of learning and development from those based on structured tasks, as illustrated in studies of infant walking, object permanence, intention understanding, and so forth. Using language as a model system, we compared the speech of 40 mothers to their 13-month-old infants during structured play and naturalistic home routines. The contrasting methods yielded unique portrayals of infant language experiences, while simultaneously underscoring cross-situational correspondence at an individual level...
January 16, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093058/off-label-prescribing-of-psychotropic-medication-2005-2013-an-examination-of-potential-influences
#3
Peggy L O'Brien, Nicholas Cummings, Tami L Mark
OBJECTIVE: This study examined rates of psychotropic prescriptions for various on- and off-label uses in 2005 and 2013 in the context of changes in labeled indications. METHODS: The National Disease and Therapeutic Index, a survey of nationally representative office-based physicians that identifies the diagnosis attached to each prescription, was used to capture the number of psychiatric medications prescribed for a particular diagnosis in 2005 (N=4,120) and 2013 (N=4,140)...
January 17, 2017: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089922/x-linked-elliptocytosis-with-impaired-growth-is-related-to-mutated-ammecr1
#4
Lina Basel-Vanagaite, Nir Pillar, Ofer Isakov, Pola Smirin-Yosef, Irina Lagovsky, Naama Orenstein, Mali Salmon-Divon, Hannah Tamary, Tami Zaft, Lily Bazak, Joseph Meyerovitch, Tal Pelli, Shay Botchan, Luba Farberov, Daphna Weissglas, Noam Shomron
In this study, we report a family with X-linked recessive syndrome caused by mutated AMMECR1 and characterized by elliptocytosis with or without anemia, midface hypoplasia, proportionate short stature and hearing loss. Recently, mutations in AMMECR1 were reported in two maternal half-brothers, presenting with nephrocalcinosis, midface hypoplasia and, in one of the siblings, deafness and elliptocytosis. AMMECR1 gene is localized in the critical region of contiguous deletion syndrome on Xq22.3 implicated in Alport syndrome, mental retardation, midface hypoplasia, and elliptocytosis (AMME complex)...
January 9, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065634/association-between-dietary-energy-density-and-incident-type-2-diabetes-in-the-women-s-health-initiative
#5
Melanie D Hingle, Betsy C Wertheim, Marian L Neuhouser, Lesley F Tinker, Barbara V Howard, Karen Johnson, Simin Liu, Lawrence S Phillips, Lihong Qi, Gloria Sarto, Tami Turner, Molly E Waring, Cynthia A Thomson
BACKGROUND: Dietary energy density, or energy available in relation to gram intake, can inform disease risk. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the association between baseline dietary energy density and risk of incident type 2 diabetes in postmenopausal women. DESIGN: Dietary energy density, weight status, and type 2 diabetes incidence were prospectively characterized in a large cohort of postmenopausal women participating in one or more clinical trials or an observational study...
January 5, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062139/efficacy-and-safety-of-everolimus-and-zotarolimus-eluting-stents-versus-first-generation-drug-eluting-stents-in-patients-with-diabetes-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-trials
#6
Chirag Bavishi, Usman Baber, Sadik Panwar, Stefania Pirrotta, George D Dangas, Pedro Moreno, Jacqueline Tamis-Holland, Annapoorna S Kini, Samin K Sharma
INTRODUCTION: Patients with diabetes and coronary artery disease remain at high risk for adverse cardiovascular events after percutaneous coronary intervention. The efficacy and safety of the various drug-eluting stents (DES) in patients with diabetes is unclear. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials comparing first-generation DES [paclitaxel-eluting stents (PES) and sirolimus-eluting stents (SES)] with everolimus-eluting stents (EES) and zotarolimus-eluting stents (ZES) in diabetic patients were systematically searched...
December 27, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043700/prenatal-di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-exposure-and-disruption-of-adrenal-androgens-and-glucocorticoids-levels-in-cord-blood-the-hokkaido-study
#7
Atsuko Araki, Takahiko Mitsui, Houman Goudarzi, Tamie Nakajima, Chihiro Miyashita, Sachiko Itoh, Seiko Sasaki, Kazutoshi Cho, Kimihiko Moriya, Nobuo Shinohara, Katsuya Nonomura, Reiko Kishi
Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is known for its endocrine disrupting properties. We previously demonstrated that prenatal DEHP exposure is associated with decreased progesterone levels and testosterone/estradiol ratio in the cord blood. However, evidence of the effects of prenatal DEHP exposure on adrenal androgen and glucocorticoids in infants is scarce. Thus, the objectives of this study were to investigate the association between prenatal DEHP exposure and adrenal androgen and glucocorticoids, and to discuss its effects on steroid hormone profiles in infants...
December 30, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033484/interaction-of-perception-and-action-in-discrete-and-continuous-rapid-aiming-tasks
#8
Sushma Alphonsa, Boyi Dai, Tami Benham-Deal, Qin Zhu
Previously, we have shown that discrete and continuous rapid aiming tasks are governed by distinct visuomotor control mechanisms by assessing the combined visual illusion effects on the perceived and effective index of difficulty (ID). All participants were perceptually biased by the combined visual illusion before they performed the rapid aiming tasks. In the current study, the authors manipulated the order of performing perceptual and motor tasks to examine whether perceptual or motor experience with the illusory visual target would influence the subsequent perceived and effective ID in discrete and continuous tapping tasks...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013359/comparison-of-engraftment-following-different-stem-cell-mobilization-modalities-in-patients-with-multiple-myeloma-treated-with-a-uniform-induction-regimen-containing-bortezomib-cyclophosphamide-and-dexamethasone
#9
Noam Benyamini, Irit Avivi, Eldad J Dann, Tsila Zuckerman, Noa Lavi, Tami Katz
Bortezomib-based induction followed by autologous stem cell transplantation is a common treatment for multiple myeloma (MM). Stem cell (SC) mobilization with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) alone has become an alternative to G-CSF combined with chemotherapeutic agents. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of the two mobilization modalities following induction with a uniform regimen containing bortezomib, cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone (VCD). We retrospectively evaluated results of SC mobilization using either G-CSF alone or combined with high-dose cyclophosphamide (HD-CY) in MM patients after VCD induction...
December 24, 2016: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995329/stress-hormones-and-posttraumatic-stress-symptoms-following-paediatric-critical-illness-an-exploratory-study
#10
REVIEW
Lorraine C Als, Maria D Picouto, Kieran J O'Donnell, Simon Nadel, Mehrengise Cooper, Christine M Pierce, Tami Kramer, Vivette A S Glover, M Elena Garralda
In this exploratory case-control study, we investigated basal cortisol regulation in 5-16-year-old children, 3-6 months following PICU (paediatric intensive care) admission. This was nested within a study of child psychological and cognitive function; 47 children were assessed alongside 56 healthy controls. Saliva samples were collected three times per day (immediately after waking, waking +30 min, and waking +12 h) over two consecutive weekdays. In addition, data on posttraumatic stress symptoms were ascertained from 33 PICU admitted children using the Impact of Events Scale-8 (IES-8)...
December 19, 2016: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990629/immigrant-chinese-mothers-socialization-of-achievement-in-children-a%C3%A2-strategic-adaptation-to-the-host-society
#11
Florrie Fei-Yin Ng, Irene Nga-Lam Sze, Catherine S Tamis-LeMonda, Diane N Ruble
Academic socialization by low-income immigrant mothers from Mainland China was investigated in two studies. Immigrant Chinese mothers of first graders (n = 52; Mage  = 38.69) in the United States (Study 1) and kindergartners (n = 86; Mage  = 36.81) in Hong Kong (Study 2) tell stories that emphasized achieving the best grade through effort more than did African American (n = 39; Mage  = 31.44) and native Hong Kong (n = 76; Mage  = 36.64) mothers, respectively. The emphasis on achievement was associated with mothers' heightened discussion on discrimination (Study 1) and beliefs that education promotes upward mobility (Study 2), as well as children's expectations that a story protagonist would receive maternal criticism for being nonpersistent in learning (Study 2)...
December 19, 2016: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989648/a-serum-metabolomics-based-profile-in-low-bone-mineral-density-postmenopausal-women
#12
Takeshi Miyamoto, Akiyoshi Hirayama, Yuiko Sato, Tami Koboyashi, Eri Katsuyama, Hiroya Kanagawa, Hiroya Miyamoto, Tomoaki Mori, Shigeyuki Yoshida, Atsuhiro Fujie, Mayu Morita, Ryuichi Watanabe, Toshimi Tando, Kana Miyamoto, Takashi Tsuji, Atsushi Funayama, Masaya Nakamura, Morio Matsumoto, Tomoyoshi Soga, Masaru Tomita, Yoshiaki Toyama
Osteoporosis is characterized as a metabolic disorder of bone tissue, and various metabolic markers are now available to support its diagnosis and evaluate treatment effects. Substances produced as end products of metabolomic activities are the correlated factors to the biological or metabolic status, and thus, metabolites are considered highly sensitive markers of particular pathological states, including osteoporosis. Here we undertook comprehensive serum metabolomics analysis in postmenopausal women with or without low bone mineral density (low BMD vs controls) for the first time using capillary electrophoresis/mass spectrometry...
October 29, 2016: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988787/hyponatremia-cognitive-function-and-mobility-in-an-outpatient-heart-failure-population
#13
Monirah Albabtain, Michael J Brenner, John M Nicklas, Scott L Hummel, Michael P McCormick, Jeffrey L Pawlowski, Tami L Remington, Tanya R Gure, Michael P Dorsch, Barry E Bleske
BACKGROUND The association of hyponatremia with cognitive impairment and mobility in heart failure (HF) patients is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine if hyponatremia is associated with cognitive and mobility impairment as measured by simple, validated, and time-sensitive tests. MATERIAL AND METHODS This was a prospective study in patients with reduced and preserved ejection fraction (HFrEF, HFpEF) seen in outpatient HF clinics. Hyponatremia was defined as sodium level ≤136 mEq/L. Cognitive function was measured using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) tool, and mobility was measured with the Timed Up and Go test (TUG-t)...
December 18, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983979/ibandronate-concomitantly-blocks-immobilization-induced-bone-and-muscle-atrophy
#14
Ryuichi Watanabe, Nobuyuki Fujita, Satoshi Takeda, Yuiko Sato, Tami Kobayashi, Mayu Morita, Takatsugu Oike, Kana Miyamoto, Yoshihiro Matsumoto, Morio Matsumoto, Masaya Nakamura, Takeshi Miyamoto
Both bone and muscle volume is concomitantly reduced under immobilization conditions; however, no single drug is currently available to block these outcomes simultaneously. Bisphosphonates are utilized clinically to inhibit osteoclast-dependent bone resorption, but their effects on muscle are largely unknown. Here we show that skeletal muscle is a direct target of the bisphosphonate ibandronate (IBN) and that reduced muscle volume and induction of Atrogin-1 and MuRF1, both atrogenes, are significantly inhibited by IBN administration in vivo using a mouse model of muscle atrophy...
October 27, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979021/indoor-tobacco-legislation-is-associated-with-fewer-emergency-department-visits-for-asthma-exacerbation-in-children
#15
Christina E Ciaccio, Tami Gurley-Calvez, Theresa I Shireman
BACKGROUND: During the past 3 decades, numerous cities and states have adopted laws that ban smoking in public indoor spaces. The rationale for these policies has been to protect nonsmokers from the adverse health effects of secondhand smoke. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the implementation of indoor smoking legislation is associated with a decrease in emergency department visits for asthma in children. METHODS: This retrospective analysis used a natural experiment to estimate the impact of clean indoor air legislation on the rate of emergency department admissions for asthma exacerbation in children...
December 2016: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974229/selective-estrogen-receptor-modulators-and-the-vitamin-d-analogue-eldecalcitol-block-bone-loss-in-male-osteoporosis
#16
Yuiko Sato, Toshimi Tando, Mayu Morita, Kana Miyamoto, Tami Kobayashi, Ryuichi Watanabe, Takatsugu Oike, Morio Matsumoto, Masaya Nakamura, Takeshi Miyamoto
Rapid increases in the number of elderly people have dramatically increased the number of female and male osteoporosis patients. Osteoporosis often causes bone fragility fractures, and males exhibit particularly poor prognosis after these fractures, indicating that control of osteoporosis is crucial to maintain quality of men's lives. However, osteoporosis therapies available for men have lagged behind advances available for women. Here, we show that three selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), namely, raloxifene, bazedoxifene, and tamoxifen, plus the vitamin D analogue ED71, also called eldecalcitol, completely block orchiectomy-induced, testosterone-depleted bone loss in male mice in vivo...
January 22, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968755/alternative-access-routes-for-fluid-resuscitation
#17
REVIEW
Tami Lind
Fluid resuscitation in small animals is important in emergency situations and is utilized by every veterinary practice. Peripherally inserted intravenous catheters are an effective way of giving fluids to a veterinary patient. If an intravenous catheter is not obtainable, there are multiple other ways to administer fluids to a patient including dorsal pedal catheters, intraosseous catheters, central venous catheters, peripherally inserted central catheters, nasogastric tubes, nasoesophageal tubes and subcutaneous administration of fluids...
June 2016: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913692/factors-motivating-hpv-vaccine-uptake-among-vaccinated-and-nonvaccinated-hispanic-young-adult-women
#18
Dionne P Stephens, Hod Tamir, Tami L Thomas
INTRODUCTION: To identify factors influencing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination up taking decision making among vaccinated and nonvaccinated Hispanic college women. PARTICIPANTS: Hispanic young women between the ages of 18 and 24 years (N = 49). In total, 26 had not received the HPV vaccine, and 23 had started/completed the vaccine series. METHOD: Participants registered for the study via a psychology research pool at a large public university in the southeast United States after institutional review board approval...
December 2016: Hispanic Health Care International: the Official Journal of the National Association of Hispanic Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909236/sexual-risk-behaviors-of-african-american-adolescent-females-the-role-of-cognitive-and-religious-factors
#19
Safiya George Dalmida, Natasha Aduloju-Ajijola, Dora Clayton-Jones, Tami L Thomas, Ricardo J Erazo Toscano, Rashunda Lewis, Terri Fleming, Shirley Taylor, Macie Lunyong
INTRODUCTION: African American (AA) high school-age girls are more likely to have had sex before age 13 years and have higher rates of all sexually transmitted infections. Cognition and religion/spirituality are associated with adolescent sexuality, therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify cognitive and religious substrates of AA girls' risky sexual behaviors. METHOD: A descriptive study was conducted with 65 AA girls aged 15 to 20 years using computerized questionnaires and cognitive function tasks...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Transcultural Nursing: Official Journal of the Transcultural Nursing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903105/dsm-5-%C3%A2-pocket-guide-for-child-and-adolescent-mental-healthby-robert-j-hilt-m-d-f-a-a-p-and-abraham-m-nussbaum-m-d-f-a-p-a-washington-d-c-american-psychiatric-association-publishing-2016-355-pp-65-00-paperback
#20
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