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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793031/cloning-overexpression-and-purification-of-a-gene-of-unknown-function-of-prophage-loci-from-candidatus-liberibacter-asiaticus-the-destructive-bacterial-pathogen-of-huanglongbing-disease-in-citrus-plants
#1
Duangtip Sudhan, Thamrongjet Puttamuk, Supachai Vuttipongchaikij, Pitak Chuawong
Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening is one of the most destructive diseases affecting citrus industry worldwide. The causal agent in Asia is a phloem-limited, Gram-negative bacterium, 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CLas). Within the genome of CLas lies prophage regions, classified as Type-A, B, C, and D. In particular, Type-D has been indicated to correlate with the blotchy-mottle symptoms of citrus trees. Here we reported the cloning, overexpression, and purification of the ORF1, an open reading frame from the partial Type-D region of CLas obtained from an infected lime tree (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle)...
May 21, 2018: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792199/nanoparticle-delivery-of-grape-seed-derived-proanthocyanidins-to-airway-epithelial-cells-dampens-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation
#2
S Castellani, A Trapani, A Spagnoletta, L di Toma, T Magrone, S Di Gioia, D Mandracchia, G Trapani, E Jirillo, M Conese
BACKGROUND: Chronic respiratory diseases, whose one of the hallmarks is oxidative stress, are still incurable and need novel therapeutic tools and pharmaceutical agents. The phenolic compounds contained in grape are endowed with well-recognized anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-aging activities. Considering that natural anti-oxidants, such as proanthocyanidins, have poor water solubility and oral bioavailability, we have developed a drug delivery system based on solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN), apt to encapsulate grape seed extract (GSE), containing proanthocyanidins...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792038/downregulation-of-cancer-stemness-by-novel-diterpenoid-ovatodiolide-inhibits-hepatic-cancer-stem-cell-like-traits-by-repressing-wnt-formula-see-text-catenin-signaling
#3
Mingche Liu, Oluwaseun Adebayo Bamodu, Kuang-Tai Kuo, Wei-Hwa Lee, Yen-Kuang Lin, Alexander T H Wu, Hsiao M, Yew-Min Tzeng, Chi-Tai Yeh, Jo-Ting Tsai
The hierarchical tumor propagation or cancer stem cells (CSCs) model of carcinogenesis postulates that like physiologic adult stem cell (ASC), the CSCs positioned at the apex of any tumor population form the crux of tumor evolution with a constitutive regenerative capacity and differentiation potential. The propagation and recurrence of the characteristically heterogeneous and therapy-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), adds to accumulating evidence to support this CSCs model. Based on the multi-etiologic basis of HCC formation which among others, focuses on the disruption of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, this study evaluated the role of cembrane-type phytochemical, Ovatodiolide, in the modulation of the Wnt/[Formula: see text]-catenin pathway, and its subsequent effect on liver CSCs' activities...
May 24, 2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791432/logistical-constraints-lead-to-an-intermediate-optimum-in-outbreak-response-vaccination
#4
Yun Tao, Katriona Shea, Matthew Ferrari
Dynamic models in disease ecology have historically evaluated vaccination strategies under the assumption that they are implemented homogeneously in space and time. However, this approach fails to formally account for operational and logistical constraints inherent in the distribution of vaccination to the population at risk. Thus, feedback between the dynamic processes of vaccine distribution and transmission might be overlooked. Here, we present a spatially explicit, stochastic Susceptible-Infected-Recovered-Vaccinated model that highlights the density-dependence and spatial constraints of various diffusive strategies of vaccination during an outbreak...
May 23, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791145/slow-starter-enzymes-role-of-active-site-architecture-in-the-catalytic-control-in-the-biosynthesis-of-taxadiene-by-taxadiene-synthase
#5
Tamar Ansbacher, Yehoshua Freud, Dan Thomas Major
Taxadiene synthase (TXS) catalyzes the formation of the natural product Taxa-4(5),11(12)-diene (henceforth Taxadiene). Taxadiene is the precursor in the formation of Taxol, which is an important natural anti-cancer agent. In the current study, we present a detailed mechanistic view of the biosynthesis of Taxadiene by TXS, using a hybrid quantum mechanics-molecular mechanics potential in conjunction with free energy simulation methods. The obtained free energy landscape displays initial endergonic steps followed by a step-wise downhill profile, which is an emerging free energy fingerprint for type I terpene synthases...
May 23, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791002/optimizing-stadium-evacuation-by-integrating-geocomputation-and-affordance-theory
#6
Joslyn Zale, Bandana Kar, David Cochran
Football is culturally and economically important in the United States, and football stadiums are part of the country's critical infrastructure, thus receiving government protection against hazard events. In this project, an agent-based evacuation model was implemented to optimize evacuation time from The University of Southern Mississippi's M.M. Roberts Stadium (football) by accounting for evacuees' age, gender, physical fitness, alcohol consumption, and prior experience with hazard events. The findings revealed that (i) the age and gender of an individual impact his/her locomotion speed and (ii) evacuation route choice is influenced by evacuees' perception of its safety and effectiveness...
March 2018: Journal of Emergency Management: JEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789827/effect-of-the-monostearate-monopalmitate-ratio-on-the-oral-release-of-active-agents-from-monoacylglycerol-organogels
#7
F R Lupi, V Mancina, N Baldino, O I Parisi, L Scrivano, D Gabriele
The delivery of active agents from organogels is becoming an important topic owing to the possibility of releasing, in a controlled way, lipophilic agents. Controlled release from foods is a topic with increasing relevance owing to the growing industrial interest towards functional or medical foods, i.e. foods containing nutraceutical agents or drugs. Anyway, release properties are related to the rheological properties of organogels, and, therefore, a deep knowledge of their microstructure and physical characteristics is necessary to design carriers with expected release properties...
May 23, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787919/optimal-use-of-novel-agents-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#8
Mitchell R Smith, Robert F Weiss
Novel agents are changing therapy for patients with CLL, but their optimal use remains unclear. We model the clinical situation in which CLL responds to therapy, but resistant clones, generally carrying del17p, progress and lead to relapse. Sub-clones of varying growth rates and treatment sensitivity affect predicted therapy outcomes. We explore effects of different approaches to starting novel agent in relation to bendamustine-rituximab induction therapy: at initiation of therapy, at the end of chemo-immunotherapy, at molecular relapse, or at clinical detection of relapse...
May 7, 2018: Leukemia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787746/two-photon-microscopy-of-fungal-keratitis-affected-rabbit-cornea-ex-vivo-using-moxifloxacin-as-a-labeling-agent
#9
Jun Ho Lee, Viet-Hoan Le, Seunghun Lee, Jin Hyoung Park, Jin Ah Lee, Hungwon Tchah, Sungjee Kim, Myoung Joon Kim, Ki Hean Kim
Two-photon microscopy (TPM) is a three dimensional (3D) microscopic technique based on nonlinear two-photon fluorescence, which has been tested as an alternative to reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) for detecting fungal keratitis via optical imaging. Although TPM provided images with better contrast than RCM for fungal keratitis, its imaging speed was relatively low because of weak intrinsic signal. Moxifloxacin, a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved antibiotic, was recently used as a cell-labeling agent for TPM...
May 19, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787283/-86-90-y-based-theranostics-targeting-angiogenesis-in-a-murine-breast-cancer-model
#10
Emily B Ehlerding, Carolina A Ferreira, Eduardo Aluicio-Sarduy, Dawei Jiang, Hye Jin Lee, Charles P Theuer, Jonathan W Engle, Weibo Cai
Angiogenesis is widely recognized as one of the hallmarks of cancer. Therefore, imaging and therapeutic agents targeted to angiogenic vessels may be widely-applicable in many types of cancer. To this end, the theranostic isotope pair, 86 Y and 90 Y, were used to create a pair of agents for targeted imaging and therapy of neovasculature in murine breast cancer models using a chimeric anti-CD105 antibody, TRC105. Serial positron emission tomography imaging with 86 Y-DTPA-TRC105 demonstrated high uptake in 4T1 tumors, peaking at 9...
May 22, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787262/discovery-of-novel-pazopanib-based-hdac-and-vegfr-dual-inhibitors-targeting-cancer-epigenetics-and-angiogenesis-simultaneously
#11
Jie Zang, Xuewu Liang, Yongxue Huang, Yuping Jia, Xiaoyang Li, Wenfang Xu, C James Chou, Yingjie Zhang
Herein a novel series of pazopanib hybrids as polypharmacological antitumor agents were developed based on the crosstalk between histone deacetylases (HDACs) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway. Among them, one ortho-aminoanilide 6d and one hydroxamic acid 13f exhibited considerable total HDACs and VEGFR-2 inhibitory activities. The HDAC inhibitory activities endowed 6d and 13f with potent antiproliferative activities, which was not observed in the approved VEGFR inhibitor pazopanib. Compounds 6d and 13f possessed comparable HDAC isoform selectivity profiles to the clinical class I HDAC inhibitor MS-275 and the approved pan-HDAC inhibitor SAHA, respectively...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785170/cost-effectiveness-of-olaratumab-in-combination-with-doxorubicin-for-patients-with-soft-tissue-sarcoma-in-the-united-states
#12
Santiago Zuluaga-Sanchez, Lisa M Hess, Sorrel E Wolowacz, Yulia D'yachkova, Emma Hawe, Adrian D Vickers, James A Kaye, David Bertwistle
Background: Standard first-line treatments for advanced soft tissue sarcoma (STS) have changed little for 40 years, and outcomes have been poor. Recently, the United States (US) Food and Drug Administration conditionally approved olaratumab in combination with doxorubicin (Olara + Dox) based on a randomized phase II trial that reported a significant 11.8-month improvement in median survival versus single-agent doxorubicin (Dox). The present study investigated the cost-effectiveness of Olara + Dox compared with Dox and five other standard-of-care regimens from the US payer perspective...
2018: Sarcoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785122/aloperine-executes-antitumor-effects-through-the-induction-of-apoptosis-and-cell-cycle-arrest-in-prostate-cancer-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#13
Zhixin Ling, Han Guan, Zonghao You, Can Wang, Ling Hu, Lei Zhang, Yiduo Wang, Shuqiu Chen, Bin Xu, Ming Chen
Background: Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common malignant diseases among male patients. Although androgen deprivation therapy remains the main treatment for PCa, most patients would inevitably progress to castration-resistant PCa, which is the main cause of cancer-related deaths. Thus, novel antitumor agents are urgently needed. Recent studies demonstrated that aloperine (ALO) as a natural alkaloid showed antitumor effects in other cancer types. However, the biological function and underlying mechanisms of ALO in PCa have not been investigated...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784670/cancer-as-a-social-dysfunction-why-cancer-research-needs-new-thinking
#14
Kenneth J Pienta, Robert Axelrod
The incidence and mortality for many cancers continues to rise. As such, critical action is needed on many fronts to reshape how a society thinks, discusses, and fights cancer especially as the population grows and ages. Cancer can be described as a broken social contract which requires different conceptual frameworks such as game theory. To this end, it is our hope that this perspective will catalyze a discussion to rethink the way we approach, communicate, and fund cancer research - thinking of cancer as a broken social contract is only one example...
May 21, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784407/part-1-tracing-russian-vx-to-its-synthetic-routes-by-multivariate-statistics-of-chemical-attribution-signatures
#15
Karin Höjer Holmgren, Carlos A Valdez, Roger Magnusson, Alexander K Vu, Sandra Lindberg, Audrey M Williams, Armando Alcaraz, Crister Åstot, Saphon Hok, Rikard Norlin
Chemical attribution signatures (CAS) associated with different synthetic routes used for the production of Russian VX (VR) were identified. The goal of the study was to retrospectively determine the production method employed for an unknown VR sample. Six different production methods were evaluated, carefully chosen to include established synthetic routes used in the past for large scale production of the agent, routes involving general phosphorus-sulfur chemistry pathways leading to the agent, and routes whose main characteristic is their innate simplicity in execution...
August 15, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783202/feasibility-of-myocardial-pet-imaging-using-a-benzylguanidine-analog-meta-3-18-f-fluoropropyl-benzylguanidine-18-f-mfpbg
#16
Sang-Keun Woo, Byung Seok Moon, Bom Sahn Kim, Min Hwan Kim, Yong Jin Lee, Jae Ho Jung, Kyo Chul Lee, Youngho Seo, Wook Kim, Sang Moo Lim, Byung Chul Lee, Sang Eun Kim
INTRODUCTION: Global and regional sympathetic activity in the heart can be evaluated using [123 I]meta-iodobenzylguanidine ([123 I]mIBG) imaging. However, [123 I]mIBG is associated with low image spatial resolution and sensitivity in cardiac imaging. We investigated the capability of an F-18-labeled mIBG derivative, meta-(3-[18 F]fluoropropyl)benzylguanidine ([18 F]mFPBG), for identifying ischemic and viable myocardium in a rat model of myocardial infarction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The ex vivo biodistribution and in vivo metabolic stability of [18 F]mFPBG were investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats...
May 3, 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782584/including-traffic-jam-avoidance-in-an-agent-based-network-model
#17
Christian Hofer, Georg Jäger, Manfred Füllsack
Background: Understanding traffic is an important challenge in different scientific fields. While there are many approaches to constructing traffic models, most of them rely on origin-destination data and have difficulties when phenomena should be investigated that have an effect on the origin-destination matrix. Methods: A macroscopic traffic model is introduced that is novel in the sense that no origin-destination data are required as an input. This information is generated from mobility behavior data using a hybrid approach between agent-based modeling to find the origin and destination points of each vehicle and network techniques to find efficiently the routes most likely used to connect those points...
2018: Computational social networks
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782471/new-approach-in-acne-therapy-a-specific-bacteriocin-activity-and-a-targeted-anti-il-8-property-in-just-1-probiotic-strain-the-l-salivarius-ls03
#18
Francesca Deidda, Angela Amoruso, Stefania Nicola, Teresa Graziano, Marco Pane, Luca Mogna
GOALS: The aim of this research was to assess the antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus salivarius LS03 (DSM 22776) against Propionibacterium acnes and its anti-inflammatory properties by inhibiting P. acnes-induced interleukin-8 (IL-8) release. BACKGROUND: Acne is the most common skin disease, causing significant psychosocial problems for those afflicted. Currently available agents for acne treatment, such as oral antibiotics, have limited use. Thus, development of novel agents to treat this disease is needed...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781773/a-comparison-of-total-inward-leakage-measured-using-sodium-chloride-nacl-and-corn-oil-aerosol-methods-for-air-purifying-respirators
#19
Samy Rengasamy, Ziqing Zhuang, George Niezgoda, Gary Walbert, Robert Lawrence, Brenda Boutin, Judith Hudnall, William P Monaghan, Michael Bergman, Colleen Miller, James Harris, Christopher Coffey
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard 16900-1:2014 specifies the use of sodium chloride (NaCl) and corn oil aerosols, and sulfur hexafluoride gas for measuring total inward leakage (TIL). However, a comparison of TIL between different agents is lacking. The objective of this study was to measure and compare TIL for respirators using corn oil and NaCl aerosols. TIL was measured with 10 subjects donning two models of filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) including FFP1, N95, P100, and elastomeric half-mask respirators (ERs) in NaCl and corn oil aerosol test chambers, using continuous sampling methods...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781558/characteristics-of-high-and-low-risk-individuals-in-the-priority-study-urinary-proteomics-and-mineralocorticoid-receptor-antagonism-for-prevention-of-diabetic-nephropathy-in-type-2-diabetes
#20
N Tofte, M Lindhardt, K Adamova, J Beige, J W J Beulens, A L Birkenfeld, G Currie, C Delles, I Dimos, L Francová, M Frimodt-Møller, P Girman, R Göke, T Havrdova, A Kooy, H Mischak, G Navis, G Nijpels, M Noutsou, A Ortiz, A Parvanova, F Persson, P L Ruggenenti, F Rutters, I Rychlík, G Spasovski, M Speeckaert, M Trillini, H von der Leyen, P Rossing
AIM: To compare clinical baseline data in individuals with Type 2 diabetes and normoalbuminuria, who are at high or low risk of diabetic kidney disease based on the urinary proteomics classifier CKD273. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled international multicentre clinical trial and observational study in participants with Type 2 diabetes and normoalbuminuria, stratified into high- or low-risk groups based on CKD273 score...
May 21, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
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