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Agent based model

Jan Endrikat, Susan Dohanish, Nicolas Schleyer, Susanne Schwenke, Sheela Agarwal, Thomas Balzer
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to critically assess the evaluation and categorization process for nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) based on reports received by Bayer from 2006 to 2016. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 779 NSF reports received by Bayer globally from 2006 to 2016 were included in the analysis. Arlington Medical Resources provided gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA) market share. Reports were conservatively categorized based on the Cowper/Girardi criteria...
March 16, 2018: Investigative Radiology
Susana García-Gutiérrez, José M Quintana López, Ane Antón-Ladislao, María Soledad Gallardo Rebollal, Irene Rilo Miranda, Miren Morillas Bueno, Nekane Murga Eizagaetxebarria, Ricardo Palenzuela Arocena, Esther Pulido, Irantzu Barrio Beraza, Urko Aguirre Larracoechea, Inmaculada Arostegui
OBJECTIVES: To validate the EAHFE-3D scale, based on the Acute Heart Failure in Emergency Departments registry, in a cohort of patients attended for acute heart failure. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Study of a multipurpose cohort of patients with acute heart failure in 3 hospitals in the Basque Country between 2011 and 2013. We extracted age, baseline New York Heart Association functional class, systolic blood pressure, baseline arterial oxygen saturation, sodium level in blood, and emergency department treatments (noninvasive mechanical ventilation, use of inotropic agents and vasopressors) in order to calculate each patient's EAHFE-3D score...
2018: Emergencias: Revista de la Sociedad Española de Medicina de Emergencias
Ken Matsui, Makoto Ozawa, Maki Kiso, Makoto Yamashita, Toshihiko Maekawa, Minoru Kubota, Sumio Sugano, Yoshihiro Kawaoka
Influenza A viruses cause seasonal epidemics and occasional pandemics. The emergence of viruses resistant to neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors and M2 ion channel inhibitors underlines the need for alternate anti-influenza drugs with novel mechanisms of action. Here, we report the discovery of a host factor as a potential target of anti-influenza drugs. By using cell-based virus replication screening of a chemical library and several additional assays, we identified clonidine as a new anti-influenza agent in vitro...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sen Xu, Zong-Yuan Yang, Ping Jin, Xin Yang, Xiaoting Li, Xiao Wei, Ya Wang, Sixiang Long, Taoran Zhang, Gang Chen, Chaoyang Sun, Ding Ma, Qinglei Gao
Ovarian cancer (OC) is a devastating disease due to its high incidence of relapse and chemoresistance. The tumor microenvironment, especially the tumor stroma compartment, was proven to contribute tremendously to the unsatisfactory chemotherapeutic efficacy in OC. Cytotoxic agents not only effect tumor cells, but also modulate the phenotype and characteristics of the vast stromal cell population, which can in turn alter the tumor cell response to chemointervention. In this study, we focused on the tumor stroma response to cytotoxic agents and the subsequent effect on the OC tumor cells...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Doodipala Samba Reddy
Neurosteroids like allopregnanolone (AP) are positive allosteric modulators of synaptic and extrasynaptic GABA-A receptors. AP and related neurosteroids exhibit a greater potency for δ-containing extrasynaptic receptors. The δGABA-A receptors, which are expressed extrasynaptically in the dentate gyrus and other regions, contribute to tonic inhibition, promoting network shunting as well as reducing seizure susceptibility. Levels of endogenous neurosteroids fluctuate with ovarian cycle. Natural and synthetic neurosteroids maximally potentiate tonic inhibition in the hippocampus and provide robust protection against a variety of limbic seizures and status epilepticus...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
Franck Maunoury, Aurore Clément, Chizoba Nwankwo, Laurie Levy-Bachelot, Armand Abergel, Vincent Di Martino, Eric Thervet, Isabelle Durand-Zaleski
OBJECTIVE: To assess the cost-effectiveness of the elbasvir/grazoprevir (EBR/GZR) regimen in patients with genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with severe and end-stage renal disease compared to no treatment. DESIGN: This study uses a health economic model to estimate the cost-effectiveness of treating previously untreated and treatment experienced chronic hepatitis C patients who have severe and end stage renal disease with the elbasvir-grazoprevir regimen versus no treatment in the French context...
2018: PloS One
Yong Yang, Brent A Langellier, Ivana Stankov, Jonathan Purtle, Katherine L Nelson, Ana V Diez Roux
OBJECTIVES: Daily transport may impact depression risk among older adults through several pathways including facilitating the ability to meet basic needs, enabling and promoting contact with other people and nature, and promoting physical activity (e.g. through active transportation such as walking or walking to public transit). Both daily transport and depression are influenced by the neighborhood environment. To provide insights into how transport interventions may affect depression in older adults, we developed a pilot agent-based model to explore the contribution of daily transport and neighborhood environment to older adults' depression in urban areas...
March 15, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
Teresa Fernández-Crespo, Rick J Schulting, Javier Ordoño, Andreas Duering, Francisco Etxeberria, Lourdes Herrasti, Ángel Armendariz, José I Vegas, Christopher Bronk Ramsey
OBJECTIVES: San Juan ante Portam Latinam is one of a small number of European Neolithic sites meeting many of the archaeological criteria expected for a mass grave, and furthermore presents evidence for violent conflict. This study aims to differentiate between what is potentially a single episode of deposition, versus deposition over some centuries, or, alternatively, that resulting from a combination of catastrophic and attritional mortality. The criteria developed are intended to have wider applicability to other such proposed events...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Assem Barakat, Abdullah M Al-Majid, Bander M Al-Qahtany, M Ali, Mohamed Teleb, Mohamed H Al-Agamy, Sehrish Naz, Zaheer Ul-Haq
BACKGROUND: Design and synthesis of pyrazole-dimedone derivatives were described by one-pot multicomponent reaction as new antimicrobial agents. These new molecular framework were synthesized in high yields with a broad substrate scope under benign conditions mediated by diethylamine (NHEt2 ). The molecular structures of the synthesized compounds were assigned based on different spectroscopic techniques (1 H-NMR,13 C-NMR, IR, MS, and CHN). RESULTS: The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial and antifungal activities against S...
March 14, 2018: Chemistry Central Journal
Nicholas Calvert, Jiansha Wu, Sophie Sneddon, Jennifer Woodhouse, Richard Carey-Smith, David Wood, Evan Ingley
Background: Soft tissue and bone sarcoma represent a broad spectrum of different pathology and genetic variance. Current chemotherapy regimens are derived from randomised trials and represent empirical treatment. Chemosensitivity testing and whole exome sequencing (WES) may offer personalized chemotherapy treatment based on genetic mutations. Methods: A pilot, prospective, non-randomised control experimental study was conducted. Twelve patients with metastatic bone or soft tissue sarcoma that had failed first line chemotherapy treatment were enrolled for this study...
2018: Clinical Sarcoma Research
Balaraju Battu, V S Chandrasekhar Pammi, Narayanan Srinivasan
Conditional cooperation declines over time if heterogeneous ideal conditional agents are involved in repeated interactions. With strict assumptions of rationality and a population consisting of ideal conditional agents who strictly follow a decision rule, cooperation is not expected. However, cooperation is commonly observed in human societies. Hence, we propose a novel evolutionary agent-based model where agents rely on social information. Each agent interacts only once either as a donor or as a receiver. In our model, the population consists of either non-ideal or ideal heterogeneous conditional agents...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sudhakar Agnihothram, Vineet D Menachery, Boyd L Yount, Lisa C Lindesmith, Trevor Scobey, Alan Whitmore, Alexandra Schäfer, Mark T Heise, Ralph S Baric
Zoonotic viruses circulate as swarms in animal reservoirs and can emerge into human populations causing epidemics that adversely affect public health. Portable, safe, and effective vaccine platforms are needed in the context of these outbreak and emergence situations. In this manuscript, we report the generation and characterization of an alphavirus replicon vaccine platform based on a non-select agent, attenuated Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus vaccine strain 3526 (VRP 3526). Using both noroviruses and coronaviruses as model systems, we demonstrate utility of the VRP 3526 platform in generation of recombinant proteins, production of virus like particles, and in vivo efficacy as a vaccine against emergent viruses...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
Liam V Brown, Eamonn A Gaffney, Jonathan Wagg, Mark C Coles
Tumour immunotherapy is dependent upon activation and expansion of tumour-targetting immune cells, known as cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs). Cancer vaccines developed in the past have had limited success and the mechanisms resulting in failure are not well characterized. To elucidate these mechanisms, we developed a human-parametrized, in silico , agent-based model of vaccination-driven CTL activation within a clinical short-peptide vaccination context. The simulations predict a sharp transition in the probability of CTL activation, which occurs with variation in the separation rate (or off-rate) of tumour-specific immune response-inducing peptides (cognate antigen) from the major histocompatibility class I (MHC-I) receptors of dendritic cells (DCs) originally at the vaccination site...
March 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Benjamin J Zimmerman, Austin T Mudd, Joanne E Fil, Ryan N Dilger, Bradley P Sutton
Accurate quantitative non-invasive assessments of arterial cerebral blood volume (aCBV) can greatly benefit the study of cerebral vascular health in both humans and in animal models. In recent years, progress has been made in the techniques available to quantify CBV with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here, we compared a non-invasive technique, measuring inflowing vascular space occupancy with dynamic subtraction (iVASO-ds) with a contrast-based vascular space occupancy measurement in piglets. In addition, we measured how the iVASO-ds derived aCBV changed with piglet development from 4 weeks to 8 weeks...
March 11, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Arnold Groehler, Stefan Kren, Qinglu Li, Maggie Robledo-Villafane, Joshua Schmidt, Mary Garry, Natalia Tretyakova
Myocardial infarction (MI) is a life-threatening condition that can occur when blood flow to the heart is interrupted due to a blockage in one or more of the coronary vessels. Current treatments of MI rapidly restore blood flow to the affected myocardium using thrombolytic agents or angioplasty. Adverse effects including inflammation, tissue necrosis, and ventricular dysfunction are, however, not uncommon following reperfusion therapy. These conditions are thought to be caused by a sudden influx of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to the affected myocardium...
March 11, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Liliana Angelica Ponguta, Muneera Abdul Rasheed, Chin Regina Reyes, Aisha Khizar Yousafzai
The international community has set forth global targets that include calls for universal access to high-quality early childhood care and education (ECCE), as indicated in the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals. One major impediment to achieving this target is the lack of a skilled workforce. In this paper, we argue the case for leveraging youth as an untapped resource for supplying the workforce the ECCE system needs. Youth comprise a large proportion of the global population, and historically, although youth experience higher unemployment rates than their adult counterparts, youth are important agents of social awareness, social transformation, and community mobilization in multiple global contexts...
March 2018: New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development
Robert A Bailey, Alicia C Shillington, Qing Harshaw, Martha M Funnell, Jeffrey VanWingen, Nananda Col
INTRODUCTION: Failure to intensify treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) when indicated, or clinical inertia, is a major obstacle to achieving optimal glucose control. This study investigates the impact of a values-focused patient decision aid (PDA) for T2DM antihyperglycemic agent intensification on patient values related to domains important in decision-making and preferred treatments. METHODS: Patients with poorly controlled T2DM who were taking a metformin-containing regimen were recruited through physicians to access a PDA presenting evidence-based information on T2DM and antihyperglycemic agent class options...
March 13, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
Keumseok Koh, Rebecca Reno, Ayaz Hyder
Recent advances in computing resources have increased interest in systems modeling and population health. While group model building (GMB) has been effectively applied in developing system dynamics models (SD), few studies have used GMB for developing an agent-based model (ABM). This article explores the use of a GMB approach to develop an ABM focused on food insecurity. In our GMB workshops, we modified a set of the standard GMB scripts to develop and validate an ABM in collaboration with local experts and stakeholders...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
Nevin Witman, Makoto Sahara
Major cardiovascular events including myocardial infarction (MI) continue to dominate morbidity rates in the developed world. Although multiple device therapies and various pharmacological agents have been shown to improve patient care and reduce mortality rates, clinicians and researchers alike still lack a true panacea to regenerate damaged cardiac tissue. Over the previous two to three decades, cardiovascular stem cell therapies have held great promise. Several stem cell-based approaches have now been shown to improve ventricular function and are documented in preclinical animal models as well as phase I and phase II clinical trials...
2018: Stem Cells International
Christopher A Stevens, Jeroen Daamen, Emma Gaudrain, Tom Renkema, Jakob Dirk Top, Fokie Cnossen, Niels A Taatgen
Training negotiation is difficult because it is a complex, dynamic activity that involves multiple parties. It is often not clear how to create situations in which students can practice negotiation or how to measure students' progress. Some have begun to address these issues by creating artificial software agents with which students can train. These agents have the advantage that they can be "reset," and played against multiple times. This allows students to learn from their mistakes and try different strategies...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
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