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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548682/arthrotomy-based-pre-clinical-models-of-particle-induced-osteolysis-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Meghan M Moran, Brittany M Wilson, Ryan D Ross, Amarjit S Virdi, D Rick Sumner
We completed a systematic literature review of in vivo animal models that use arthrotomy-based methods to study particle-induced peri-implant osteolysis. The purpose of the review was to characterize the models developed to date, to determine the questions addressed, to assess scientific rigor and transparency and to identify gaps in knowledge. We probed three literature databases (Medline, Embase and Scopus) and found 77 manuscripts that fit the search parameters. In the most recent 10 years, researchers mainly used rat and mouse models, whereas in the previous 20 years large animal, canine and rabbit models were more common...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548282/estimating-the-effect-of-immortal-time-bias-in-urologic-research-a-case-example-of-testosterone-replacement-therapy
#2
Christopher J D Wallis, Refik Saskin, Steven A Narod, Calvin Law, Girish S Kulkarni, Arun Seth, Robert K Nam
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the effect of immortal-time bias in an observational study examining the effect of cumulative testosterone exposure on mortality. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We used a population-based matched cohort study of men aged 66 and older newly treated with testosterone replacement therapy and matched-controls from 2007-2012 in Ontario, Canada to quantify the effects of immortal-time bias. We used generalized estimating equations to determine the association between cumulative testosterone replacement therapy exposure and mortality...
May 26, 2017: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547827/digital-dissection-of-the-model-organism-xenopus-laevis-using-contrast-enhanced-computed-tomography
#3
Laura B Porro, Christopher T Richards
The African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, is one of the most widely used model organisms in biological research. However, the most recent anatomical description of X. laevis was produced nearly a century ago. Compared with other anurans, pipid frogs - including X. laevis - exhibit numerous unusual morphological features; thus, anatomical descriptions of more 'typical' frogs do not detail many aspects of X. laevis skeletal and soft-tissue morphology. The relatively new method of using iodine-based agents to stain soft tissues prior to high-resolution X-ray imaging has several advantages over gross dissection, such as enabling dissection of very small and fragile specimens, and preserving the three-dimensional topology of anatomical structures...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547791/an-organoruthenium-anticancer-agent-shows-unexpected-target-selectivity-for-plectin
#4
Samuel M Meier, Dominique Kreutz, Lilli Winter, Matthias H M Klose, Klaudia Cseh, Tamara Weiss, Andrea Bileck, Beatrix Alte, Johanna C Mader, Samir Jana, Annesha Chatterjee, Arindam Bhattacharyya, Michaela Hejl, Michael A Jakupec, Petra Heffeter, Walter Berger, Christian G Hartinger, Bernhard K Keppler, Gerhard Wiche, Christopher Gerner
Organometallic metal(arene) anticancer agents require ligand exchange for their anticancer activity and this is generally believed to confer low selectivity for potential cellular targets. However, using an integrated proteomics-based target-response profiling approach as a potent hypothesis-generating procedure, we found an unexpected target selectivity of a ruthenium(arene) pyridinecarbothioamide (plecstatin) for plectin, a scaffold protein and cytolinker, which was validated in a plectin knock-out model in vitro...
May 26, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546072/dendrimer-conjugated-peptide-vaccine-enhances-clearance-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-genital-infection
#5
Ingrid S Ganda, Qian Zhong, Mirabela Hali, Ricardo L C Albuquerque, Francine F Padilha, Sandro R P da Rocha, Judith A Whittum-Hudson
Peptide-based vaccines have emerged in recent years as promising candidates in the prevention of infectious diseases. However, there are many challenges to maintaining in vivo peptide stability and enhancement of peptide immunogenicity to generate protective immunity which enhances clearance of infections. Here, a dendrimer-based carrier system is proposed for peptide-based vaccine delivery, and shows its anti-microbial feasibility in a mouse model of Chlamydia trachomatis. Chlamydiae are the most prevalent sexually transmitted bacteria worldwide, and also the causal agent of trachoma, the leading cause of preventable infectious blindness...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546045/intravenous-targeted-microbubbles-carrying-urokinase-versus-urokinase-alone-in-acute-peripheral-arterial-thrombosis-in-a-porcine-model
#6
Johanna H Nederhoed, Harm P Ebben, Jeroen Slikkerveer, Arjan Wj Hoksbergen, Otto Kamp, Geert-Jan Tangelder, Willem Wisselink, René Jp Musters, Kak K Yeung
PURPOSE: Standard therapy in acute peripheral arterial occlusion consists of intra-arterial catheter guided thrombolysis. As microbubbles may be used as a carrier for fibrinolytic agents and targeted to adhere to the thrombus, we can theoretically deliver the thrombolytic medication locally following simple intravenous injection. In this intervention-controlled feasibility study, we compared intravenously administered targeted microbubbles incorporating Urokinase and locally applied ultrasound, with intravenous Urokinase and ultrasound alone...
May 22, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543747/oxazolo-4-5-b-pyridine-based-piperazinamides-as-gsk-3%C3%AE-inhibitors-with-potential-for-attenuating-inflammation-and-suppression-of-pro-inflammatory-mediators
#7
Mushtaq A Tantray, Imran Khan, Hinna Hamid, Mohammad Sarwar Alam, Abhijeet Dhulap, Ajaz Ahmad Ganai
Recent studies reveal that glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) acts as a pro-inflammatory enzyme, and by inhibiting this kinase, inflammation can be controlled. In this regard, a series of 17 piperazine-linked oxazolo[4,5-b]pyridine-based derivatives was synthesized and evaluated for in vitro GSK-3β inhibitory and in vivo anti-inflammatory activity. The compounds 7d, 7e, 7g, and 7c displayed the best GSK-3β inhibitory activity among all the synthesized compounds, with corresponding IC50 values of 0.34, 0...
May 22, 2017: Archiv der Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543738/crispr-editing-in-biological-and-biomedical-investigation
#8
Xing-Da Ju, Jing Xu, Zhong Sheng Sun
The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat)-Cas (CRISPR--associated protein) system, a prokaryotic RNA-based adaptive immune system against viral infection, is emerging as a powerful genome editing tool in broad research areas. To further improve and expand its functionality, various CRISPR delivery strategies have been tested and optimized, and key CRISPR system components such as Cas protein have been engineered with different purposes. Benefiting from more in-depth understanding and further development of CRISPR, versatile CRISPR-based platforms for genome editing have been rapidly developed to advance investigations in biology and biomedicine...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543393/model-based-evaluation-of-exenatide-effects-on-the-qt-interval-in-healthy-subjects-following-continuous-iv-infusion
#9
Brenda Cirincione, Frank LaCreta, Philip Sager, Donald E Mager
Investigation of the cardiovascular proarrhythmic potential of a new chemical entity is now an integral part of drug development. Studies suggest that meals and glycemic changes can influence QT intervals, and a semimechanistic model has been developed that incorporates the effects of changes in glucose concentrations on heart rate (HR) and QT intervals. This analysis aimed to adapt the glucose-HR-QT model to incorporate the effects of exenatide, a drug that reduces postprandial increases in glucose concentrations...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542553/quantitative-mri-for-analysis-of-peritumoral-edema-in-malignant-gliomas
#10
Ida Blystad, J B Marcel Warntjes, Örjan Smedby, Peter Lundberg, Elna-Marie Larsson, Anders Tisell
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Damage to the blood-brain barrier with subsequent contrast enhancement is a hallmark of glioblastoma. Non-enhancing tumor invasion into the peritumoral edema is, however, not usually visible on conventional magnetic resonance imaging. New quantitative techniques using relaxometry offer additional information about tissue properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate longitudinal relaxation R1, transverse relaxation R2, and proton density in the peritumoral edema in a group of patients with malignant glioma before surgery to assess whether relaxometry can detect changes not visible on conventional images...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542453/extracellular-calcium-promotes-bone-formation-from-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-by-amplifying-the-effects-of-bmp-2-on-smad-signalling
#11
Rubén Aquino-Martínez, Natalia Artigas, Beatriz Gámez, José Luis Rosa, Francesc Ventura
Understanding the molecular events that regulate osteoblast differentiation is essential for the development of effective approaches to bone regeneration. In this study, we analysed the osteoinductive properties of extracellular calcium in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (BM-MSC) differentiation. We cultured BM-MSCs in 3D gelatin scaffolds with Ca2+ and BMP-2 as osteoinductive agents. Early and late osteogenic gene expression and bone regeneration in a calvarial critical-size defect model demonstrate that extracellular Ca2+ enhances the effects of BMP-2 on Osteocalcin, Runx2 and Osterix expression and promotes bone regeneration in vivo...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542317/systematic-review-of-dietary-salt-reduction-policies-evidence-for-an-effectiveness-hierarchy
#12
Lirije Hyseni, Alex Elliot-Green, Ffion Lloyd-Williams, Chris Kypridemos, Martin O'Flaherty, Rory McGill, Lois Orton, Helen Bromley, Francesco P Cappuccio, Simon Capewell
BACKGROUND: Non-communicable disease (NCD) prevention strategies now prioritise four major risk factors: food, tobacco, alcohol and physical activity. Dietary salt intake remains much higher than recommended, increasing blood pressure, cardiovascular disease and stomach cancer. Substantial reductions in salt intake are therefore urgently needed. However, the debate continues about the most effective approaches. To inform future prevention programmes, we systematically reviewed the evidence on the effectiveness of possible salt reduction interventions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542193/an-agent-based-model-of-leukocyte-transendothelial-migration-during-atherogenesis
#13
Rita Bhui, Heather N Hayenga
A vast amount of work has been dedicated to the effects of hemodynamics and cytokines on leukocyte adhesion and trans-endothelial migration (TEM) and subsequent accumulation of leukocyte-derived foam cells in the artery wall. However, a comprehensive mechanobiological model to capture these spatiotemporal events and predict the growth and remodeling of an atherosclerotic artery is still lacking. Here, we present a multiscale model of leukocyte TEM and plaque evolution in the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery...
May 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542182/modelling-the-transmission-and-control-strategies-of-varicella-among-school-children-in-shenzhen-china
#14
Xiujuan Tang, Shi Zhao, Alice P Y Chiu, Hanwu Ma, Xu Xie, Shujiang Mei, Dongfeng Kong, Yanmin Qin, Zhigao Chen, Xin Wang, Daihai He
OBJECTIVES: Varicella (chickenpox) is a highly transmissible childhood disease. Between 2010 and 2015, it displayed two epidemic waves annually among school populations in Shenzhen, China. However, their transmission dynamics remain unclear and there is no school-based vaccination programme in Shenzhen to-date. In this study, we developed a mathematical model to compare a school-based vaccination intervention scenario with a baseline (i.e. no intervention) scenario. METHODS: Data on varicella reported cases were downloaded from the Infectious Disease Reporting Information Management System...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541920/distributed-optimization-design-of-continuous-time-multiagent-systems-with-unknown-frequency-disturbances
#15
Xinghu Wang, Yiguang Hong, Peng Yi, Haibo Ji, Yu Kang
In this paper, a distributed optimization problem is studied for continuous-time multiagent systems with unknown-frequency disturbances. A distributed gradient-based control is proposed for the agents to achieve the optimal consensus with estimating unknown frequencies and rejecting the bounded disturbance in the semi-global sense. Based on convex optimization analysis and adaptive internal model approach, the exact optimization solution can be obtained for the multiagent system disturbed by exogenous disturbances with uncertain parameters...
May 24, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541260/combination-steroid-and-test-based-food-elimination-for-eosinophilic-esophagitis-a-retrospective-analysis
#16
Gregory Constantine, Neha Seth, Niti Chokshi, Charles G Minard, Danielle Guffey, Anthony P Olive, Carla M Davis
OBJECTIVES: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a clinicopathologic disorder characterized by infiltration of eosinophils into the esophagus. Primary treatment approaches include topical corticosteroids and/or food elimination. The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of combination therapy (topical corticosteroid plus test-based food elimination [FS]) with single therapy (topical corticosteroid [S] or test-based food elimination [F]). METHODS: Chart review of patients with EoE at Texas Children's Hospital (age <21 years) was performed...
June 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541171/modeling-the-social-dynamics-of-moral-enhancement-social-strategies-sold-over-the-counter-and-the-stability-of-society
#17
Anders Sandberg, Joao Fabiano
How individuals tend to evaluate the combination of their own and other's payoffs-social value orientations-is likely to be a potential target of future moral enhancers. However, the stability of cooperation in human societies has been buttressed by evolved mildly prosocial orientations. If they could be changed, would this destabilize the cooperative structure of society? We simulate a model of moral enhancement in which agents play games with each other and can enhance their orientations based on maximizing personal satisfaction...
July 2017: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540805/the-in-vivo-performance-of-a-novel-thermal-accelerant-agent-used-for-augmentation-of-microwave-energy-delivery-within-biologic-tissues-during-image-guided-thermal-ablation-a-porcine-study
#18
William Keun Chan Park, Aaron Wilhelm Palmer Maxwell, Victoria Elizabeth Frank, Michael Patrick Primmer, Jarod Brian Paul, Scott Andrew Collins, Kara Anne Lombardo, Shaolei Lu, Tiffany Marie Borjeson, Grayson Luderman Baird, Damian Edward Dupuy
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of a novel caesium-based thermal accelerant (TA) agent on ablation zone volumes following in vivo microwave ablation of porcine liver and skeletal muscle, and to correlate the effects of TA with target organ perfusion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective study was performed following institutional animal care and use committee approval. Microwave ablation was performed in liver and resting skeletal muscle in eight Sus scrofa domesticus swine following administration of TA at concentrations of 0 mg/mL (control), 100 mg/mL and 250 mg/mL...
April 24, 2017: International Journal of Hyperthermia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540647/the-integration-of-social-influence-and-reward-computational-approaches-and-neural-evidence
#19
Damon Tomlin, Andrea Nedic, Deborah A Prentice, Philip Holmes, Jonathan D Cohen
Decades of research have established that decision-making is dramatically impacted by both the rewards an individual receives and the behavior of others. How do these distinct influences exert their influence on an individual's actions, and can the resulting behavior be effectively captured in a computational model? To address this question, we employed a novel spatial foraging game in which groups of three participants sought to find the most rewarding location in an unfamiliar two-dimensional space. As the game transitioned from one block to the next, the availability of information regarding other group members was varied systematically, revealing the relative impacts of feedback from the environment and information from other group members on individual decision-making...
May 24, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539733/molecular-docking-of-phytoligands-to-the-viral-protein-receptor-p-monodon-rab7
#20
Jerrine Joseph, Raj Bhaskaran, Muthusamy Kaliraj, Muthiyah Muthuswamy, Arumugam Suresh
The development of shrimp aquaculture has been severely affected by viral diseases resulting in a huge economic burden to the industry. White spot disease (WSD) has caused severe mortality in farmed shrimp in many countries. Globally aquaculture industries face huge economic losses due to rapid spread of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) disease that can cause 100% mortality in a short period of 3-10 days. In the present study in order to prevent the spread of WSSV disease in shrimps, the receptor, PmRab7 has been chosen as the drug target...
2017: Bioinformation
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