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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222416/functional-analysis-of-human-intrafusal-fiber-innervation-by-human-%C3%AE-motoneurons
#1
A Colón, X Guo, N Akanda, Y Cai, J J Hickman
Investigation of neuromuscular deficits and diseases such as SMA, as well as for next generation prosthetics, utilizing in vitro phenotypic models would benefit from the development of a functional neuromuscular reflex arc. The neuromuscular reflex arc is the system that integrates the proprioceptive information for muscle length and activity (sensory afferent), to modify motoneuron output to achieve graded muscle contraction (actuation efferent). The sensory portion of the arc is composed of proprioceptive sensory neurons and the muscle spindle, which is embedded in the muscle tissue and composed of intrafusal fibers...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222073/the-functional-impairments-in-a-patient-with-morvan-s-syndrome-a-case-report
#2
Stephanie Tow, Desi Carozza, Kim Barker
A 48 year-old man with lung squamous cell carcinoma was admitted to acute care with cognitive impairment after recent chemotherapy. He developed myoclonus, ataxia, agitation, and visual hallucinations. Morvan's Syndrome, a rare voltage-gated potassium channel antibody disorder characterized by neuromyotonia with central nervous system dysfunction, was eventually diagnosed. He received plasmapheresis and was admitted to inpatient rehabilitation, where he safely participated in therapies. By focusing on neuromuscular rehabilitation, balance training, fine motor skills, and cognitive retraining emphasizing skills relevant to the patient's premorbid cognitive activities, the patient demonstrated significant functional improvement, decreasing the burden of care of his caregivers...
December 5, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221945/the-relationship-of-physical-performance-and-osteoporosis-prevention-with-vitamin-d-in-older-african-americans-poda
#3
Ruban Dhaliwal, Mageda Mikhail, Gianina Usera, Alexandra Stolberg, Shahidul Islam, Louis Ragolia, John F Aloia
RATIONALE: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with bone loss, poor muscle strength, falls and fracture. This information in older African Americans (AAs) is sparse. OBJECTIVE: The study of the relationship of Physical performance, Osteoporosis prevention with vitamin D in older African Americans (PODA) is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 3-year trial examining the effect of vitamin D on bone loss and physical performance in older AA women. METHODS: 260 healthy AA women aged >60years were assigned to receive placebo or vitamin D3...
December 5, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221906/presynaptic-active-zones-of-mammalian-neuromuscular-junctions-nanoarchitecture-and-selective-impairments-in-aging
#4
REVIEW
Yomna Badawi, Hiroshi Nishimune
Neurotransmitter release occurs at active zones, which are specialized regions of the presynaptic membrane. A dense collection of proteins at the active zone provides a platform for molecular interactions that promote recruitment, docking, and priming of synaptic vesicles. At mammalian neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), muscle-derived laminin β2 interacts with presynaptic voltage-gated calcium channels to organize active zones. The molecular architecture of presynaptic active zones has been revealed using super-resolution microscopy techniques that combine nanoscale resolution and multiple molecular identification...
December 5, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221139/epstein-barr-virus-in-tumor-infiltrating-b-cells-of-myasthenia-gravis-thymoma-an-innocent-bystander-or-an-autoimmunity-mediator
#5
Paola Cavalcante, Stefania Marcuzzo, Sara Franzi, Barbara Galbardi, Lorenzo Maggi, Teresio Motta, Raffaella Ghislandi, Antonella Buzzi, Luisella Spinelli, Lorenzo Novellino, Fulvio Baggi, Carlo Antozzi, Fabio Conforti, Tommaso Martino De Pas, Massimo Barberis, Pia Bernasconi, Renato Mantegazza
The thymus plays a key role in myasthenia gravis (MG), a B cell-mediated autoimmune disorder affecting neuromuscular junction. Most MG patients have thymic abnormalities, including hyperplasia and thymoma, a neoplasm of thymic epithelial cells. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with autoimmune diseases and tumors. Recently, we showed EBV persistence and reactivation in hyperplastic MG thymuses, suggesting that EBV might contribute to intra-thymic B cell dysregulation in MG patients. Here, we investigated EBV involvement in thymoma-associated MG, by searching for EBV markers in MG (n=26) and non-MG (n=14) thymomas...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220099/supportive-palliative-care-should-be-integrated-into-routine-care-for-paediatric-patients-with-life-limiting-kidney-disease
#6
REVIEW
Julia Thumfart, Tobias Reindl, Cornelia Rheinlaender, Dominik Müller
AIM: Paediatric palliative care is no longer restricted to patients with cancer and has been extended to patients with other chronic conditions, such as cystic fibrosis or neuromuscular disorders. This review focused on the current state of palliative care for children and adolescents with chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHOD: We assessed the literature on CKD published up to August 2017. All the papers, except one from 1996, were published this century. This review discusses the role that palliative care plays in the process of decision-making and explores the possibilities of implementing palliative care into the routine therapy of affected patients and providing support for their families...
December 8, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219952/early-onset-posterior-subscapular-cataract-in-a-series-of-myotonic-dystrophy-type-2-patients
#7
C Papadopoulos, K Kekou, S Xirou, S Kitsiou-Tzeli, E Kararizou, G K Papadimas
PurposeEarly onset posterior subscapular cataract (<50 years of age) is a characteristic feature of myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2). Nevertheless, despite being operated at a young age, many patients remain undiagnosed for years. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of early onset posterior subscapular cataract as a presenting symptom of the disease in a cohort of patients with DM2.Patients and methodsWe retrospectively reviewed medical records of DM2 patients followed in our institution for the presence of early onset posterior subscapular cataract, of any secondary causes of cataract, of the age of onset of muscle weakness and of final disease diagnosis...
December 8, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218407/short-vs-long-pulses-for-testing-knee-extensor-neuromuscular-properties-does-it-matter
#8
Caroline Giroux, Boris Roduit, Javier Rodriguez-Falces, Jacques Duchateau, Nicola A Maffiuletti, Nicolas Place
PURPOSE: The present study aimed at comparing knee extensor neuromuscular properties determined with transcutaneous electrical stimulation using two pulse durations before and after a standardized fatigue protocol. METHODS: In the first sub-study, 19 healthy participants (ten women and nine men; 28 ± 5 years) took part to two separate testing sessions involving the characterization of voluntary activation (twitch interpolation technique), muscle contractility (evoked forces by single and paired stimuli), and neuromuscular propagation (M-wave amplitude from vastus lateralis and vastus medialis muscles) obtained at supramaximal intensity with a pulse duration of either 0...
December 7, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218406/correction-to-acute-and-chronic-neuromuscular-adaptations-to-local-vibration-training
#9
Robin Souron, Thibault Besson, Guillaume Y Millet, Thomas Lapole
The author would like to correct the reference in the publication of the original article. The corrected reference is given below for your reading.
December 7, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218257/pulmonary-tuberculosis-versus-recurrent-chemotherapy-induced-pneumonitis-a-clinical-dilemma
#10
Gulrayz Ahmed, Muhammad W Saif
Chemotherapy-induced lung toxicity can affect pulmonary parenchyma, pleura, airways, pulmonary vascular system, mediastinum or the neuromuscular system that is responsible for respiration. Chemotherapy-induced pulmonary toxicity is a diagnosis of exclusion. When the patients with malignancies develop pulmonary toxicity such as pneumonitis and distinguishing it from alternative diseases such as infectious, thrombotic, cardiac, malignant or exacerbation of chronic lung conditions can be difficult. Moreover, such patients are often immunosuppressed, physically stressed from the underlying disease and the cancer treatment and hence, more susceptible to usual and unusual or opportunistic infections...
October 4, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218002/xenopus-laevis-as-a-model-organism-for-the-study-of-spinal-cord-formation-development-function-and-regeneration
#11
REVIEW
Laura N Borodinsky
The spinal cord is the first central nervous system structure to develop during vertebrate embryogenesis, underscoring its importance to the organism. Because of its early formation, accessibility to the developing spinal cord in amniotes is challenging, often invasive and the experimental approaches amenable to model systems like mammals are limited. In contrast, amphibians, in general and the African-clawed frog Xenopus laevis, in particular, offer model systems in which the formation of the spinal cord, the differentiation of spinal neurons and glia and the establishment of spinal neuron and neuromuscular synapses can be easily investigated with minimal perturbations to the whole organism...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217961/clinical-profile-and-outcome-of-pediatrics-tetanus-the-experience-of-a-tertiary-hospital-in-ethiopia
#12
Henok Tadele
Background: Tetanus is an acute vaccine preventable illness manifested by neuromuscular dysfunction due to a potent exotoxin, tetanospasmin produced by Clostridium tetani. It is a common health problem in developing countries like Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess clinical profile and outcome of Pediatrics tetanus in a referral hospital, South Ethiopia. Methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study of medical records of 24 Pediatric tetanus patients who were admitted from July 2014 to June 2016 to the Pediatrics Department of Hawassa University Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Hawassa-Ethiopia...
September 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217857/a-comparison-of-haemodynamic-responses-between-clinical-assessment-guided-tracheal-intubation-and-neuromuscular-block-monitoring-guided-tracheal-intubation-a-prospective-randomised-study
#13
Rudranil Nandi, Shekhar Ranjan Basu, Susanta Sarkar, Rakesh Garg
Background and Aims: Haemodynamic responses to laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation and their hazards are well documented. The purpose of the study was to compare the effects of laryngoscopy and intubation on cardiovascular responses when the appropriate moment for intubation was directed by either clinical judgment or train-of-four assessment. Methods: A total of 68 patients, posted for laparoscopic cholecystectomy, were randomised into two groups. In Group M patients, the trachea was intubated after train of four counts became zero in adductor pollicis muscle, whereas in Group C patients, the trachea was intubated after the clinical judgment of jaw muscle relaxation...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217678/hrpu-2-a-homologue-of-mammalian-hnrnp-u-regulates-synaptic-transmission-by-controlling-the-expression-of-slo-2-potassium-channel-in-c-elegans
#14
Ping Liu, Sijie Jason Wang, Zhao-Wen Wang, Bojun Chen
Slo2 channels are large-conductance potassium channels abundantly expressed in the nervous system. However, it is unclear how their expression level in neurons is regulated. Here we report that HRPU-2, an RNA-binding protein homologous to mammalian hnRNP U, plays an important role in regulating the expression of SLO-2 (a homologue of mammalian Slo2) in C. elegans Loss-of-function (lf) mutants of hrpu-2 were isolated in a genetic screen for suppressors of a sluggish phenotype caused by a hyperactive SLO-2. In hrpu-2(lf) mutants, SLO-2-mediated delayed outward currents in neurons are greatly decreased, and neuromuscular synaptic transmission is enhanced...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217522/drosophila-syd-1-has-rhogap-activity-that-is-required-for-presynaptic-clustering-of-bruchpilot-elks-but-not-neurexin-1
#15
Michael A Spinner, David A Walla, Tory G Herman
Syd-1 proteins are required for presynaptic development in worm, fly, and mouse. Syd-1s in all three species contain a Rho GTPase activating protein (GAP)-like domain of unclear significance. Invertebrate Syd-1s are thought to lack GAP activity, and mouse mSYD1A has GAP activity that is thought to be dispensible for its function. Here we show that Drosophila melanogaster Syd-1 can interact with all six fly Rhos and has GAP activity toward Rac1 and Cdc42. During development, fly Syd-1 clusters multiple presynaptic proteins at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), including the cell adhesion molecule Neurexin (Nrx-1) and the active zone (AZ) component Bruchpilot (Brp), both of which Syd-1 binds directly...
December 7, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217407/can-we-predict-intermediate-syndrome-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Chanika Alahakoon, Tharaka Lagath Dassanayake, Indika Bandara Gawarammana, Vajira Senaka Weerasinghe
INTRODUCTION: Ingestion of organophosphorus insecticides (OPI) is a common method of deliberate self harm in the developing world. Deaths mainly follow as a result of the respiratory failure associated with both cholinergic crisis and the intermediate syndrome. Even though death can be prevented by early mechanical ventilation of these patients, limited studies are available regarding the prediction of intermediate syndrome and subsequent respiratory failure. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review articles that are published with regard to possible prediction of intermediate syndrome using clinical, biochemical and electrophysiological parameters...
December 4, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216898/is-the-relationship-between-increased-knee-muscle-strength-and-improved-physical-function-following-exercise-dependent-on-baseline-physical-function-status
#17
Michelle Hall, Rana S Hinman, Martin van der Esch, Marike van der Leeden, Jessica Kasza, Tim V Wrigley, Ben R Metcalf, Fiona Dobson, Kim L Bennell
BACKGROUND: Clinical guidelines recommend knee muscle strengthening exercises to improve physical function. However, the amount of knee muscle strength increase needed for clinically relevant improvements in physical function is unclear. Understanding how much increase in knee muscle strength is associated with improved physical function could assist clinicians in providing appropriate strength gain targets for their patients in order to optimise outcomes from exercise. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an increase in knee muscle strength is associated with improved self-reported physical function following exercise; and whether the relationship differs according to physical function status at baseline...
December 8, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216820/comparison-of-the-effect-of-different-infusion-rates-of-sufentanil-on-surgical-stress-index-during-cranial-pinning-in-children-under-general-anaesthesia-a-randomized-controlled-study
#18
In-Kyung Song, Sang-Hwan Ji, Eun-Hee Kim, Ji-Hyun Lee, Jin-Tae Kim, Hee-Soo Kim
BACKGROUND: Surgical stress index (SSI) is an established indicator for intraoperative nociception. Opioids are used to block stimulus of cranial pinning in neurosurgery. We investigated the effect of different infusion rates of sufentanil on SSI during cranial pinning in children under general anaesthesia. METHODS: Forty-nine children (2-12 years of age) underwent neurosurgery with pinning. The children were randomized into three groups based on the rate of sufentanil infusion: 0...
December 8, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216771/survey-of-the-functional-priorities-in-patients-with-disability-due-to-neuromuscular-disorders
#19
Nivedita U Jerath, Kevin Simoens, Dylan Mann, Steph Kollasch, Nicole Grosland, Karim A Malik, Chandan G Reddy
TITLE: Survey of the functional priorities in patients with disability due to neuromuscular disorders. OBJECTIVE: This study attempts to determine the functional priorities for patients with neuromuscular disorders. METHODS: A survey asking about functional priorities with respect to activities of daily living, ankle foot orthotic design, and assistive device design, was distributed to patients with neuromuscular disorders to assess the needs of patients from their perspectives...
December 8, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215185/potential-of-autologous-adipose-derived-stem-cells-to-regenerate-atrophied-muscle-in-a-rat-model
#20
Ji Ung Park, Sung Tack Kwon
Muscle atrophy results in severe functional impairment and is a significant clinical problem. We examined and characterized the therapeutic effects of autologous adipose-derived stem cells (ADCSs) using an in vivo muscle atrophy rat model. To identify the effect of injected ADSCs into muscle, we developed the following two models of muscle atrophy in rats: induction of denervation by sciatic nerve defects; and nerve repair after severing the sciatic nerve. The inguinal fat pads were harvested from each rat and autologous ADSCs were cultured and ADSCs were injected in the right hind limbs as the experimental group, while normal saline was injected in the left hind limbs, which served as the control group...
December 7, 2017: Wound Repair and Regeneration
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