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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933509/effect-of-shuanghu-qinggan-granule-and-yigan-yiqi-jieyu-granule-plus-lamivudine-on-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#1
Yong-An Ye, De-Lu Tian, Jian Jiang, Jun Li, Jian-Jie Chen, Zhi-Hong Li, Wei-Guo Ma, Yi-Ming Zhao, Rong-Bing Wang, Shi-Zhong Yang, Feng-Zhen Shao, Guang Ji, Da-Qiao Zhou, Tie-Jun Liu, Dong-Sheng Cheng, Wei Zhang, Ke-Wei Sun, Yu-Fen Wang, Le-Quan Min, Xiao-Ke Li
OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical efficacy and safety of Shuanghu Qinggan Granule ( , SQG) plus Yigan Yiqi Jieyu Granule (, YYJG) combined with lamivudine (LAM) on chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. METHODS: The study was a multicenter, randomized, double-blinded and parallel controlled trial. A total of 320 patients were randomly allocated into 2 groups equally: 160 patients (treatment group) were given SQG and YYJG combined with LAM; and 160 patients (control group) were given LAM plus Chinese herb placebo, respectively...
December 8, 2016: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932952/evaluating-tools-for-live-imaging-of-structural-plasticity-at-the-axon-initial-segment
#2
Adna S Dumitrescu, Mark D Evans, Matthew S Grubb
The axon initial segment (AIS) is a specialized neuronal compartment involved in the maintenance of axo-dendritic polarity and in the generation of action potentials. It is also a site of significant structural plasticity-manipulations of neuronal activity in vitro and in vivo can produce changes in AIS position and/or size that are associated with alterations in intrinsic excitability. However, to date all activity-dependent AIS changes have been observed in experiments carried out on fixed samples, offering only a snapshot, population-wide view of this form of plasticity...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932865/statistical-modeling-methods-to-analyze-the-impacts-of-multiunit-process-variability-on-critical-quality-attributes-of-chinese-herbal-medicine-tablets
#3
Fei Sun, Bing Xu, Yi Zhang, Shengyun Dai, Chan Yang, Xianglong Cui, Xinyuan Shi, Yanjiang Qiao
The quality of Chinese herbal medicine tablets suffers from batch-to-batch variability due to a lack of manufacturing process understanding. In this paper, the Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) immediate release tablet was taken as the research subject. By defining the dissolution of five active pharmaceutical ingredients and the tablet tensile strength as critical quality attributes (CQAs), influences of both the manipulated process parameters introduced by an orthogonal experiment design and the intermediate granules' properties on the CQAs were fully investigated by different chemometric methods, such as the partial least squares, the orthogonal projection to latent structures, and the multiblock partial least squares (MBPLS)...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932575/natural-killer-cell-granules-converge-to-avoid-collateral-damage
#4
Alex T Ritter, Ira Mellman
To clear infection, cytotoxic lymphocytes must destroy target cells while avoiding nonspecific killing of surrounding healthy cells. In this issue, Hsu et al. (2016. J. Cell Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201604136) use live-cell imaging to show that lytic granule convergence protects bystander cells from unintended death by promoting polarized secretion of soluble cytolytic proteins toward the intended target.
December 8, 2016: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932459/basophil-specific-protease-mmcp-8-provokes-an-inflammatory-response-in-the-skin-with-microvascular-hyperpermeability-and-leukocyte-infiltration
#5
Hidemitsu Tsutsui, Yoshinori Yamanishi, Hiromi Ohtsuka, Shingo Sato, Soichiro Yoshikawa, Hajime Karasuyama
Basophils have often been considered erroneously as minor relatives or blood-circulating precursors of tissue-resident mast cells, because of some phenotypic similarity between them, including basophilic secretory granules in the cytoplasm. However, recent studies revealed that the repertoire of serine proteases stored in secretory granules is distinct between them. Particularly, mouse mast cell protease 8 (mMCP-8) is specifically expressed by basophils but not mast cells in spite of its name. Therefore, mMCP-8 is commonly used as a basophil-specific marker while its functional property remains uncertain...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932063/toward-connecting-metabolism-to-the-exocytotic-site
#6
REVIEW
Mourad Ferdaoussi, Patrick E MacDonald
Within cells the regulated exocytosis of secretory granules controls multiple physiological functions, including endocrine hormone secretion. Release of the glucose-regulating hormone insulin from pancreatic islet β cells is critical for whole-body metabolic homeostasis. Impaired insulin secretion appears early in the progression to type 2 diabetes (T2D). Key mechanisms that control the β-cell exocytotic response, mediating the long-known but little understood metabolic amplification of insulin secretion, are becoming clearer...
December 5, 2016: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931173/cosmetic-wastewater-treatment-by-zvi-h2o2-process
#7
Jan Bogacki, Piotr Marcinowski, Ewa Zapałowska, Justyna Maksymiec, Jeremi Naumczyk
ZVI/H2O2 process was applied for cosmetic wastewater treatment. Two commercial zero valent iron (ZVI) types with different granulation were chosen: Hepure Ferrox PRB and Hepure Ferrox Target. In addition, the pH and stirring method influence on ZVI/H2O2 process efficiency was studied. Wastewater used in experiments was collected from the cosmetic factory located in central Poland, and was pretreated with the use of dissolved air flotation (DAF). The pretreated wastewater was characterized by Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) of 796 mg/L...
December 9, 2016: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930810/alamandine-abrogates-neutrophil-degranulation-in-atherosclerotic-mice
#8
Analina R Da Silva, Sébastien Lenglet, Federico Carbone, Fabienne Burger, Aline Roth, Luca Liberale, Aldo Bonaventura, Franco Dallegri, Nikolaos Stergiopulos, Robson A S Santos, François Mach, Rodrigo A Fraga-Silva, Fabrizio Montecucco
Neutrophil-mediated inflammation was recently identified as an active contributor to athero-progression. Therapeutic strategies inhibiting neutrophil degranulation or recruitment were hypothesized to positively impact on plaque vulnerability. In this study, we investigated whether treatment with the recently discovered agonist of the Mas-related G-coupled receptor type D (MrgD) alamandine would impact on neutrophil degranulation in vivo and in vitro MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen-week old ApoE-/- mice were fed with a Western-type diet for an additional 11 weeks...
December 8, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930381/chronic-localized-fibrosing-leukocytoclastic-vasculitis-associated-with-lymphedema-intralymphatic-and-intravascular-lymphocytosis-and-chronic-myelogenous-leukemia-a-case-report-of-unilateral-erythema-elevatum-diutinum
#9
Juliana Atallah, Juan C Garces, Enrique Loayza, John A Carlson
One of the pathogenic causes of cutaneous inflammatory pseudotumors is chronic localized fibrosing leukocytoclastic vasculitis (CLFLCV), a vasculitic reaction pattern seen in granuloma faciale (GF), a localized vasculitis, and erythema elevatum diutinum (EED), a generalized vasculitis. Patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) are at risk for a diverse spectrum of cutaneous neutrophilic dermatoses such as EED. Herein, we report a 74-year-old man who presented with a large ulcerative, fungating tumor affecting the right flexor ankle caused by CLFLCV...
December 7, 2016: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929729/fyco1-and-autophagy-control-the-integrity-of-the-haploid-male-germ-cell-specific-rnp-granules
#10
Matteo Da Ros, Tiina Lehtiniemi, Opeyemi Olotu, Daniel Fischer, Fu-Ping Zhang, Helena Vihinen, Eija Jokitalo, Anu Sironen, Jorma Toppari, Noora Kotaja
Ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granules play a major role in compartmentalizing cytoplasmic RNA regulation. Haploid round spermatids that have exceptionally diverse transcriptomes are characterized by a unique germ cell-specific RNP granule, the chromatoid body (CB). The CB shares many characteristics with somatic RNP granules but also has germline-specific features. The CB appears to be a central structure in PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA)-targeted RNA regulation. Here, we identified a novel CB component, FYCO1, which is involved in the intracellular transport of autophagic vesicles in somatic cells...
December 8, 2016: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929199/platelets-as-a-novel-source-of-gremlin-1-implications-for-thromboinflammation
#11
Madhumita Chatterjee, Alexander Behrendt, Martina Schmid, Sandra Beck, Martina Schneider, Andreas Mack, Iris Müller, Tobias Geisler, Meinrad Gawaz
Platelets mediating haemostasis-thrombosis are central players in coronary artery disease (CAD). We characterised platelets as a novel source of Gremlin-1. Platelets express Gremlin-1 like inflammatory and endothelial cells. Gremlin-1 co-localised with P-selectin containing randomly distributed α-granules under resting state, which were peripheralised following platelet activation or adhesion over fibrinogen-coated surface. Gremlin-1 release upon activation with ADP, CRP, and TRAP was detected as enhanced surface expression; also in activated platelet supernatant as detected by Western Blot following CRP activation and by ELISA upon activation with ADP, CRP, PAR-1, and PAR4 agonist...
December 8, 2016: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928935/taking-the-stock-of-granule-cargo-platelet-releasate-proteomics
#12
Oliver Pagel, Elena Walter, Kerstin Jurk, René P Zahedi
Human platelets are key players in a multitude of physiological and pathological processes. Upon activation they release cargo from different types of granules as well as microparticles in an apparently well-regulated and orchestrated manner. The resulting specific platelet releasates create microenvironments of biologically active compounds and proteins during platelet aggregation and thrombus formation, allowing efficient delivery of growth factors and immune modulators to their sites of effect and enhancing the coagulative response in a positive feedback loop...
December 8, 2016: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928130/application-of-terahertz-attenuated-total-reflection-spectroscopy-to-detect-changes-in-the-physical-properties-of-lactose-during-the-lubrication-process-required-for-drug-formulation
#13
Masafumi Dohi, Wataru Momose, Kazunari Yamashita, Tadashi Hakomori, Shusaku Sato, Shuji Noguchi, Katsuhide Terada
Manufacturing the solid dosage form of an orally administered drug requires lubrication to enhance manufacturability, ensuring that critical quality attributes such as disintegration and dissolution of the drug product are maintained during manufacture. Here, to evaluate lubrication performance during manufacture, we used terahertz attenuated total reflection (THz-ATR) spectroscopy to detect differences in the physical characteristics of the lubricated powder. We applied a simple formulation prepared by blending granulated lactose as filler with magnesium stearate as lubricant...
December 6, 2016: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927771/propagation-of-thrombosis-by-neutrophils-and-extracellular-nucleosome-networks
#14
Susanne Pfeiler, Konstantin Stark, Steffen Massberg, Bernd Engelmann
Neutrophils, early mediators of innate immune defense, are recruited to developing thrombi in different types of thrombosis. They amplify intravascular coagulation by stimulating the tissue factor-dependent extrinsic pathway via inactivation of endogenous anticoagulants, enhancing factor XII activation or decreasing plasmin generation. Neutrophil-dependent prothrombotic mechanisms are supported by the externalization of decondensed nucleosomes and granule proteins that together form neutrophil extracellular traps...
December 7, 2016: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927751/rab2a-and-rab27a-cooperatively-regulate-transition-from-granule-maturation-to-exocytosis-through-the-dual-effector-noc2
#15
Kohichi Matsunaga, Masato Taoka, Toshiaki Isobe, Tetsuro Izumi
Exocytosis of secretory granules entails budding from the trans-Golgi network, sorting and maturation of cargo proteins, and trafficking and fusion to the plasma membrane. Rab27a regulates the late steps in this process, such as granule recruitment to the fusion site, whereas Rab2a functions in the early steps, such as granule biogenesis and maturation. Here, we demonstrate that these two small GTPases simultaneously bind to Noc2 in GTP-dependent manners, although Rab2a binds only after Rab27a has bound. In pancreatic beta cells, the ternary Rab2a-Noc2-Rab27a complex specifically localizes on perinuclear immature granules, whereas the binary Noc2-Rab27a complex localizes on peripheral mature granules...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927723/coordinated-activation-of-mitochondrial-respiration-and-exocytosis-mediated-by-pkc-signaling-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#16
Jaime Santo-Domingo, Isabelle Chareyron, Loïc Dayon, Antonio Núñez Galindo, Ornella Cominetti, María Pilar Giner Giménez, Umberto De Marchi, Carles Canto, Martin Kussmann, Andreas Wiederkehr
Mitochondria play a central role in pancreatic β-cell nutrient sensing by coupling their metabolism to plasma membrane excitability and insulin granule exocytosis. Whether non-nutrient secretagogues stimulate mitochondria as part of the molecular mechanism to promote insulin secretion is not known. Here, we show that PKC signaling, which is employed by many non-nutrient secretagogues, augments mitochondrial respiration in INS-1E (rat insulinoma cell line clone 1E) and human pancreatic β-cells. The phorbol ester, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, accelerates mitochondrial respiration at both resting and stimulatory glucose concentrations...
December 7, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926430/insights-in-waste-management-bioprocesses-using-genomic-tools
#17
H J Purohit, A Kapley, A Khardenavis, A Qureshi, N A Dafale
Microbial capacities drive waste stabilization and resource recovery in environmental friendly processes. Depending on the composition of waste, a stress-mediated selection process ensures a scenario that generates a specific enrichment of microbial community. These communities dynamically change over a period of time while keeping the performance through the required utilization capacities. Depending on the environmental conditions, these communities select the appropriate partners so as to maintain the desired functional capacities...
2016: Advances in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924176/our-clinical-experience-of-self-expanding-metal-stent-for-malignant-central-airway-obstruction
#18
Akash Verma, Chee Kiang Phua, Qiu Mei Wu, Wen Yuan Sim, Audrey Wee Chuan Rui, Soon Keng Goh, Benjamin Ho, Ai Ching Kor, Andrew S Y Wong, Albert Y H Lim, Dessmon Y H Tai, John Abisheganaden
BACKGROUND: We studied the safety, effectiveness, and limitations of airway stenting using self-expanding metal stent (SEMS) in patients with malignant central airway obstruction (CAO). METHODS: A retrospective review of records of patients undergoing SEMS placement for malignant CAO during year 2013 - 2014 was done. RESULTS: Sixteen patients (11 males and five females) underwent SEMS placement for malignant CAO. Median (range) age was 66 (54 - 78) years...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924122/a-tomato-plastidic-atp-adp-transporter-gene-slaatp-increases-starch-content-in-transgenic-arabidopsis
#19
Feibing Wang, Yuxiu Ye, Yuan Niu, Faxiang Wan, Bo Qi, Xinhong Chen, Qing Zhou, Boqing Chen
A plastidic ATP/ADP transporter (AATP) is responsible for importing ATP from the cytosol into plastids. Increasing the ATP supply is a potential way to facilitate anabolic synthesis in heterotrophic plastids of plants. In this work, a gene encoding the AATP protein, named SlAATP, was successfully isolated from tomato. Expression of SlAATP was induced by exogenous sucrose treatment in tomato. The coding region of SlAATP was cloned into a binary vector under the control of 35S promoter and then transformed into Arabidopsis to obtain transgenic plants...
October 2016: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923601/understanding-the-molecular-mechanisms-of-nets-and-their-role-in-antiviral-innate-immunity
#20
REVIEW
Juan Manuel Agraz-Cibrian, Diana M Giraldo, Fafutis-Morris Mary, Silvio Urcuqui-Inchima
Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) are the most abundant cells in the context of innate immunity; they are one of the first cells to arrive at the site of viral infection constituting the first line of defense in response to invading pathogens. Indeed, neutrophils are provided with several defense mechanisms including release of cytokines, cytotoxic granules and the last recently described neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). The main components of NETs are DNA, granular antimicrobial peptides, and nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins, that together play an important role in the innate immune response...
December 3, 2016: Virus Research
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