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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087923/enhanced-aerobic-sludge-granulation-by-seeding-concentrated-activated-sludge-with-ca-alginate-gel
#1
Can Sun
The present study focuses on the effect of Ca-alginate gel on aerobic sludge granulation. Three sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) seeded with different mixtures of Ca-alginate gel and activated sludge with the fraction (weight/weight of dry biomass) of 0%, 5.5% and 15.5% respectively. The granulation time of 14 days was obtained with 5.5% additive, whilst 32 days were needed to adapt aerobic granules developed with 0% Ca-alginate gel. Full granulation was achieved in the trial with 15.5% additive from the 20th day...
December 9, 2016: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087337/tunicamycin-impairs-olfactory-learning-and-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-olfactory-bulb
#2
Jia Tong, Fumino Okutani, Yoshihiro Murata, Mustuo Taniguchi, Toshiharu Namba, Yu-Jie Wang, Hideto Kaba
Tunicamycin (TM) induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inhibits N-glycosylation in cells. ER stress is associated with neuronal death in neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, and most patients complain of the impairment of olfactory recognition. Here we examined the effects of TM on aversive olfactory learning and the underlying synaptic plasticity in the main olfactory bulb (MOB). Behavioral experiments demonstrated that the intrabulbar infusion of TM disabled aversive olfactory learning without affecting short-term memory...
January 10, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081565/leucine-rich-%C3%AE-2-glycoprotein-a-novel-neutrophil-granule-protein-and-modulator-of-myelopoiesis
#3
Lawrence J Druhan, Amanda Lance, Shimena Li, Andrea E Price, Jacob T Emerson, Sarah A Baxter, Jonathan M Gerber, Belinda R Avalos
Leucine-rich α2 glycoprotein (LRG1), a serum protein produced by hepatocytes, has been implicated in angiogenesis and tumor promotion. Our laboratory previously reported the expression of LRG1 in murine myeloid cell lines undergoing neutrophilic granulocyte differentiation. However, the presence of LRG1 in primary human neutrophils and a role for LRG1 in regulation of hematopoiesis have not been previously described. Here we show that LRG1 is packaged into the granule compartment of human neutrophils and secreted upon neutrophil activation to modulate the microenvironment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079980/induction-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-differentiation-in-the-absence-of-soluble-inducer-for-cutaneous-wound-regeneration-by-a-chitin-nanofibers-based-hydrogel
#4
Kangquan Shou, Yao Huang, Baiwen Qi, Xiang Hu, Zhanjun Ma, Ang Lu, Chao Jian, Lina Zhang, Aixi Yu
Transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) has been considered as a promising strategy for wound healing. However, poor viability of engrafted BMSCs and limited capabilities of differentiation into the desired cell types in wounds often hinder their application. Few studies report the induction of BMSCs differentiation into the skin regeneration related cell types using natural biopolymer, e.g., chitin and its derivative. Here we utilized a chitin nanofibers(CNFs) hydrogel as a directive cue to induce BMSCs differentiation for enhancing cutaneous wound regeneration in the absence of cell-differentiating factors...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078347/alterations-of-the-platelet-proteome-in-type-i-glanzmann-thrombasthenia-caused-by-different-homozygous-delg-frameshift-mutations-in-itga2b
#5
Stefan Loroch, Katharina Trabold, Stepan Gambaryan, Cora Reiß, Kathrin Schwierczek, Ingrid Fleming, Albert Sickmann, Wolfgang Behnisch, Barbara Zieger, René P Zahedi, Ulrich Walter, Kerstin Jurk
Glanzmann thrombasthenia (GT) is one of the best characterized inherited platelet function disorders but global platelet proteome has not been determined in these patients. We investigated the proteome and function of platelets from two patients with type I GT, caused by different homozygous ITGA2b mutations, from family members and unrelated controls. The global proteome of highly purified washed platelets was quantified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and targeted MS-methods. Platelet function was analysed by flow cytometry, light transmission aggregometry and flow-based assays...
January 12, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077649/tcr-clonotype-specific-differences-in-inhibitory-activity-of-hiv-1-cytotoxic-t-cell-clones-is-not-mediated-by-tcr-alone
#6
Nina C Flerin, Huabiao Chen, Tynisha D Glover, Pedro A Lamothe, Jian Hua Zheng, Justin W Fang, Zaza M Ndhlovu, Evan W Newell, Mark M Davis, Bruce D Walker, Harris Goldstein
: Functional analysis of T cell responses in HIV-infected individuals has indicated that virus-specific CD8(+) T cells with superior antiviral efficacy are well represented in HIV-1 controllers but are rare or absent in HIV-1 progessors. To define the role of individual TCR clonotypes in differential antiviral CD8(+) T cell function, we performed detailed functional and mass cytometric cluster analysis of multiple CD8(+) T cell clones recognizing the identical HLA-B*2705-restricted HIV-1 epitope KK10 (KRWIILGLNK)...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077511/altered-connectivity-and-synapse-maturation-of-the-hippocampal-mossy-fiber-pathway-in-a-mouse-model-of-the-fragile-x-syndrome
#7
F Scharkowski, Michael Frotscher, David Lutz, Martin Korte, Kristin Michaelsen-Preusse
The Fragile X syndrome (FXS) as the most common monogenetic cause of cognitive impairment and autism indicates how tightly the dysregulation of synapse development is linked to cognitive deficits. Symptoms of FXS include excessive adherence to patterns that point to compromised hippocampal network formation. Surprisingly, one of the most complex hippocampal synapses connecting the dentate gyrus (DG) to CA3 pyramidal neurons has not been analyzed in FXS yet. Intriguingly, we found altered synaptic function between DG and CA3 in a mouse model of FXS (fmr1 knockout [KO]) demonstrated by increased mossy fiber-dependent miniature excitatory postsynaptic current (mEPSC) frequency at CA3 pyramidal neurons together with increased connectivity between granule cells and CA3 neurons...
January 10, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077416/platelet-secretion-is-crucial-to-prevent-bleeding-in-the-ischemic-brain-but-not-in-the-inflamed-skin-or-lung-in-mice
#8
Carsten Deppermann, Peter Kraft, Julia Volz, Michael K Schuhmann, Sarah Beck, Karen Wolf, David Stegner, Guido Stoll, Bernhard Nieswandt
Platelets maintain hemostasis after injury, but also during inflammation. Recent studies have shown that platelets prevent inflammatory bleeding through (hem)ITAM-dependent mechanisms irrespective of aggregation during skin and lung inflammation. While the exact mechanisms underlying this process remain unknown, it was speculated that mediators released from platelet granules might be involved. Maintaining cerebral hemostasis during stroke treatment is of high clinical relevance as hemorrhage may aggravate the disease state and increase mortality...
January 11, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076789/reduced-insulin-igf-1-signaling-restores-the-dynamic-properties-of-key-stress-granule-proteins-during-aging
#9
Marie C Lechler, Emily D Crawford, Nicole Groh, Katja Widmaier, Raimund Jung, Janine Kirstein, Jonathan C Trinidad, Alma L Burlingame, Della C David
Low-complexity "prion-like" domains in key RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) mediate the reversible assembly of RNA granules. Individual RBPs harboring these domains have been linked to specific neurodegenerative diseases. Although their aggregation in neurodegeneration has been extensively characterized, it remains unknown how the process of aging disturbs RBP dynamics. We show that a wide variety of RNA granule components, including stress granule proteins, become highly insoluble with age in C. elegans and that reduced insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) daf-2 receptor signaling efficiently prevents their aggregation...
January 10, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076500/histological-evaluation-of-capsules-formed-by-silicon-implants-coated-with-polyurethane-foam-and-with-a-textured-surface-in-rats
#10
Eduardo Nascimento Silva, Jurandir Marcondes Ribas-Filho, Nicolau Gregori Czeczko, Jan Pawel Andrade Pachnicki, Mário Rodrigues Montemor Netto, Leandro Cavalcante Lipinski, Lucia de Noronha, Joelmir Colman, João Otavio Zeni, Caroline Aragão de Carvalho
PURPOSE: To assess the capsules formed by silicone implants coated with polyurethane foam and with a textured surface. METHODS: Sixty-four Wistar albinus rats were divided into two groups of 32 each using polyurethane foam and textured surface. The capsules around the implants were analyzed for 30, 50, 70 and 90 days. Were analyzed the following parameters: foreign body reaction, granulation tissue, presence of myofibroblasts, neoangiogenesis, presence of synovial metaplasia, capsular thickness, total area and collagen percentage of type I and III, in capsules formed around silicone implants in both groups...
December 2016: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075530/dysregulation-of-pldn-pallidin-is-a-mechanism-for-platelet-dense-granule-deficiency-in-runx1-haplodeficiency
#11
G F Mao, L E Goldfinger, D C Fan, M P Lambert, G Jalagadugula, R Freishtat, A K Rao
BACKGROUND: Inherited RUNX1 haplodeficiency is associated with thrombocytopenia and platelet dysfunction. Dense granule (DG) deficiency is reported in patients with RUNX1 haplodeficiency, but the molecular mechanisms are unknown. Platelet mRNA expression profiling in a patient previously reported by us with a RUNX1 mutation and platelet dysfunction showed decreased expression of PLDN (BLOC1S6), which encodes for pallidin, a subunit of BLOC-1 (biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex-1) involved in granule biogenesis...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074895/multi-cellular-natural-killer-nk-cell-clusters-enhance-nk-cell-activation-through-localizing-il-2-within-the-cluster
#12
Miju Kim, Tae-Jin Kim, Hye Mi Kim, Junsang Doh, Kyung-Mi Lee
Multi-cellular cluster formation of natural killer (NK) cells occurs during in vivo priming and potentiates their activation to IL-2. However, the precise mechanism underlying this synergy within NK cell clusters remains unclear. We employed lymphocyte-laden microwell technologies to modulate contact-mediated multi-cellular interactions among activating NK cells and to quantitatively assess the molecular events occurring in multi-cellular clusters of NK cells. NK cells in social microwells, which allow cell-to-cell contact, exhibited significantly higher levels of IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) signaling compared with those in lonesome microwells, which prevent intercellular contact...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074714/oncocytic-carcinoma-of-the-salivary-gland-in-a-dog
#13
Rei Nakahira, Masaki Michishita, Misaki Kato, Yuki Okuno, Hitoshi Hatakeyama, Hisashi Yoshimura, Daigo Azakami, Kazuhiko Ochiai, Makoto Bonkobara, Kimimasa Takahashi
A 3-y-old male miniature Dachshund was presented with an ~0.8 cm diameter mass in the right mandibular region. Fourteen months later, the mass was 5 × 4 × 3 cm. Grossly, the mass was encapsulated and was homogeneously gray-white on cut surface. Microscopically, the mass was composed of large, round to polygonal tumor cells that were arranged in solid nests and cords separated by a fibrovascular stroma. Tumor cells had large, round, hypochromatic nuclei containing large prominent nucleoli and abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm containing dark blue granules visible with phosphotungstic acid-hematoxylin stain...
January 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074422/compacted-multiparticulate-systems-for-colon-specific-delivery-of-ketoprofen
#14
Rodrigo Gomes de Alencar, Aline Carlos de Oliveira, Eliana Martins Lima, Marcílio Sérgio Soares da Cunha-Filho, Stephânia Fleury Taveira, Ricardo Neves Marreto
Pellet-containing tablets for colon-specific drug delivery present higher targeting efficiency and lower costs when compared with monolithic tablets and pellet-filled capsules, respectively. In this study, pellets containing ketoprofen were coated with different acrylic polymers and submitted to compaction. The influence of formulation and process factors on film integrity was then evaluated. Pellets were prepared via extrusion-spheronization and coated using two acrylic polymers (Eudragit® FS 30 D and Opadry® 94 k28327, PMMA and PMA, respectively)...
January 10, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074025/flavivirus-infection-uncouples-translation-suppression-from-cellular-stress-responses
#15
Hanna Roth, Vera Magg, Fabian Uch, Pascal Mutz, Philipp Klein, Katharina Haneke, Volker Lohmann, Ralf Bartenschlager, Oliver T Fackler, Nicolas Locker, Georg Stoecklin, Alessia Ruggieri
: As obligate parasites, viruses strictly depend on host cell translation for the production of new progeny, yet infected cells also synthesize antiviral proteins to limit virus infection. Modulation of host cell translation therefore represents a frequent strategy by which viruses optimize their replication and spread. Here we sought to define how host cell translation is regulated during infection of human cells with dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV), two positive-strand RNA flaviviruses...
January 10, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070472/utilizing-the-veraflo%C3%A2-instillation-negative-pressure-wound-therapy-system-with-advanced-care-for-a-case-study
#16
Rita K Driver
BACKGROUND:  Mankind has always suffered wounds throughout time due to trauma, disease, and lifestyles. Many wounds are non-healing and have continued to be challenging. However, utilizing advanced wound care treatments, such as negative pressure wound treatment with instillation and dwell time (NPWTi-d), has proven beneficial. NPWTi-d is indicated in a variety of wounds, such as trauma, surgical, acute, pressure injuries, diabetic foot ulcers, and venous leg ulcers. Bacteria and bioburden interrupts wound healing by increasing the metabolic needs, ingesting, and robbing the necessary nutrients and oxygen...
November 30, 2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070315/evaluation-of-analytical-methods-for-the-determination-of-the-physicochemical-properties-of-fermented-granulated-and-roasted-cassava-pulp-gari
#17
Cornelia Felber, Yaovi Ouézou Azouma, Marcus Reppich
Simple but reliable methods for the determination of the physicochemical properties of gari were evaluated for the parameters, such as grain size, bulk density, swelling index, moisture content, gross calorific value, cyanide content, and acidity content. The grain sizes were between 525 and 928 μm (weighted means), the bulk densities between 0.541 and 0.699 g/cm³, and the swelling indices between 3.21 and 4.33. The moisture contents ranged from 4.30 to 9.19%. The gross calorific values were found between 15...
January 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070078/atr-ft-ir-and-nir-auto-correlation-spectroscopic-analysis-of-powder-blending-uniformity-of-low-content-magnesium-stearate-and-potato-starch
#18
Yusuke Hattori, Makoto Otsuka
Here, we report on near-infrared and ATR/FT-IR spectroscopic measurements of magnesium stearate and potato starch powder blends. In the pharmaceutical and food industries, magnesium stearate is commonly used as a supplement in powder blends or granules for the purpose of lubrication and to minimize aggregation and adherence. However, excessive blending of magnesium stearate (MgSt) may lead to unwanted effects, and more particularly during the manufacturing of products. Upon blending, the IR bands due to both CH symmetric and anti-symmetric stretching modes decreased and displayed a frequency shift to higher wavenumber as the blending duration increased...
2017: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070066/molecular-structural-analysis-of-spider-s-capture-thread-and-viscid-droplets-studied-by-microscopic-ft-ir-spectroscopy
#19
Hironobu Yabe, Norihisa Katayama, Mitsuhiro Miyazawa
The molecular structural analysis of capture thread, including its viscid droplets of oriental golden orb-web spider Nephila clavata, has been performed by microscopic FT-IR spectroscopy. The obtained spectra of capture threads with and without viscid droplets indicate that the features in the region of 1400 - 1000 cm(-1) will be useful as marker bands for the degree of the dissolving of viscid droplet; further, the bands at 1395 and 1335 cm(-1) are attributable to the components of anchoring granules located at the inner side of viscid droplets...
2017: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069661/bimodal-dynamics-of-granular-organelles-in-primary-renin-expressing-cells-revealed-using-tirf-microscopy
#20
Charlotte Buckley, Alison R Dun, Audrey Peter, Christopher Bellamy, Kenneth W Gross, Rory R Duncan, John J Mullins
Renin is the initiator and rate-limiting factor in the renin-angiotensin blood pressure regulation system. Although renin is not exclusively produced in the kidney, in nonmurine species the synthesis and secretion of the active circulatory enzyme is confined almost exclusively to the dense core granules of juxtaglomerular (JG) cells, where prorenin is processed and stored for release via a regulated pathway. Despite its importance, the structural organization and regulation of granules within these cells is not well understood, in part due to the difficulty in culturing primary JG cells in vitro and the lack of appropriate cell lines...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
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