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Muhammad Ali, Dario Rangel Shaw, Lei Zhang, Mohamed Fauzi Haroon, Yuko Narita, Abdul-Hamid Emwas, Pascal E Saikaly, Satoshi Okabe
Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria are well known for their aggregation ability. However, very little is known about cell surface physicochemical properties of anammox bacteria and thus their aggregation abilities have not been quantitatively evaluated yet. Here, we investigated the aggregation abilities of three different anammox bacterial species: "Candidatus Brocadia sinica", "Ca. Jettenia caeni" and "Ca. Brocadia sapporoensis". Planktonic free-living enrichment cultures of these three anammox species were harvested from the membrane bioreactors (MBRs)...
June 12, 2018: Water Research
Kritarth Singh, Lakshmi Sripada, AnastasiaLipatova, Milton Roy, Paresh Prajapati, Dhruv Gohil, Khyati Bhatelia, Peter M Chumakov, Rajesh Singh
The role of mitochondria is emerging in regulation of innate immunity, inflammation and cell death beyond its primary role in energy metabolism. Mitochondria act as molecular platform for immune adaptor protein complexes, which participate in innate immune signaling. The mitochondrial localized immune adaptors are widely expressed in non-immune cells, however their role in regulation of mitochondrial function and metabolic adaption is not well understood. NLRX1, a member of NOD family receptor proteins, localizes to mitochondria and is a negative regulator of anti-viral signaling...
June 19, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Julie C Nielsen, Cathrine Nordgaard, Maxim A X Tollenaere, Simon Bekker-Jensen
Centriolar satellites (CS) are small proteinaceous granules that cluster around the centrosome and serve as cargo vehicles for centrosomal proteins. It is generally accepted that CS support a number of canonical and specialized centrosome functions. Consequently, these highly dynamic structures are the target of regulation by several cellular signalling pathways. Two decades of research have led to the identification of a large number of molecular components and new biological roles of CS. Here, we summarize the latest advances in the continuous efforts to uncover the compositional, functional, dynamic and regulatory aspects of CS...
June 22, 2018: Cells
Jianling Sun, Liqiang Luo
Studying the accumulation position and forms of heavy metals (HMs) in organisms and cells is helpful to understand the transport process and detoxification mechanism. As typical HMs, lead (Pb) subcellular content, localization, and speciation of corn subcellular fractions were studied by a series of technologies, including transmission electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and X-ray absorption near edge structure. The results revealed that the electrodense granules of Pb were localized in the cell wall, intercellular space, and plasma membranes...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Martin E M Parsons, Paulina B Szklanna, Jose A Guererro, Kieran Wynne, Feidhlim Dervin, Karen O'Connell, Seamus Allen, Karl Egan, Cavan Bennett, Christopher McGuigan, Cedric Gheveart, Fionnuala Ní Áinle, Patricia B Maguire
Upon activation, platelets release a powerful cocktail of soluble and vesicular signals, collectively termed the 'platelet releasate' (PR). Although several studies have used qualitative/quantitative proteomic approaches to characterise PR; with debated content and significant inter-individual variability reported, confident and reliable insights have been hindered. Using label-free quantitative (LFQ)-proteomics analysis, we provide a reproducible, quantifiable investigation of the 1U/ml thrombin-induced PR from 32 healthy adults...
June 22, 2018: Proteomics
A V Gerasimov, V P Kostyuchenko, A V Potapov, E Yu Varakuta, M R Karpova, G A Sukhanova, S V Logvinov
The numerical density of secretory granules dense-core vesicles (DCV) in the cytoplasm of pinealocytes of the pineal gland was estimated by transmission electron microscopy in male white mice and Wistar rats. The 3-day biorhythm and lunaphase changes in the DCV content in the perikaryon and the processes of pinealocytes, which are manifested significantly in different seasons of the year, are established. The three-day biorhythm in adult male mice in comparison with younger male rats is not expressed uniformly in different phases of the moon...
June 21, 2018: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Patrik T Nilsson, Ulf Bergendorf, Håkan Tinnerberg, Erik Nordin, Mats Gustavsson, Bo Strandberg, Maria Albin, Anders Gudmundsson
The risk among asphalt workers of developing adverse health effects may increase due to their occupational exposure. One area of special concern arises when rubber granules are mixed into bitumen to enhance asphalt properties. This research characterizes and compares bitumen and rubber bitumen regarding the emissions of and workers' exposure to particulates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and benzothiazole. A laboratory and a field study were carried out. In the laboratory, two types of bitumen, one with and one without rubber, were heated up to two temperatures (140°C and 160°C)...
June 21, 2018: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
Victoria Schlanser, Andrew Dennis, Katarina Ivkovic, Kimberly Joseph, Matthew Kaminsky, Thomas Messer, Stathis Poulakidas, Frederic Starr, Faran Bokhari
Reconstruction of skin and soft tissue wounds can pose a unique surgical challenge. This is especially true for cases of exposed bone and tendon where soft tissue loss is extensive and opportunities for tissue advancement or rotation are limited. A clinical case is presented describing an experience with dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane (dHACM, EpiFix®/AmnioFix®, MiMedx Group, Marietta, GA) graft to obtain granulation over an open fracture with desiccated bone. The 22-year-old female trauma patient presented with high-grade bilateral lower extremity soft tissue loss after being run over and dragged by a semitruck...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
Yang Wang, Juan-Juan Chen, Xiao-Fei Wang, Qiang Wang
AIM: To detect the expression of Raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP) in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) and to analyze its relationship with clinicopatholgical characteristics and prognosis of this disease. METHODS: Sixty-three patients with pathologically diagnosed GISTs who underwent surgical resection at the Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University from January 2011 to January 2015 and had complete clinical, pathological, and follow-up data were included...
June 21, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Theodora A M Claushuis, Sacha F de Stoppelaar, Alex F de Vos, Anita E Grootemaat, Nicole N van der Wel, Joris Roelofs, Jerry Ware, Cornelis Van't Veer, Tom van der Poll
OBJECTIVE: Nbeal2 -/- mice, a model of human gray platelet syndrome, have reduced neutrophil granularity and impaired host defense against systemic Staphylococcus aureus infection. We here aimed to study the role of Nbeal2 deficiency in both leukocytes and platelets during gram-negative pneumonia and sepsis. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We studied the role of Nbeal2 in platelets and leukocytes during murine pneumonia and sepsis by Klebsiella pneumoniae . Apart from platelet α-granule deficiency and reduced neutrophil granularity, also monocyte granularity was reduced in Nbeal2 -/ - mice, whereas plasma levels of MPO (myeloperoxidase), elastase, NGAL (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin), and MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase 9), and leukocyte CD11b expression were increased...
June 21, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
A P Brandão, R F Cooke, K M Schubach, R S Marques
Nutritional alternatives to strengthen animal immunocompetence are critical for welfare and productivity in livestock systems, such as beef cattle operations. This experiment evaluated physiological and innate immunity effects of supplementing an immunomodulatory feed ingredient (Omnigen-AF; Phibro Animal Health, Teaneck, NJ, USA) to beef heifers administered bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In total, 8 non-pregnant, non-lactating nulliparous Angus×Hereford heifers (676±4 days of age) were ranked by BW (473±8 kg), and assigned to crossover design containing two periods of 34 days each...
June 22, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Laura Polledo, Guy C M Grinwis, Peter Graham, Mark Dunning, Kerstin Baiker
With the exception of classic functional adenomas in dogs and horses, pituitary lesions are infrequently described in the veterinary literature. Approximately 10% of pituitary glands from asymptomatic humans contain abnormalities, but the equivalent proportion in small animals is unknown. Pituitary glands from 136 dogs and 65 cats collected during routine necropsies were examined to determine the prevalence of pituitary lesions and their histopathological diagnosis. Lesions were characterized in sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), Gordon and Sweet's and reticulin stains, and immunohistochemistry for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), growth hormone, melanocyte stimulating hormone-α, and prolactin...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
O V Vikhreva, V I Rakhmanova, D D Orlovskaya, N A Uranova
AIM: Previously the authors have reported the ultrastructural pathology and deficits of oligodendrocytes in gray and white matter of the prefrontal cortex in continuous paranoid schizophrenia. The aim of the present work was to study the effects of microglia on the ultrastructure of oligodendrocytes in white matter underlying the prefrontal cortex (BA10) in attack-like schizophrenia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Postmortem morphometric electron microscopic study of oligodendrocytes in close apposition to microglia was performed in white matter underlying the prefrontal cortex (BA10)...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Ju Hyoung Lim, Ho-Gun Rhie, Jeong Nam Kim
Pseudomonas fluorescens KLR101 was found to be capable of producing polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) using various sugars and fatty acids with carbon numbers ranging from 2 to 6. PHA granules mainly consisted of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) homopolymer and/or poly(3-hydroxybutyrate- co -3-hydroxyvalerate) copolymer. Genomic DNA of P. fluorescens was fractionated and cloned into a lambda library, in which a 5.8-kb fragment hybridized to a heterologous phaC probe from Ralstonia eutropha was identified. In vivo expression in Klebsiella aerogenes KC2671 (pUMS), restriction mapping, Southern hybridization experiments, and sequencing data revealed that PHA biosynthesis by P...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Zhi-Wang Wang, Xiao-Yan Fu, Xiao-Li Cheng, Xiao-Ying Bao, Xue-Feng Liu, Hai-Jing Duan
OBJECTIVES: To observe the preventive and therapeutic action of Yuyin Ruangan Granule (YRG, Traditional Chinese Medicine) in hepatic fibrosis rats model and its effect on transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) expression. METHODS: The Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 group ( n =10), and the model of hepatic fibrosis rats was established by subcutaneous injected with carbon tetrachloride (CCL4), fed on high-fat diet and 20% ethanol for 6 weeks, to survey the effect and mechanism of YRG preventing hypatic fibrosis by detecting liver function (the activity of alanine aminotransferase(ALT), aspartate aminotransferase(AST), etc...
February 8, 2018: Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology
Ji-Wei Ma, Hong-Tian Wang, Hao-Fei Liu, Lei-Peng Dong, Yuan Ding, Ji-Qiong Bai, Zhu Zhang, Li-Jie Dong
OBJECTIVES: Stably expressed transforming growth factor -beta 1(TGF-β1)MCs were obtained and the effects of centellaasiatica (CA) granule on the expressions of Smad 2/3, Smad 7 and collagen Ⅳ and the level of Smad 2/3 phosphorylation were observed. METHODS: Lipofectin method was used to transfect TGF-β1 vector into MC, and the stably expressed TGF-β1 cell lines were selected by G418. The cells were divided into three groups. Control group:normal MC + RPMI 1640 + 10% normal rat serum; TGF-β1 group:stably expressed TGF-β1 MC + RPMI 1640 + 10% normal rat serum; CA group:stably expressed TGF-β1 MC + RPMI 1640 + 10% rat serum containing high CA...
February 8, 2018: Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology
Ji-Wei Ma, Hong-Tian Wang, Hao-Fei Liu, Yuan Ding, Ji-Qiong Bai, Zhu Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of centella asiatica (CA) granule on the expression of transform growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 ) and related down-stream signals in rats with early diabetic nephropathy(DN) and to clarify the molecular mechanisms of CA molecular mechanism of on preventing and curing early diabetic kidney disease DN by studying the effects of centella asiatica on TGF-β1 expression and related down-stream signals. METHODS: Sixty male SD rats were divided into control group( n =10) and DN model group( n =50)...
January 8, 2018: Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology
Ze-Hua Hu, Zhao-Fen Yu, Jin Huang, Xue-Fei Chen, De-Bin Huang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of Coriaria Sinica Maxim's extract(CSME) on microcirculation and oxidative stress of wounds in rats with deep second-degree burn. METHODS: One hundred and eighty rats were randomly divided into normal saline group(NS), white petroleum group(WPL), silver sulfadiazine group (SSD), Coriariasinica Maxim's extract group which were divided into low dose(CSME-L),middle dose(CSME-M) and high dose(CSME-H). After anesthesia with burn instrument to burn the hair removal area of rats, these wounds were confirmed by pathological results with deep second degree burns...
January 8, 2018: Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology
Delphine Hardy, Sarah Malvaut, Vincent Breton-Provencher, Armen Saghatelyan
The adult mouse olfactory bulb is continuously supplied with new neurons that mostly differentiate into granule cells (GCs). Different subtypes of adult-born GCs have been identified, but their maturational profiles and their roles in bulbar network functioning and odor behavior remain elusive. It is also not known whether the same subpopulations of GCs born during early postnatal life (early-born) or during adulthood (adult-born) differ in their morpho-functional properties. Here, we show that adult-born calretinin-expressing (CR+ ) and non-expressing (CR- ) GCs, as well as early-born CR+ GCs, display distinct inhibitory inputs but indistinguishable excitatory inputs and similar morphological characteristics...
June 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Caterina Casari, David S Paul, Sophie Susen, Cécile Lavenu-Bombled, Annie Harroche, Raymond Piatt, Kathryn O Poe, Robert H Lee, Marijke Bryckaert, Olivier D Christophe, Peter J Lenting, Cécile V Denis, Wolfgang Bergmeier
von Willebrand disease (VWD) type 2B is characterized by gain-of-function mutations in von Willebrand factor (VWF), enhancing its binding affinity for the platelet receptor glycoprotein (GP)Ibα. VWD type 2B patients display a bleeding tendency associated with loss of high-molecular-weight VWF multimers and variable thrombocytopenia. We recently demonstrated that a marked defect in agonist-induced activation of the small GTPase, Rap1, and integrin αIIbβ3 in VWD (p.V1316M) type 2B platelets also contributes to the bleeding tendency...
June 26, 2018: Blood Advances
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