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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679679/activation-of-cyclic-gmp-dependent-protein-kinase-blocks-alcohol-mediated-cell-death-and-calcium-disruption-in-cerebellar-granule-neurons
#1
Dimitrios E Kouzoukas, Ramesh C Bhalla, Nicholas J Pantazis
Alcohol during brain development leads to the widespread neuronal death observed in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). In comparison, the mature brain is less vulnerable to alcohol. Studies into maturation-acquired alcohol resistance uncovered a protective mechanism that reduces alcohol-induced neuronal death through nitric oxide-cGMP-cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (NO-cGMP-cGK) signaling. However, the downstream processes underlying this neuroprotection remain unclear. Alcohol can disrupt levels of intracellular calcium ([Ca2+ ]i ) in vulnerable neuronal populations to trigger cell death in both in vivo and in vitro models of FASD...
April 18, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679656/pd-1-blocks-lytic-granule-polarization-with-concomitant-impairment-of-integrin-outside-in-signaling-in-natural-killer-cell-immunological-synapse
#2
Yu Huang, Zhiying Chen, Joon Hee Jang, Mirza S Baig, Grant Bertolet, Casey Schroeder, Shengjian Huang, Qian Hu, Yong Zhao, Dorothy E Lewis, Lidong Qin, Michael Xi Zhu, Dongfang Liu
BACKGROUND: Inhibitory receptor programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) is upregulated on a variety of immune cells, including natural killer (NK) cells, during chronic virus infection and tumorigenesis. Blockade of PD-1 or its ligands produces durable clinical responses with tolerable side effects in patients with a broad spectrum of cancers. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of how PD-1 regulates NK cell function remain poorly characterized. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine what effect PD-1 signaling has on NK cells...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679542/treatments-for-diabetes-mellitus-type-ii-new-perspectives-regarding-the-possible-role-of-calcium-and-camp-interaction
#3
REVIEW
Diego Soares Carvalho, Alexandre Aparecido de Almeida, Aurélio Ferreira Borges, Diego Vannucci Campos
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is among the top ten causes of death worldwide. It is considered to be one of the major global epidemics of the 21st century, with a significant impact on public health budgets. DM is a metabolic disorder with multiple etiologies. Its pathophysiology is marked by dysfunction of pancreatic β-cells which compromises the synthesis and secretion of insulin along with resistance to insulin action in peripheral tissues (muscle and adipose). Subjects presenting insulin resistance in DM type 2 often also exhibit increased insulin secretion and hyperinsulinemia...
April 18, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679157/immediate-release-3d-printed-tablets-produced-via-fused-deposition-modeling-of-a-thermo-sensitive-drug
#4
Wiebke Kempin, Vanessa Domsta, Georg Grathoff, Iris Brecht, Beatrice Semmling, Susan Tillmann, Werner Weitschies, Anne Seidlitz
PURPOSE: Dissolution speeds of tablets printed via Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) so far are significantly lower compared to powder or granule pressed immediate release tablets. The aim of this work was to print an actual immediate release tablet by choosing suitable polymers and printing designs, also taking into account lower processing temperatures (below 100°C) owing to the used model drug pantoprazole sodium. METHODS: Five different pharmaceutical grade polymers polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP K12), polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG 6000), Kollidon® VA64, polyethylene glycol 20,000 (PEG 20,000) and poloxamer 407 were successfully hot-melt-extruded to drug loaded filaments and printed to tablets at the required low temperatures...
April 20, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679066/grain-and-starch-granule-morphology-in-superior-and-inferior-kernels-of-maize-in-response-to-nitrogen
#5
Fucheng Zhao, Liquan Jing, Decheng Wang, Fei Bao, Weiping Lu, Guiyue Wang
Maize (Zea mays L.) contributes approximately 55% of China's grain production. The effects of nitrogen (N) on maize grain morphology and starch granules remain elusive. In this study, a field experiment in clay loam soil was conducted using three maize hybrids (Suyu 30, Suyu 20, and Suyu 29) and four N levels (0, 360, 450, and 540 kg ha-1 ) in 2010 and 2012. The results indicated that increased grain length and width, starch granule number, surface area, and volume, was associated with the application of 450 kg ha-1 of N...
April 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678915/-ralstonia-eutropha-s-poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-phb-polymerase-phac1-and-phb-depolymerase-phaza1-are-phosphorylated-in-vivo
#6
Janina R Jüngert, Cameron Patterson, Dieter Jendrossek
In this study, we screened PHB synthase PhaC1 and PHB depolymerase PhaZa1 of Ralstonia eutropha for the presence of phosphorylated residues during the PHB accumulation and PHB degradation phase. Thr373 of PHB synthase PhaC1 was phosphorylated in the stationary growth phase but was not modified in the exponential and PHB accumulation phases. Ser35 of PHB depolymerase PhaZa1 was identified in phosphorylated form both in the exponential and in the stationary growth phase. Additional phosphosites were identified for both proteins in sample-dependent forms...
April 20, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678671/the-development-of-oocytes-in-the-ovary-of-a-parthenogenetic-tick-haemaphysalis-longicornis
#7
Ryo Mihara, Rika Umemiya-Shirafuji, Yasuyuki Abe, Tomohide Matsuo, Noriyuki Horiuchi, Suguru Kawano, Kozo Fujisaki, Hiroshi Suzuki
Haemaphysalis longicornis is an important vector of various pathogens in domestic animals and humans. The tick is a unique species with bisexual and parthenogenetic races. Although mating induces oocyte development, it is possible in the parthenogenetic race to complete oogenesis without copulation. Here we examined the developmental process of oocytes from unfed to the oviposition period in parthenogenetic H. longicornis. We classified the developmental stages of oocytes into five stages: stage I, germinal vesicle occupies more than half of the cytoplasm; stage II, germinal vesicle occupies less than half of the cytoplasm; stage III, germinal vesicle migrates from the center in the oocyte to the vicinity of the pedicel cells; stage IV, the cytoplasm is filled with yolk granules of various sizes; stage V, the cytoplasm is occupied by large yolk granules...
April 17, 2018: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678110/experimental-evidence-for-in-situ-nitric-oxide-production-in-anaerobic-ammonia-oxidizing-bacterial-granules
#8
Rathnayake M L D Rathnayake, Mamoru Oshiki, Satoshi Ishii, Takahiro Segawa, Hisashi Satoh, Satoshi Okabe
Although nitric oxide (NO) emissions from anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox)-based processes were reported previously, the NO production pathways are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the NO production pathways in anammox granules in detail by combining 15 N-stable isotope tracer experiments with various inhibitors, microsensor measurements, and transcriptome analysis for key genes of NO2 - reduction. NO was emitted from the anammox granules, which account for 0.07% of the N2 emission. 15 N-stable isotope-tracer experiments indicated that most of the N2 was produced by anammox bacteria, whereas NO was produced from NO2 - reduction by anammox and denitrifying bacteria...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677660/variation-in-bacterial-community-structure-of-aerobic-granular-and-suspended-activated-sludge-in-the-presence-of-the-antibiotic-sulfamethoxazole
#9
Abbass Jafari Kang, Alistair K Brown, Charles S Wong, Zhiyong Huang, Qiuyan Yuan
The treatment performance and bacterial community structure of conventional activated sludge and aerobic granules exposed to antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SMX) was studied. For three months, two sets of sequencing batch reactors inoculated with conventional and granular biomass were fed with a synthetic municipal wastewater containing 2 μg/L SMX. The presence of SMX had no significant impacts on treatment performance of the reactors as well as stability of the granules. Results confirmed different bacterial community structure of flocs and granules...
April 13, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677650/pollutants-degradation-performance-and-microbial-community-structure-of-aerobic-granular-sludge-systems-using-inoculums-adapted-at-mild-and-low-temperature
#10
Barbara Muñoz-Palazon, Chiara Pesciaroli, Alejandro Rodriguez-Sanchez, Jesús Gonzalez-Lopez, Alejandro Gonzalez-Martinez
Three aerobic granular sequencing batch reactors were inoculated using different inocula from Finland, Spain and a mix of both in order to investigate the effect over the degradation performance and the microbial community structure. The Finnish inoculum achieved a faster granulation and a higher depollution performance within the first two month of operation. However, after 90 days of operation, similar physico-chemical values were observed. On the other hand, the Real-time PCR showed that Archaea diminished from inoculum to granular biomass, while Bacteria and Fungi numbers remained stable...
April 13, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677515/fus-phase-separation-is-modulated-by-a-molecular-chaperone-and-methylation-of-arginine-cation-%C3%AF-interactions
#11
Seema Qamar, GuoZhen Wang, Suzanne J Randle, Francesco Simone Ruggeri, Juan A Varela, Julie Qiaojin Lin, Emma C Phillips, Akinori Miyashita, Declan Williams, Florian Ströhl, William Meadows, Rodylyn Ferry, Victoria J Dardov, Gian G Tartaglia, Lindsay A Farrer, Gabriele S Kaminski Schierle, Clemens F Kaminski, Christine E Holt, Paul E Fraser, Gerold Schmitt-Ulms, David Klenerman, Tuomas Knowles, Michele Vendruscolo, Peter St George-Hyslop
Reversible phase separation underpins the role of FUS in ribonucleoprotein granules and other membrane-free organelles and is, in part, driven by the intrinsically disordered low-complexity (LC) domain of FUS. Here, we report that cooperative cation-π interactions between tyrosines in the LC domain and arginines in structured C-terminal domains also contribute to phase separation. These interactions are modulated by post-translational arginine methylation, wherein arginine hypomethylation strongly promotes phase separation and gelation...
April 19, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677514/phase-separation-of-fus-is-suppressed-by-its-nuclear-import-receptor-and-arginine-methylation
#12
Mario Hofweber, Saskia Hutten, Benjamin Bourgeois, Emil Spreitzer, Annika Niedner-Boblenz, Martina Schifferer, Marc-David Ruepp, Mikael Simons, Dierk Niessing, Tobias Madl, Dorothee Dormann
Cytoplasmic FUS aggregates are a pathological hallmark in a subset of patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). A key step that is disrupted in these patients is nuclear import of FUS mediated by the import receptor Transportin/Karyopherin-β2. In ALS-FUS patients, this is caused by mutations in the nuclear localization signal (NLS) of FUS that weaken Transportin binding. In FTD-FUS patients, Transportin is aggregated, and post-translational arginine methylation, which regulates the FUS-Transportin interaction, is lost...
April 19, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677512/nuclear-import-receptors-reverse-aberrant-phase-transitions-of-rna-binding-proteins-with-prion-like-domains
#13
Lin Guo, Hong Joo Kim, Hejia Wang, John Monaghan, Fernande Freyermuth, Julie C Sung, Kevin O'Donovan, Charlotte M Fare, Zamia Diaz, Nikita Singh, Zi Chao Zhang, Maura Coughlin, Elizabeth A Sweeny, Morgan E DeSantis, Meredith E Jackrel, Christopher B Rodell, Jason A Burdick, Oliver D King, Aaron D Gitler, Clotilde Lagier-Tourenne, Udai Bhan Pandey, Yuh Min Chook, J Paul Taylor, James Shorter
RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) with prion-like domains (PrLDs) phase transition to functional liquids, which can mature into aberrant hydrogels composed of pathological fibrils that underpin fatal neurodegenerative disorders. Several nuclear RBPs with PrLDs, including TDP-43, FUS, hnRNPA1, and hnRNPA2, mislocalize to cytoplasmic inclusions in neurodegenerative disorders, and mutations in their PrLDs can accelerate fibrillization and cause disease. Here, we establish that nuclear-import receptors (NIRs) specifically chaperone and potently disaggregate wild-type and disease-linked RBPs bearing a NLS...
April 19, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677445/new-amphiphilic-composite-for-preparing-efficient-coated-potassium-fertilizers-for-top-dressing-fertilization-of-annual-crops
#14
Oscar Urrutia, Javier Erro, Andre Vinicius Zabini, Kent Hoshiba, Anne Francoise Blandin, Roberto Baigorri, Manuel Martin-Pastor, Yves Alis, Jean-Claude Yvin, José María García-Mina
This study describes the efficiency of a new coating material for preparing granulated potassium-fertilizers with a potassium release to the soil solution sensitive to rainfall intensity. The composite is prepared by reaction of an alkyd-resin with cement in the absence of water. The complementary use of diverse analytical techniques showed that the presence of the cement fraction induced alkyd resin reticulation and gradual cement-resin hardening. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the formation of micro and nanopores within cement-clusters, whose water permeability is affected by the resin reticulation and amphiphilic character...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676856/age-related-changes-in-cortical-and-subcortical-structures-of-healthy-adult-brains-a-surface-based-morphometry-study
#15
Fenglian Zheng, Yulin Liu, Zilong Yuan, Xiaodong Gao, Yaoyao He, Xiaojing Liu, Dong Cui, Rui Qi, Tiao Chen, Jianfeng Qiu
BACKGROUND: Cerebral structures in both cortical and subcortical regions change with aging. More specific and comprehensive studies are needed to better elucidate these changes. PURPOSE: To investigate the relationships between age and cerebral structures regarding cortical and subcortical changes. STUDY TYPE: Cross-cohort research. POPULATION: 54 healthy adults (28 females) aged 21-71 years. FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: T1 -weighted imaging was performed at 1...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676151/activation-of-human-natural-killer-cells-by-graphene-oxide-templated-antibody-nanoclusters
#16
Christian Loftus, Mezida Saeed, Daniel M Davis, Iain E Dunlop
An emerging new paradigm is that immune cell activation is controlled by transient interactions between supramolecular assemblies of receptors and ligands. Current immunotherapy biologic pharmaceuticals that activate or desensitize NK cells are, however, individual molecules that do not replicate this nanoscale organization of proteins. Here, we use nanoscale graphene oxide (NGO) as a template to generate soluble nanoscale clusters of Natural Killer cell-activating antibodies. We control nanocluster size and molecular number to mimic reported values for cell surface proteins...
April 20, 2018: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676141/-design-and-implementation-of-xinshenghua-granule-traceability-system-based-on-data-authenticity
#17
Zi-Bo Shen, Yang Lu, Sheng-Liang Huang, Chong Liu, Cun-Yu Li, Yun-Feng Zheng, Guo-Ping Peng
The quality of traditional Chinese medicine affects the clinical efficacy and the market research at home or abroad, which is closely related to the standardization of production. At present, Chinese market still exist in drug quality and nonstandard production phenomenon. In addition to the existing GMP production standards, it is still necessary to ensure the authenticity and reliability of traditional Chinese medicine by means of retrospect. Based on the Xinshenghua granule, starting from the authenticity of the whole process of production, this study designs and constructs the traditional Chinese medicine traceability system which is equipped with the Internet platform by using two-dimensional code as a trace tool...
March 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676104/-immunologic-mechanisms-of-yinhua-pinggan-granule-and-san-ao-decoction-against-influenza-virus-in-vivo
#18
Hai-Xia Du, Hui-Fen Zhou, Yu He, Jie-Hong Yang, Yi-Yu Lu, Yi-Chen Fan, Hai-Tong Wan
This paper aimed to investigate the effect of Yinhua Pinggan granule and San-ao decoction on the immunologic mechanisms of influenza viral pneumonia mice in vivo , in order to study the activity of the combined administration of different formulas on influenza A/H1N1 virus. The model of pneumonia was established in mice through nasal dropping influenza virus, and then divided randomly into five groups: normal control group, influenza virus model group, oseltamivir control group, Yinhua Pinggan granule group, and San-ao decoction group...
March 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676092/-allele-specific-pcr-to-identification-of-achyranthis-bidentatae-radix-and-cyathulae-radix-formula-granules
#19
Hu-Biao Meng, Yuan Yuan, Fu-Yan Liu, Chao Jiang, Yan Jin, Yu-Yang Zhao
To establish a robust and accuracy molecular method to identify Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix and Cyathulae Radix formula granules. ITS sequences of Achyranthes bidentata and Cyathula officinalis were aligned, specific SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) were excavated, specific primers were designed and allele-specific PCR method was established. The genomic DNA was successfully extracted from the herbal medicine and its formula granules by using an improved CTAB (cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide) method and then performed PCR with the designed primers...
March 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676084/-preparation-and-quality-standard-of-standard-decoction-of-chinese-herbal-medicine-containing-volatile-components-case-study-of-moutan-cortex
#20
Meng-Jiao Jiao, Zhe Deng, Jun Zhang, Shu-Hui Wang, Wen-Jin Cui, Guo-Yuan Zhang, An Liu
To prepare the standard decoction of Moutan Cortex, and research its quality standard. According to the preparation principle of standard decoction of Chinese herbal medicines, the extraction conditions were optimized, and the 14 batches of standard decoction of Moutan Cortex were prepared. The content of paeonol was determined by HPLC; the transfer rate was calculated; and the extraction rate, pH value and the fingerprint of the decoction were determined. The results showed that the transfer rate of paeonol in the standard decoction of 14 batches of samples was at the range of 43...
March 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
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