Read by QxMD icon Read


Spyridon Chavlis, Panagiotis C Petrantonakis, Panayiota Poirazi
The hippocampus plays a key role in pattern separation, the process of transforming similar incoming information to highly dissimilar, non-overlapping representations. Sparse firing granule cells (GCs) in the dentate gyrus (DG) have been proposed to undertake this computation, but little is known about which of their properties influence pattern separation. Dendritic atrophy has been reported in diseases associated with pattern separation deficits, suggesting a possible role for dendrites in this phenomenon...
October 26, 2016: Hippocampus
Huib H Rabouw, Martijn A Langereis, Robert C M Knaap, Tim J Dalebout, Javier Canton, Isabel Sola, Luis Enjuanes, Peter J Bredenbeek, Marjolein Kikkert, Raoul J de Groot, Frank J M van Kuppeveld
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe respiratory infections that can be life-threatening. To establish an infection and spread, MERS-CoV, like most other viruses, must navigate through an intricate network of antiviral host responses. Besides the well-known type I interferon (IFN-α/β) response, the protein kinase R (PKR)-mediated stress response is being recognized as an important innate response pathway. Upon detecting viral dsRNA, PKR phosphorylates eIF2α, leading to the inhibition of cellular and viral translation and the formation of stress granules (SGs), which are increasingly recognized as platforms for antiviral signaling pathways...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Hong-Xiao Liu, Nan Jiang, Hui-Ying Liang, Ying-Yan Zhou, Xing-Hua Feng, Xiao-Yan Feng, He-Qiu Zhang, Zhi-Kui Wu, Quan Jiang, Jiao Fu, Xiao-Juan Ma, Peng Chen
OBJECTIVE: To explore the mechanism of Bushen Qiangji Granule (, BSQJ) in restraining the osteogenic differentiation of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) fifibroblasts. METHODS: Hip joint capsules were obtained from AS patients (n=10) receiving total hip replacement and healthy hip joint capsules from patients with hip fracture (n=10) receiving surgery as a control. Finite fifibroblast lines were established from these tissue samples to observe the effect of BSQJ on suppressing osteogenic differentiation of fifibroblasts...
November 2016: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
Víctor García-Nieto, Domenico Mancini, Eva Rodríguez-Carrasco
In 1937, Max Clara described a new type of cell in the human lung, which was later determined to be an exocrine secretory cell type containing granules composed of proteins [1].[...].
October 4, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Aggeliki Giannakopoulou, George A Lyras, Nikolaos Grigoriadis
Neurogenesis is a well-characterized phenomenon within the dentate gyrus (DG) of the adult hippocampus. Aging and chronic degenerative disorders have been shown to impair hippocampal neurogenesis, but the consequence of chronic inflammation remains controversial. In this study the chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model of multiple sclerosis was used to investigate the long-term effects of T cell-mediated central nervous system inflammation on hippocampal neurogenesis. 5-Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled subpopulations of hippocampal cells in EAE and control mice (coexpressing GFAP, doublecortin, NeuN, calretinin, and S100) were quantified at the recovery phase, 21 days after BrdU administration, to estimate alterations on the rate and differentiation pattern of the neurogenesis process...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Sampathkumar Rangasamy, Shannon Olfers, Brittany Gerald, Alex Hilbert, Sean Svejda, Vinodh Narayanan
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutation in the X-linked MECP2 gene, encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2. We have created a mouse model ( Mecp2 A140V "knock-in" mutant) expressing the recurrent human MECP2 A140V mutation linked to an X-linked mental retardation/Rett syndrome phenotype. Morphological analyses focused on quantifying soma and nucleus size were performed on primary hippocampus and cerebellum granule neuron (CGN) cultures from mutant ( Mecp2(A140V/y)) and wild type ( Mecp2(+/y)) male mice...
2016: F1000Research
Shuang Liang, Jing Guo, Jeong-Woo Choi, Nam-Hyung Kim, Xiang-Shun Cui
After reaching the metaphase II (MII) stage, unfertilised oocytes undergo a time-dependent process of quality deterioration referred to as oocyte aging. The associated morphological and cellular changes lead to decreased oocyte developmental potential. This study investigated the effect of exogenous melatonin supplementation on in vitro aged bovine oocytes and explored its underlying mechanisms. The levels of cytoplasmic reactive oxygen species and DNA damage response in bovine oocytes increased during in vitro aging...
October 26, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Shawn M Lyons, Paul Anderson
In this issue of Developmental Cell, Audas et al. (2016) report non-membrane-enclosed amyloid bodies (ABs) assembled in the nuclei of cells exposed to heat and low pH. Remarkably, ABs form not by liquid-to-liquid phase separation, implicated in RNA-seeded granule assembly, but by an amyloidogenic process that promotes a liquid-to-solid transition.
October 24, 2016: Developmental Cell
Nicholas P Vyleta, Carolina Borges-Merjane, Peter Jonas
Mossy fiber synapses on CA3 pyramidal cells are 'conditional detonators' that reliably discharge postsynaptic targets. The 'conditional' nature implies that burst activity in dentate gyrus granule cells is required for detonation. Whether single unitary excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) trigger spikes in CA3 neurons remains unknown. Mossy fiber synapses exhibit both pronounced short-term facilitation and uniquely large post-tetanic potentiation (PTP). We tested whether PTP could convert mossy fiber synapses from subdetonator into detonator mode, using a recently developed method to selectively and noninvasively stimulate individual presynaptic terminals in rat brain slices...
October 25, 2016: ELife
Ting Wen, Marc E Rothenberg
Eosinophils are a minority circulating granulocyte classically viewed as being involved in host defense against parasites and promoting allergic reactions. However, a series of new regulatory functions for these cells have been identified in the past decade. During homeostasis, eosinophils develop in the bone marrow and migrate from the blood into target tissues following an eotaxin gradient, with interleukin-5 being a key cytokine for eosinophil proliferation, survival, and priming. In multiple target tissues, eosinophils actively regulate a variety of immune functions through their vast arsenal of granule products and cytokines, as well as direct cellular interaction with cells in proximity...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Vaibhav Sidarala, Anjan Kowluru
BACKGROUND: Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from the pancreatic β-cell involves several intracellular metabolic events which lead to the translocation of insulin granules towards the membrane for fusion and release. It is well established that loss of β-cell function and decreased GSIS underlie the pathogenesis of diabetes. Evidence from several laboratories, including our own, demonstrated requisite roles of Rac1 and phagocyte-like NADPH oxidase (Nox2)-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) in optimal function of the pancreatic β-cell, including GSIS...
October 20, 2016: Recent Patents on Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Drug Discovery
Shun-Jin Hu, Bing Shu, Hua Jin, Xiao-Feng Li, Jia-Rong Mao, Ke-Jun Ren, Lei Gao, Li Yang, You-Wan Wu, Yong-Jun Wang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the renal protective effect of Tangshenkang Granule () in a rat model of diabetic nephropathy (DN). METHODS: Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control, DN, Tangshenkang and benazepril groups. DN model was established in the rats of DN, Tangshenkang and benazepril groups. Tangshenkang Granule solution and benazepril hydrochloride solution were intragastrically administered daily to the rats in the Tangshenkang and benazepril groups for 8 weeks, respectively...
October 24, 2016: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
Anna Nolte, Aimara Bello, Michaela Drögemüller, Tosso Leeb, Eva Brockhaus, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Peter Wohlsein
A female, 5-year-old American Staffordshire Terrier with severe progressive neurological deficits, particularly in terms of ataxia and keeping balance, was examined pathomorphologically and a genetic analysis was performed. In neurons of various localizations of the central nervous system an accumulation of a finely granular pale eosinophilic or light brown material was found. In addition, the cerebellum revealed marked degeneration and loss of Purkinje and inner granule cells. The accumulated PAS-positive, argyrophilic, autofluorescent material showed ultrastructurally a lamellar appearance suggestive of lipofuscin...
October 25, 2016: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
Caroline Dahlqvist, Sebahat Ocak, Maximilien Gourdin, Anne Sophie Dincq, Laurie Putz, Jean-Paul d'Odémont
Introduction. We herein report our experience with new fully covered self-expanding metallic stents in the setting of inoperable recurrent benign tracheobronchial stenosis. Methods. Between May 2010 and July 2014, 21 Micro-Tech® FC-SEMS (Nanjing Co., Republic of Korea) were placed in our hospital in 16 patients for inoperable, recurrent (after dilatation), and symptomatic benign airway stenosis. Their medical files were retrospectively reviewed in December 2014, with focus on stent's tolerance and durability data...
2016: Canadian Respiratory Journal: Journal of the Canadian Thoracic Society
Brie Sorrenson, Emmanuelle Cognard, Kathryn L Lee, Waruni C Dissanayake, Yanyun Fu, Weiping Han, William E Hughes, Peter R Shepherd
The processes regulating glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and its modulation by incretins in pancreatic β-cells are only partly understood. Here we investigate the involvement of β-catenin in these processes. Reducing β-catenin levels using siRNA knockdown attenuated GSIS in a range of β-cell models and blocked the ability of GLP-1 agonists and the depolarizing agent KCl to potentiate this. This could be mimicked in both β-cell models and isolated islets by short-term exposure to the β-catenin inhibitory drug pyrvinium...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Yan Chen, Kuiren Liu
Eliminating antibiotic remnants in aquatic environment has become one of the hottest topics among current research works. Thus, we prepared Ce, N co-doped TiO2/diatomite granule (CNTD-G) catalyst to provide a new method. As one typical antibiotics, oxytetracycline (OTC) was selected as the target pollutant to be degradated under visible light irradiation. The carrier diatomite helped the spread of TiO2 nanoparticles onto its surface, and inhibited their agglomeration. The synergy of Ce and N dopants highly improved the visible-light-driven photoactivity of TiO2...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Elisabeth Salzer, Deniz Cagdas, Miroslav Hons, Emily M Mace, Wojciech Garncarz, Özlem Yüce Petronczki, René Platzer, Laurène Pfajfer, Ivan Bilic, Sol A Ban, Katharina L Willmann, Malini Mukherjee, Verena Supper, Hsiang Ting Hsu, Pinaki P Banerjee, Papiya Sinha, Fabienne McClanahan, Gerhard J Zlabinger, Winfried F Pickl, John G Gribben, Hannes Stockinger, Keiryn L Bennett, Johannes B Huppa, Loïc Dupré, Özden Sanal, Ulrich Jäger, Michael Sixt, Ilhan Tezcan, Jordan S Orange, Kaan Boztug
RASGRP1 is an important guanine nucleotide exchange factor and activator of the RAS-MAPK pathway following T cell antigen receptor (TCR) signaling. The consequences of RASGRP1 mutations in humans are unknown. In a patient with recurrent bacterial and viral infections, born to healthy consanguineous parents, we used homozygosity mapping and exome sequencing to identify a biallelic stop-gain variant in RASGRP1. This variant segregated perfectly with the disease and has not been reported in genetic databases. RASGRP1 deficiency was associated in T cells and B cells with decreased phosphorylation of the extracellular-signal-regulated serine kinase ERK, which was restored following expression of wild-type RASGRP1...
October 24, 2016: Nature Immunology
Sandra Goebbels, Georg L Wieser, Alexander Pieper, Sonia Spitzer, Bettina Weege, Kuo Yan, Julia M Edgar, Oleksandr Yagensky, Sven P Wichert, Amit Agarwal, Khalad Karram, Nicolas Renier, Marc Tessier-Lavigne, Moritz J Rossner, Ragnhildur Thóra Káradóttir, Klaus-Armin Nave
The molecular trigger of CNS myelination is unknown. By targeting Pten in cerebellar granule cells and activating the AKT1-mTOR pathway, we increased the caliber of normally unmyelinated axons and the expression of numerous genes encoding regulatory proteins. This led to the expansion of genetically wild-type oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, oligodendrocyte differentiation and de novo myelination of parallel fibers. Thus, a neuronal program dependent on the phosphoinositide PI(3,4,5)P3 is sufficient to trigger all steps of myelination...
October 24, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
Bethany L Mundy-Bosse, Steven D Scoville, Li Chen, Kathleen McConnell, Hsiaoyin C Mao, Elshafa H Ahmed, Nicholas Zorko, Sophia Harvey, Jordan Cole, Xiaoli Zhang, Stefan Costinean, Carlo M Croce, Karilyn Larkin, John C Byrd, Sumithira Vasu, William Blum, Jianhua Yu, Aharon G Freud, Michael A Caligiuri
Natural killer (NK) cells can have potent antileukemic activity following haplo-mismatched, T cell-depleted stem cell transplantations for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but they are not successful in eradicating de novo AML. Here, we have used a mouse model of de novo AML to elucidate the mechanisms by which AML evades NK cell surveillance. NK cells in leukemic mice displayed a marked reduction in the cytolytic granules perforin and granzyme B. Further, as AML progressed, we noted the selective loss of an immature subset of NK cells in leukemic mice and in AML patients...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
María Virtudes Céspedes, Yolanda Fernández, Ugutz Unzueta, Rosa Mendoza, Joaquin Seras-Franzoso, Alejando Sánchez-Chardi, Patricia Álamo, Verónica Toledo-Rubio, Neus Ferrer-Miralles, Esther Vázquez, Simó Schwartz, Ibane Abasolo, José Luis Corchero, Ramon Mangues, Antonio Villaverde
In the human endocrine system many protein hormones including urotensin, glucagon, obestatin, bombesin and secretin, among others, are supplied from amyloidal secretory granules. These granules form part of the so called functional amyloids, which within the whole aggregome appear to be more abundant than formerly believed. Bacterial inclusion bodies (IBs) are non-toxic, nanostructured functional amyloids whose biological fabrication can be tailored to render materials with defined biophysical properties. Since under physiological conditions they steadily release their building block protein in a soluble and functional form, IBs are considered as mimetics of endocrine secretory granules...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"