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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822948/bacterial-and-archaeal-community-distribution-and-stabilization-of-anaerobic-sludge-in-a-strengthen-circulation-anaerobic-sca-reactor-for-municipal-wastewater-treatment
#1
Bo Yang, Hui Xu, Junfeng Wang, Xinshan Song, Yuhui Wang, Fang Li, Qing Tian, Chunyan Ma, Daoyuan Wang, Junhong Bai, Wolfgang Sand
In this study, a SCA reactor was employed for municipal wastewater treatment at a mesophilic temperature (30°C) under different hydraulic retention times (HRT) and upflow velocities (Vup) to investigate granule sludge stability and spatial microbial distribution. The stable COD removal efficiency readied at HRT of 15, 12, 9 and 6h, and Vup ranging from 0.6 to 5.9mh(-1). EPS fraction analysis of granule sludge shows that municipal wastewater was mainly attributed to the enrichment influence of polysaccharide and tightly bound-EPS...
August 10, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822872/different-mossy-fiber-sprouting-patterns-in-ilae-hippocampal-sclerosis-types
#2
Barbara Schmeiser, Jinmei Li, Armin Brandt, Josef Zentner, Soroush Doostkam, Thomas M Freiman
OBJECTIVE: Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is the most prevalent pathology in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) characterized by segmental neuronal cell loss in the cornu ammonis (CA) 1-4. In addition, migration of granule cells and reorganization of their axons is observed, known as granule cell dispersion (GCD) and mossy fiber sprouting (MFS). The loss of mossy fibers` (MF) target cells in CA4 and CA3 was considered to be causative for MFS. The ILAE HS (International League Against Epilepsy) classification identifies three subtypes with different cell loss patterns in CA1-4...
August 8, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822839/decreased-surface-expression-of-the-%C3%AE-subunit-of-the-gabaa-receptor-contributes-to-reduced-tonic-inhibition-in-dentate-granule-cells-in-a-mouse-model-of-fragile-x-syndrome
#3
Nianhui Zhang, Zechun Peng, Xiaoping Tong, A Kerstin Lindemeyer, Yliana Cetina, Christine S Huang, Richard W Olsen, Thomas S Otis, Carolyn R Houser
While numerous changes in the GABA system have been identified in models of Fragile X Syndrome (FXS), alterations in subunits of the GABAA receptors (GABAARs) that mediate tonic inhibition are particularly intriguing. Considering the key role of tonic inhibition in controlling neuronal excitability, reduced tonic inhibition could contribute to FXS-associated disorders such as hyperactivity, hypersensitivity, and increased seizure susceptibility. The current study has focused on the expression and function of the δ subunit of the GABAAR, a major subunit involved in tonic inhibition, in granule cells of the dentate gyrus in the Fmr1 knockout (KO) mouse model of FXS...
August 16, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822075/recycling-endosomes-in-human-cytotoxic-t-lymphocytes-constitute-an-auxiliary-intracellular-trafficking-pathway-for-newly-synthesized-perforin
#4
Kelsey Lesteberg, Jordan Orange, George Makedonas
Although cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) store perforin within cytoplasmic secretory granules for immediate use, perforin is synthesized anew within hours of TCR stimulation. Previously, we observed new perforin protein at an immunologic synapse independent of secretory lysosomes; herein, we aimed to determine how new perforin transits to the synapse if not via lytic granules. We analyzed antigen-specific human CTLs via imaging flow cytometry and high-resolution confocal microscopy, with attention to intracellular trafficking components and new perforin...
August 18, 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822039/stimulation-of-nachr%C3%AE-7-receptor-inhibits-tnf-synthesis-and-secretion-in-response-to-lps-treatment-of-mast-cells-by-targeting-erk1-2-and-tace-activation
#5
F Guzmán-Mejía, C López-Rubalcava, C González-Espinosa
The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway is recognized as one of the main mechanisms of neuromodulation of the immune system. Activation of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAchRα7) suppresses cytokine synthesis in distinct immune cells but the molecular mechanisms behind this effect remain to be fully described. Mast cells (MCs) are essential players of allergic reactions and innate immunity responses related to chronic inflammation. Activation of TLR4 receptor in MCs leads to the rapid secretion of pre-synthesized TNF from intracellular pools and to the activation of NFκB, necessary for de novo synthesis of TNF and other cytokines...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821679/upf1-governs-synaptic-plasticity-through-association-with-a-stau2-rna-granule
#6
Tyson E Graber, Erika Freemantle, Mina Anadolu, Sarah Hébert-Seropian, Robyn MacAdam, Unkyung Shin, Huy-Dung Hoang, Tommy Alain, Jean-Claude Lacaille, Wayne S Sossin
Neuronal mRNAs can be packaged in reversibly stalled polysome granules prior to their transport to distant synaptic locales. Stimulation of synaptic metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) reactivates translation of these particular mRNAs to produce plasticity-related protein; a phenomenon exhibited during mGluR-mediated long-term depression (mGluR-LTD). This form of plasticity is deregulated in Fragile X Syndrome, a monogenic form of autism in humans, and understanding the stalling and reactivation mechanism could reveal new approaches to therapies...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821452/pinocembrin-a-novel-histidine-decarboxylase-inhibitor-with-anti-allergic-potential-in-in-vitro
#7
Hamza Hanieh, Villianur Ibrahim Hairul Islam, Subramanian Saravanan, Muthiah Chellappandian, Kessavane Ragul, Arumugam Durga, Kaliyamoorthy Venugopal, Venugopal Senthilkumar, Palanisamy Senthilkumar, Krishnaraj Thirugnanasambantham
Pinocembrin (5, 7- dihydroxy flavanone) is the most abundant chiral flavonoid found in propolis, exhibiting antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effect of Pinocembrin on allergic response is unexplored. Thus, current study aimed at investigating the effects of Pinocembrin on IgE-mediated allergic response in vitro. A special emphasis was directed toward histidine decarboxylase (HDC) and other pro-allergic and pro-inflammatory mediators. Preliminary studies, using a microbiological model of Klebsiella pneumoniae, provided first evidences that suggest Pinocembrin as a potential thermal stable inhibitor for HDC...
August 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821133/single-helix-in-v-type-starch-carrier-determines-the-encapsulation-capacity-of-ethylene
#8
Linfan Shi, Xiong Fu, Qiang Huang, Bin Zhang
V-type starch carriers with different single helix contents were prepared using alcoholic-alkaline treatment followed by ethanol precipitation. Ethylene gas was entrapped into V-type starch carriers using a solid encapsulation method. The morphological and structural properties of inclusion complexes (ICs) were characterized using scanning electron and light microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, (13)C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Raman spectroscopy. Aqueous ethanol treatment resulted in swelling and aggregation of starch granules, and B-type diffraction reflections were either reduced or completely lost with evolution of V-type pattern...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821130/reaction-pattern-differences-impact-physical-properties-of-starches-derivatized-to-the-same-extent-in-a-model-cross-linking-system
#9
Jung Sun Hong, Sara V Gomand, Kerry C Huber, Jan A Delcour
This study investigated the physical properties of maize (MS) and wheat (WS) starches derivatized with 5-(4,6-dichlorotriazinyl)aminofluorescein (model cross-linking system) to have the same overall fluorescence intensity on starch molecules, but reacted either more uniformly throughout granules (UD) or more at granule surfaces (SD). Both MS and WS derivatives had lower swelling powers (SP) at 90°C than their respective native starches. The UD derivatives had lower SP (90°C) and greater retrogradation enthalpies than did SD derivatives, consistent with their lower peak and higher setback pasting viscosities...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821103/effect-of-dual-modification-by-annealing-and-ultrahigh-pressure-on-properties-of-starches-with-different-polymorphs
#10
Shujun Wang, Peng Guo, Fengjuan Xiang, Jinrong Wang, Jinglin Yu, Shuo Wang
The effects of dual modification by annealing (ANN) and ultrahigh pressure (UHP) on properties of wheat, yam, and potato starches were investigated. Compared with the single UHP treatment (400MPa), ANN-UHP (400MPa) treatment did not alter significantly the ordered structures of wheat starch, indicating that ANN treatment enhanced the stability and resistance of starch granules to the subsequent UHP treatment. In contrast, UHP (400MPa)-ANN treatment resulted in more severe disruption of ordered structures of wheat starch than did the single UHP treatment, showing that UHP-treated starch was more vulnerable to the subsequent ANN treatment...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821032/using-oxidized-amylose-as-carrier-of-linalool-for-the-development-of-antibacterial-wound-dressing
#11
Yongbo Lyu, He Ren, Mengchao Yu, Xinying Li, Defu Li, Changdao Mu
This study aimed to prepare antibacterial wound dressings based on collagen and linalool/oxidized amylose inclusion complex. Encapsulation with oxidized amylose was used as an effective way to introduce linalool into collagen matrix. Our results showed that the content of linalool in the composite dressings was efficiently increased thanks to the solubilization effect of oxidized amyloses. The developed composite dressings possessed porous structure. They had abilities to keep the wound in moist environment and meanwhile prevent the excess exudates accumulation...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821027/preparation-characterization-and-antibacterial-activity-of-oxidized-%C3%AE%C2%BA-carrageenan
#12
Mingjin Zhu, Liming Ge, Yongbo Lyu, Yaxin Zi, Xinying Li, Defu Li, Changdao Mu
The oxidized κ-carrageenans with different oxidation levels were prepared through the hydrogen peroxide and copper sulfate redox system. The oxidation level of oxidized κ-carrageenan was successfully controlled by adjusting the dosage of hydrogen peroxide. The results showed that the microtopography of oxidized κ-carrageenan changed from rough granules to smooth flakes, mainly resulting from the easily melting property of oxidized κ-carrageenan induced by introduced carboxyl and aldehyde groups. Especially, the antibacterial activity of oxidized κ-carrageenans against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) was systematically investigated...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820426/burn-eschar-stimulates-fibroblast-and-adipose-mesenchymal-stromal-cell-proliferation-and-migration-but-inhibits-endothelial-cell-sprouting
#13
Hanneke N Monsuur, Lenie J van den Broek, Renushka L Jhingoerie, Adrianus F P M Vloemans, Susan Gibbs
The majority of full-thickness burn wounds heal with hypertrophic scar formation. Burn eschar most probably influences early burn wound healing, since granulation tissue only forms after escharotomy. In order to investigate the effect of burn eschar on delayed granulation tissue formation, burn wound extract (BWE) was isolated from the interface between non-viable eschar and viable tissue. The influence of BWE on the activity of endothelial cells derived from dermis and adipose tissue, dermal fibroblasts and adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (ASC) was determined...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820333/protease-dead-separase-inhibits-chromosome-segregation-and-rab-11-vesicle-trafficking
#14
Xiaofei Bai, Joshua N Bembenek
Separase cleaves cohesin to allow chromosome segregation. Separase also regulates cortical granule exocytosis and vesicle trafficking during cytokinesis, both of which involve RAB-11. We investigated whether separase regulates exocytosis through a proteolytic or non-proteolytic mechanism. In C. elegans, protease-dead separase (SEP-1(PD)::GFP) is dominant negative. Consistent with its role in cohesin cleavage, SEP-1(PD)::GFP causes chromosome segregation defects. As expected, partial depletion of cohesin rescues this defect, confirming that SEP-1(PD)::GFP acts through a substrate trapping mechanism...
August 18, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819756/nanofibers-grafted-on-titanium-alloy-the-effects-of-fiber-alignment-and-density-on-osteoblast-mineralization
#15
Hsin-Yi Lin, Zhao-Xiang Peng
The surface of medical implant alloy Ti-6Al-4V was chemically modified to allow it to covalently bond with collagen/PVA nanofibers. These nanofibers were successfully attached to the Ti-6Al-4V surface in three different morphologies: randomly oriented high-density fiber, COL(H); randomly oriented low-density fiber, COL(L); and aligned high-density fiber, COL(A). The effects of the morphology of these covalently-bound collagen nanofibers on the growth and differentiation of osteoblasts were studied for 21 days...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819113/insights-into-the-role-of-endonuclease-v-in-rna-metabolism-in-trypanosoma-brucei
#16
Daniel García-Caballero, Guiomar Pérez-Moreno, Antonio M Estévez, Luis Miguel Ruíz-Pérez, Antonio E Vidal, Dolores González-Pacanowska
Inosine may arise in DNA as a result of oxidative deamination of adenine or misincorporation of deoxyinosine triphosphate during replication. On the other hand, the occurrence of inosine in RNA is considered a normal and essential modification induced by specific adenosine deaminases acting on mRNA and tRNA. In prokaryotes, endonuclease V (EndoV) can recognize and cleave inosine-containing DNA. In contrast, mammalian EndoVs preferentially cleave inosine-containing RNA, suggesting a role in RNA metabolism for the eukaryotic members of this protein family...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817805/ltp-at-hilar-mossy-cell-dentate-granule-cell-synapses-modulates-dentate-gyrus-output-by-increasing-excitation-inhibition-balance
#17
Yuki Hashimotodani, Kaoutsar Nasrallah, Kyle R Jensen, Andrés E Chávez, Daniel Carrera, Pablo E Castillo
Excitatory hilar mossy cells (MCs) in the dentate gyrus receive inputs from dentate granule cells (GCs) and project back to GCs locally, contralaterally, and along the longitudinal axis of the hippocampus, thereby establishing an associative positive-feedback loop and connecting functionally diverse hippocampal areas. MCs also synapse with GABAergic interneurons that mediate feed-forward inhibition onto GCs. Surprisingly, although these circuits have been implicated in both memory formation (e.g., pattern separation) and temporal lobe epilepsy, little is known about activity-dependent plasticity of their synaptic connections...
August 16, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817800/tia1-mutations-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-and-frontotemporal-dementia-promote-phase-separation-and-alter-stress-granule-dynamics
#18
Ian R Mackenzie, Alexandra M Nicholson, Mohona Sarkar, James Messing, Maria D Purice, Cyril Pottier, Kavya Annu, Matt Baker, Ralph B Perkerson, Aishe Kurti, Billie J Matchett, Tanja Mittag, Jamshid Temirov, Ging-Yuek R Hsiung, Charles Krieger, Melissa E Murray, Masato Kato, John D Fryer, Leonard Petrucelli, Lorne Zinman, Sandra Weintraub, Marsel Mesulam, Julia Keith, Sasha A Zivkovic, Veronica Hirsch-Reinshagen, Raymond P Roos, Stephan Züchner, Neill R Graff-Radford, Ronald C Petersen, Richard J Caselli, Zbigniew K Wszolek, Elizabeth Finger, Carol Lippa, David Lacomis, Heather Stewart, Dennis W Dickson, Hong Joo Kim, Ekaterina Rogaeva, Eileen Bigio, Kevin B Boylan, J Paul Taylor, Rosa Rademakers
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are age-related neurodegenerative disorders with shared genetic etiologies and overlapping clinical and pathological features. Here we studied a novel ALS/FTD family and identified the P362L mutation in the low-complexity domain (LCD) of T cell-restricted intracellular antigen-1 (TIA1). Subsequent genetic association analyses showed an increased burden of TIA1 LCD mutations in ALS patients compared to controls (p = 8.7 × 10(-6)). Postmortem neuropathology of five TIA1 mutations carriers showed a consistent pathological signature with numerous round, hyaline, TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43)-positive inclusions...
August 16, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815660/absorption-and-tolerability-of-taste-masked-hydrocortisone-granules-in-neonates-infants-and-children-under-6-years-of-age-with-adrenal-insufficiency
#19
Uta Neumann, Martin J Whitaker, Susanna Wiegand, Heiko Krude, John Porter, Madhu Davies, Dena Digweed, Bernard Voet, Richard J Ross, Oliver Blankenstein
OBJECTIVES: There is no licensed, dose-appropriate formulation of hydrocortisone for children with adrenal insufficiency (AI) and patients rely on compounded adult medication. The aim of this study was to evaluate the absorption, palatability and safety of Infacort(®) , an immediate-release, granule formulation of hydrocortisone with taste masking. STUDY DESIGN: Single site with satellites attended by a "flying" doctor from investigator site. Open-label, single-dose study in three consecutive child cohorts (n=24) with AI; Cohort 1, children aged 2 to <6 years (n=12); Cohort 2, infants aged 28 days to <2 years (n=6); Cohort 3, neonates aged 1 to <28 days (n=6)...
August 16, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815367/microplastic-pollution-a-threat-to-marine-ecosystem-and-human-health-a-short-review
#20
Shivika Sharma, Subhankar Chatterjee
Human populations are using oceans as their household dustbins, and microplastic is one of the components which are not only polluting shorelines but also freshwater bodies globally. Microplastics are generally referred to particles with a size lower than 5 mm. These microplastics are tiny plastic granules and used as scrubbers in cosmetics, hand cleansers, air-blasting. These contaminants are omnipresent within almost all marine environments at present. The durability of plastics makes it highly resistant to degradation and through indiscriminate disposal they enter in the aquatic environment...
August 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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