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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453909/a-headspace-gas-chromatography-method-for-isopropanol-determination-in-warfarin-sodium-products-as-a-measure-of-drug-crystallinity
#1
Ziyaur Rahman, Sohail Akhtar, Akhtar Siddiqui, Anthony B Ciavarella, Agnes Nguyenpho, Patrick J Faustino, Mansoor A Khan
Coumadin® a nd s everal generic products of warfarin s odium (WS) contain the crystalline form (clathrate) in which WS and isopropanol (IPA) are associated in a 2:1 molar ratio. IPA is critical in maintaining the WS crystalline structure. Physicochemical properties of the drug and drug product may change when the crystalline drug transforms to amorphous form. A headspace-gas chromatography (HS-GC) method was developed and validated for IPA determination in the WS drug product. n-propanol (NPA) was used as internal standard and the method was validated for specificity, system suitability, linearity, accuracy, precision, range, limits of detection and quantification, and robustness...
March 1, 2018: Acta Pharmaceutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453724/using-combined-multiple-techniques-to-characterize-refractory-organics-during-anammox-process-with-mature-coal-chemical-wastewater-as-influent
#2
Jiachun Yang, Li Zhang, Kechen Xu, Yongzhen Peng
This study combined spectroscopy techniques to assess the composition of refractory organics and highlighted the potential application of excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy within future monitoring of coal chemical wastewater treatment by the anammox process. The results showed that the anammox process could effectively degrade refractory organic substances, with fulvic-like, UV-humic acid, and Vis-humic acid component removal efficiencies of 43.61, 53.93, and 100%, respectively. In this study, EEM fluorescence spectroscopy was proven to be an effective method of assessing the removal of dissolved organic nitrogen during anammox treatment of mature coal chemical wastewater...
February 16, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452188/phosphate-fertilization-changes-the-characteristics-of-ma%C3%A3-%C3%A3-banana-starch
#3
Camila de Barros Mesquita, Émerson Loli Garcia, Ana Carolina Batista Bolfarini, Sarita Leonel, Célia Maria L Franco, Magali Leonel
The unripe banana has been studied as a potential source of starch for use in various applications. Considering the importance of phosphorus in the biosynthesis of the starch and also the interference of this mineral in starch properties, in this study it was evaluated the effect of rates of phosphate fertilizer applied in the cultivation of 'Maçã' banana on the characteristics of the starch. Starches extracted from fruits from different treatments were analyzed for morphological characteristics, X-ray diffraction pattern, relative crystallinity, granule size, amylose, resistant starch and phosphorus levels, as well as, for pasting and thermal properties...
February 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448444/stress-distribution-in-two-dimensional-silos
#4
Rodolfo Blanco-Rodríguez, Gabriel Pérez-Ángel
Simulations of a polydispersed two-dimensional silo were performed using molecular dynamics, with different numbers of grains reaching up to 64 000, verifying numerically the model derived by Janssen and also the main assumption that the walls carry part of the weight due to the static friction between grains with themselves and those with the silo's walls. We vary the friction coefficient, the radii dispersity, the silo width, and the size of grains. We find that the Janssen's model becomes less relevant as the the silo width increases since the behavior of the stresses becomes more hydrostatic...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448014/intrauterine-inflammation-reduces-postnatal-neurogenesis-in-the-hippocampal-subgranular-zone-and-leads-to-accumulation-of-hilar-ectopic-granule-cells
#5
Michael S Hester, Natalia Tulina, Amy Brown, Guillermo Barila, Michal A Elovitz
Prenatal inflammation is associated with poor neurobehavioral outcomes in exposed offspring. A common route of exposure for the fetus is intrauterine infection, which is often associated with preterm birth. Hippocampal development may be particularly vulnerable to an inflammatory insult during pregnancy as this region remains highly neurogenic both prenatally and postnatally. These studies sought to determine if intrauterine inflammation specifically altered hippocampal neurogenesis and migration of newly produced granule neurons during the early postnatal period...
February 12, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447490/combined-effects-of-artificial-dermis-and-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-concentration-gradient-on-wound-healing-in-diabetic-porcine-model
#6
Hok Yin Tsui, You Chen Liu, Xin Yan, Yue Lin, Ye Xu, Qian Tan
Wounds in patients with diabetes mellitus are one of the most prevalent impaired wounds in the world. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the most important proangiogenic mediators. Artificial dermal (AD) such as Pelnac ® has been shown, in humans and animal models, a great therapeutic potential in full-thickness skin wounds. We attempt to promote the wound healing in diabetic porcine models through combined use of AD and constant concentration of VEGF or VEGF concentration gradient. We created full-thickness excisional wounds in diabetic animal models...
February 15, 2018: Growth Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447237/pathophysiological-and-neurobehavioral-characteristics-of-a-propionic-acid-mediated-autism-like-rat-model
#7
Jeonghyun Choi, Seunghoon Lee, Jinyoung Won, Yunho Jin, Yunkyung Hong, Tai-Young Hur, Joo-Heon Kim, Sang-Rae Lee, Yonggeun Hong
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is induced by complex hereditary and environmental factors. However, the mechanisms of ASD development are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to identify standard indicators of this condition by comparing clinical, pathophysiological, and neurobehavioral features in an autism-like animal model. A total of 22 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control and 500 mg/kg propionic acid (PPA)-treated groups. Rats were subjected to behavioral tests, gene expression analyses, and histological analyses to detect pathophysiological and neurobehavioral alterations...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447198/ew-7197-eluting-nano-fiber-covered-self-expandable-metallic-stent-to-prevent-granulation-tissue-formation-in-a-canine-urethral-model
#8
Kichang Han, Jung-Hoon Park, Su-Geun Yang, Deok Hee Lee, Jiaywei Tsauo, Kun Yung Kim, Min Tae Kim, Sung Gwon Gang, Dae-Kee Kim, Dong-Hyun Kim, Ho-Young Song
PURPOSE: To evaluate an EW-7197-eluting nanofiber-covered stent (NFCS) for suppressing granulation tissue formation after stent placement in a canine urethral model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All experiments were approved by the committee of animal research. A total of 12 NFCSs were placed in the proximal and distal urethras of six dogs. Dogs were divided into two groups with 3 dogs each. The control stent (CS) group received NFCSs and the drug stent (DS) group received EW-7197 (1000 μg)-eluting NFCSs...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446764/antibodies-against-glycoprotein-2-display-diagnostic-advantages-over-asca-in-distinguishing-cd-from-intestinal-tuberculosis-and-intestinal-beh%C3%A3-et-s-disease
#9
Shulan Zhang, Jing Luo, Ziyan Wu, Dirk Roggenbuck, Peter Schierack, Dirk Reinhold, Ji Li, Xiaofeng Zeng, Fengchun Zhang, Jiaming Qian, Yongzhe Li
OBJECTIVES: There is an increasing need to identify reliable biomarkers for distinguishing Crohn's disease (CD) from other gastrointestinal disorders sharing similar clinical and pathological features. This study aimed at evaluating the diagnostic potential of antibodies to zymogen granule glycoprotein GP2 (aGP2) in a large, well-defined Chinese cohort with a special focus on their role in discriminating CD from intestinal Behçet's disease (BD) and intestinal tubercolosis (ITB). METHODS: A total of 577 subjects were prospectively enrolled, including 171 patients with CD, 208 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), 71 with BD, 57 with ITB and 70 healthy controls (HC)...
February 15, 2018: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446689/platelets-and-vascular-integrity
#10
Carsten Deppermann
Platelets patrol the vasculature and adhere at sites of vascular damage after trauma to limit blood loss. In recent years, however, it has become clear that platelets also contribute to pathophysiologic processes such as thrombosis, atherosclerosis, stroke, sepsis and many more. An exciting new role for them is in non-classical hemostasis to prevent bleeding in the inflamed vasculature. Recent studies suggest that GPVI, CLEC-2, integrin αIIbβ3 (GPIIb/IIIa), and the content of platelet α- and dense granules are important players in this process...
February 15, 2018: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445338/synaptic-homeostasis-and-allostasis-in-the-dentate-gyrus-caused-by-inflammatory-and-neuropathic-pain-conditions
#11
Rui-Rui Wang, Yan Wang, Su-Min Guan, Zhen Li, Saurabh Kokane, Fa-Le Cao, Wei Sun, Chun-Li Li, Ting He, Yan Yang, Qing Lin, Jun Chen
It has been generally accepted that pain can cause imbalance between excitation and inhibition (homeostasis) at the synaptic level. However, it remains poorly understood how this imbalance (allostasis) develops in the CNS under different pain conditions. Here, we analyzed the changes in both excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission and modulation of the dentate gyrus (DG) under two pain conditions with different etiology and duration. First, it was revealed that the functions of the input-output (I/O) curves for evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (eEPSCs) following the perforant path (PP) stimulation were gained under both acute inflammatory and chronic neuropathic pain conditions relative to the controls...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445218/new-insights-into-gelatinization-mechanisms-of-cereal-endosperm-starches
#12
Shujun Wang, Chen Chao, Fengjuan Xiang, Xiu Zhang, Shuo Wang, Les Copeland
A thorough understanding of starch gelatinization is needed to control starch functional properties for food processing and human nutrition. Here, we reveal the mechanism of structural disassembly of rice, maize and wheat starch granules during thermal transitions in which a Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA) was used to pre-heat the starches to certain transition points in the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) heating profiles. This was done to generate sufficient material for structural analyses. The results from DSC, Raman, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses all showed that at the conclusion temperature (T c ) of the DSC endotherm rice starch gelatinization was complete, whereas residual structural order remained in maize and wheat starches...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445135/alteration-in-nerves-and-neurotransmitter-stimulation-of-lacrimal-gland-secretion-in-the-tsp-1-mouse-model-of-aqueous-deficiency-dry-eye
#13
Sumit Bhattacharya, Laura García-Posadas, Robin R Hodges, Helen P Makarenkova, Sharmila Masli, Darlene A Dartt
The purpose of this study is to determine neural, vascular, protein secretion, and cellular signaling changes with disease progression in lacrimal glands of the thrombospondin-1 -/- (TSP-1 -/- ) mouse model of dry eye compared to C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice. Neural innervation was reduced in TSP-1 -/- lacrimal glands compared to WT controls, whereas the number of blood vessels was increased. Intracellular Ca 2+ stores and the amount of lysosomes, mitochondria, and secretory granules, but not the endoplasmic reticulum, were reduced in TSP-1 -/- compared to WT acini at 12 weeks of age...
February 14, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445112/nanoanalytical-electron-microscopy-of-events-predisposing-to-mineralisation-of-turkey-tendon
#14
Michał M Kłosowski, Raffaella Carzaniga, Sandra J Shefelbine, Alexandra E Porter, David W McComb
The macro- and micro-structures of mineralised tissues hierarchy are well described and understood. However, investigation of their nanostructure is limited due to the intrinsic complexity of biological systems. Preceding transmission electron microscopy studies investigating mineralising tissues have not resolved fully the initial stages of mineral nucleation and growth within the collagen fibrils. In this study, analytical scanning transmission electron microscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy were employed to characterise the morphology, crystallinity and chemistry of the mineral at different stages of mineralization using a turkey tendon model...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445095/granzyme-b-deficiency-promotes-osteoblastic-differentiation-and-calcification-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-in-hypoxic-pulmonary-hypertension
#15
Min Mao, Min Zhang, Anqi Ge, Xin Ge, Rui Gu, Chen Zhang, Yao Fu, Jiayin Gao, Xiaoying Wang, Yang Liu, Daling Zhu
Calcification is a major risk factor for vascular integrity. This pathological symptom and the underlying mechanisms in hypoxic pulmonary artery hypertension remain elusive. Here we report that pulmonary vascular medial calcification is elevated in pulmonary artery hypertension models as a result of an osteoblastic phenotype change of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells induced by hypoxia. Notably, inhibiting store-operated calcium channels significantly decreased osteoblastic differentiation and calcification of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells under hypoxia...
February 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444970/cytoplasmic-rna-granules-ribostasis-and-neurodegeneration
#16
Eduardo E Benarroch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 14, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444959/the-synaptotagmin-c2b-domain-calcium-binding-loops-modulate-the-rate-of-fusion-pore-expansion
#17
Mounir Bendahmane, Kevin P Bohannon, Mazdak M Bradberry, Tejeshwar C Rao, Michael W Schmidtke, Prabhodh S Abbineni, Nara L Chon, Sherleen Tran, Hai Lin, Edwin R Chapman, Jefferson D Knight, Arun Anantharam
In chromaffin cells, the kinetics of fusion pore expansion vary depending on which synaptotagmin isoform (Syt-1 or Syt-7) drives release. Our recent studies have shown that fusion pores of granules harboring Syt-1 expand more rapidly than those harboring Syt-7. Here, we sought to define the structural specificity of synaptotagmin action at the fusion pore by manipulating the Ca 2+ -binding C2B module. We generated a chimeric Syt-1 in which its C2B Ca 2+ -binding loops had been exchanged for those of Syt-7. Fusion pores of granules harboring a Syt-1 C2B chimera with all three Ca 2+ -binding loops of Syt-7 (Syt-1:7C2B 123 ) exhibited slower rates of fusion pore expansion and neuropeptide cargo release relative to WT Syt-1...
February 14, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444957/p38-activation-induces-the-dissociation-of-tristetraprolin-from-argonaute-2-to-increase-are-mrna-stabilization
#18
Mei-Yan Qi, Jing-Wen Song, Zhuo Zhang, Shuang Huang, Qing Jing
Tristetraprolin (TTP) destabilizes AU-rich element (ARE)-containing mRNA by directly binding with their 3'UTR. P38 stimulation substantially increases ARE-mRNA stability, at least through repressing TTP. However, the mechanism by which P38 keeps TTP inactive has not been fully understood. TTP and ARE-mRNA localize to processing bodies (PBs), the mRNA granules associated with mRNA silencing. Here, we detected the influence of P38 upon TTP localization within PBs and found that P38 regulates TTP localization within PBs...
February 14, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444950/mirna-targeting-and-alternative-splicing-in-the-stress-response-events-hosted-by-membrane-less-compartments
#19
REVIEW
Mariya M Kucherenko, Halyna R Shcherbata
Stress can be temporary or chronic, and mild or acute. Depending on its extent and severity, cells either alter their metabolism, and adopt a new state, or die. Fluctuations in environmental conditions occur frequently, and such stress disturbs cellular homeostasis, but in general, stresses are reversible and last only a short time. There is increasing evidence that regulation of gene expression in response to temporal stress happens post-transcriptionally in specialized subcellular membrane-less compartments called ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granules...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444629/canine-clitoral-carcinoma-a-clinical-cytologic-histopathologic-immunohistochemical-and-ultrastructural-study
#20
Ranieri Verin, Francesco Cian, Jennifer Stewart, Diana Binanti, Amy L MacNeill, Martina Piviani, Paola Monti, Gianna Baroni, Sophie Le Calvez, Timothy J Scase, Riccardo Finotello
Vaginal and vulvar tumors are uncommon in dogs. Knowledge of canine primary clitoral neoplasia is restricted to a few case reports, and only carcinomas have been reported. Cytologic and histologic features reported in the literature seem to overlap with those of canine apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinoma (AGASA). Clinical features also recall those of canine AGASA, such as locoregional metastases and hypercalcemia of malignancy (HM). In this study, 6 cases of primary canine clitoral carcinomas (CCCs), with and without HM, were investigated by means of cytology, histopathology, electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry for neuroendocrine markers including chromogranin A (CGA), synaptophysin (SYN), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and S-100...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
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