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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161774/building-trophic-specializations-that-result-in-substantial-niche-partitioning-within-a-young-adaptive-radiation
#1
Luz Patricia Hernandez, Dominique Adriaens, Christopher H Martin, Peter C Wainwright, Bert Masschaele, Manuel Dierick
Dietary partitioning often accompanies the increased morphological diversity seen during adaptive radiations within aquatic systems. While such niche partitioning would be expected in older radiations, it is unclear how significant morphological divergence occurs within a shorter time period. Here we show how differential growth in key elements of the feeding mechanism can bring about pronounced functional differences among closely related species. An incredibly young adaptive radiation of three Cyprinodon species residing within hypersaline lakes in San Salvador Island, Bahamas, has recently been described...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161683/out-of-the-blue-finger-ischaemia-and-occult-colorectal-cancer
#2
Ami Schattner
A woman aged 66 years with a history of unprovoked deep venous thrombosis (DVT) presented with persistent digital ischaemic changes of 2 of her right hand fingers. Physical examination was otherwise normal and extensive laboratory and imaging studies were unremarkable. A history of unprovoked DVT and the current episode of digital ischaemia prompted concern for underlying occult malignancy. Repeated history-taking revealed a strongly positive family history suggesting an occult colorectal cancer. Colonoscopy with biopsy revealed adenocarcinoma...
March 8, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161609/cancers-in-france-in-2015-attributable-to-high-body-mass-index
#3
Melina Arnold, Marina Touillaud, Laure Dossus, Heinz Freisling, Freddie Bray, Irène Margaritis, Valérie Deschamps, Isabelle Soerjomataram
BACKGROUND: Overweight, as defined by high body mass index (BMI), is an established risk factor for various morbidities including cancer. Globally, its prevalence has increased markedly over the past decades. The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion and number of cancers that were attributable to high BMI in France in 2015. METHODS: Population attributable fractions (PAFs) and numbers of cancer cases attributable to high BMI (a population mean BMI above the optimum of 22kg/m(2)) were estimated by age and sex, for cancer sites with convincing or probable evidence of an established causal link...
November 18, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161347/pharmacological-blockage-of-the-cxcr4-cxcl12-axis-in-endometriosis-leads-to-contrasting-effects-in-proliferation-migration-and-invasion
#4
Abigail Ruiz, Lynnette Ruiz, Mariano Colón-Caraballo, Bryan J Torres-Collazo, Janice B Monteiro, Manuel Bayona, Asgerally T Fazleabas, Idhaliz Flores
High levels of inflammatory factors including chemokines have been reported in peritoneal fluid and blood of women with endometriosis. CXCL12 mediates its action by interaction with its specific receptor, CXCR4, which has been reported to be elevated in human endometriosis lesions and in the rat model of endometriosis. Activation of the CXCR4-CXCL12 axis increases cell proliferation, migration and invasion of cancer cells. To obtain insights into the CXCR4 expression profile in lesions and endometrium, as well as functionality of the CXCR4-CXCL12 axis in endometriosis we analysed the expression of CXCR4 in tissues on a human tissue array and studied CXCL12-mediated activation of proliferation, invasion, and migration in vitro...
November 17, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161322/altered-juvenile-fish-communities-associated-with-invasive-halophila-stipulacea-seagrass-habitats-in-the-u-s-virgin-islands
#5
Lauren K Olinger, Sarah L Heidmann, Allie N Durdall, Colin Howe, Tanya Ramseyer, Sara G Thomas, Danielle N Lasseigne, Elizabeth J Brown, John S Cassell, Michele M Donihe, Mareike D Duffing Romero, Mara A Duke, Damon Green, Paul Hillbrand, Kristin R Wilson Grimes, Richard S Nemeth, Tyler B Smith, Marilyn Brandt
Caribbean seagrass habitats provide food and protection for reef-associated juvenile fish. The invasive seagrass Halophila stipulacea is rapidly altering these seascapes. Since its arrival in the Caribbean in 2002, H. stipulacea has colonized and displaced native seagrasses, but the function of this invasive seagrass as a juvenile fish habitat remains unknown. To compare diversity, community structure, and abundance of juvenile fish between H. stipulacea and native seagrass beds, fish traps were deployed in four nearshore bays around St...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161274/bacillus-spp-a-bio-control-agent-enhances-the-activity-of-antioxidant-defense-enzymes-in-rice-against-pyricularia-oryzae
#6
Afroz Rais, Zahra Jabeen, Faluk Shair, Fauzia Yusuf Hafeez, Muhammad Nadeem Hassan
Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are found to control the plant diseases by adopting various mechanisms. Induced systemic resistance (ISR) is an important defensive strategy manifested by plants against numerous pathogens especially infecting at aerial parts. Rhizobacteria elicit ISR by inducing different pathways in plants through production of various metabolites. In the present study, potential of Bacillus spp. KFP-5, KFP-7, KFP-17 was assessed to induce antioxidant enzymes against Pyricularia oryzae infection in rice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160911/simultaneous-use-of-erythropoietin-and-lfm-a13-as-a-new-therapeutic-approach-for-colorectal-cancer
#7
Anna Tankiewicz-Kwedlo, Justyna Magdalena Hermanowicz, Tomasz Domaniewski, Krystyna Pawlak, Małgorzata Rusak, Anna Pryczynicz, Arkadiusz Surazynski, Tomasz Kaminski, Adam Kazberuk, Dariusz Pawlak
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase involved in the activation of signaling pathways responsible for cell maturation and viability. BTK has previously been reported to be overexpressed in colon cancers. This kind of cancer is often accompanied by anemia, which is treated with an erythropoietin supplement. The goal of the present study was to assess the effects of combination therapy with erythropoietin beta (Epo) and LFM-A13 (BTK inhibitor) on colon cancer in in vitro and in vivo models...
November 21, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160900/fusarium-graminearum-pathogen-or-endophyte-of-north-american-grasses
#8
Lotus A Lofgren, Nicholas R LeBlanc, Amanda K Certano, Jonny Nachtigall, Kathryn M LaBine, Jakob Riddle, Karen Broz, Yanhong Dong, Bianca Bethan, Christopher W Kafer, H Corby Kistler
Mycotoxin-producing Fusarium graminearum and related species cause Fusarium head blight on cultivated grasses, such as wheat and barley. However, these Fusarium species may have had a longer evolutionary history with North American grasses than with cultivated crops and may interact with the ancestral hosts in ways which are biochemically distinct. We assayed 25 species of asymptomatic native grasses for the presence of Fusarium species and confirmed infected grasses as hosts using re-inoculation tests. We examined seed from native grasses for the presence of mycotoxin-producing Fusarium species and evaluated the ability of these fungi to produce mycotoxins in both native grass and wheat hosts using biochemical analysis...
November 21, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160894/chlorogenic-acids-and-the-acyl-quinic-acids-discovery-biosynthesis-bioavailability-and-bioactivity
#9
REVIEW
Michael N Clifford, Indu B Jaganath, Iziar A Ludwig, Alan Crozier
Covering: 2000 up to late 2017This review is focussed upon the acyl-quinic acids, the most studied group within the ca. 400 chlorogenic acids so far reported. The acyl-quinic acids, the first of which was characterised in 1846, are a diverse group of plant-derived compounds produced principally through esterification of an hydroxycinnamic acid and 1l-(-)-quinic acid. Topics addressed in this review include the confusing nomenclature, quantification and characterisation by NMR and MS, biosynthesis and role in planta, and the occurrence of acyl-quinic acids in coffee, their transformation during roasting and delivery to the beverage...
November 21, 2017: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160807/entamoeba-histolytica-under-oxidative-stress-what-countermeasure-mechanisms-are-in-place
#10
REVIEW
Erika Pineda, Doranda Perdomo
Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of human amoebiasis; it affects 50 million people worldwide and causes approximately 100,000 deaths per year. Entamoeba histolytica is an anaerobic parasite that is primarily found in the colon; however, for unknown reasons, it can become invasive, breaching the gut barrier and migrating toward the liver causing amoebic liver abscesses. During the invasive process, it must maintain intracellular hypoxia within the oxygenated human tissues and cellular homeostasis during the host immune defense attack when it is confronted with nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species...
November 21, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160622/mechanical-colon-cleansing-for-screening-colonoscopy-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Kamran Ayub, Gyanprakash Ketwaroo, Suhaib Abudayyeh, Abeer Ibrahim, Rhonda A Cole, Rosetta Brumfield-Brown, Waqar A Qureshi, Linda Rabeneck, David Y Graham
AIMS: Effective screening colonoscopy depends on the quality of colon preparation. To compare pulsed irrigation evacuation (PIE), polyethylene glycol (PEG) and sodium phosphate colon preps. METHODS: Outpatients at a VA hospital were randomized using sealed envelopes. Preparations consisted of: 4 liters Golytely; 90 mL of Fleet sodium phosphate with 4-6 glasses water b.i.d., and 296 mL of Mg citrate in the evening with PIE prior to colonoscopy. Colon cleansing was assessed blindly using a 5-point scale: 0 = very poor to 4 = excellent...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160525/colonic-basidiobolomycosis-with-liver-involvement-masquerading-as-gastrointestinal-lymphoma-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#12
Omid Reza Zekavat, Babak Abdolkarimi, Gholamreza Pouladfar, Gholamreza Fathpour, Maral Mokhtari, Nader Shakibazad
Basidiobolomycosis is an unusual fungal skin infection that rarely involves the gastrointestinal tract. This study reported a 5-year-old boy with gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis that had been misdiagnosed as gastrointestinal lymphoma. He was treated by surgical resection and a combination of posaconazole and amphotericin B deoxycholate with an acceptable response and no recurrence.
September 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160504/nasal-carriage-rate-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-among-iranian-healthcare-workers-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Mohammad Emaneini, Fereshteh Jabalameli, Hosseinali Rahdar, Willem B van Leeuwen, Reza Beigverdi
Globally, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) remains a major cause of healthcare-associated infections. Healthcare workers (HCWs), patients and the environment may act as reservoirs for the spread of MRSA to patients and other HCWs. Screening and eradication of MRSA colonization is an effective method of reducing the MRSA infection rate. There are limited data on the prevalence of MRSA among Iranian HCWs. We performed a systematic search by using different electronic databases including Medline (via PubMed), Embase, Web of Science, and Iranian Databases (from January 2000 to July 2016)...
September 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160412/exosomes-promote-cetuximab-resistance-via-the-pten-akt-pathway-in-colon-cancer-cells
#14
S Zhang, Y Zhang, J Qu, X Che, Y Fan, K Hou, T Guo, G Deng, N Song, C Li, X Wan, X Qu, Y Liu
Cetuximab is widely used in patients with metastatic colon cancer expressing wildtype KRAS. However, acquired drug resistance limits its clinical efficacy. Exosomes are nanosized vesicles secreted by various cell types. Tumor cell-derived exosomes participate in many biological processes, including tumor invasion, metastasis, and drug resistance. In this study, exosomes derived from cetuximab-resistant RKO colon cancer cells induced cetuximab resistance in cetuximab-sensitive Caco-2 cells. Meanwhile, exosomes from RKO and Caco-2 cells showed different levels of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and phosphor-Akt...
November 13, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160392/prevalence-and-sensitivity-of-bacilli-and-pseudomonas-in-the-newborn-s-oral-cavity
#15
Priscila Vitor Alves Ferreira, Isabela Amêndola, Luciane Dias de Oliveira, Célia Regina Gonçalves E Silva, Mariella Vieira Pereira Leão, Silvana Soléo Ferreira Dos Santos
The aim of this study was to isolate Enterobacteria and Pseudomonas from the oral cavity of hospitalized newborns (NB) and determine their prevalence and the sensitivity profile to most commonly used antibiotics for this age group. Samples from the oral cavity of NB from 24 to 48 h age were collected using swabs. The samples were inoculated on MacConkey agar, incubated and the colonies counted and identified. For each strain, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using agar dilution test...
July 2017: Brazilian Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160205/clarinet-cla-1-a-novel-active-zone-protein-required-for-synaptic-vesicle-clustering-and-release
#16
Zhao Xuan, Laura Manning, Jessica Nelson, Janet E Richmond, Daniel A Colón-Ramos, Kang Shen, Peri T Kurshan
Active zone proteins cluster synaptic vesicles at presynaptic terminals and coordinate their release. In forward genetic screens we isolated a novel C. elegans active zone gene, clarinet (cla-1). cla-1 mutants exhibit defects in synaptic vesicle clustering, active zone structure and synapse number. As a result, they have reduced spontaneous vesicle release and increased synaptic depression. cla-1 mutants show defects in vesicle distribution near the presynaptic dense projection, with fewer undocked vesicles contacting the dense projection and more docked vesicles at the plasma membrane...
November 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160197/isolation-and-molecular-characterization-of-group-b-streptococcus-from-laboratory-long-evans-rats-rattus-norvegicus-with-and-without-invasive-group-b-streptococcal-disease
#17
Caroline Bodi Winn, Vasudevan Bakthavatchalu, Michael Y Esmail, Yan Feng, JoAnn Dzink-Fox, Lauren Richey, Scott E Perkins, Eric K Nordberg, James G Fox
PURPOSE: Group B Streptococcus (S. agalactiae, GBS) is a Gram-positive opportunistic pathogen that inhabits the respiratory, urogenital and gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals. Maternal colonization of GBS is a risk factor for a spectrum of clinical diseases in humans and a principle cause of neonatal meningitis and septicaemia. METHODOLOGY: We describe polymicrobial sepsis including GBS in two gravid adult female Long-Evans rats experiencing acute mortality from a colony of long-term breeding pairs...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159997/sporulation-capability-and-amylosome-conservation-among-diverse-human-colonic-and-rumen-isolates-of-the-keystone-starch-degrader-ruminococcus-bromii
#18
Indrani Mukhopadhya, Sarah Morais, Jenny Laverde-Gomez, Paul O Sheridan, Alan W Walker, William Kelly, Athol V Klieve, Diane Ouwerkerk, Sylvia H Duncan, Petra Louis, Nicole Koropatkin, Darrell Cockburn, Ryan Kibler, Philip J Cooper, Carlos Sandoval, Emmanuelle Crost, Nathalie Juge, Edward A Bayer, Harry J Flint
Ruminococcus bromii is a dominant member of the human colonic microbiota that plays a 'keystone' role in degrading dietary resistant starch. Recent evidence from one strain has uncovered a unique cell surface 'amylosome' complex that organizes starch-degrading enzymes. New genome analysis presented here reveals further features of this complex and shows remarkable conservation of amylosome components between human colonic strains from three different continents and a R. bromii strain from the rumen of Australian cattle...
November 21, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159866/administration-of-adjuvant-chemotherapy-for-stage-ii-iii-colon-cancer-patients-a-european-population-based-study
#19
Masoud Babaei, Yesilda Balavarca, Lina Jansen, Valery Lemmens, Felice N van Erning, Liesbet van Eycken, Evelien Vaes, Annika Sjövall, Bengt Glimelius, Cornelia M Ulrich, Petra Schrotz-King, Hermann Brenner
The advantage of adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) for treating stage III colon cancer patients is well established and widely accepted. However, many patients with stage III colon cancer do not receive ACT. Moreover, there are controversies around the effectiveness of ACT for stage II patients. We investigated the administration of ACT and its association with overall survival in resected stage II (overall and stratified by low-/high-risk) and stage III colon cancer patients in three European countries including The Netherlands (2009-2014), Belgium (2009-2013), and Sweden (2009-2014)...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159782/cecal-bascule-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#20
REVIEW
B E Lung, S B Yelika, A S Murthy, M Gachabayov, P Denoya
BACKGROUND: Cecal volvulus is a rare clinical entity with an average incidence of 2.8-7.1 per million people per year, accounting for 1-2% of all large bowel obstructions. Cecal bascule is the rarest type of cecal volvulus, accounting for 5-20% of all cases. Although several case reports have been published, there is no consensus regarding its diagnosis and treatment. The aim of this study was to review the literature on cecal bascule in order to summarize the etiopathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment options...
November 20, 2017: Techniques in Coloproctology
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