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T Koiava, D Gonçalves, J Palmeira, K Arobelidze, M Tediashvili, L Akhvlediani, H Ferreira
Research describing the epidemiology of antibiotic resistant microbes is vital to the proactive development of new antimicrobial agents. In the last years, CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) have emerged worldwide and have replaced classical TEM and SHV-type ESBLs in many countries. CTX-M-15 is currently the most frequent, with a pandemic distribution, and its rapid spread is facilitated by incorporation of resistance genes in mobile genetic elements. The ESBL is efficacious in Gram-negative bacteria and thus closely associated with nosocomial environments, often colonizing the intestines, particularly in older and dependent patients...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
T Didbaridze, L Saginashvili, L Akhmeteli, B Iremashvili, N Gogokhia
This study provides a contemporary epidemiology of aspirates taken during surgery from the abdominal cavity among patients with bacterial peritonitis to identify the isolates and study their sensitivity to antibiotics. Our bacteriology investigations included isolation of poor cultures, and detection of microbes was conducted using a rapid identification system (API20E, API Staph, API Strep, API Ana, BioMerieux). Rapid tests for detection of oxidase and catalase activity were also used. Susceptibility of microorganisms to antibiotics was defined by the disc-diffusion method using standard discs (EUCAST guidelines 2015) according to Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) protocols (ATB strips: ATB G, ATB Staph, ATBANA, ATBPse, ATBStrep...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
Marta Marchetti, Camille Clerissi, Yasmine Yousfi, Carine Gris, Olivier Bouchez, Eduardo Rocha, Stéphane Cruveiller, Alain Jauneau, Delphine Capela, Catherine Masson-Boivin
Experimental evolution is a powerful approach to study the process of adaptation to new environments, including the colonization of eukaryotic hosts. Facultative endosymbionts, including pathogens and mutualists, face changing and spatially structured environments during the symbiotic process, which impose diverse selection pressures. Here we provide evidence that different selection regimes, involving different times spent in the plant environment, can result in either intra- or extracellular symbiotic adaptations...
October 22, 2016: Molecular Ecology
Pedro Pereira Rizzato, Maria Elina Bichuette
The laterosensory system is a mechanosensory modality involved in many aspects of fish biology and behavior. Laterosensory perception may be crucial for individual survival, especially in habitats where other sensory modalities are generally useless, such as the permanently aphotic subterranean environment. In the present study, we describe the laterosensory canal system of epigean and subterranean species of the genus Ituglanis (Siluriformes: Trichomycteridae). With seven independent colonizations of the subterranean environment in a limited geographical range coupled with a high diversity of epigean forms, the genus is an excellent model for the study of morphological specialization to hypogean life...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Morphology
Michael L Schulte, Matthew R Hight, Gregory D Ayers, Qi Liu, Yu Shyr, M Kay Washington, H Charles Manning
PURPOSE: This study aimed to study whether cancer cells possess distinguishing metabolic features compared with surrounding normal cells, such as increased glutamine uptake. Given this, quantitative measures of glutamine uptake may reflect critical processes in oncology. Approximately, 10 % of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) express BRAF (V600E) , which may be actionable with selective BRAF inhibitors or in combination with inhibitors of complementary signaling axes. Non-invasive and quantitative predictive measures of response to these targeted therapies remain poorly developed in this setting...
October 21, 2016: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
K Wolinski, A Stangierski, K Dyrda, K Nowicka, M Pelka, A Iqbal, A Car, M Lazizi, N Bednarek, A Czarnywojtek, E Gurgul, M Ruchala
PURPOSE: Acromegaly is a chronic disease resulting from pathological oversecretion of growth hormone and subsequently insulin growth factor-1. Several complications of the disease have been reported, including cardiovascular diseases, respiratory disorders but also increased risk of benign and malignant neoplasms. The aim of the study was to evaluate the risk of malignant neoplasms in the patients with acromegaly in comparison with the control group. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Medical documentation of acromegalic patients treated in one medical center between 2005 and 2016 has been analyzed...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
Chi-Liang Cheng, Nai-Jen Liu, Jui-Hsiang Tang, Yen-Lin Kuo, Hsiang-Ling Hung, Yi-Ning Tsui, Bai-Ping Lee, Cheng-Hui Lin
BACKGROUND: A 3-l polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution provided better bowel cleansing quality than a 2-l solution for outpatient colonoscopy. Predictors of suboptimal preparation using a 3-l PEG have not been previously reported. AIMS: To investigate the possible predictors of suboptimal bowel preparation using 3-l of PEG. METHODS: We analyzed a database of 1404 consecutive colonoscopies during a 27-month period at a community hospital. A split-dose PEG regimen was provided for morning colonoscopies, and a same-day PEG regimen was provided for afternoon colonoscopies...
October 21, 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Paul H Sugarbaker
BACKGROUND: Mucinous appendiceal neoplasms (MAN) with peritoneal dissemination is treated as a standard of care using cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic perioperative chemotherapy. The extent of the resection of peritoneal surfaces and visceral structures is generally well defined. Exception to this consensus regarding structures to be removed are the right colon and adjacent ileocolic lymph nodes. METHODS: From a prospectively maintained database, all patients with a histologic diagnosis of peritoneal mucinous carcinoma (PMCA) who underwent complete cytoreductive surgery were assessed for the presence versus absence of adenocarcinoma in lymph nodes within the appendiceal mesentery and/or in the lymph nodes of the ileocolic group...
October 21, 2016: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Jinke Xu, Mifong Tam, Sepideh Samadei, Sophie Lerouge, Jake Barralet, Mary M Stevenson, Marta Cerruti
Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems stick to mucosal tissues and prolong the local retention time of drugs. Since the colon is covered by a mucosal layer, mucoadhesive rectal formulations may improve treatment of such diseases as hypertension or colon cancer. Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease characterized by chronic inflammation of the colonic mucosa. It is commonly treated with sulfasalazine (SSZ), which is metabolized by the intestinal flora into the therapeutic 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and a toxic by-product sulfapyridine (SP)...
October 18, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Ricardo Ferrer, Rafael Zaragoza, Alejandro H Rodríguez, Emilio Maseda, Pedro Llinares, Santiago Grau, Francisco Álvarez-Lerma, Guillermo Quindós, Miguel Salavert, Rafael Huarte
BACKGROUND: Although the management of invasive fungal infection (IFI) has improved, a number of controversies persist regarding the approach to invasive fungal infection in non-neutropenic medical ward patients. AIMS: To identify the essential clinical knowledge to elaborate a set of recommendations with a high level of consensus necessary for the management of IFI in non-neutropenic medical ward patients. METHODS: A prospective, Spanish questionnaire, which measures consensus through the Delphi technique, was anonymously answered and e-mailed by 30 multidisciplinary national experts, all specialists (intensivists, anesthesiologists, microbiologists, pharmacologists and specialists in infectious diseases) in IFI and belonging to six scientific national societies...
October 18, 2016: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
A Reum Kim, Ki Bum Ahn, Hyun Young Kim, Ho Seong Seo, Cheol-Heui Yun, Seung Hyun Han
INTRODUCTION: Streptococcus gordonii is a predominant member of the oral microflora and has been isolated from root canals of teeth with refractory apical periodontitis. Biofilm formation is important for various dental diseases, and S. gordonii is involved in dental biofilm formation as an early colonizer. Although serine-rich repeat (SRR) adhesins of S. gordonii such as gordonii surface protein B (GspB) are associated with bacterial colonization, the role of GspB in biofilm formation is not clearly understood...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Endodontics
Pierre Dehoux, Jean Christophe Marvaud, Amr Abouelleil, Ashlee M Earl, Thierry Lambert, Catherine Dauga
BACKGROUND: Clostridium bolteae and Clostridium clostridioforme, previously included in the complex C. clostridioforme in the group Clostridium XIVa, remain difficult to distinguish by phenotypic methods. These bacteria, prevailing in the human intestinal microbiota, are opportunistic pathogens with various drug susceptibility patterns. In order to better characterize the two species and to obtain information on their antibiotic resistance genes, we analyzed the genomes of six strains of C...
October 21, 2016: BMC Genomics
Vincent K Dik, Ignace T C Hooge, Martijn G H van Oijen, Peter D Siersema
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Considerable variation in adenoma detection has been shown between endoscopists, which may be explained by differences in colon inspection. Eye-tracking technology is an objective tool that detects differences in viewing patterns. We investigated the feasibility of eye-tracking technology during real-time, self-performed colonoscopies. METHODS: In this pilot study, 10 endoscopists performed two colonoscopies each. A mobile eye-tracking system to register the right eye position was used to determine the gaze across four areas of interest of the endoscopy monitor (upper, lower, left, and right quadrant)...
December 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Julia M Fraile, Diana Campos-Iglesias, Francisco Rodríguez, Yaiza Español, José M P Freije
Ubiquitin-Specific Proteases (USPs) are deubiquitinating enzymes frequently deregulated in human malignancies. Here, we show that USP54 is overexpressed in intestinal stem cells and demonstrate that its downregulation in colorectal carcinoma cells impedes tumorigenesis. We have generated mutant mice deficient for this deubiquitinase, which are viable and fertile, and protected against chemically-induced colorectal carcinoma. Furthermore, we show that USP54 is upregulated in human colon cancer and associates with poor prognosis...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Miao Liu, Ling Zhou, Baiyu Zhang, Minhong He, Xiaoying Dong, Xiaojun Lin, Chunhong Jia, Xiaochun Bai, Yifan Dai, Yongchun Su, Zhipeng Zou, Hang Zheng
Although epidemiological and preclinical studies have shown the preventative effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on colorectal cancer (CRC), the underlying molecular mechanisms are not clear. In this study, we revealed that elevation of n-3/n-6 PUFAs ratio suppress the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and prevent colorectal tumorigenesis. The transgenic expression of fat-1, a desaturase that catalyzes the conversion of n-6 to n-3 PUFAs and produces n-3 PUFAs endogenously, repressed colorectal tumor cell growth and remarkably reduced tumor burden, and alleviated anemia as well as hyperlipidemia in APCMin/+ (adenomatous polyposis coli) mice, a classic CRC model that best simulates most clinical cases...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Deepa Khare, Nobukata Mitsuda, Seungchul Lee, Won-Yong Song, Daehee Hwang, Masaru Ohme-Takagi, Enrico Martinoia, Youngsook Lee, Jae-Ung Hwang
Plants reorganize their root architecture to avoid growth into unfavorable regions of the rhizosphere. In a screen based on chimeric repressor gene-silencing technology, we identified the Arabidopsis thaliana GeBP-LIKE 4 (GPL4) transcription factor as an inhibitor of root growth that is induced rapidly in root tips in response to cadmium (Cd). We tested the hypothesis that GPL4 functions in the root avoidance of Cd by analyzing root proliferation in split medium, in which only half of the medium contained toxic concentrations of Cd...
October 21, 2016: New Phytologist
Francisco X Nascimento, Margarida Espada, Pedro Barbosa, Márcio J Rossi, Cláudia S L Vicente, Manuel Mota
The aim of this study is to understand the biological role of Serratia quinivorans BXF1, a bacterium commonly found associated with Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the plant parasitic nematode responsible for pine wilt disease. Therefore, we studied strain BXF1 effect in pine wilt disease. We found that strain BXF1 promoted in vitro nematode reproduction. Moreover, the presence of bacteria led to the absence of nematode chitinase gene (Bxcht-1) expression, suggesting an effect for bacterial chitinase in nematode reproduction...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
Debarun Dutta, Ajay K Vijay, Naresh Kumar, Mark D P Willcox
Purpose: To determine the ability of antimicrobial peptide melimine-coated contact lenses to reduce the incidence of microbial keratitis (MK) in a rabbit model of contact lens wear. Methods: In vitro antimicrobial activity of melimine-coated contact lenses was determined against Pseudomonas aeruginosa by viable count and a radiolabeled assay. The amount of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) associated with bacteria bound to melimine-coated and control lenses was determined...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Brintha Parasumanna Girinathan, Sterling Braun, Apoorva Reddy Sirigireddy, Jose Espinola-Lopez, Revathi Govind
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0160107.].
2016: PloS One
Charles A Pickens, Mariana de Fátima Albuquerque Pereira, Jenifer I Fenton
Dietary lipid intake can be associated with an increased risk for colorectal cancer depending on its composition. Carcinogenesis alters lipid metabolism to facilitate cell growth and survival. For instance, metabolites of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are associated with increasing colon cell proliferation. Moreover, precancerous colon lesions (i.e. adenomas) increase the risk for colorectal cancer. In this study, we investigated associations between plasma PUFAs and the number of colon polyps and polyp type (i...
October 20, 2016: European Journal of Cancer Prevention
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