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Kenneth C Cummings Iii, Nicole M Zimmerman, Kamal Maheshwari, Gregory S Cooper, Linda C Cummings
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Epidural analgesia may be associated with fewer postoperative complications and is associated with improved survival after colon cancer resection. This study used the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) to assess any association between epidural analgesia (versus non-epidural) and complications after colectomy. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: 603 hospitals in the United States reporting data to NSQIP...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Liam Chung, Erik Thiele Orberg, Abby L Geis, June L Chan, Kai Fu, Christina E DeStefano Shields, Christine M Dejea, Payam Fathi, Jie Chen, Benjamin B Finard, Ada J Tam, Florencia McAllister, Hongni Fan, Xinqun Wu, Sudipto Ganguly, Andriana Lebid, Paul Metz, Sara W Van Meerbeke, David L Huso, Elizabeth C Wick, Drew M Pardoll, Fengyi Wan, Shaoguang Wu, Cynthia L Sears, Franck Housseau
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Anne Dommaschk, Lara F Lang, Regina Maus, Jennifer Stolper, Tobias Welte, Ulrich A Maus
Nasopharyngeal colonization with Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is known to mount protective adaptive immune responses in rodents and humans. However, the cellular response of the nasopharyngeal compartment to pneumococcal colonization and its importance for the ensuing adaptive immune response is only partially defined. Here we show that nasopharyngeal colonization with S. pneumoniae triggered substantial expansion of both integrin αE (CD103) positive dendritic cells (DC) and T lymphocytes in nasopharynx, nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) and cervical lymph nodes (CLN) of WT mice...
March 15, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
Stella Arelaki, Athanasios Arampatzioglou, Konstantinos Kambas, Efthimios Sivridis, Alexandra Giatromanolaki, Konstantinos Ritis
Inflammation is a hallmark of colorectal cancer (CRC). Neutrophils are well-known mediators in tumor biology but their role in solid tumors, including CRC, was redefined by neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Given that it was recently demonstrated that platelet-derived polyP primes neutrophils to release NETs, we examined surgical specimens from CRC to investigate the presence of polyP, as a possible NET inducer. Biopsies with adenomas, hyperplastic polyps, inflammatory bowel disease and healthy colon tissues were used as controls...
2018: PloS One
Lívia H Morais, Daniela B Hara, Maíra A Bicca, Anicleto Poli, Reinaldo N Takahashi
The factors that trigger the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) are unknown. However, it is suggested that environmental factors, such as exposure to pesticides, play an important role, in addition to genetic predisposition and aging. Early signs of PD can appear in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and in the olfactory system, preceding the onset of motor impairments by many years. The present study assessed the effects of oral rotenone administration (30 mg/kg) in inducing GI and olfactory dysfunctions associated with PD in mice...
April 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
A W Dretler, N G Rouphael, D S Stephens
The control of meningitis, meningococcemia and other infections caused by Neisseria meningitidis is a significant global health challenge. Substantial progress has occurred in the last twenty years in meningococcal vaccine development and global implementation. Meningococcal protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines to serogroups A, C, W, and Y (modeled after the Haemophilus influenzae b conjugate vaccines) provide better duration of protection and immunologic memory, and overcome weak immune responses in infants and young children and hypo-responsive to repeated vaccine doses seen with polysaccharide vaccines...
March 15, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Xiumei Che, Ki Cheong Park, Soo Jung Park, You Hyun Kang, Hyun A Jin, Joo Wan Kim, Dong Hyuk Seo, Dae Kyu Kim, Tae Il Kim, Won Ho Kim, Seung Won Kim, Jae Hee Cheon
Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 (TREM-1)-expressing intestinal macrophages are significantly increased in the colons of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We focused here on the effects of guggulsterone on macrophage modulation in colitis as a potential therapeutic molecule in human IBD and explore the underlying mechanisms. Gene expression in macrophages was examined and wound healing assay using HT-29 cells was performed. Colitis in wild type and IL-10-, TLR4-, and MyD88-deficient mice was induced via the administration of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) into the colon...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
D Roorda, M J Witvliet, L M Wellens, D V Schulten, C E J Sloots, I de Blaauw, P M A Broens, J Oosterlaan, L W E van Heurn, A F W van der Steeg
AIM: Total colonic aganglionosis (TCA) is a severe form of Hirschsprung's Disease (HD) associated with a high morbidity. This study assesses long-term functional outcome and Quality of Life (QoL) of TCA patients in a national consecutive cohort. METHODS: Medical records of all patients (n=53) diagnosed between 1995 and 2015 were reviewed on surgical and demographic characteristics. Functional outcome of all non-syndromal patients, aged ≥ four years (n=35) was assessed in medical records and with a questionnaire...
March 15, 2018: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
Cinta Moraleda, Rachid Benmessaoud, Jessica Esteban, Yuly López, Hassan Alami, Amina Barkat, Tligui Houssain, Meryem Kabiri, Rachid Bezad, Saad Chaacho, Lola Madrid, Jordi Vila, Carmen Muñoz-Almagro, Jordi Bosch, Sara M Soto, Quique Bassat
PURPOSE: Group B streptococcus (GBS) is an important cause of neonatal sepsis worldwide. Data on the prevalence of maternal GBS colonization, risk factors for carriage, antibiotic susceptibility and circulating serotypes are necessary to tailor adequate locally relevant public health policies. METHODOLOGY: A prospective study including pregnant women and their newborns was conducted between March and July 2013 in Morocco. We collected clinical data and vagino-rectal and urine samples from the recruited pregnant women, together with the clinical characteristics of, and body surface samples from, their newborns...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Jeffrey Earl Gotts, Lauren F Chun, Jason Abbott, Xiaohui Fang, Naoki Takasaki, Stephen L Nishimura, Matthew L Springer, Suzaynn F Schick, Carolyn S Calfee, Michael A Matthay
Evidence is accumulating that exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) increases the risk of developing Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). S. pneumoniae is the most common cause of bacterial pneumonia, which in turn is the leading cause of ARDS. Chronic smokers have increased rates of pneumococcal colonization and develop more severe pneumococcal pneumonia than nonsmokers, yet mechanistic connections between CS exposure, bacterial pneumonia, and ARDS pathogenesis remain relatively unexplored. We exposed mice to 3 weeks of moderate whole-body CS or air, followed by intranasal inoculation with an invasive serotype of S...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Nirav Patel, Aidan Fagan-Murphy, Derek Covill, Bhavik Anil Patel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Tianyu Liu, Duochen Jin, Samiullah Khan, Xue Chen, Tao Shi, Wenxiao Dong, Yanrong Qi, Zixuan Guo, Bangmao Wang, Hailong Cao
OBJECTIVE: A growing body of evidence indicates that patients with colorectal serrated lesions especially advanced serrated lesions (ASLs) are at risk of subsequent malignancy. This study aimed to provide more information for endoscopists for the management of ASLs by analyzing the clinicopathological features of ASLs, and the association between the presence of ASL and synchronous advanced colorectal neoplasia (sACN) in China. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cross-sectional study of data from 38,981 symptomatic patients who underwent colonoscopy between January 2010 and March 2016...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Digestive Diseases
P Marega, E A Liberti, J J S Freitas, K S Kietzer
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal (GI) dysmotility is common in patients with cancer. There are a few studies about the myenteric plexus in the presence of anatomically remote tumors. METHODS: Forty-eight male Wistar rats were divided into a control (CT) or Walker-256 (TW) group. Tumor cells were subcutaneously injected and saline was injected in the CT group. After 14 days, the small and large intestines were removed for histochemical analysis. The macroscopic morphology of the intestines and the fecal excretion were also observed...
March 15, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
T P Loch, M Faisal
Flavobacterial diseases are significant impediments to hatchery-based fishery conservation and aquaculture productivity worldwide. Recent studies revealed a multitude of novel flavobacteria within the reproductive fluids and unfertilized eggs of feral Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha broodstock, some of which were associated with systemic disease. Herein, embryonated eggs/fry from these broodstock were assayed for flavobacteria while in incubator stacks in three hatcheries over 2 years, as was the water entering hatchery incubators...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
Sandra Schulz, Manfred Maitz, Stefanie Hänsel, Lars D Renner, Carsten Werner
Advanced blood contacting biomaterials are designed to combine antiseptic and anticoagulant functionalities. Here, we present a new in vitro methodology for the analysis of bacterial adhesion and growth after the preceding human whole blood incubation of the tested materials. Poly(styrene) surfaces as well as thrombin-responsive and non-responsive poly(ethylene glycol)-heparin hydrogel coatings, with and without silver functionalization, were analyzed with this approach using freshly drawn human whole blood and various human pathogens (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli)...
March 15, 2018: Biomaterials Science
Antonio Fadda, Davide Gentilini, Loredana Moi, Ludovic Barault, Vera Piera Leoni, Pia Sulas, Luigi Zorcolo, Angelo Restivo, Francesco Cabras, Federica Fortunato, Cesare Zavattari, Liliana Varesco, Viviana Gismondi, Maria Rosaria De Miglio, Antonio Mario Scanu, Federica Colombi, Pasquale Lombardi, Ivana Sarotto, Eleonora Loi, Francesco Leone, Silvia Giordano, Federica Di Nicolantonio, Amedeo Columbano, Patrizia Zavattari
Colorectal cancer (CRC) develops through the accumulation of both genetic and epigenetic alterations. However, while the former are already used as prognostic and predictive biomarkers, the latter are less well characterized. Here, performing global methylation analysis on both CRCs and adenomas by Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 Bead Chips, we identified a panel of 74 altered CpG islands, demonstrating that the earliest methylation alterations affect genes coding for proteins involved in the crosstalk between cell and surrounding environment...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Bruna Maria Salotti de Souza, Taís Fernanda Borgonovi, Sabrina Neves Casarotti, Svetoslav Dimitrov Todorov, Ana Lúcia Barretto Penna
The objective of this study was to evaluate the probiotic properties of Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus fermentum strains, as well as to select novel and safe strains for future development of functional fermented products. The in vitro auto-aggregation, co-aggregation, hydrophobicity, β-galactosidase production, survival to gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and antibiotic susceptibility were evaluated. The selected strains were additionally tested by the presence of genes encoding adhesion, aggregation and colonization, virulence factors, antibiotic resistance, and biogenic amine production, followed by the evaluation of acidifying kinetic parameters in milk, and survival of the strains under simulated GIT conditions during refrigerated storage of fermented milk...
March 14, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
G Vinayarani, H S Prakash
Endophytic fungi have been isolated from the healthy turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) rhizomes from South India. Thirty-one endophytes were identified based on morphological and ITS-rDNA sequence analysis. The isolated endophytes were screened for antagonistic activity against Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp., and Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn., causing rhizome rot and leaf blight diseases in turmeric respectively. Results revealed that only six endophytes showed > 70% suppression of test pathogens in antagonistic dual culture assays...
March 14, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Ondrej Fabian, Ondrej Hradsky, Tereza Drskova, Filip Mikus, Josef Zamecnik, Jiri Bronsky
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of pediatric inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) remains challenging. We aimed at the value of immunohistochemical assessment of CD30+ lymphocytes in the intestinal mucosa in differential diagnosis between pediatric Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) and its utility as a predictor of future differentiation in patients with IBD unclassified (IBDU). METHODS: Seventy-four treatment naive pediatric patients with IBD (33 CD, 30 UC and 11 IBDU) were enrolled into the study...
March 14, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
L G J Leijssen, A M Dinaux, H Kunitake, L G Bordeianou, D L Berger
PURPOSE: Proximal and distal colon cancers differ in terms of epidemiology, clinical presentation, and pathologic features. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of right-sided (RC), transverse (TC), and left-sided (LC) colon cancer on morbidity rates and oncological outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients with resected colon cancer between 2004 and 2014 was conducted. Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess predictors of overall (OS), and disease-specific survival (DSS), as well as disease-free survival (DFS)...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
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