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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793131/tlr2-4-ligand-amplified-liver-inflammation-promotes-initiation-of-autoimmune-hepatitis-due-to-sustained-il-6-il-12-il-4-il-25-expression
#1
Gang Chi, Xin-Xia Feng, Ying-Xia Ru, Ting Xiong, Yuan Gao, Han Wang, Zhen-Long Luo, Ran Mo, Fang Guo, Yong-Pei He, Gui-Mei Zhang, De-An Tian, Zuo-Hua Feng
Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), a serious autoimmune liver disease, can be a lifelong illness, leading to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). So far the mechanisms for disease initiation are largely unknown. Here we report that the amplified non-AIH liver inflammation could promote the initiation of AIH due to the sustained increase of IL-6, IL-12, IL-4, and IL-25 in the liver. The liver injury resulting from virus (adenovirus) or chemicals (CCl4 ) could induce an amplified (stronger/long-lasting) hepatic inflammation by releasing the ligands for TLR2/TLR4...
May 21, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792946/investigation-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-induced-drug-metabolism-by-comparative-global-toxicoproteomics
#2
Ann-Yae Na, Jung Jae Jo, Ok Kwang Kwon, Riya Shrestha, Piljoung Cho, Kyu Min Kim, Sung Hwan Ki, Tae Hee Lee, Tae Won Jeon, Tae Cheon Jeong, Sangkyu Lee
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) includes conditions such as steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, and ultimately hepatocellular carcinoma. Although the pathology of NAFLD is well-established, NAFLD-induced drug metabolism mediated by cytochrome P450 (CYP) in the liver has remained largely unexplored. Therefore, we investigated NAFLD-induced drug metabolism mediated by CYP by quantitative toxicoproteomics analysis. After administration of a methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet to induce development of NAFLD, tandem mass tags-based liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis was conducted to investigate the dynamics of hepatic proteins...
May 21, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792748/portal-vein-thrombosis-imaging-the-spectrum-of-disease-with-an-emphasis-on-mri-features
#3
Reena C Jha, Satinderpal Singh Khera, Amit Dinesh Kalaria
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to review the classic and uncommon imaging findings of portal vein thrombosis (PVT) (acute, chronic, congenital, and septic thrombus) as visualized on multiple modalities, with an emphasis on MRI findings. Additional aims are to understand the imaging of obliterative portal venopathy and its clinical significance, appreciate morphologic changes of the biliary system that may accompany PVT, and recognize changes in liver enhancement patterns seen with PVT related to the hepatic arterial buffer response...
May 24, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792719/-sinusoidal-obstruction-syndrome-induced-by-monocrotaline-in-a-large-animal-experiment-a-pilot-study
#4
R Pálek, V Liška, V Třeška, J Rosendorf, M Emingr, V Tégl, A Králíčková, K Bajcurová, M Jiřík, Z Tonar
INTRODUCTION: Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) is a disease which is caused by toxic injury to hepatic sinusoids. This syndrome is most frequently caused by myeloablative radiochemotherapy in patients before hematopoietic stem cells transplantation and also by oxaliplatin mainly in patients with colorectal liver metastases. The aim of this study was to establish a large animal model of SOS, which would enable further study of this disease and facilitate translation of experimental outcomes into human medicine...
2018: Rozhledy V Chirurgii: Měsíčník Československé Chirurgické Společnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792708/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-diabetes-is-associated-with-decreased-cyp3a4-protein-expression-and-activity-in-human-liver
#5
Rohitash Jamwal, Suzanne M de la Monte, Ken Ogasawara, Sravani Adusumalli, Benjamin B Barlock, Fatemeh Akhlaghi
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major cause of chronic liver disease in Western population. We investigated the effect of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and diabetes mellitus on CYP3A4 activity in human liver tissue from brain dead donors (N=74). Histopathologically graded livers were grouped into normal (n=24), nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL, n=26) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, n=24) categories. The rate of conversion of midazolam to its 1-hydroxy metabolite was used to assess in vitro CYP3A4 activity in human liver microsomes (HLM)...
May 24, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792586/the-incubation-period-of-hepatitis-e-genotype-1-insights-from-pooled-analyses-of-travellers
#6
A S Azman, I Ciglenecki, C Oeser, B Said, R S Tedder, S Ijaz
Hepatitis E virus genotype 1 (HEV G1) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in Africa and Asia. HEV G1's natural history, including the incubation period, remains poorly understood, hindering surveillance efforts and effective control. Using individual-level data from 85 travel-related HEV G1 cases in England and Wales, we estimate the incubation period distribution using survival analysis methods, which allow for appropriate inference when only time ranges, rather than exact times are known for the exposure to HEV and symptom onset...
May 24, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792584/neonatal-intake-of-oleanolic-acid-attenuates-the-subsequent-development-of-high-fructose-diet-induced-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-rats
#7
T T Nyakudya, E Mukwevho, P Nkomozepi, K H Erlwanger
Dietary manipulations during the early postnatal period are associated with the development of metabolic disorders including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or long-term protection against metabolic dysfunction. We investigated the potential hepatoprotective effects of neonatal administration of oleanolic acid (OA), a phytochemical, on the subsequent development in adulthood, of dietary fructose-induced NAFLD. Male and female suckling rats (n=112) were gavaged with; distilled water (DW), OA (60 mg/kg), high fructose solution (HF; 20% w/v) and OA+HF (OAHF) for 7 days...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792380/alirocumab-as-add-on-therapy-to-statins-current-evidence-and-clinical-potential
#8
Johann Auer, Robert Berent
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVDs) are associated with a substantial mortality, physical morbidity, and mental disability. Elevated plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels play a major role in the pathophysiology of ASCVDs. Statins have been shown to reduce ASCVD risk and associated events and are recommended as first-line therapy for treatment of hypercholesterolemia by current international guidelines. The key issue is to attain guideline-recommended LDL-C levels (below 70 mg/dl) for patients at very high cardiovascular risk...
May 1, 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792154/exploration-of-hetero-aryl-derived-thienylchalcones-for-antiviral-and-anticancer-activities
#9
Vikrant Patil, Siddappa A Patil, Renukadevi Patil, Alejandro Bugarin, Kenneth Beaman, Shivaputra A Patil
BACKGROUND: Search for new antiviral and anticancer agents are essential because of the emergence of drug resistance in recent years. In continuation of our efforts in identifying the new small molecule antiviral and anticancer agents, we identified chalcones as potent antiviral and anticancer agents. OBJECTIVE: With the aim of identifying the broad acting antiviral and anticancer agents, we discovered substituted aryl/heteroaryl derived thienyl chalcones as antiviral and anticancer agents...
May 23, 2018: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791928/the-impact-of-medical-comorbidities-on-primary-total-knee-arthroplasty-reimbursements
#10
Karim G Sabeh, Samuel Rosas, Leonard T Buller, Andrew A Freiberg, Cynthia L Emory, Martin W Roche
Medical comorbidities have been shown to cause an increase in peri-and postoperative complications following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, the increase in cost associated with these complications has yet to be determined. Factors that influence cost have been of great interest particularly after the initiation of bundled payment initiatives. In this study, we present and quantify the influence of common medical comorbidities on the cost of care in patients undergoing primary TKA. A retrospective level of evidence III study was performed using the PearlDiver supercomputer to identify patients who underwent primary TKA between 2007 and 2015...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Knee Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791424/-primary-biliary-cholangitis-part-2-state-of-the-art-diagnosis-associated-diseases-treatment-and-prognosis
#11
Diego Andrés Rodríguez Lugo, Jorge Julián Coronado Tovar, Giovana Alejandra Solano Villamarin, Wiliam Otero Regino
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic autoimmune cholangiopathy characterized by a selective destruction of biliary epithelial cells of small and medium caliber hepatic ducts, which mainly affects women. The main symptoms are fatigue and pruritus, however, a large proportion of patients may be asymptomatic. The diagnosis is based on AMA titers >1:40, alkaline phosphatase >1.5 times the upper limit for more than 24 weeks and compatible liver histology. It is associated with multiple autoimmune diseases mainly extrahepatic, thyroid diseases, bone diseases, among others...
January 2018: Revista de Gastroenterología del Perú: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791422/prevalence-of-non-a-to-e-hepatitis-in-mumbai-india
#12
Nishtha Nagral, Vrunda Joshi, Karan Baria, Pathik Parikh, Aabha Nagral, Jayanthi Shastri, Chandrakant Pawar
INTRODUCTION: Acute viral hepatitis is a common problem in India. World wide data shows that 5 to 20 percent of this is caused by non A-E hepatitis. There is no data in India regarding non A-E hepatitis. We carried out this study to evaluate the epidemiology, clinical features, risk factors and outcome of non A-E hepatitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this single centre study, we evaluated all patients admitted with features of acute viral hepatitis at our hospital between the period of February to July 2015...
January 2018: Revista de Gastroenterología del Perú: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791421/-autoimmune-hepatitis-recurrence-after-liver-transplantation-15-years-experience-in-peru
#13
Bertha Cárdenas Ramírez, P Martin Padilla-Machaca, Omar Mantilla Cruzatti, José Rivera Romaní, Carlos Rondón Leyva, Julia Sumire Umeres, José-Carlos Chaman Ortiz
INTRODUCTION: The recurrence of autoimmune hepatitis (HAI) following liver transplantation occurs between 8-68%. In our experience, autoimmune liver diseases are a major indication of liver transplantation. OBJECTIVE: To determine the recurrence of autoimmune hepatitis in 15 years of experience and to evaluate the risk factors associated with the recurrence of HAI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective, descriptive and cross-sectional study...
January 2018: Revista de Gastroenterología del Perú: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791294/a-survey-of-parasite-lesions-in-wild-red-deer-cervus-elaphus-from-argentina
#14
Elizabeth Chang Reissig, Adriana R Massone, Beatriz Iovanitti, Eduardo J Gimeno, Francisco A Uzal
In Argentina there is little information about diseases that affect exotic ungulates and the health risks that they pose to native wildlife, livestock, and humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the health status of red deer ( Cervus elaphus) in the Nahuel Huapi National Park and surrounding areas in Patagonia, Argentina. During three consecutive hunting seasons, necropsies were performed on 101 red deer, and tissues were examined histologically. The most common lesions were those associated with hepatic and pulmonary parasites...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791174/-drug-and-herbal-hepatotoxicity-an-overview-of-clinical-classifications
#15
Mária Szántová, Jozef Sedlačko, Martina Jakabovičová
Drug induced liver injury (DILI) is often underdiagnosed disease with increasing incidence. In developed countries it belongs to the leading causes of acute liver failure. Risk groups are women and persons older than 60 years. The work summarizes the up to date information on diagnosis and mostly used classifications on DILI. It is quite often and serious complication of medicament therapy. DILI belongs to the most often cause of acute hepatic failure in the old age in developed countries. Diagnostic procedure includes medical history (time correlation with drug intake), clinical symptoms and blood tests...
2018: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790582/acetyl-coa-carboxylase-inhibition-reverses-nafld-and-hepatic-insulin-resistance-but-promotes-hypertriglyceridemia-in-rodents
#16
Leigh Goedeke, Jamie Bates, Daniel F Vatner, Rachel J Perry, Ting Wang, Ricardo Ramirez, Li Li, Matthew W Ellis, Dongyan Zhang, Kari E Wong, Carine Beysen, Gary W Cline, Adrian S Ray, Gerald I Shulman
Pharmacologic inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) enzymes, ACC1 and ACC2, offers an attractive therapeutic strategy for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) via simultaneous inhibition of fatty acid synthesis and stimulation of fatty acid oxidation. However, the effects of ACC inhibition on hepatic mitochondrial oxidation, anaplerosis, and ketogenesis in vivo are unknown. Here, we evaluated the impact of a novel liver-directed allosteric inhibitor of ACC1 and ACC2 (Compound 1) on these parameters, as well as glucose and lipid metabolism, in control and diet-induced rodent models of NAFLD...
May 23, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789866/role-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptors-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-inflammation
#17
REVIEW
Amanda Karolina Soares Silva, Christina Alves Peixoto
Overweight and obesity have been identified as the most important risk factors for many diseases, including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and lipid disorders, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The metabolic changes associated with obesity are grouped to define metabolic syndrome, which is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in industrialized countries. NAFLD is considered to be the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome and is one of the most prevalent liver diseases worldwide...
May 22, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789597/enhancer-of-zeste-homolog-2-catalysed-h3k27-trimethylation-plays-a-key-role-in-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure-via-tnf-mediated-pathway
#18
Tianhui Zhou, Ye Sun, Ming Li, Yongsen Ding, Rongkun Yin, Ziqiang Li, Qing Xie, Shisan Bao, Wei Cai
Acute-on-chronic liver failure is mainly due to host immunity self-destruction. The histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27) trimethylating enzyme, enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) mediates epigenetic silencing of gene expression and regulates immunity, also involves pathogenesis of several liver diseases. The current study was to determine the role of methyltransferase EZH2 and its catalysed H3K27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) in liver failure, and to further investigate the potential target for liver failure treatment...
May 22, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789577/long-non-coding-rna-gm2199-rescues-liver-injury-and-promotes-hepatocyte-proliferation-through-the-upregulation-of-erk1-2
#19
Qiang Gao, Yunyan Gu, Yanan Jiang, Li Fan, Zixiang Wei, Haobin Jin, Xirui Yang, Lijuan Wang, Xuguang Li, Sheng Tai, Baofeng Yang, Yan Liu
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a new class of regulators of various human diseases. This study was designed to explore the potential role of lncRNAs in experimental hepatic damage. In vivo hepatic damage in mice and in vitro hepatocyte damage in AML12 and NCTC1469 cells were induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ) treatments. Expression profiles of lncRNAs and mRNAs were analyzed by microarray. Bioinformatics analyses were conducted to predict the potential functions of differentially expressed lncRNAs with respect to hepatic damage...
May 22, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789565/the-wide-utility-of-rabbits-as-models-of-human-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Pedro J Esteves, Joana Abrantes, Hanna-Mari Baldauf, Lbachir BenMohamed, Yuxing Chen, Neil Christensen, Javier González-Gallego, Lorenzo Giacani, Jiafen Hu, Gilla Kaplan, Oliver T Keppler, Katherine L Knight, Xiang-Peng Kong, Dennis K Lanning, Jacques Le Pendu, Ana Lemos de Matos, Jia Liu, Shuying Liu, Ana M Lopes, Shan Lu, Sheila Lukehart, Yukari C Manabe, Fabiana Neves, Grant McFadden, Ruimin Pan, Xuwen Peng, Patricia de Sousa-Pereira, Ana Pinheiro, Masmudur Rahman, Natalie Ruvoën-Clouet, Selvakumar Subbian, Maria Jesús Tuñón, Wessel van der Loo, Michael Vaine, Laura E Via, Shixia Wang, Rose Mage
Studies using the European rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus contributed to elucidating numerous fundamental aspects of antibody structure and diversification mechanisms and continue to be valuable for the development and testing of therapeutic humanized polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. Additionally, during the last two decades, the use of the European rabbit as an animal model has been increasingly extended to many human diseases. This review documents the continuing wide utility of the rabbit as a reliable disease model for development of therapeutics and vaccines and studies of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying many human diseases...
May 22, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
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