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Motor tract monitoring

Christopher S Medina, Octavian Biris, Tomas L Falzone, Xiaowei Zhang, Amber J Zimmerman, Elaine L Bearer
Microtubule-based motors carry cargo back and forth between the synaptic region and the cell body. Defects in axonal transport result in peripheral neuropathies, some of which are caused by mutations in KIF5A, a gene encoding one of the heavy chain isoforms of conventional kinesin-1. Some mutations in KIF5A also cause severe central nervous system defects in humans. While transport dynamics in the peripheral nervous system have been well characterized experimentally, transport in the central nervous system is less experimentally accessible and until now not well described...
October 14, 2016: NeuroImage
Ryosuke Tomio, Takenori Akiyama, Takayuki Ohira, Kazunari Yoshida
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to determine the most effective electrode montage to elicit lower-extremity transcranial motor evoked potentials (LE-tMEPs) using a minimum stimulation current. METHODS A realistic 3D head model was created from T1-weighted images. Finite element methods were used to visualize the electric field in the brain, which was generated by transcranial electrical stimulation via 4 electrode montage models. The stimulation threshold level of LE-tMEPs in 52 patients was also studied in a practical clinical setting to determine the effects of each electrode montage...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Antoun Koht, Tod B Sloan
Advances in electrophysiological monitoring have improved the ability of surgeons to make decisions and minimize the risks of complications during surgery and interventional procedures when the central nervous system (CNS) is at risk. Individual techniques have become important for identifying or mapping the location and pathway of critical neural structures. These techniques are also used to monitor the progress of procedures to augment surgical and physiologic management so as to reduce the risk of CNS injury...
September 2016: Anesthesiology Clinics
Charles Champeaux, Vincent Jecko, Sandrine Eimer, Guillaume Penchet
A 35 years old woman presented with an acute meningeal syndrome following an intra ventricular haemorrhage without subarachnoid haemorrhage. The angiography demonstrated a 6 mm partially thrombosed saccular aneurysm at the plexal point of the right anterior choroidal artery (AChoA). It was surgically approached inside the ventricle through a trans-temporal corticotomy. The aneurysm was excised after distal exclusion of the feeding artery under motor-evoked potentials monitoring. Of the 19 cases of distal AChoA aneurysm neurosurgical treatment, this is the only one performed under electrophysiology monitoring, a simple and safe method to detect and prevent motor tract ischemia...
July 2016: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
Björn Sommer, Karl Roessler, Stefan Rampp, Hajo M Hamer, Ingmar Blumcke, Hermann Stefan, Michael Buchfelder
BACKGROUND: Especially in hidden lesions causing drug-resistant frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE), the localization of the epileptic zone EZ can be a challenge. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) can raise the chances for localization of the (EZ) in combination with electroencephalography (EEG). We investigated the impact of MEG-guided epilepsy surgery with the aid of neuronavigation and intraoperative MR imaging (iopMRI) on seizure outcome of FLE patients. METHODS: Twenty-eight patients (15 females, 13 males; mean age 31...
October 2016: Epilepsy Research
Luis Velázquez-Pérez, Roberto Rodríguez-Labrada, Reidenis Torres-Vega, Jacqueline Medrano Montero, Yaimeé Vázquez-Mojena, Georg Auburger, Ulf Ziemann
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if the corticospinal tract is affected in the prodromal stage of spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2), prior to development of the cerebellar syndrome. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 37 non-ataxic SCA2 mutation carriers and in age- and sex-matched healthy controls. All subjects underwent clinical assessment and transcranial magnetic stimulation to determine corticospinal tract integrity to the right abductor pollicis brevis and tibialis anterior muscles...
August 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Allan R Martin, Benjamin De Leener, Julien Cohen-Adad, Izabela Aleksanderek, David W Cadotte, Sukhvinder Kalsi-Ryan, Lindsay Tetreault, Adrian Crawley, Howard J Ginsberg, Michael G Fehlings
INTRODUCTION: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), magnetization transfer (MT), and T2*-weighted imaging measure aspects of spinal cord microstructure. This study investigates if these techniques can quantify injury to individual white matter (WM) tracts and correlate with focal neurological impairments in degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM). METHODS: Fifty-seven DCM patients (age 56.7; 61% male; 32 mild, 16 moderate, 9 severe) underwent comprehensive clinical assessments and multimodal MRI (3T GE)...
August 2016: Neurosurgery
Harminder Singh, Richard W Vogel, Robert M Lober, Adam T Doan, Craig I Matsumoto, Tyler J Kenning, James J Evans
Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring during endoscopic, endonasal approaches to the skull base is both feasible and safe. Numerous reports have recently emerged from the literature evaluating the efficacy of different neuromonitoring tests during endonasal procedures, making them relatively well-studied. The authors report on a comprehensive, multimodality approach to monitoring the functional integrity of at risk nervous system structures, including the cerebral cortex, brainstem, cranial nerves, corticospinal tract, corticobulbar tract, and the thalamocortical somatosensory system during endonasal surgery of the skull base...
2016: Scientifica
William H Barnett, Ana P Abdala, Julian F R Paton, Ilya A Rybak, Daniel B Zoccal, Yaroslav I Molkov
The respiratory central pattern generator must respond to chemosensory cues to maintain oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) homeostasis in the blood and tissues. To do this, sensorial cells located in the periphery and central nervous system monitor the arterial partial pressure of O2 and CO2 and initiate respiratory and autonomic reflex adjustments in conditions of hypoxia and hypercapnia. In conditions of chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), repeated peripheral chemoreceptor input mediated by the nucleus of the solitary tract induces plastic changes in respiratory circuits that alter baseline respiratory and sympathetic motor outputs and result in chemoreflex sensitization, active expiration, and arterial hypertension...
May 27, 2016: Experimental Neurology
Sophia A Strike, Hamid Hassanzadeh, Amit Jain, Khaled M Kebaish, Dolores B Njoku, Daniel Becker, Michael C Ain, Paul D Sponseller
STUDY DESIGN: Review of techniques and description of institutional clinical experience. OBJECTIVE: To provide a historical review and description of key neuromonitoring concepts, focusing on neurogenic motor-evoked potentials and descending neurogenic evoked potentials, and to review the authors' experience with neuromonitoring techniques in children and adults undergoing spinal deformity surgery. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The original form of neuromonitoring, the Stagnara wake-up test, remains the "gold standard" for detecting true neurological deficits...
May 27, 2016: Clinical Spine Surgery
Maysam Alimohamadi, Mohammad Shirani, Reza Shariat Moharari, Ahmad Pour-Rashidi, Mehdi Ketabchi, Mohammadreza Khajavi, Mohamadali Arami, Abbas Amirjamshidi
BACKGROUND: Radical resection of dominant insular gliomas is difficult because of their close vicinity with internal capsule, basal ganglia, and speech centers. Brain mapping techniques can be used to maximize the extent of tumor removal and to minimize postoperative morbidities by precise localization of eloquent cortical and subcortical areas. METHODS: Patients with newly diagnosed gliomas of dominant insula were enrolled. The exclusion criteria were severe cognitive disturbances, communication difficulty, age greater than 75 years, severe obesity, difficult airways for intubation and severe cardiopulmonary diseases...
August 2016: World Neurosurgery
Juan J Herrera, Kurt Bockhorst, Shakuntala Kondraganti, Laura Stertz, João Quevedo, Ponnada A Narayana
Our understanding of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is still in its infancy and to gain a greater understanding, relevant animal models should replicate many of the features seen in human mTBI. These include changes to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters, absence of anatomical lesions on conventional neuroimaging, and neurobehavioral deficits. The Maryland closed head TBI model causes anterior-posterior plus sagittal rotational acceleration of the brain, frequently observed with motor vehicle and sports-related TBI injuries...
June 20, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Júlia Fonseca de Morais Caporali, Denise Utsch Gonçalves, Ludimila Labanca, Leonardo Dornas de Oliveira, Guilherme Vaz de Melo Trindade, Thiago de Almeida Pereira, Pedro Henrique Diniz Cunha, Marina Santos Falci Mourão, José Roberto Lambertucci
BACKGROUND: Schistosomal myeloradiculopathy (SMR), the most severe and disabling ectopic form of Schistosoma mansoni infection, is caused by embolized ova eliciting local inflammation in the spinal cord and nerve roots. The treatment involves the use of praziquantel and long-term corticotherapy. The assessment of therapeutic response relies on neurological examination. Supplementary electrophysiological exams may improve prediction and monitoring of functional outcome. Vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) triggered by galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) is a simple, safe, low-cost and noninvasive electrophysiological technique that has been used to test the vestibulospinal tract in motor myelopathies...
April 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Arturo Cardenas-Blanco, Judith Machts, Julio Acosta-Cabronero, Joern Kaufmann, Susanne Abdulla, Katja Kollewe, Susanne Petri, Stefanie Schreiber, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Reinhard Dengler, Stefan Vielhaber, Peter J Nestor
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects upper and lower motor neurons. Observational and intervention studies can be tracked using clinical measures such as the revised Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS-R) but for a complete understanding of disease progression, objective in vivo biomarkers of both central and peripheral motor pathway pathology are highly desirable. The aim of this study was to determine the utility of structural and diffusion imaging as central nervous system biomarkers compared to the standard clinical measure, ALSFRS-R, to track longitudinal evolution using three time-point measurements...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
V Yu Zhukov, S A Goryaynov, A A Ogurtsova, I S Ageev, S V Protskiy, I N Pronin, A S Tonoyan, G L Kobyakov, E A Nenashev, A S Smirnov, A I Batalov, A A Potapov
BACKGROUND: Practical application of methods for intravital examination of the brain pathways, such as preoperative diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography and intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring, facilitates safer resection of intracranial tumors located near the pyramidal tracts (PTs). PURPOSE: The study purpose was to investigate the relationships between intracerebral tumors of different histological nature and the pyramidal tract based on preoperative DTI tractography and various methods of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring for intraoperative identification of the pyramidal tract, depending on different variants of the topographo-anatomic relationships between the pyramidal fascicle and the tumor...
2016: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
Taichi Ikedo, Kazuhito Nakamura, Noritaka Sano, Manabu Nagata, Yumiko Okada, Yuzo Terakawa, Takaho Murata
OBJECTIVE: Prediction of motor function after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) often poses a diagnostic challenge. This study was performed to investigate whether intraoperative monitoring of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) could predict postoperative motor function recovery. METHODS: We reviewed 16 consecutive patients undergoing evacuation of supratentorial ICH with hemiplegia between June 2011 and October 2014. Patients were categorized according to the results of MEPs before and after evacuation of hematoma...
June 2016: World Neurosurgery
Kristofer E Bouchard, David F Conant, Gopala K Anumanchipalli, Benjamin Dichter, Kris S Chaisanguanthum, Keith Johnson, Edward F Chang
A complete neurobiological understanding of speech motor control requires determination of the relationship between simultaneously recorded neural activity and the kinematics of the lips, jaw, tongue, and larynx. Many speech articulators are internal to the vocal tract, and therefore simultaneously tracking the kinematics of all articulators is nontrivial--especially in the context of human electrophysiology recordings. Here, we describe a noninvasive, multi-modal imaging system to monitor vocal tract kinematics, demonstrate this system in six speakers during production of nine American English vowels, and provide new analysis of such data...
2016: PloS One
Philipp J Slotty, Amr Abdulazim, Kunihiko Kodama, Mani Javadi, Daniel Hänggi, Volker Seifert, Andrea Szelényi
OBJECTIVE Methods of choice for neurophysiological intraoperative monitoring (IOM) within the infratentorial compartment mostly include early brainstem auditory evoked potentials, free-running electromyography, and direct cranial nerve (CN) stimulation. Long-tract monitoring with somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) is rarely used. This study investigated the incidence of IOM alterations during posterior fossa surgery stratified for lesion location. METHODS Standardized CN and SEP/MEP IOM was performed in 305 patients being treated for various posterior fossa pathologies...
February 26, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Nichole E Scheerer, Anupreet K Tumber, Jeffery A Jones
Hearing one's own voice is important for regulating ongoing speech and for mapping speech sounds onto articulator movements. However, it is currently unknown whether attention mediates changes in the relationship between motor commands and their acoustic output, which are necessary as growth and aging inevitably cause changes to the vocal tract. In this study, participants produced vocalizations while they heard their vocal pitch persistently shifted downward one semitone in both single- and dual-task conditions...
February 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Bernadette Gillick, Jeremiah Menk, Bryon Mueller, Gregg Meekins, Linda E Krach, Timothy Feyma, Kyle Rudser
BACKGROUND: Perinatal stroke occurs in more than 1 in 2,500 live births and resultant congenital hemiparesis necessitates investigation into interventions which may improve long-term function and decreased burden of care beyond current therapies ( ). Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (CIMT) is recognized as an effective hemiparesis rehabilitation intervention. Transcranial direct current stimulation as an adjunct treatment to CIMT may potentiate neuroplastic responses and improve motor function...
November 12, 2015: BMC Pediatrics
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