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Bisphosphates IV

Andrea Mafficini, Eliana Amato, Ivana Cataldo, Borislav C Rusev, Luca Bertoncello, Vincenzo Corbo, Michele Simbolo, Claudio Luchini, Matteo Fassan, Cinzia Cantù, Roberto Salvia, Giovanni Marchegiani, Giampaolo Tortora, Rita T Lawlor, Claudio Bassi, Aldo Scarpa
OBJECTIVE: To identify molecular prognostic factors and potentially actionable mutations in ampulla of Vater cancer (AVC). BACKGROUND: The largely variable outcomes of AVCs make clinical decisions difficult regarding the need of postsurgical therapy, which is based on morphological and immunohistochemical classification that do not adequately consider the varying degrees of heterogeneity present in many AVCs. No approved targeted therapies for AVC exist, but some show promising results requiring better molecular characterization to identify potential responders...
September 8, 2016: Annals of Surgery
Jingga Inlora, Vineela Chukkapalli, Sukhmani Bedi, Akira Ono
UNLABELLED: The subcellular sites of HIV-1 assembly, determined by the localization of the structural protein Gag, vary in a cell-type-dependent manner. In T cells and transformed cell lines used as model systems, HIV-1 assembles at the plasma membrane (PM). The binding and localization of HIV-1 Gag to the PM are mediated by the interaction between the matrix (MA) domain, specifically the highly basic region, and a PM-specific acidic phospholipid, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2]...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
Denise A Yardley, Patrick J Ward, Brooke R Daniel, Janice F Eakle, Ruth E Lamar, Cassie M Lane, John D Hainsworth
BACKGROUND: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a subtype with poor prognosis, and treatment options are limited to chemotherapy. Because the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is overexpressed in up to 70% of these tumors, this phase II trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of panitumumab in combination with gemcitabine and carboplatin as first- or second-line treatment for metastatic TNBC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Adult women with metastatic TNBC with a maximum of 1 previous chemotherapy regimen were eligible...
May 14, 2016: Clinical Breast Cancer
Liubov A Dadinova, Eleonora V Shtykova, Petr V Konarev, Elena V Rodina, Natalia E Snalina, Natalia N Vorobyeva, Svetlana A Kurilova, Tatyana I Nazarova, Cy M Jeffries, Dmitri I Svergun
The structural analyses of four metabolic enzymes that maintain and regulate the stationary growth phase of Escherichia coli have been performed primarily drawing on the results obtained from solution small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and other structural techniques. The proteins are (i) class I fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FbaB); (ii) inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPase); (iii) 5-keto-4-deoxyuronate isomerase (KduI); and (iv) glutamate decarboxylase (GadA). The enzyme FbaB, that until now had an unknown structure, is predicted to fold into a TIM-barrel motif that form globular protomers which SAXS experiments show associate into decameric assemblies...
2016: PloS One
Benjamin A Neely, Christopher E Wilkins, Laura A Marlow, Dariya Malyarenko, Yunee Kim, Alexandr Ignatchenko, Heather Sasinowska, Maciek Sasinowski, Julius O Nyalwidhe, Thomas Kislinger, John A Copland, Richard R Drake
Renal cell carcinoma comprises 2 to 3% of malignancies in adults with the most prevalent subtype being clear-cell RCC (ccRCC). This type of cancer is well characterized at the genomic and transcriptomic level and is associated with a loss of VHL that results in stabilization of HIF1. The current study focused on evaluating ccRCC stage dependent changes at the proteome level to provide insight into the molecular pathogenesis of ccRCC progression. To accomplish this, label-free proteomics was used to characterize matched tumor and normal-adjacent tissues from 84 patients with stage I to IV ccRCC...
2016: PloS One
Yunpeng Wang, Tao Sun, Xingyan Gao, Mengliang Shi, Lina Wu, Lei Chen, Weiwen Zhang
3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) is an important platform chemical with a wide range of applications. So far large-scale production of 3-HP has been mainly through petroleum-based chemical processes, whose sustainability and environmental issues have attracted widespread attention. With the ability to fix CO2 directly, cyanobacteria have been engineered as an autotrophic microbial cell factory to produce fuels and chemicals. In this study, we constructed the biosynthetic pathway of 3-HP in cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp...
March 2016: Metabolic Engineering
Mayra Denisse Ramírez-Quijas, Everardo López-Romero, Mayra Cuéllar-Cruz
In order for Candida species to adhere and colonize human host cells they must express cell wall proteins (CWP) and adapt to reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by phagocytic cells of the human host during the respiratory burst. However, how these pathogens change the expression of CWP in response to oxidative stress (OSR) is not known. Here, fifteen moonlight-like CWP were identified that expressed differentially in four species of Candida after they were exposed to H2O2 or menadione (O2(-)). These proteins included: (i) glycolytic enzymes, such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (Gapdh), fructose-bisphosphate aldolase (Fba1), phosphoglycerate mutase (Gpm1), phosphoglycerate kinase (Pgk), pyruvate kinase (Pk) and enolase (Eno1); (ii) the heat shock proteins Ssb1 and Ssa2; (iii) OSR proteins such as peroxyredoxin (Tsa1), the stress protein Ddr48 (Ddr48) and glutathione reductase (Glr1); (iv) other metabolic enzymes such as ketol-acid reductoisomerase (Ilv5) and pyruvate decarboxylase (Pdc1); and (v) other proteins such as elongation factor 1-beta (Efb1) and the 14-3-3 protein homolog...
October 2015: Microbial Pathogenesis
S Andrea Moreno, Mayerly Nava
Trypanosoma evansi, which causes surra, is descended from Trypanosoma brucei brucei, which causes nagana. Although both parasites are presumed to be metabolically similar, insufficient knowledge of T. evansi precludes a full comparison. Herein, we provide the first report on the subcellular localisation of the glycolytic enzymes in T. evansi, which is a alike to that of the bloodstream form (BSF) of T. b. brucei: (i) fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, phosphoglycerate kinase, triosephosphate isomerase (glycolytic enzymes) and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (a glycolysis-auxiliary enzyme) in glycosomes, (ii) enolase, phosphoglycerate mutase, pyruvate kinase (glycolytic enzymes) and a GAPDH isoenzyme in the cytosol, (iii) malate dehydrogenase in cytosol and (iv) glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in both glycosomes and the cytosol...
June 2015: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Liliang Guo, Zhenghong Sui, Shu Zhang, Yuanyuan Ren, Yuan Liu
Diatoms form an enormous group of photoautotrophic micro-eukaryotes and play a crucial role in marine ecology. In this study, we evaluated typical genes to determine whether they were effective at different levels of diatom clustering analysis to assess the potential of these regions for barcoding taxa. Our test genes included nuclear rRNA genes (the nuclear small-subunit rRNA gene and the 5.8S rRNA gene+ITS-2), a mitochondrial gene (cytochrome c-oxidase subunit 1, COI), a chloroplast gene [ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit (rbcL)] and the universal plastid amplicon (UPA)...
April 2015: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Jingga Inlora, David R Collins, Marc E Trubin, Ji Yeon J Chung, Akira Ono
UNLABELLED: The matrix (MA) domain of HIV-1 mediates proper Gag localization and membrane binding via interaction with a plasma-membrane (PM)-specific acidic phospholipid, phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2]. HIV-1 MA also interacts with RNA, which prevents Gag from binding to membranes containing phosphatidylserine, a prevalent cellular acidic phospholipid. These results suggest that the MA-bound RNA promotes PM-specific localization of HIV-1 Gag by blocking nonspecific interactions with cellular membranes that do not contain PI(4,5)P2...
2014: MBio
Qiuyan Wang, Xiaohui Sun, Xiaobin Li, Xiang Dong, Peng Li, Li Zhao
Obstructive sleep apnea can induce chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) during sleep and is associated with obesity and diabetes. Resveratrol (RSV), a polyphenolic phytoalexin, can regulate glucose metabolism, thereby reducing insulin resistance. The present study aimed to assess whether RSV attenuates CIH-induced insulin resistance in rats and the underlying mechanisms. A total of 40 rats were randomly assigned into five groups: i) Control; ii) subjected to CIH only; iii) subjected to CIH and treated with 3 mg/kg/day of RSV; iv) subjected to CIH and treated with 30 mg/kg/day of RSV; v) subjected to CIH and treated with 60 mg/kg/day of RSV...
January 2015: Molecular Medicine Reports
Xinghua Feng, Jian Xiong, Yungang Lu, Xuefeng Xia, Michael X Zhu
Mucolipin synthetic agonist 1 (ML-SA1) was recently identified to activate mammalian TRPML channels and shown to alleviate lipid accumulation in lysosomes of cellular models of lysosome storage diseases, mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV) and Niemann-Pick's disease type C (NPC). Owning to its potential use in complimenting genetic studies in Drosophila melanogaster to elucidate the cellular and physiological functions of TRPML channels, we examined the effect of ML-SA1 on Drosophila TRPML expressed in HEK293 cells using whole-cell, inside-out, and whole-lysosome electrophysiological recordings...
December 2014: Cell Calcium
Matteo Montagna, Davide Sassi, Annamaria Giorgi
Pachybrachis holerorum n. sp. is described from the northern Apennines, Italy. The new species is related to P. karamani (Weise, 1893), from which it differs in the shape of the median lobe of the aedeagus and in small differences in chromatic pattern. The close relationship with P. karamani is confirmed by molecular analyses performed on a fragment of 829 nucleotides of the mitochondrial gene Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1). The general mixed Yule-coalescent model, developed for species delimitation using single-locus molecular data, was applied to a cox1 phylogeny in order to test the hypothesis of P...
2013: Zootaxa
Daniel S Brenner, Judith P Golden, Sherri K Vogt, Ajay Dhaka, Gina M Story, Robert W Gereau Iv
The ability to sense and respond to thermal stimuli at varied environmental temperatures is essential for survival in seasonal areas. In this study, we show that mice respond similarly to ramping changes in temperature from a wide range of baseline temperatures. Further investigation suggests that this ability to adapt to different ambient environments is based on rapid adjustments made to a dynamic temperature set point. The adjustment of this set point requires transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily member 8 (TRPM8), but not transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily A, member 1 (TRPA1), and is regulated by phospholipase C (PLC) activity...
October 2014: Pain
Ann Kari Grindheim, Hanne Hollås, Juan Ramirez, Jaakko Saraste, Gilles Travé, Anni Vedeler
Annexin A2 (AnxA2) interacts with numerous ligands, including calcium, lipids, mRNAs and intracellular and extracellular proteins. Different post-translational modifications participate in the discrimination of the functions of AnxA2 by modulating its ligand interactions. Here, phospho-mimicking mutants (AnxA2-S25E and AnxA2-S25D) were employed to investigate the effects of Ser25 phosphorylation on the structure and function of AnxA2 by using AnxA2-S25A as a control. The overall α-helical structure of AnxA2 is not affected by the mutations, since the thermal stabilities and aggregation tendencies of the mutants differ only slightly from the wild-type (wt) protein...
June 26, 2014: Journal of Molecular Biology
Fatma Gomaa, Anush Kosakyan, Thierry J Heger, Daniele Corsaro, Edward A D Mitchell, Enrique Lara
Endosymbiosis is a central and much studied process in the evolution of eukaryotes. While plastid evolution in eukaryotic algae has been extensively studied, much less is known about the evolution of mixotrophy in amoeboid protists, which has been found in three of the five super groups of Eukaryotes. We identified the green endosymbionts in four obligate mixotrophic testate amoeba species belonging to three major eukaryotic clades, Hyalosphenia papilio and Heleopera sphagni (Amoebozoa: Arcellinida), Placocista spinosa (Rhizaria: Euglyphida), and Archerella flavum (Stramenopiles: Labyrinthulomycetes) based on rbcL (ribulose-1,5-diphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit) gene sequences...
March 2014: Protist
Bertil Hille, Eamonn Dickson, Martin Kruse, Bjoern Falkenburger
G-protein-coupled receptors mediate responses to external stimuli in various cell types. We are interested in the modulation of KCNQ2/3 potassium channels by the Gq-coupled M1 muscarinic (acetylcholine) receptor (M1R). Here, we describe development of a mathematical model that incorporates all known steps along the M1R signaling cascade and accurately reproduces the macroscopic behavior we observe when KCNQ2/3 currents are inhibited following M1R activation. Gq protein-coupled receptors of the plasma membrane activate phospholipase C (PLC) which cleaves the minor plasma membrane lipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) into the second messengers diacylgycerol and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, leading to calcium release, protein kinase C (PKC) activation, and PI(4,5)P2 depletion...
2014: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
Yoannis Imbert-Fernandez, Brian F Clem, Julie O'Neal, Daniel A Kerr, Robert Spaulding, Lilibeth Lanceta, Amy L Clem, Sucheta Telang, Jason Chesney
Estradiol (E2) administered to estrogen receptor-positive (ER(+)) breast cancer patients stimulates glucose uptake by tumors. Importantly, this E2-induced metabolic flare is predictive of the clinical effectiveness of anti-estrogens and, as a result, downstream metabolic regulators of E2 are expected to have utility as targets for the development of anti-breast cancer agents. The family of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatases (PFKFB1-4) control glycolytic flux via their product, fructose-2,6-bisphosphate (F26BP), which activates 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (PFK-1)...
March 28, 2014: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Bruce A McFadden, Colin V Gegg, Ted El-Gul
The condensation of D-fructose 6-phosphate or 1-phosphate with cyanide has been used to synthesize 2-carboxyhexitol 6-phosphates and 1-phosphates. The products have been characterized in terms of their action on ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. The reaction of D-fructose 6-phosphate with cyanide is four times as fast (at 22°C) at pH 7.5 than at pH 11.5 and the primary products of condensation are more easily isolated by anion exchange chromatography. Two minor chromatographic peaks (I and II) for diastereomeric 2-carboxyhexitol 6-phosphates are isolated in addition to two major peaks, III and IV, which are lactones...
January 1986: Photosynthesis Research
Xinghua Feng, Yu Huang, Yungang Lu, Jian Xiong, Ching-On Wong, Pu Yang, Jintang Xia, De Chen, Guangwei Du, Kartik Venkatachalam, Xuefeng Xia, Michael X Zhu
Transient Receptor Potential mucolipin (TRPML) channels are implicated in endolysosomal trafficking, lysosomal Ca(2+) and Fe(2+) release, lysosomal biogenesis, and autophagy. Mutations in human TRPML1 cause the lysosome storage disease, mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV). Unlike vertebrates, which express three TRPML genes, TRPML1-3, the Drosophila genome encodes a single trpml gene. Although the trpml-deficient flies exhibit cellular defects similar to those in mammalian TRPML1 mutants, the biophysical properties of Drosophila TRPML channel remained uncharacterized...
February 14, 2014: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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